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Sample records for fish fed contaminated

  1. Assessment of tissue-specific accumulation and effects of cadmium in a marine fish fed contaminated commercially produced diet

    Dang Fei; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    Commercially produced fish diet is now widely used in fish farming but it often contains elevated levels of cadmium (Cd). However, the adverse effects on fish are poorly understood. In this study, farm-raised marine grunts, Terapon jarbua, were fed Cd-contaminated diet or exposed to waterborne Cd for 4 weeks. Tissue-specific Cd bioaccumulation and its effects were subsequently examined. We found that Cd was accumulated in different fish tissues (digestive tracts, gills or livers). At the end of the exposure, Cd accumulation peaked in the fishes' livers (5.0-6.3 μg g -1 ), followed by the digestive tracts (0.83-3.16 μg g -1 ) and gills (0.27-2.74 μg g -1 ). Endpoints such as the survival rate, specific growth rate, condition factor, and superoxide dismutase activity were not significantly affected by Cd exposure. In contrast, metallothionein (MT) induction and subcellular Cd distribution indicated that there were possible sublethal effects of Cd exposure. MT was induced in response to Cd accumulation, but it returned to the control levels after a longer exposure period, except for hepatic MT induction resulting from waterborne or low dietary Cd exposure. The Cd percentage in the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction increased over exposure time, and it accounted for more than 57% Cd in the fishes' livers and 80% Cd in their digestive tracts by the end of the exposure period. Overall, although Cd in commercial fish diet did not have significant lethality to T. jarbua, sensitive responses such as hepatic MT induction and subcellular Cd distribution revealed that the Cd-induced storage and detoxification in T. jarbua may increase fish's tolerance to toxic metals.

  2. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  3. Relation of contaminants to fish intersex in riverine sport fishes.

    Grieshaber, Casey A; Penland, Tiffany N; Kwak, Thomas J; Cope, W Gregory; Heise, Ryan J; Law, J Mac; Shea, Damian; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Kullman, Seth W

    2018-06-20

    Endocrine active compounds (EACs) are pollutants that have been recognized as an emerging and widespread threat to aquatic ecosystems globally. Intersex, the presence of female germ cells within a predominantly male gonad, is considered a biomarker of endocrine disruption caused by EACs. We measured a suite of EACs and assessed their associated impacts on fish intersex occurrence and severity in a large, regulated river system in North Carolina and South Carolina, USA. Our specific objective was to determine the relationship of contaminants in water, sediment, and fish tissue with the occurrence and severity of the intersex condition in wild, adult black bass (Micropterus), sunfish (Lepomis), and catfish (Ictaluridae) species at 11 sites located on the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and heavy metals were the most prevalent contaminants that exceeded effect levels for the protection of aquatic organisms. Fish intersex condition was most frequently observed and most severe in black basses and was less frequently detected and less severe in sunfishes and catfishes. The occurrence of the intersex condition in fish showed site-related effects, rather than increasing longitudinal trends from upstream to downstream. Mean black bass and catfish tissue contaminant concentrations were higher than that of sunfish, likely because of the latter's lower trophic position in the food web. Principal component analysis identified waterborne PAHs as the most correlated environmental contaminant with intersex occurrence and severity in black bass and sunfish. As indicated by the intersex condition, EACs have adverse but often variable effects on the health of wild sport fishes in this river, likely due to fluctuations in EAC inputs and the dynamic nature of the riverine system. These findings enhance the understanding of the relationship between contaminants and fish health and provide information to guide ecologically

  4. Radiologic contamination of fish. III. Radiochemical studies of contaminated fish

    Kawabata, T

    1955-01-01

    The decay rate of the radioactivity of the organs of fish caught by the crew of the Shunkotsu Maru was measured. After 3 months, the spleens, kidneys, and gonads retained considerable radioactivity, suggesting the presence of long-lived radioactive elements. At the end of this time, the liver and other organs retained only about 10% of the initial radioactivity and the bile had lost most of its activity. The retention by the pyloric coeca and the intestinal contents varied considerably and was probably dependent on the food consumed. Absorption of the ash of the organs on Dowex 50 and elution located most of the activity in the fractions eluted with 0.5% oxalic acid and 5% citrate buffers of pH 4.1 and 4.6. Qualitative separation with carriers identified the main radioactive element of the citrate buffer, pH 4.1, eluate as /sup 65/Zn.

  5. Relationship between growth and total nucleic acids in juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, fed crude oil contaminated food

    Wang Shiao, Y.; Lum, J.L.; Carls, M.G.; Rice, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Total nucleic acids of junvenile pink salmon fed crude oil contaminated food were analyzed to deteremine if nucleic acid measurements can be used to evaluate growth of fish collected at oil spill sites. In general, the nucleic acid concentration (μg per mg dry weight) of salmon fry fed food contaminated with either 0.37 or 2.78 mg crude oil/g food was not significantly affected. However, RNA concentration of fry fed food contaminated with 34.83 mg/g was reduced whereas DNA concentration increased. Results over 8 weeks indicate decreased protein synthesis and cell content but maintenance of cell integrity in these fish. Growth was inversely related to the level of crude oil contamination in the food. The significant correlations between measured growth and RNA/DNA ratios and RNA contents (mg RNA per mm fork length) suggest that nucleic acid measurement can be used to compare growth of fish collected from the field. 23 refs., 4 figs

  6. Histopathological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets

    Shima Shahafve

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin-contaminated diet on histopathological alterations of the gill, liver, kidney and intestine tissues in common carp. Fish were randomly distributed into 15 tanks, i.e. in five experimental groups; (I control fed with normal diet without solvent and aflatoxin, (II positive control received feed with only solvent, and (III-V fed on diets containing 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 of aflatoxin, respectively. After 21-days, 12 fish per treatment were randomly caught, anesthetized and euthanized. Then, histological sections of the tissues were prepared. The main aflatoxicosis symptoms in the gills were fusion and disorganisation of the secondary gill lamellae, shortening of the secondary lamellae, inflammation of mucous membranes, and exfoliation of the gill epithelium. Liver of the infected fish indicated cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, cellular hypertrophy, formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and necrosis of liver parenchyma. Expansion of Bowman’s space, necrosis of urinary tract, exfoliation and degeneration of the urinary tract epithelium, expansion of the urinary lumen and dilation of the urinary space were observed symptoms in the kidney. Changes in the intestine of the aflatoxin-treated fish were; expansion of goblet cells, necrosis of mucous layers, exfoliation of the mucous epithelium, and bleeding in the intestinal wall. The results indicates that feeding common carp with diets contaminated with aflatoxin, even in low concentrations (≤ 1.4 mg kg-1 feed can cause histopathological damages and disturb their physiological balance.

  7. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  8. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  9. Studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish

    1979-01-01

    Three groups of mice were observed in utero and for eighty (80) weeks thereafter to study growth, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry and survival with particular interest in carcinogenic potential. Group I received only Purina Mouse Chow, Group II received a diet composed of 45% non-irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow, and Group III received a diet composed of 45% gamma irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow. Differences observed in body weights between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the results of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. Differences observed in food consumption between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the result of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. No daily observations were made which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for hematology which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for clinical chemistry which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Palpable mass data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Gross observations at necropsy were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. Organ weight data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Pathological findings were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. (orig.)

  10. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  11. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON LOTIC FISH

    As part of the U.S. EPA's EMAP Oregon Pilot project, we conducted a probability survey of 154 Oregon streams and rivers to assess the spatial extent of mercury (Hg) contamination in fish tissue across the state. Samples consisted of whole fish analyses of both small (< 120 mm) a...

  12. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  13. Charles River Fish Contaminant Survey, April 2001

    Report summarizing a biological monitoring component of the Clean Charles River 2005 initiative through the monitoring & analysis of fish within the lower Charles River basin, implemented by the EPA New England Regional Laboratory in the late fall of 1999.

  14. Biochemical attributes of Hens Fed Irradiated Aflatoxin B1 Contamination Diet

    Farag, M.D.E.H.; Abdul Azeem, A.M.; Abdalla, E.A.; Ahmed, N.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of feeding diet artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B 1(AFB1) at level 0.2 mg kg"-"1 AFB1, and gamma (γ) irradiated (10, 20, and 30 kGy) on reducing the deleterious effects of laying hens Golden Montaza (GM) biochemical attributes. These include liver weight, AFB1 liver residue content, AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, total proteins, albumin and globulin, as well as, the levels of T3, T4, TSH, FSH, LH, progesterone hormone and hepatic histology. At 38 week of age, groups of laying hens were fed on a normal non-contaminated diet (G1), aflatoxin-contaminated diet (G2), and irradiated contaminated diets (G3, G4 and G5) for 3 weeks, as a duration period. When the hens reached 42 weeks of age, they were fed on normal diet for 3 weeks, as a recovery period. Results showed that AST, ALT, ALP, and creatinine significantly increased in AFs treated groups in comparison with those received AFs-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Layers fed contaminated diet of AFB1 suffered from a lower level of total proteins, albumin and globulin. Meanwhile, the results showed that the level of serum T4 was lower, but conversely the levels of FSH were higher for those fed on diets contaminated with AFB1 compared to those fed irradiated contaminated diets with AFB1, no significant change occurred in serum blood T3, TSH, LH and progesterone in all tested groups. Treated contaminated diets with γ-irradiation at 30 kGy reduced the incidence and severity of hepatic histology. The 30 kGy radiation dose was more effective, in this respect, in all biochemical indices. For recovery period diets non-contaminated with AFB1, the results showed improvements in all biochemical indices and recovered the hepatic structure with increasing the recovery period especially for those fed on irradiated diets through the experimental duration. In conclusion, feeding of diets contaminated with AFB1 altered the blood profiles, and damaged the liver

  15. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...

  16. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  17. FEDS

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  18. Why fishing boats were contaminated by radiation. [In Japanese

    Tajima, E

    1954-12-01

    Many Japanese fishing boats were examined with a G-M counter following the Bikini test of 1954. Decks and other washable parts were weakly irradiated. Directional relationships of contaminants on individual ships coincided with those of the prevailing winds. Ships to the west of Bikini averaged 123 cpm; those to the east 1800 cpm.

  19. Histamine formation in flying fish contaminated with Staphylococcus xylosus

    Hsien-Feng Kung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histamine is the main causative agent of scombroid poisoning. However, unlike scombroid fish, histamine poisoning due to consumption of flying fish has never been reported. In this study, the white muscle of flying fish had high levels of free histidine at approximately 423.9 mg/100 g, and was inoculated with Staphylococcus xylosus Q2 isolated from dried flying fish at 5.0 log CFU/g and stored at −20 to 35°C to investigate histamine-related quality. The histamine contents quickly increased to higher than 50 mg/100 g in samples stored at 25 and 35°C within 12 h as well as stored at 15°C within 48 h. However, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled by cold storage of the samples at 4°C or below. Once the frozen flying fish samples stored at −20°C for 2 months were thawed and stored at 25°C after 24 h, histamine started to accumulate rapidly (>50 mg/100 g of fish. Therefore, flying fish muscle was a good substrate for histamine formation by bacterial histidine decarboxylation at elevated temperatures (>15°C when it is contaminated with S. xylosus. In conclusion, since the improperly contaminated flying fish muscle with S. xylosus could lead to production of hazardous levels of histamine over time when stored at temperatures >15°C, the flying fish should be stored below 4 °C or below to control proliferation of S. xylosus, and TVBN and histamine production.

  20. Radioactive substances found on the contaminated fish

    Kiba, T; Ohashi, S; Shibata, M; Mizube, T

    1954-01-01

    Radiochemical investigation of the substance collected from the surface of tuna fish which were brought back by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru was performed. Most of the radioactivity was found on the scales which could not be decontaminated by treating with H/sub 2/O; 80% of the activity was removed by washing the dried scales with 3N HCl. Paper chromatographic separation of the HCl fraction showed the presence of /sup 140/Ba, /sup 89/Sr, /sup 132/Te, and probably /sup 95/Zr, /sup 140/La, and rare earths.

  1. Contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some local and imported fish and fish products

    Salem, S.B.; El-Dashlout, A.A.; El-Schiwee, M.A.; EL-Shourbagy, G.A.; Ibrahim, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Some local and imported fish and fish products sold in retail markets of three cities at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, were examined against heavy metals contamination (i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg) and the presence of some specific groups of bacteria. The results showed that concentrations of Pb in fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish and canned fish samples were lower than the permissible limits recommended by the Egyptian Organization 1993 (1.0 mg/kg). On the other hand, all the tested fish and fish products of collected samples showed levels of Cd (0.29-0.41 mg/kg) higher than the permissible limit (0.10 mg/kg) recommended by the Egyptian Organization. Such limits should be re-considered because the limit determined by WHO (1992) was 0.5 mg/kg. Mercury level in fresh mullet was equal or lower (0.46-0.50 mg/kg) than the limit of Egyptian Organization (0.50 mg/kg) while other fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish samples had higher Hg than the allowance. In most cases, imported canned products of sardine, mackerel and tuna had higher Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations than that found in the local ones. Among fresh fish samples, such as mackarona, contained the highest total bacterial count, while mullet was the lowest. Considering salted and smoked fish, heavy salted mullet had the highest total bacterial count, while the lowest number was recorded in salted sardine. Smoked herring showed lowest total bacterial count than salted samples. Generally, no correlation was observed between fish species or consumption place and the contamination with heavy metals and bacteria

  2. Dietary toxicity of field-contaminated invertebrates to marine fish: effects of metal doses and subcellular metal distribution.

    Dang, Fei; Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-09-15

    There is growing awareness of the toxicological effects of metal-contaminated invertebrate diets on the health of fish populations in metal-contaminated habitats, yet the mechanisms underlying metal bioaccumulation and toxicity are complex. In the present study, marine fish Terapon jurbua terepon were fed a commercial diet supplemented with specimens of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor or the clam Scrobicularia plana, collected from four metal-impacted estuaries (Tavy, Restronguet Creek, West Looe, Gannel) in southwest England, as environmentally realistic metal sources. A comparative toxicological evaluation of both invertebrates showed that fish fed S. plana for 21 d exhibited evident mortality compared to those fed N. diversicolor. Furthermore, a spatial effect on mortality was observed. Differences in metal doses rather than subcellular metal distributions between N. diversicolor and S. plana appeared to be the cause of such different mortalities. Partial least squares regression was used to evaluate the statistical relationship between multiple-metal doses and fish mortality, revealing that Pb, Fe, Cd and Zn in field-collected invertebrates co-varied most strongly with the observed mortality. This study provides a step toward exploring the underlying mechanism of dietary toxicity and identifying the potential causality in complex metal mixture exposures in the field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  4. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Simas, Monica M.S.; Albuquerque, Ricardo; Oliveira, Carlos A.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Correa, Benedito

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.

  7. Toxicokinetics of mercury in blood compartments and hair of fish-fed sled dogs

    Lieske Camilla L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding mercury (Hg distribution in blood and the importance of hair as an excretory pathway is critical for evaluating risk from long term dietary Hg exposure. The major objective of this study was to characterize changes in total Hg concentrations in specific blood compartments and hair over time due to long term piscivory. Methods Eight sled dogs (Canis lupus familiaris were fed either a fish and kibble diet (n = 4, or a fish-free control diet (n = 4 for 12 weeks. Concentrations of Hg were monitored throughout the exposure period, and for 10 weeks post exposure, until Hg concentrations in all blood compartments of one of the exposed dogs dropped below detection limit. Additionally, foreleg hair was sampled during acclimation and weeks 0 and 12. Results Hg was detected primarily in whole blood and packed cells, although it was sporadically detected at low concentrations in plasma and serum in two of the fish fed dogs. Dogs ingested an estimated average of 13.4 ± 0.58 μg Hg per kg body weight per day. Hg was detectable in whole blood and packed cells within a week of exposure. Detected concentrations continued to rise until plateauing at approximately 3-6 weeks of exposure at a mean of 9.2 ± 1.97 ng/g (ppb in whole blood. Hg concentration decreased post exposure following 1st order elimination. The mean half-life (t1/2 in whole blood for Hg was 7 weeks. Mean Hg in hair for the fish-fed dogs at week 12 was 540 ± 111 ppb and was significantly greater (about 7-fold than the Hg hair concentration for the control dogs. The hair to blood ratio for Hg in fish-fed dogs was 59.0 ± 7.6:1. Conclusions This study found the sled dog model to be an effective method for investigating and characterizing blood Hg distribution (whole blood, serum, plasma, packed cells and toxicokinetics associated with a piscivorous diet, especially for Hg-exposed fur bearing mammals (such as polar bears. Although hair excretion and hair to blood

  8. A survey of dioxin-like contaminants in fish from recreational fishing.

    Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Grønstøl, Gaute; Hetland, Karl Torstein; Alarcon, Javier Martinez; Rylander, Charlotta; Mariussen, Espen

    2015-08-01

    The dioxin and dioxin-like compounds are regarded as one of the most toxic group of environmental contaminants. Food for the commercial market is regularly monitored for their dioxin levels and the concentration allowed in food is strictly regulated. Less is known about locally caught fish from recreational fishing, which is often brought home for consumption. This can be fish caught from nearby lakes or streams or fish with marine origin close to industrial areas or harbours that are not regularly monitored for their dioxin levels. In this study, we established collaboration with schools in 13 countries. We received 203 samples of 29 different fish species of which Atlantic cod was the most abundant followed by brown trout and pollock. In general, the majority of samples from the participating countries had low concentrations (between 0.1 and 0.2 pg/g chemical-activated luciferase gene expression toxic equivalency wet weight (CALUX TEQ w.w.)) of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Only 18 samples had concentrations above 1 pg/g CALUX TEQ w.w., and only 2 dab samples had concentration above maximum levels set by the European Commission. The Atlantic cod samples showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of dioxins with increasing latitude indicating less contamination of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the north of Norway. The results indicate that a moderate consumption of self-caught fish at presumed non-contaminated sites does not represent a major risk for exposure to dioxins or dioxin-like compounds at concentrations associated with adverse health effects. Recreational fishermen should, however, obtain knowledge about local fish consumption advice.

  9. Analyses of organic and inorganic contaminants in Salton Sea fish.

    Riedel, Ralf; Schlenk, Daniel; Frank, Donnell; Costa-Pierce, Barry

    2002-05-01

    Chemical contamination of fish from the Salton Sea, a quasi-marine lake in Southern California, could adversely impact millions of birds using the Pacific Flyway and thousands of humans using the lake for recreation. Bairdiella icistia (bairdiella), Cynoscion xanthulus (orangemouth corvina), and Oreochromis spp. (tilapia) were sampled from two river mouths and two nearshore areas of the Salton Sea. Muscle tissues were analyzed for a complete suite of 14 trace metals and 53 pesticides. Fish muscle tissues had concentrations of selenium ranging between 1.89 and 2.73 microg/g wet weight. 4,4'-DDE accounted for 94% of the total DDT metabolites. Total DDTs ranged between 17.1 and 239.0 and total PCBs between 2.5 and 18.6 ng/g wet weight. PCB congeners 132, 138, 153, 168, and 180 comprised over 50% of the total PCBs. Given the potential implementation of a commercial fishing at the Salton Sea in the future, the presence of persistent organic pollutants and selenium warrants further research into the effects of these mixtures on fish populations, and on wildlife and humans consuming fish.

  10. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2016-01-01

    vertebrates including humans. Our synthesis findings will be useful in: (1) developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish, (2) developing sex-specific risk assessment models for exposure of humans and wildlife to contaminants, and (3) refining Hg mass balance models for fish and higher vertebrates.

  11. Contamination of the fishes caught by the No. 5 Fukuryu Maru and the foods manufactured from these fishes

    Kikuchi, T; Goto, H; Kono, T; Fujioka, S; Sano, T; Matsuki, T; Watanabe, M; Fujio, M; Akagi, H; Wakisaka, G

    1954-01-01

    The radio-contaminated tunas and other fish caught by the ship in the vicinity of Bikini Atoll were studied. The contamination was caused directly by the radioactive ashes and was limited to the surface of the fish. No radioactivity was detected in muscles and bones. The contamination of tuna expressed as /sup 60/Co was 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -3/ microcurie per sq. cm. of skin and 10/sup -1/ microcurie per g. scales.

  12. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  13. Antigenotoxic effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the damage produced in mice fed with aflatoxin B(1) contaminated corn.

    Madrigal-Santillán, E; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Márquez-Márquez, R; Reyes, A

    2006-12-01

    The potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) was evaluated for reducing the micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE) rate in mice fed AFB(1) contaminated corn. The study included two groups fed AFB(1) contaminated corn (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg), a control fed uncontaminated corn, another group fed uncontaminated corn and 0.3% of Sc (1 x 10(8) live cells/g), and two groups fed AFB(1) contaminated corn (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) plus 0.3% Sc. Weight and MNNE were determined weekly for six weeks. Subsequently, the same determinations were made for another three-week period, but in mice receiving only a normal diet, without AFB(1) and Sc. Results in the first period revealed the following: control and Sc fed mice had similar constant weight increase, and low MNNE rate; mice fed only AFB(1) showed weight decrease and significant MNNE increase; finally, Sc improved weight gain and reduced MNNE produced by AFB(1). In the second period, results exhibited a tendency similar to that of the previous phase in the control and Sc fed mice; the weight and MNNE values improved in the other groups. We also determined the capacity of Sc for adsorbing and modifying the mycotoxin structure. The mixture was filtered to obtain two phases, and AFB(1) content was measured. Sc revealed a potent adsorbent capacity; however, chromatographic determination suggested no structural modification.

  14. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination.

  15. Novel contaminants identified in fish kills in the Red River watershed, 2011–2013

    Provisional molecular weights and chemical formulas were assigned to four significant previously unidentified contaminants present during active fish kills in the Red River region of Oklahoma. The provisional identifications of these contaminants were determined using high-resolu...

  16. Estimation of sport fish harvest for risk and hazard assessment of environmental contaminants

    Poston, T.M.; Strenge, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated fish flesh can be a significant route of human exposure to hazardous chemicals. Estimation of exposure resulting from the consumption of fish requires knowledge of fish consumption and contaminant levels in the edible portion of fish. Realistic figures of sport fish harvest are needed to estimate consumption. Estimates of freshwater sport fish harvest were developed from a review of 72 articles and reports. Descriptive statistics based on fishing pressure were derived from harvest data for four distinct groups of freshwater sport fish in three water types: streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Regression equations were developed to relate harvest to surface area fished where data bases were sufficiently large. Other aspects of estimating human exposure to contaminants in fish flesh that are discussed include use of bioaccumulation factors for trace metals and organic compounds. Using the bioaccumulation factor and the concentration of contaminants in water as variables in the exposure equation may also lead to less precise estimates of tissue concentration. For instance, muscle levels of contaminants may not increase proportionately with increases in water concentrations, leading to overestimation of risk. In addition, estimates of water concentration may be variable or expressed in a manner that does not truly represent biological availability of the contaminant. These factors are discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  17. EPA's National Reassessment of Contaminants in Fish from U.S. Rivers

    Multiple EPA offices collaborated to conduct a reassessment of fish contamination in U.S. rivers as part of the Agency’s 2013-14 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This is the first national assessment of contamination in river fish that will generate probabili...

  18. Microbial contamination and effects of combination treatments and gamma irradiation on reducing microbial contamination of dried cuttle fish

    Yen, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Dried cuttle fish is one of the most valuable sea products but it rapidly becomes mouldy and spoiled. To solve this problem, the studies on microbial contamination and effects of combination treatments and gamma irradiation for dried cuttle fish have been caried out base on IAEA Research Contracts No 4397/AG and 4397/R1/AG

  19. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    Rossignol Rodrigue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g. To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.

  20. Comparative analyses of contaminant levels in bottom feeding and predatory fish using the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program data

    Kidwell, J.M. [Clement International Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States); Phillips, L.J. [Versar Inc., Springfield, VA (United States); Birchard, G.F. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Both bottom feeding and predatory fish accumulate chemical contaminants found in water. Bottom feeders are readily exposed to the greater quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbons and metals that accumulate in sediments. Predators, on the other hand, may bioaccumulate organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and metals from the surrounding water or from feeding on other fish, including bottom feeders, which may result in the biomagnification of these compounds in their tissues. This study used National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program data produced by the Fish and Wildlife Service to test the hypothesis that differences exist between bottom feeders and predators in tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and metals. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effects of soybean isoflavone on intestinal antioxidant capacity and cytokines in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil.

    Huang, Lin; Ma, Xian-Yong; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Hu, You-Jun; Zheng, Chun-Tian; Yang, Xue-Fen; Wang, Li; Gao, Kai-Guo

    To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF partially alleviated this negative effect. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF increased the villous height and levels of sIgA and IL-4 in jejunal mucosa, but decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-2 in jejunal mucosa (Poil. Collectively, these results show that dietary supplementation of ISF could partly alleviate the negative effect of oxidized fish oil by improving the intestinal morphology as well as the antioxidant capacity and immune function in young piglets.

  2. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898

  3. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Nogueira, Patricia; Pacheco, Mario; Lourdes Pereira, M.; Mendo, Sonia; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  4. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25–75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10–17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis.

  5. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  6. Lead absorption in sheep fed forage contaminated with motor vehicle exhaust gases

    Zuber, R; Bovay, E; Luginbuehl, H R; Loenig, H

    1972-01-01

    For a period of 24 weeks three sheep received hay contaminated with lead deposits from motor vehicle exhaust gases. The aim of this study was to compare the lead accumulation in different organs and tissues of two young sheep (I and II) consuming every day forage containing 8 and 73 ppM lead respectively (= milligrams per kg of dried substance). A third animal (III) was fed with forage containing 73 ppM Pb and received in addition water with 200 mg Pb/liter. The analyses made after slaughtering of the animals revealed a marked accumulation of lead in the liver, the bones of the pelvis, the kidneys, and the spleen. However, a notable proportion of lead is also excreted with the urine and feces. Histological studies revealed some changes in the hepatocytes of animals II and III. These lesions were more significant in animal III, which received the highest level of lead, than in animal II. It is possible that these alterations have been caused by toxic substances.

  7. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Pagnanelli, F., E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, C., E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cibati, A., E-mail: alessio.cibati@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, L., E-mail: luigi.toro@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, C., E-mail: claudio.palleschi@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L{sup -1}), ethanol (1.5 g L{sup -1}) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L{sup -1}). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 {+-} 5% of sulphate and 95 {+-} 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  8. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Pagnanelli, F.; Cruz Viggi, C.; Cibati, A.; Uccelletti, D.; Toro, L.; Palleschi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). ► Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). ► Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L −1 ), ethanol (1.5 g L −1 ) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L −1 ). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 ± 5% of sulphate and 95 ± 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  9. PARENTAL CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH FROM LAKE ONTARIO AND PREDICTED FECUNDABILITY

    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  10. ANALYSES OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SALTON SEA FISH. (R826552)

    Chemical contamination of fish from the Salton Sea, a quasi-marine lake in Southern California, could adversely impact millions of birds using the Pacific Flyway and thousands of humans using the lake for recreation. Bairdiella icistia (bairdiella), Cynoscion xanthul...

  11. Strong links between metal contamination, habitat modification and estuarine larval fish distributions

    McKinley, Andrew C., E-mail: andrew.mckinley@hotmail.com [Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Miskiewicz, Anthony [Environment and Recreation, Wollongong City Council, 41 Burelli Street, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L. [Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Changes to larval fish assemblages may have far reaching ecological impacts. Correlations between habitat modification, contamination and marine larval fish communities have rarely been assessed in situ. We investigated links between the large-scale distribution of stressors and larval fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Larval fish communities were sampled using a benthic sled within the inner and outer zones of three heavily modified and three relatively unmodified estuaries. Larval abundances were significantly greater in modified estuaries, and there were trends towards greater diversity in these systems. Differences in larval community composition were strongly related to sediment metal levels and reduced seagrass cover. The differences observed were driven by two abundant species, Paedogobius kimurai and Ambassis jacksoniensis, which occurred in large numbers almost exclusively in highly contaminated and pristine locations respectively. These findings suggest that contamination and habitat alteration manifest in substantial differences in the composition of estuarine larval fish assemblages. - Highlights: > We examine contamination/habitat modification impacts on larval fish. > Larvae communities differ between modified/unmodified estuaries. > Larvae are more abundant/diverse in modified areas. > Trends are strongly related to sediment metals/seagrass cover. > Larval impacts have wider ecological importance. - We describe strong links between sediment metals contamination, habitat modification and substantial differences in the composition of the estuarine larval fish assemblage.

  12. Strong links between metal contamination, habitat modification and estuarine larval fish distributions

    McKinley, Andrew C.; Miskiewicz, Anthony; Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    Changes to larval fish assemblages may have far reaching ecological impacts. Correlations between habitat modification, contamination and marine larval fish communities have rarely been assessed in situ. We investigated links between the large-scale distribution of stressors and larval fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Larval fish communities were sampled using a benthic sled within the inner and outer zones of three heavily modified and three relatively unmodified estuaries. Larval abundances were significantly greater in modified estuaries, and there were trends towards greater diversity in these systems. Differences in larval community composition were strongly related to sediment metal levels and reduced seagrass cover. The differences observed were driven by two abundant species, Paedogobius kimurai and Ambassis jacksoniensis, which occurred in large numbers almost exclusively in highly contaminated and pristine locations respectively. These findings suggest that contamination and habitat alteration manifest in substantial differences in the composition of estuarine larval fish assemblages. - Highlights: → We examine contamination/habitat modification impacts on larval fish. → Larvae communities differ between modified/unmodified estuaries. → Larvae are more abundant/diverse in modified areas. → Trends are strongly related to sediment metals/seagrass cover. → Larval impacts have wider ecological importance. - We describe strong links between sediment metals contamination, habitat modification and substantial differences in the composition of the estuarine larval fish assemblage.

  13. Use of preserved museum fish to evaluate historical and current mercury contamination in fish from two rivers in Oklahoma, USA.

    Hill, J Jaron; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Pinder, John E; Drenner, S Matthew

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used preservation technique on mercury concentration in fish tissue. After fixing fish muscle tissue in formalin followed by preservation in isopropanol, we found that mercury concentration in fish muscle tissue increased by 18%, reaching an asymptote after 40 days. We used formalin-isopropanol-preserved longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History to examine historical changes and predict current mercury concentrations in fish from two rivers in southeastern Oklahoma. Glover River was free-flowing, while Mountain Fork River was impounded in 1970 and a coldwater trout fishery was established upstream from the collection site in 1989. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Glover River showed no historical changes from 1963 to 2001. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Mountain Fork River showed no change from 1925 to 1993 but declined significantly from 1993 to 2003. We also compared mercury concentrations of the most recently collected longear sunfish in the museum to mercury concentrations of unpreserved fish collected from the rivers in 2006. Concentrations of mercury in museum fish were not significantly different from mercury concentrations in unpreserved fish we collected from the rivers. Our study indicates that preserved museum fish specimens can be used to evaluate historical changes and predict current levels of mercury contamination in fish.

  14. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON, USA, LOTIC FISH

    Because of growing concern with widespread mercury contamination of fish tissue, we sampled 154 streams and rivers throughout Oregon using a probability design. To maximize the sample size we took samples of small and large fish, where possible, from wadeable streams and boatable...

  15. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Liyuan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize, M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize, M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060. The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0 exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05, significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  16. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks ( p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  17. Growth and development of skeletal anomalies in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed phosphorus-rich diets with fish meal and hydrolyzed fish protein

    Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Riesen, Guido; Seim, Rudi Ripman; Hagen, Ørjan; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Falk-Petersen, Inger-Britt; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Jobling, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar were fed high-protein, phosphorus-rich diets (56–60% protein; ca 18g phosphorus kg-1 diet) whilst being reared at low temperature from start-feeding until parr-smolt transformation. Performances of salmon fed diets based on fish meal (STD) or a mix of fishmeal and hydrolysed fish proteins (HFM) as the major protein sources were compared in terms of mortality, diet digestibility, growth and skeletal deformities. Separate groups of diploids and triploids were reared in triplicate tanks (initially 3000 fish per tank; tank biomass ca. 620 g) from 0–2745 degree-days post-start feeding (ddPSF). Growth metrics (weight, length, condition factor) were recorded at ca. 4 week intervals, external signs of deformities to the operculum, jaws and spinal column were examined in parr sampled at 1390 ddPSF, and external signs of deformity and vertebral anomalies (by radiography) were examined in fish sampled at the end of the trial (2745 ddPSF). The triploid salmon generally had a lower mass per unit length, i.e. lower condition factor, throughout the trial, but this did not seem to reflect any consistent dietary or ploidy effects on either dietary digestibility or the growth of the fish. By the end of the trial fish in all treatment groups had achieved a weight of 50+ g, and had completed the parr-smolt transformation. The triploids had slightly, but significantly, fewer vertebrae (Triploids STD 58.74 ± 0.10; HFM 58.68 ± 0.05) than the diploids (Diploids STD 58.97 ± 0.14; HFM 58.89 ± 0.01), and the incidence of skeletal (vertebral) abnormalities was higher in triploids (Triploids STD 31 ± 0.90%; HFM 15 ± 1.44%) than in diploids (Diploids STD 4 ± 0.80%; HFM 4 ± 0.83%). The HFM diet gave a significant reduction in the numbers of triploid salmon with vertebral anomalies in comparison with the triploids fed the STD diet possibly as a result of differences in phosphorus bioavailability between the two diets. Overall, the

  18. Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition

    Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Nusantoro, S.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining

  19. Predicting the 137Cs Contamination of Freshwater Fish in Hong Kong

    Poon, C.B.; Au, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    A predictive method for estimating the 137 Cs contamination of freshwater fish in Hong Kong after an acute deposition is presented. This method applies a published aquatic model to the freshwater fish culture ponds in Hong Kong. The predicted transfer coefficient, in terms of peak concentration in fish (wet weight) per unit deposition, is found to be generally lower than those observed in some European and UK lakes after the Chernobyl accident. While the water-fish concentration factor is undoubtedly an important factor, some unique features of the local freshwater fish culture systems, such as the absence of further radioactivity input from catchment to the fish ponds after deposition, and high removal of radioactivity by sedimentation, also play significant roles. Sensitivity of model parameters and uncertainties of prediction are also studied. This predictive model can serve as a useful tool in emergency planning and in countermeasure implementation during a nuclear emergency in Hong Kong. (author)

  20. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  1. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Frøyland, Livar

    2012-01-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB 7 , arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  2. Effects of dietary triacylglycerol structure on triacylglycerols of resultant chylomicrons from fish oil- and seal oil-fed rats

    Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the intramolecular fatty acid distribution of dietary triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAG) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the structure of chylomicron TAG. Fish oil and seal oil, comparable in fatty acid compositions but with different contents of major n-3...... PUFA esterified at the sn-2 position (20:5n-3, 46,6%, and 5.3%; 22:6n-3, 75.5% and 3.8%, respectively), were fed to rats. Mesenteric lymph was collected and the chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid compostition of chylomicrons largely reflected the fatty acid composition...... of the oils administered. The intramolecular fatty acid distributions of the TAG fed were reflected in the chylomicron TAG as the fraction of the total contents observed in the sn-2 postition of 20:5n-3 were 23.6 and 13.3% and of 22:6n-3 were 30.6 and 5.4% for resultant chylomicrons following fish oil...

  3. Potential radiation dose from eating fish exposed to actinide contamination

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a maximum potential for transporting actinides to man via fish consumption. The study took place in U-Pond, a nuclear waste pond on the Hanford Site. It has concentrations of 238 U, 238 Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu and 241 Am that are approximately three orders of magnitude greater than background levels. Fish living in the pond contain higher actinide concentrations than those observed in fish from any other location. Experiments were performed in U-pond to determine maximum quantities of actinides that could accumulate in fillets and whole bodies of two centrarchid fish species. Doses to hypothetical consumers were then estimated by assuming that actinide behavior in their bodies was similar to that defined for Standard Man by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Results indicate that highest concentrations occurring in bluegill or bass muscle after more than a year's exposure to the pond would not be sufficient to produce a significant radiation dose to a human consumer, even if he ate 0.5 kg (∼1 lb) of these fillets every day for 70 years. Natural predators (heron or coyote), having lifetime diets of whole fish from U-Pond, would receive less radiation dose from the ingested actinides than from natural background sources. 34 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Potential radiation dose from eating fish exposed to actinide contamination

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a maximum potential for transporting actinides to man via fish consumption. The study took place in U-pond, a nuclear waste pond on the Hanford Site. It has concentrations of 238 U, 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu and 241 Am that are approx. 3 orders of magnitude greater than background levels. Fish living in the pond contain higher actinide concentrations than those observed in fish from any other location. Experiments were performed in U-Pond to determine maximum quantities of actinides that could accumulate in fillets and whole bodies of two centrarchid fish species. Doses to hypothetical consumers were then estimated. Results indicate that highest concentrations occurring in bluegill or bass muscle after more than a year's exposure to the pond would not be sufficient to produce a significant radiation dose to a human consumer, even if he ate 0.5 kg (of the order of 1 lb) of these fillets every day for 70 yr. Natural predators (heron or coyote), having lifetime diets of whole fish from U-Pond, would receive less radiation dose from the ingested actinides than from natural background sources. (author)

  5. INFECUNDITY AND CONSUMPTION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH

    Biologic capacity for reproduction, or fecundity, may be threatened by environmental contaminants, especially compounds capable of disrupting endocrine pathways. Telephone interviews that focused on reproductive events were conducted with female members of the New York State Angl...

  6. Radiocaesium transfer to ewes fed contaminated hay after the Chernobyl accident: effect of vermiculite and AFCF (ammonium ferricyanoferrate) as countermeasures

    Daburon, F.; Archimbaud, Y.; Cousi, J.; Fayart, G.; Hoffschir, D.; Chevallereau, I.; Le Creff, H.; Gueguen, L.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated hay harvested in the south-east of France in June 1986 was fed to lactating and non-lactating ewes for 50-60 days. The mean transfer coefficients observed were 0.075 days litre -1 to milk and 0.11 days kg -1 to meat. Adding vermiculite to feed pellets decreased the transfer coefficients by a factor of 2.5 to both milk and meat if given at 30 g day -1 ; a factor of 8 difference was reached using 60 g day -1 added vermiculite or 2 g day -1 ammonium ferricyanoferrate (AFCF). No adverse effects on intake rates, animal weight or milk production were observed during the administration period (90-100 days, 50-60 days during the oral contamination and 40 days during the depletion period), whatever the treatment. Three lactating goats were fed the same contaminated hay, but chopped and mixed with powdered maize, for 15 days. The mean milk transfer coefficient was lower than that for ewes at 0.032 days litre -1 . (author)

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) of microorganisms in hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer sediment samples.

    Tischer, Karolin; Zeder, Michael; Klug, Rebecca; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schattenhofer, Martha; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are the most important sources of drinking water worldwide but they are threatened by contamination and overexploitation. Petroleum spills account for the most common source of contamination and the high carbon load results in anoxia and steep geochemical gradients. Microbes play a major role in the transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons into less toxic substances. To investigate microbial populations at the single cell level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is now a well-established technique. Recently, however, catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH has been introduced for the detection of microbes from oligotrophic environments. Nevertheless, petroleum contaminated aquifers present a worst case scenario for FISH techniques due to the combination of high background fluorescence of hydrocarbons and the presence of small microbial cells caused by the low turnover rates characteristic of groundwater ecosystems. It is therefore not surprising that studies of microorganisms from such sites are mostly based on cultivation techniques, fingerprinting, and amplicon sequencing. However, to reveal the population dynamics and interspecies relationships of the key participants of contaminant degradation, FISH is an indispensable tool. In this study, a protocol for FISH was developed in combination with cell quantification using an automated counting microscope. The protocol includes the separation and purification of microbial cells from sediment particles, cell permeabilization and, finally, CARD-FISH in a microwave oven. As a proof of principle, the distribution of Archaea and Bacteria was shown in 60 sediment samples taken across the contaminant plume of an aquifer (Leuna, Germany), which has been heavily contaminated with several ten-thousand tonnes of petroleum hydrocarbons since World War II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Aflatoxin B1-contaminated diet disrupts the blood-brain barrier and affects fish behavior: Involvement of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes.

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Zeppenfeld, Carla Cristina; Descovi, Sharine N; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-04

    It is known that the cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are associated with behavioral dysfunction. However, the effects of a diet contaminated with AFB 1 on the behavior of silver catfish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB 1 -contaminated diet (1177 ppb kg feed -1 ) impaired silver catfish behavior, as well as whether disruption of the BBB and alteration of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes are involved. Fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 presented a behavioral impairment linked with hyperlocomotion on days 14 and 21 compared with the control group (basal diet). Neurotransmitter levels were also affected on days 14 and 21. The permeability of the BBB to Evans blue dye increased in the intoxicated animals compared with the control group, which suggests that the BBB was disrupted. Moreover, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain synaptosomes was increased in fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 , while activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) was decreased. Based on this evidence, the present study shows that silver catfish fed a diet containing AFB 1 exhibit behavioral impairments related to hyperlocomotion. This diet caused a disruption of the BBB and brain lesions, which may contribute to the behavioral changes. Also, the alterations in the activities of AChE and Na + , K + -ATPase in brain synaptosomes may directly contribute to this behavior, since they may promote synapse dysfunction. In addition, the hyperlocomotion may be considered an important macroscopic marker indicating possible AFB 1 intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of PCB contamination in stream fish to abatement actions at an industrial site

    Southworth, G.R.; Peterson, M.J.; McCarthy, J.F.; Milne, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, used large quantities of PCBs in equipment associated with the great electric power requirements of isotopic enrichment of uranium. Historic losses of PCBs in the 1950s and 1960s have left a legacy of contamination at the site. A biological monitoring program implemented in 1987 found PCBs in PGDP effluents and in fish downstream from facility discharges. As a consequence, a fish consumption advisory was posted on Little Bayou Creek by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1987, and regulatory discharge limits for PCBs at PGDP were reduced. Monitoring at multiple locations in receiving streams indicated that PGDP discharges were more important than in stream sediment contamination as sources of PCBs to fish. Environmental management and compliance staff at PGDP led an effort to reduce PCB discharges and monitor the effects of those actions. The active discharge of uncontaminated process water to historically PCB-contaminated drainage systems was found to mobilize PCBs into KPDES (Clean Water Act) regulated effluents. Efforts to locate PCB sources within the plant, coupled with improvements in management practices and remedial actions, appear to have been successful in reducing PCB discharges from these sources. Actions included emplacing passive monitors in the plant drainage system to identify this as a chronic source, and consolidating and re-routing effluents to minimize flow through PCB-contaminated channels. As a consequence, PCB contamination in fish in small streams receiving plant discharges decreased 75% over from 1992--1995

  11. Physiological and ecological factors influencing the radiocaesium contamination of fish species from Kiev reservoir

    Koulikov, A.O. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-23

    The monitoring of {sup 137}Cs contamination of fish from the northern part of the Kiev reservoir between 1987 and 1992 indicated systematic differences in the long-term average contamination levels of different species, which are closely related to their trophic levels. The average contamination of the predatory species: perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) were roughly factors of 6.3 and 4.4 respectively, higher than those of the nonpredatory species: bream (Abramis brama), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophothalmus). For tench (Tinca tinca) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), this factor is 2. The solution of the caesium balance equation in fish obtained for equilibrium conditions, which is applicable to the long-term contamination, provides some explanations for these accumulation differences between the species with respect to influences by different ecological and physiological factors.

  12. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  13. Residues of dioxins and PCBs in fat of growing pigs and broilers fed contaminated feed

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics of PCBs and dioxins, 3 week old broilers and 3 month old pigs were fed with a 10-fold diluted feed from the Belgium crisis for one week, followed by a period on clean feed. In the case of broilers this resulted in levels for dioxins, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs in fat

  14. Amount and qualities of carotenoids in fillets of fish species fed with ...

    umb

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... the Baltic Sea (Czeczuga and Klyszejko, 1996), Black. Sea (Czeczuga, 1973), fishing areas of the ..... (in females and eggs) through the low level of astaxan- thin and thiamine (Fitzsimons et al., .... salar L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) specimens from an ocean ranching farm. Ocean. Hydrobiol.

  15. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothe...

  16. Amount and qualities of carotenoids in fillets of fish species fed with ...

    Using column (CC), thin- layer (TLC) and high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), carotenoid content was examined in the fillets (muscles with skin) of 16 fish species from the fisheries of West African Coast. 15 carotenoids, including 6 ketocarotenoids (4'- hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, phoenicopterone, ...

  17. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  18. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ( 137 Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and 137 Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ( 137 Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of 137 Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • 137 Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • 137 Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of 137 Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat

  19. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Yoshimura, Mayumi, E-mail: yoshi887@ffpri.affrc.go.jp [Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagaikyuutaro 68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855 (Japan); Yokoduka, Tetsuya [Tochigi Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Sarado 2599, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-0404 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ({sup 137}Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat.

  20. Is nutrient contamination of groundwater causing eutrophication of groundwater-fed meadows?

    Pieterse, N.M.; Olde Venterink, H.; Schot, P.P.; Verkroost, A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether nutrient contamination of groundwater under agricultural fields may cause nutrient-enrichment and subsequent eutrophication in discharge areas. Often, there is only circumstantial evidence to support this supposition (proximity of agricultural fields,

  1. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems.

  2. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  3. Contaminant-associated health effects in fishes from the Ottawa and Ashtabula Rivers, Ohio

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Walsh, Heather L.; Shaw, Cassidy H.; DeVault, David S.; Banda, Jo A.

    2018-01-01

    The health of resident fishes serves as a biologically relevant barometer of aquatic ecosystem integrity. Here, the health of the Ottawa River and Ashtabula River (both within the Lake Erie Basin) were assessed using morphological and immunological biomarkers in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Biomarker metrics were compared to fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek). Data utilized for analyses were collected between 2003 and 2011. Fish collected from all three river systems had markedly different contaminant profiles. Total PCBs were the dominant contaminant class by mass. In bullhead, PCBs were highest in fish from the Ashtabula River and there were no differences in fish collected pre- or post-remediation of Ashtabula Harbor (median = 4.6 and 5.5 mg/kg respectively). Excluding PCBs, the Ottawa River was dominated by organochlorine pesticides. Liver tumor prevalence exceeded the 5% trigger level at both the Ashtabula (7.7%) and Ottawa Rivers (10.2%), but was not statistically different than that at the reference site. There was no statistically significant association between microscopic lesions, gross pathology and contaminant body burdens. Collectively, contaminant body burdens were generally negatively correlated with functional immune responses including bactericidal, cytotoxic-cell and respiratory burst activity in both species. Exceptions were positive correlations of HCB and heptachlor epoxide with respiratory burst activity in largemouth bass, and HCB with respiratory burst activity in bullhead and ΣBHC for all three functional assays in bullhead. Data here provide additional support that organochlorine contamination is associated with immunomodulation, and that species differences exist within sites.

  4. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  5. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  6. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)

  7. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  8. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  9. 'Unfit for human consumption': a study of the contamination of formula milk fed to young children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Gibson, Sarah; Sahanggamu, Daniel; Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Curtis, Val; White, Sian

    2017-10-01

    To examine levels of bacterial contamination in formula feeding bottles in Sidoarjo, East Java, and to assess the preparation practices that may have been responsible. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 92 randomly selected households with children under the age of two who were bottle-fed formula. In each household, we carried out video observation of mothers/caregivers preparing bottles, and examined samples of formula for coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli). In-depth interviews were conducted with a subsample of 20 mothers. A total of 88% of the formula feeds were contaminated with total coliforms at a level >10 MPN/ml, and 45% contained E. coli. These feeds were defined as 'unfit for human consumption'. In the video observations, none of the mothers complied with all five WHO-recommended measures of hygienic formula feed preparation. Only two mothers washed their hands with soap prior to formula preparation. Most mothers also failed to clean or sterilise the bottle and clean the preparation area. In-depth interviews confirmed that such suboptimal hygiene practices were common. The high levels of contamination found highlight that bottles are an important faecal-oral exposure pathway resulting from poor hygiene practices during bottle preparation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Perchlorate in fish from a contaminated site in east-central Texas

    Theodorakis, Christopher; Rinchard, Jacques; Anderson, Todd; Liu, Fujun; Park, June-Woo; Costa, Filipe; McDaniel, Leslie; Kendall, Ronald; Waters, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate, a known thyroid endocrine disruptor, contaminates surface waters near military instillations where solid fuel rocket motors are manufactured or assembled. To assess potential perchlorate exposure to fish and the human population which may feed on them, fish were collected around the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant in McLennan County, TX, and analyzed for the presence of the perchlorate anion. The sampling sites included Lake Waco and Belton Lake, and several streams and rivers within their watersheds. The general tendency was that perchlorate was only found in a few species sampled, and perchlorate was not detected in every individual within these species. When detected in the fish, perchlorate tissue concentrations were greater than that in the water. This may be due to highly variable perchlorate concentrations in the water coupled with individual-level variation in elimination from the body, or to routes of exposure other than water. - In perchlorate-contaminated lakes and streams, perchlorate is detected infrequently in fish heads, fillets, and whole bodies, but may be detected more often depending on species and seasonal trends, and always at concentrations higher in the fish than in the water

  11. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Contamination in Fish from Sites along the Elbe River

    P. Maršálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate total mercury Hg and methylmercury MeHg contamination in muscle tissues of fish collected in 2002 from the Labe (Elbe river at sites upstream of Pardubice and downstream of Pardubice and Hřensko, and in 2004 from the Labe river upstream and downstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice, and from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. Eighty eight fish of the following species were sampled: bream (Abramis brama L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. and barbel (Barbus barbus L.. Total mercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.05 - 1.96 mg kg-1 w.w., 0. 09 - 1.46 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.35 - 0.82 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Methylmercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.04 - 2.11 mg kg-1 w.w., 0.1 - 1.73 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.371 - 0.650 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Significant correlation (p p < 0.05 between THg and MeHg contents were found between individual sites. In 2002, for example, the most contaminated fish were found downstream of Pardubice, followed by fish from upstream of Pardubice and from Hřensko. In 2004, fish from downstream and upstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice were more contaminated than fish from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. The methylmercury-tototal mercury ratio in muscle tissue was close to 1.0.

  12. Attractiveness of food and avoidance from contamination as conflicting stimuli to habitat selection by fish.

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Rodríguez, Elizabeth N V; Salvatierra, David; Cedeño-Macias, Luis A; Vera-Vera, Victoria C; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Habitat selection by fish is the outcome of a choice between different stimuli. Typically, the presence of food tends to attract organisms, while contamination triggers an avoidance response to prevent toxic effects. Given that both food and contaminants are not homogeneously distributed in the environment and that food can be available in contaminated zones, a key question has been put forward in the present study: does a higher availability of food in contaminated areas interfere in the avoidance response to contaminants regardless of the contamination level? Tilapia fry (Oreochromis sp.; 2.5-3.0 cm and 0.5-0.8 g) were exposed to two different effluent samples, diluted along a free-choice, non-forced exposure system simulating a contamination gradient. Initially, avoidance to the effluents was checked during a one hour exposure. Afterwards, food was added to the system so that the availability of food increased with the increase in the level of contamination, and the avoidance response to contamination was checked during another hour. Results clearly showed a concentration-dependent avoidance response for both effluents during the first hour (i.e., with no food). However, in presence of the food, the avoidance pattern was altered: organisms were propelled to intermittently move towards contaminated areas where food availability was higher. The incursions were taken regardless of the potential risk linked to the toxic effects. In conclusion, even when the risk of toxicity was imminent, tilapia fry were more intensively stimulated by the attractiveness of the food than by repulsion to the contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead pollution: lead content in milk from cows fed on contaminated forages

    Sapetti, C; Arduino, E; Durio, P

    1973-01-01

    Lead toxicity is reviewed, and the history of the lead poisoning is described. Much of the lead pollution in soil is due to automobile exhaust. Two milk cows were fed forage with added lead acetate. The 20 kg of lead corresponded to 50 ppm, a level that is often found in hays near major highways. The cows milk was then analyzed for lead content. During the first and second phase of administration of lead salts, the milk cows did not show any evident symptoms of intoxication. The lead in the milk did have a marked correlation with the administered lead. The lead doses did not last long enough for chronic symptoms to begin. The dosage of lead in milk, due to the facility of drawing samples and the relevant levels of response, could represent a valid method for diagnosing incipient chronic intoxications.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mercury contamination of fish and shrimp samples available in markets of Mashhad, Iran.

    Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed-Reza; Moradi, Valiollah; Mokhtari, Mehrangiz; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2013-09-01

    Fish and shrimp are common healthy sources of protein to a large percentage of the world's population. Hence, it is vital to evaluate the content of possible contamination of these marine-foods. Six species of fishes and two species of shrimps were collected from the local markets of Mashhad, Iran. The mercury (Hg) concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10). High concentration of total Hg was found in Clupeonella cultriventris caspia (0.93 ± 0.14 μg/g) while the lowest level was detected in Penaeus indicus (0.37 ± 0.03 μg/g). Mean Hg levels in fish and shrimp samples were 0.77 ± 0.08 μg/g and 0.51 ± 0.05 μg/g, respectively. Farmed species (except for P. indicus) and all samples from Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea had mean mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 μg/g. A little more extensive analysis of data showed that weekly intake of mercury for the proportion of the Iranian population consuming Hg contaminated fish and shrimp is not predicted to exceed the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes recommended by JECFA. However, the Iranian health and environmental authorities should monitor Hg contamination of the fishes and shrimps before marketing.

  16. Perchlorate in fish from a contaminated site in east-central Texas.

    Theodorakis, Christopher; Rinchard, Jacques; Anderson, Todd; Liu, Fujun; Park, June-Woo; Costa, Filipe; McDaniel, Leslie; Kendall, Ronald; Waters, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate, a known thyroid endocrine disruptor, contaminates surface waters near military instillations where solid fuel rocket motors are manufactured or assembled. To assess potential perchlorate exposure to fish and the human population which may feed on them, fish were collected around the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant in McLennan County, TX, and analyzed for the presence of the perchlorate anion. The sampling sites included Lake Waco and Belton Lake, and several streams and rivers within their watersheds. The general tendency was that perchlorate was only found in a few species sampled, and perchlorate was not detected in every individual within these species. When detected in the fish, perchlorate tissue concentrations were greater than that in the water. This may be due to highly variable perchlorate concentrations in the water coupled with individual-level variation in elimination from the body, or to routes of exposure other than water.

  17. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  18. Organotin contamination in fishes with different living patterns and its implications for human health risk in Taiwan

    Lee, C.-C.; Wang, T.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Tien, C.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated levels of butyl- and phenyltin compounds, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenlytin (DPT), and monophenyltin (MPT), were investigated in pelagic, demersal and cultured fish species from different seasons and locations in Taiwan. Seasonal variations were found in fishes from Wuchi and Hsingta fishing harbors for their butyltin levels (winter > summer) with the opposite trend for phenyltins in fishes from Patoutzu fishing harbor and demersal fishes from four fishing harbors (summer > winter). Fish liver contained the lowest percentage of TBT and the highest percentage of TPT among six organotin compounds. Consumption of contaminated pelagic species and fishes from Hsingta fishing harbor had the highest hazard index. However, the hazard quotients and hazard indices were all less than 1, suggesting a daily exposure at these levels of TBT, DBT and TPT may not be likely to cause any deleterious effects during lifetime in human population. - Spatial and seasonal variations in accumulation of organotins were showed by fishes with different living patterns and the potential health risk to ingest such fishes

  19. Organotin contamination in fishes with different living patterns and its implications for human health risk in Taiwan

    Lee, C.-C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Wang, T. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, C.-Y. [Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan (China); Tien, C.-J. [Department of Industrial Safety and Hygiene, Chung Hwa College of Medical Technology, 89 Wen-Hwa 1st Street, Jen-Te 717, Tainan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cjtien@mail.hwai.edu.tw

    2005-09-15

    Contaminated levels of butyl- and phenyltin compounds, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenlytin (DPT), and monophenyltin (MPT), were investigated in pelagic, demersal and cultured fish species from different seasons and locations in Taiwan. Seasonal variations were found in fishes from Wuchi and Hsingta fishing harbors for their butyltin levels (winter > summer) with the opposite trend for phenyltins in fishes from Patoutzu fishing harbor and demersal fishes from four fishing harbors (summer > winter). Fish liver contained the lowest percentage of TBT and the highest percentage of TPT among six organotin compounds. Consumption of contaminated pelagic species and fishes from Hsingta fishing harbor had the highest hazard index. However, the hazard quotients and hazard indices were all less than 1, suggesting a daily exposure at these levels of TBT, DBT and TPT may not be likely to cause any deleterious effects during lifetime in human population. - Spatial and seasonal variations in accumulation of organotins were showed by fishes with different living patterns and the potential health risk to ingest such fishes.

  20. Applying acoustic telemetry to understand contaminant exposure and bioaccumulation patterns in mobile fishes.

    Taylor, Matthew D; van der Meulen, Dylan E; Brodie, Stephanie; Cadiou, Gwenaël; Knott, Nathan A

    2018-06-01

    Contamination in urbanised estuaries presents a risk to human health, and to the viability of populations of exploited species. Assessing animal movements in relation to contaminated areas may help to explain patterns in bioaccumulation, and assist in the effective management of health risks associated with consumption of exploited species. Using polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) contamination in Sydney Harbour estuary as a case study, we present a study that links movement patterns resolved using acoustic telemetry to the accumulation of contaminants in mobile fish on a multi-species basis. Fifty-four individuals across six exploited species (Sea Mullet Mugil cephalus; Luderick Girella tricuspidata; Yellowfin Bream Acanthopagrus australis; Silver Trevally Pseudocaranx georgianus; Mulloway Argyrosomus japonicus; Yellowtail Kingfish Seriola lalandi) were tagged with acoustic transmitters, and their movements tracked for up to 3years. There was substantial inter-specific variation in fish distribution along the estuary. The proportion of distribution that overlapped with contaminated areas explained 84-98% of the inter-specific variation in lipid-standardised biota PCDD/F concentration. There was some seasonal variation in distribution along the estuary, but movement patterns indicated that Sea Mullet, Yellowfin Bream, Silver Trevally, and Mulloway were likely to be exposed to contaminated areas during the period of gonadal maturation. Acoustic telemetry allows examination of spatial and temporal patterns in exposure to contamination. When used alongside biota sampling and testing, this offers a powerful approach to assess exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential risks faced by different species, as well as human health risks associated with their consumption. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Species differences in contaminants in fish on and adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    Burger, Joanna; Campbell, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Risks to humans and other organisms from consuming fish have become a national concern in the USA. In this paper, we examine the concentrations of 137 Cs, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in three species of fish from two river reaches adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. We were interested in whether there were species and locational differences in radiocesium and metal concentrations and whether concentrations were sufficiently high to pose a potential health risk to humans or other receptors. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were significantly larger than white bass (M. chrysops), and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) were the smallest fish. Lead was significantly lower in striped bass, mercury was significantly higher in striped bass, and selenium was significantly higher in white bass compared to the other species. There were no other species differences in contaminants. White bass, the only species that was sufficiently abundant for a comparison, had significantly higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and selenium in fillets from the Clinch River and significantly higher concentrations of mercury in fillets from Poplar Creek. The low concentrations of most contaminants in fish from the Clinch River do not appear to present a risk to humans or other consumers, although mercury concentrations in striped bass ranged as high as 0.79 ppm, well above the 0.5-ppm action level for human consumption of some US states

  2. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Radiation Processed Aflatoxin-Contaminated Diet

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; Abdalla, E.A.; Abd El-Azeem, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of foods and live-stock feeds is an ongoing problem. In this research, the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the radiation processing of their contaminated-diets, as a physical detoxifying method. Diets contaminated with two different levels of AFB 1 (2 or 5 mg kg -1 diet) were subjected to 10, 20, or 30 kGy and fed to growing Japanese quails for 5 weeks. The physiological and biochemical responses were evaluated for irradiation ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2 and 5 mg AFB 1 kg -1 diet. A total of 270 seven-day-old Japanese quail chicks were assigned to 2 factorial arrangements of nine treatments (level of toxin and radiation dose) each consisted of three replicates with 10 quails per pen. The significant adverse effect of AFB 1 on the food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, mortality rate and internal organ weights, from the first week onwards, were determined. Radiation processing reduced concentration of AFB 1 in all experimental diets and significantly reduced the deleterious effects of AFB 1 on food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, and the relative weights of most observed organs, as a function of radiation dose. Muscles, liver, kidneys and heart tissues were analyzed for aflatoxin (AF) residues. The residual level of AFB 1 was significantly higher in liver than in kidneys, muscles or heart. The level in the observed organs and the muscles was lower in those received irradiated diet at high 30 kGy. Plasma samples were tested for glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. They were significantly increased in AF treated groups in comparison with those received AF-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Birds ate contaminated diet with both level of toxin were suffered from the lower level of total proteins, albumin, globulin, phosphorus and

  3. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  4. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  5. Histologic, immunologic and endocrine biomarkers indicate contaminant effects in fishes of the Ashtabula River.

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Hitt, Nathaniel P; McCormick, Stephen D; DeVault, David S; Ottinger, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    The use of fish as sentinels of aquatic ecosystem health is a biologically relevant approach to environmental monitoring and assessment. We examined the health of the Ashtabula River using histologic, immunologic, and endocrine biomarkers in brown bullhead (BB; Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and compared fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek). Seasonal analysis was necessary to distinguish differences in fish between the two rivers. Overall BB from the Ashtabula River had a lower condition factor and significantly more macrophage aggregates than those from the reference site. Reduced bactericidal and cytotoxic-cell activity was observed in anterior kidney leukocytes from both BB and largemouth bass from the Ashtabula River. Lower plasma thyroxine and triiodo-L-thyronine in both species in the Ashtabula River indicated disruption of the thyroid axis. Differences in physiological biomarker responses were supported by body burden chemical concentrations when data were analyzed on a seasonal basis. The use of two fish species added a level of rigor that demonstrated biological effects were not exclusive to a single species. The results provide strong evidence that contaminants have affected fish in the Ashtabula River, a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and provide a baseline by which to evaluate remediation activities.

  6. Radioactive contamination in the Barents Sea, past and present status, uptake of radinuclides in fish and its impact on fisheries

    Føyn, Lars

    1994-01-01

    During the atmospheric nuclear bomb test at the end of the fifties and in the beginning of the sixties the Institute of Marine Research, IMR, monitored the radioactive contamination in commercial landed fish from the Barents Sea. There were indications of an immediate response in uptake of radionuclides depending on the time of the year, probably due to the food situation for the fish. There was also indications of species dependant uptake of radionuclides in fish. Even duri...

  7. Radioactive contamination of the significant fish species in fish-ponds and in natural waters with particular respect to the accumulation of Sr-90 Pt. 2

    Kantor, D.; Szentjobi, O.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of omnivorous fish species (Cyprinus carpio, Hypophtalmictys nobilis Richardson), of herbivorous fish species (Hypophtalmictys molitrix Valenciennes) and carnivorous fish species (Silurus glanis L., Esox Lucius L.) has been investigated. Orientative data have been obtained by analyzing samples originating from various sites. Though differences appeared between the analyzed samples, no incorporations of outstanding nature have been observed. In accordance with experiences described in literature, the isotope Sr-90 is accumulated in an increased degree in the skeleton of fish living in ponds. This is valid in all cases when the vital processes are regulated artificially by fishery methods. A particularly important factor is that the individual fish living in ponds are 2-3 or at most 4 years of age i.e. from the aspect of their ontogenesis their organism is in a strongly build-up phase. Sr-90 proved to be accumulated in a relatively greater amount in the organisms of herbivorous fish. (P.J.)

  8. Contamination of freshwater fish from rivers Sava and Danube with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Jankovic, S.; Radicevic, T.; Spiric, A.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    During air strikes, in april 1999, Institute of meat hygiene and technology have begun examination of freshwater fish to establish the degree of contamination. The information about damaged industrial facilities and toxic waste that have been spilled were hard to find, and was unofficial and contradicts. Because of that, at the first time we collected samples from different locations, but after first results, we concentrated our attention on locations on river Danube downstream from Pancevo and on river Sava upstream from Belgrade, the locations indicated as environmental 'hot spots'. According to our experience, knowledge, equipment and analytical skills we have chosen to determine the concentrations of PCBs in freshwater fish species, since aquatic fauna might be used as indicator organisms for the evaluation of water pollution. Polychlorinated biphenyls as contaminant of interest, have been chosen because large quantities of PCBs reached the soil and waste and ground waters from damaged transformers and capacitors, where they serve as dielectric fluids. Also, PCBs are highly toxic and due to their liposolubility and persistence, these compounds accumulate through food chain. In 1999, from April to December, we had collected 23 samples of different fish species on river Danube, downstream from Pancevo and 15 samples from locations on river Sava upstream from Belgrade. The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat and mg/kg fresh weight) were expressed as the sum of individual congeners (IUPAC numbers 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) and as Aroclor 1260 (peaks were identified as a fingerprint pattern by comparison with Aroclor standards). The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat) are determined to evaluate the extent of contamination and concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fresh weight) indicate daily intake and help us to estimate the risk for human health. Residues of PCBs in the fat extracted from fish sample were analysed according to the USDA Analytical Chemistry Guidebook. Gas

  9. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  10. The status of the peripheral blood in fish from radioactively contaminated Techa river

    Tryapitsina, G.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Shaposhnikova, I.; Andreev, S.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and University of Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Low-level radioactive had been releasing to the Techa River from 1949 to 1956. During that period over 76 million m{sup 3} of waste water was released into the river with total activity of 1.1*10{sup 17} Bq. In 2012 we examined the erythrocytes in peripheral blood of fish (roach, perch, pike), inhabiting different part of the Techa River. Sampling was conducted twice a year (in May and in August) at three stations with various levels of radioactive contamination. Station RT1 in the upper reach, RT2 in the middle reach and RT3 in the lower reach of the river. An average above-background content of {sup 90}Sr in the body of fish inhabiting the Techa River is given in the table. Fish from the nearby Miass River was used as a control group. Blood was taken from the tail vein of live fish. We examined number of nucleated cells in peripheral blood, relative and absolute number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes, immature and mature forms of blood cells of the erythroid line, leukocytes of different types. At least 1,000 blood cells were analyzed for each fish. The most expressed effects were registered in the analysis of the status of the peripheral blood erythrokaryocytes. In summer period increased proliferative activity of erythroid cell lineage was observed in fish from the Techa river as compared to fish from Miass river: at station RT2 the amount of dividing erythrokaryocytes in the peripheral blood (the sum of the parameters for 3 species of fish) was statistically significantly 1.4 times higher than that in the control; at station RT1 - it was 4 times higher. In the studied species of fish caught at station RT1 in summer period the number of dividing erythrokaryocytes was statistically significantly higher than that in the control populations: in roach - 4 times, in perch - 8 times, in pike - 2 times higher. Increase in the number of proliferating erythroid cells in blood allows for the maintenance of the number of mature erythrocytes in the blood of

  11. Radioactive contamination in Norwegian fish and seafood 1960-2013: time trends and geographical trends

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Svaeren, Ingrid; Liebig, Penny Lee [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Brungot, Anne Lene; Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Norwegian marine waters are home to some of the world's richest fishing grounds. In 2011, Norway was the world's twelfth largest fishery nation, and the world's second largest exporter of seafood. Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish and seafood is therefore of major importance to Norwegian consumers and the fishery industry. Monitoring of radioactive pollution in Norwegian fish and seafood has been ongoing in various ways since the early 1960's. During the 1960's, different species of fish from the Barents Sea were analysed for 'total mean beta activity minus potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)'. Although not directly comparable to current measurements, these were probably the highest observed concentrations in fish during the whole monitoring period. Contamination levels decreased substantially during the late 1960's as a result of the decrease in global fallout, biological elimination of the radioactive elements and the short physical half-lives of some beta-emitters. Monitoring was more or less terminated in the following years, and little data exists from the 1970's and early 1980's, though monitoring was resumed following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Today, different species of commercially important fish and crustacean species (as well as other species), are sampled on a regular basis from the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and Norwegian fjords. The samples are analysed mainly for cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and, additionally, a selection of the samples are analysed for technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu) and polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po). This study summarizes results from the monitoring during the period 1960 to 2013. Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood from Norwegian marine waters have been generally low during the past 20 to 25 years (up to 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}(fresh weight) in different species of fish in the

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Galveston Bay, Texas: Comparing concentrations and profiles in sediments, passive samplers, and fish.

    Oziolor, Elias M; Apell, Jennifer N; Winfield, Zach C; Back, Jeffrey A; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2018-05-01

    The industrialized portion of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is heavily contaminated with anthropogenic contaminants, most prominent of which are the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This contamination has driven adaptive evolution in a keystone species for Galveston Bay, the Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). We investigated the geographical extent of PCB impacts by sampling 12 sites, ranging from the heavily industrialized upper portion of the HSC to Galveston Island. At each site, PCB concentrations and profiles were determined in three environmental compartments: sediment, water (polyethylene passive samplers), and fish tissue (resident Gulf killifish). We observed a steep gradient of PCB contamination, ranging from 4.00 to 100,000 ng/g organic carbon in sediment, 290-110,000 ng/g lipid in fish, and 4.5-2300 ng/g polyethylene in passive samplers. The PCB congener profiles in Gulf killifish at the most heavily contaminated sites were shifted toward the higher chlorinated PCBs and were highly similar to the sediment contamination profiles. In addition, while magnitude of total PCB concentrations in sediment and total fish contamination levels were highly correlated between sites, the relative PCB congener profiles in fish and passive samplers were more alike. This strong correlation, along with a lack of dependency of biota-sediment accumulation factors with total contamination rates, confirm the likely non-migratory nature of Gulf killifish and suggest their contamination levels are a good site-specific indicator of contamination in the Galveston Bay area. The spatial gradient of PCB contamination in Galveston Bay was evident in all three matrices studied and was observed effectively using Gulf killifish contamination as an environmentally relevant bioindicator of localized contamination in this environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    Schantz, Susan L., E-mail: schantz@illinois.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gardiner, Joseph C. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Aguiar, Andrea [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Sweeney, Anne M. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States); Peck, Jennifer D. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States); Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in

  14. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Aguiar, Andrea; Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in this region.

  15. Effects of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient and energy utilization of ducks fed diets with or without Calibrin-A.

    Yang, Z B; Wan, X L; Yang, W R; Jiang, S Z; Zhang, G G; Johnston, S L; Chi, F

    2014-09-01

    One hundred sixty-two 21-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 3 levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn (0, 50, and 100% M) and 2 levels of Calibrin-A (CA, a clay mycotoxin adsorbent, 0 and 0.1%) to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient utilization in ducks fed diets with or without CA. Endogenous losses were obtained from another 27 ducks. Excreta samples were collected to determine DM, OM, CP, amino acids, and gross energy. Gross energy was analyzed for computation of AME and TME. The apparent digestibility (AD) and true digestibility (TD) of the nutrients in all treatments with and without CA had common (P > 0.05) intercepts and slopes except Pro (P Ducks fed the 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Gly compared with the 100% M diet, and ducks fed 50 and 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Pro compared with 50% M and 100% M diet, respectively. In the present study, ducks fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn decreased nutrient digestibility in dose-dependent manner, and 0.1% CA supplementation improved AD and TD of Gly and Pro. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Determination of fumonisin B1 levels in body fluids and hair from piglets fed fumonisin B1-contaminated diets.

    Souto, Pollyana C M C; Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Petta, Tânia; Di Gregório, Mayra C; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2017-10-01

    The levels of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) residues in plasma, urine, feces and hair from 24 piglets fed FB 1 -contaminated diets containing 3.1, 6.1 or 9.0 μg FB 1 .g -1 for 28 days were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of FB 1 in plasma, urine, feces and pooled hair (n = 3) samples varied from 0.15 to 1.08 μg.L -1 , 16.09-75.01 μg.L -1 , 1.87-13.89 μg.g -1 and 2.08-8.09 ng.g -1 , respectively. Significant correlations (r = 0.808-0.885; P 14 days). The possibility to evaluate hair as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure was established, although further studies are needed to provide physiologically based toxicokinetics of residual FB 1 in the pig hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy metals contamination in fish and shrimp from coastal regions of karachi, pakistan

    Ali, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    in the present study, the heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn) concentration was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in 5 species of fish and 3 species of shrimp commonly taken by locals at the coastal regions of Karachi, Pakistan Concentrations of Cd and Pb studied in tissues of Mushka (Otolithes ruber; 0.120 and 1.018 micro g/ wet weight) and palaemon longirostris shrimp (2.457 and 0.480 micro g/g wet weight) were found near to safe level for human consumption. Mullet, Tarli, Surmai, Dohtar fishes and Blacktiger shrimp were found contaminated by Cd and Pb but still within the limits fit for and human consumption. the distribution of trace metals detected in all fish and shrimp species followed the order of Zn >Pb> Fe>Cu> Cd and Cd> Fe > Zn> Cu>Ph, respectively. Metal concentration exhibited significant species variation and followed the order In fishes as otolithes ruber> Liza vaigiensis>sardinella albella>Scomberomorus guttatus>pomadasys olivaecum and in shrimp as palaemon longirostris>penaeus monodon> penaeus penicillatu. (author)

  18. Mercury contamination in humans and fishes in the municipality of Ayapel, Córdoba, Colombia, 2009

    Lisy Gracia H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the concentration of total mercury (HgT in hair samples from inhabitants of the municipality of Ayapel (Córdoba and in fishes captured in the Ayapel swamp. Methodology: a total amount of 112 hair samples were taken from the inferior occipital area of settlers of the Ayapel swamp who were over 14 years old, and samples of muscle tissue of seven species of fishes were also chosen. These samples were analyzed by means of spectrometry of atomic absorption through cold steam after acid digestion. Surveys on clinical symptoms related to poisoning by mercury were applied after the acceptance of the informed consent. Results: the total amount of mercury present in hair displayed an average of 2.18 ± 1.77 μg/g with values between 0.11 and 12.76 μg/g. The highest value of Hg-T in fishes was identified in the carnivorous species Sorubin cuspicaudus, with an average concentration of 0.74 ± 0,19 µg/g, and the smaller concentration was found on the iliophagous species Prochilodus magdalenaewith 0.15±0.02 µg/g of fresh weight. Conclusions: the population studied in Ayapel showed mercury levels above those internationally allowed by the usepa. There were also signs and symptoms related to such mercury levels, which can probably be a consequence of the high consumption of fishes contaminated with mercury

  19. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site.

    Pracheil, Brenda M; Marshall Adams, S; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Fortner, Allison M; Greeley, Mark S; Murphy, Cheryl A; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    A 4.1 million m(3) coal ash release into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in east Tennessee, USA, prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on resident biota. Because of the magnitude of the ash spill and the potential for exposure to coal ash-associated contaminants [e.g., selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] which are bioaccumulative and may present human and ecological risks, an integrative, bioindicator approach was used. Three species of fish were monitored-bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (L. microlophus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-at ash-affected and reference sites annually for 5 years following the spill. On the same individual fish, contaminant burdens were measured in various tissues, blood chemistry parameters as metrics of fish health, and various condition and reproduction indices. A multivariate statistical approach was then used to evaluate relationships between contaminant bioaccumulation and fish metrics to assess the chronic, sub-lethal effects of exposure to the complex mixture of coal ash-associated contaminants at and around the ash spill site. This study suggests that while fish tissue concentrations of some ash-associated contaminants are elevated at the spill site, there was no consistent evidence of compromised fish health linked with the spill. Further, although relationships between elevated fillet burdens of ash-associated contaminants and some fish metrics were found, these relationships were not indicative of exposure to coal ash or spill sites. The present study adds to the weight of evidence from prior studies suggesting that fish populations have not incurred significant biological effects from spilled ash at this site: findings that are relevant to the current national discussions on the safe disposal of coal ash waste.

  20. Effects of Adding Clostridium sp. WJ06 on Intestinal Morphology and Microbial Diversity of Growing Pigs Fed with Natural Deoxynivalenol Contaminated Wheat

    FuChang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was fed with a basal diet as the control group. Treatment B was fed with naturally DON-contaminated wheat as a negative control group. Treatment C was fed with a contaminated diet that also had Clostridium sp. WJ06, which was used as a detoxicant. Growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal morphology, and the intestinal flora of bacteria and fungi were examined. The results showed that after consuming a DON-contaminated diet, the growth performance of the pigs decreased significantly (p < 0.05, the relative organ weight of the liver and kidney increased significantly (p < 0.05, and the integrity of the intestinal barrier was also impaired, though the toxic effects of the contaminated diets on growing pigs were relieved after adding Clostridium sp. WJ06. The data from MiSeq sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 gene suggested that the abundance of intestinal flora was significantly different across the three treatments. In conclusion, the application of Clostridium sp. WJ06 can reduce the toxic effects of DON and adjust the intestinal microecosystem of growing pigs.

  1. Levels and distribution of organohalogenated contaminants in 5 fish species from Sir Dam Lake, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    Erdogrul, Oe [Faculty of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Food Engineering; Covaci, A; Schepens, P [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center

    2004-09-15

    In Turkey, OCPs have been used since 1945, with large quantities of these chemicals being used during the 1960s and 1970s. Since 1983, the usage of OCPs has been severely restricted or banned. Only few studies have investigated the presence of OCPs in Turkish aquatic environment, where they have been evidenced in relatively high concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels and distribution of organohalogenated contaminants in several fish species from Syr Dam Lake (Kahramanmarab, Turkey), an artificial lake with great economical importance for the region.

  2. Radioactivity of fishes contaminated by nuclear-bomb test explosions with special reference to the nuclides

    Mori, T; Saiki, M

    1957-01-01

    The nuclides formerly found in contaminated fish are /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 90/Y, /sup 32/P, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 106/Ru in bones and scales and /sup 137/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 144/Pr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 95/Nb in viscera and muscles. Moreover the following were found newly by M. and S.: /sup 65/Zn, /sup 113m, 115/Cd, /sup 55/ /sup 59/Fe, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 140/Ba, and /sup 140/La in viscera and muscles.

  3. The levels of plasma low density lipoprotein are independent of cholesterol ester transfer protein in fish-oil fed F1B hamsters

    Davis Phillip J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP plays a major role in regulating the levels of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. We previously observed a fish-oil-induced elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol concentration in F1B hamsters. The molecular mechanism/s by which fish oil induces hyperlipidaemic effect was investigated in this study. We examined whether the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma lipoprotein concentrations are due to fish-oil-induced alterations in plasma CETP activity. MIX diet, a diet supplemented with a mixture of lard and safflower oil, was used as the control diet. Results We found that fish oil feeding in hamsters reduced CETP mass as well as CETP activity. Increasing the dietary fat level of fish-oil from 5% to 20% (w/w led to a further decrease in CETP mass. Supplementation with dietary cholesterol increased both CETP mass and CETP activity in fish-oil and MIX-diet fed hamsters. However, there was no correlation between CETP mass as well as CETP activity and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that cholesterol ester transfer between HDL and LDL is not likely to play a major role in determining fish-oil-induced changes in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in F1B hamsters. A possible role of reduced clearance of LDL-particles as well as dietary fat level and dietary cholesterol dependent changes in LDL-lipid composition have been discussed.

  4. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  5. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  6. Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to achieve safe levels in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Valentine, Charles S [ORNL; Gregory, Scott M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and White Oak Creek (WOC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EFPC by 85 %. Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WOC are an order of magnitude lower than in EFPC. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations, fish fillet concentrations in WOC have also been above the AWQC, making the most recent aqueous Hg target of 200 ng/L in EFPC seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WOC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EFPC and in other point-source contaminated streams.

  7. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  8. Endocrine active contaminants in aquatic systems and intersex in common sport fishes

    Lee Pow, Crystal S. D.; Law, J. Mac; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Rice, James A.; Kullman, Seth W.; Aday, D. Derek

    2017-01-01

    Male fish are susceptible to developing intersex, a condition characterized by the presence of testicular oocytes. In the present study, the relationship between intersex and exposure to estrogenic endocrine active contaminants (EACs) was assessed for 2 genera of sport fish, Micropterus and Lepomis, at 20 riverine sites. Seasonal trends and relationships between EACs and intersex (prevalence and severity) were examined at varying putative sources of EACs throughout North Carolina, identified as point sources, nonpoint sources, and reference sites. Intersex was identified in both genera, which was documented for the first time in wild-caught Lepomis. Intersex was more prevalent (59.8%) and more severe (1.6 mean rank) in Micropterus, which was highly correlation to EACs in sediment. In contrast, intersex was less common (9.9%) and less severe (0.2 mean rank) in Lepomis and was highly correlated to EACs in the water column. The authors found that concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial EACs, and estrogens were highest at point source sites; however, no source type variation was identified in the prevalence or severity of intersex, nor were there seasonal trends in intersex or EAC concentrations. The authors’ results associate genus-specific prevalence of intersex with specific EAC classes in common sport fishes having biological, ecological, and conservation implications.

  9. Fish consumption, contaminants and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: many more benefits than risks

    FA. Scorza

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have an increased risk of dying prematurely and the most common epilepsy-related category of death is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP. SUDEP is mainly a problem for patients with chronic uncontrolled epilepsy. The ultimate goal of research in SUDEP is to develop new methods to prevent it and actions other than medical and surgical therapies that could be very useful. Nutritional aspects, i.e., omega-3 fatty acids deficiency, could have an interesting role in this scenario. Some animal and clinical studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids could be useful in the prevention and treatment of epilepsy and hence SUDEP. It has been ascertained that the only foods that provide large amounts of omega-3 are seafood (fish and shellfish; however, some fish are contaminated with methylmercury, which may counteract the positive effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Our update review summarises the knowledge of the role of fish consumption on epilepsy research.

  10. Contamination of Omnivorous Freshwater Fish Species and Sediments by Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Poland

    Niewiadowska Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in 158 muscle samples of bream (Abramis brama and roach (Rutilus rutilus, and 84 samples of sediments collected from 10 river and lake sampling sites in 2011 and 2012. The concentrations of DDTs (p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, and p,p’-DDD, HCH isomers (a-, ß-, and y-HCH, HCB, and PCBs (six indicator PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 were determined using the capillary gas chromatography. The mean concentrations of DDTs in bream and roach were in the range of 11.2-654 and 4.5-121 ug/kg wet weight respectively, and PCBs were in the range of 1.3-75.9 and 1.1-112 ug/kg wet weight, respectively. Mean concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in sediments were 0.5-270 ug/kg dry weight and ⋋0.1-2.2 ug/kg dry weight respectively. The study showed clear spatial differences in the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish and sediments from different aquatic ecosystems. The highest levels of contaminants were detected in fish and sediments from the Vistula River in vicinity of Cracow. The possible risk to the fish meat consumers and ecological risk were evaluated.

  11. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  12. Contaminants in popular farmed fish consumed in The Netherlands and their levels in fish feedContaminants in popular farmed fish consumed in The Netherlands and their levels in fish feed

    Leeuwen, van S.; Velzen, van M.; Swart, K.; Veen, van der I.; Traag, W.A.; Spanjer, M.; Scholten, J.; Rijn, van H.

    2008-01-01

    Investigated is a wide range of pollutants in the top five consumed fish in the Netherlands (salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius and shrimps). Farmed fish samples were collected from different sources (supermarkets, fish stores, markets and suppliers for restaurants) and analysed for PCDD/Fs, PCBs,

  13. Assessment of mercury contamination in the Bílina River (Czech Republic using indicator fish

    Kamila Kružíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine mercury content in the muscle of indicator fish and to assess mercury pollution along the Bílina River, which is one of the most important tributaries of the Elbe River. A total of eight sites were chosen on the Bílina River for sampling. Indicator fish chub (Leuciscus cephalus L, roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L. in the total numbers of 24, 26 and 27, respectively, were sampled at four locations, since at the remaining sites fish were absent. Mercury concentrations in the muscle of sampled indicator fish were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry on an AMA 254 analyser. The highest mercury content (0.12 ± 0.027 mg·kg-1 was found in the muscle of roach at the Ústí nad Labem site and the lowest mercury content (0.04 ± 0.008 mg·kg-1 in the muscle of brown trout from the Březenec (the first upstream site site. A significant difference (P -1 and brown trout (0.04 mg·kg-1 at the Březenec site. The priority of this study was to assess the mercury contamination of the Bílina River because this river flows through a heavy industrial activity in the region (especially production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, sorbents, plasticizers and textile auxiliaries. Despite the fact that the Bílina is an extensively polluted river, the obtained mercury results were very low and did not exceed the limit of 0.5 mg·kg-1 set by Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006.

  14. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals. (orig.)

  15. Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon

    Torres, J P.M.; Meire, R; Azeredo, A; Malm, O [Lab. de Radiosotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); D' Amato, C [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias dos Alimentos, IQ-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Saldanha, G; Bastos, W [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L [International Training Environmental Medicine, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Community and Preventive Medicine Dept., NY (United States); Markowitz, S [Center for Biology of the Natural Systems, Queens Coll. New York (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The DDT, a term used to refer to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an organochlorine pesticide first synthesized in 1874, but its properties as insecticide were discovered only in the late 1930's by the chemist Paul Muller, who won the Nobel Prize in 1948. Since its discovery, DDT use revolutionized the control concepts against malaria and other tropical insect-borne diseases. A large-scale industrial production started in 1943 and it was used in great quantities mainly for the agricultural and forest pest control. A smaller quantity of the world production (20-30%) was used in tropical disease control. In 1946 it was established a regular system of DDT applications in Amazon houses. Its use became common in malaria vector control and other tropical diseases, like leishmaniasis. DDT began to be restricted after the discovery of its toxicity against wild animals, especially top predators and due to potential toxic effects against humans. The DDT restrictive measures in Brazil started in 19714. In 1985 DDT was prohibited for agricultural purposes, but continued to be use for Public Health Campaigns, under the responsibility of FUNASA, the Brazilian National Health Foundation. An investigation conducted by Vieira et al. detected {sigma}ODDT in soil, sediments and chicken eggs from an area seven and nine years after its last application for leishmaniasis vector control near the sprayed sites. Today DDT is recognized as one of the twelve Persistent Organic Pollutants - POPs. Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 20008 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme9 have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3}mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}DDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a

  16. Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon

    Torres, J.P.M.; Meire, R.; Azeredo, A.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radiosotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); D' Amato, C. [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias dos Alimentos, IQ-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Saldanha, G.; Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L. [International Training Environmental Medicine, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Community and Preventive Medicine Dept., NY (United States); Markowitz, S. [Center for Biology of the Natural Systems, Queens Coll. New York (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The DDT, a term used to refer to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an organochlorine pesticide first synthesized in 1874, but its properties as insecticide were discovered only in the late 1930's by the chemist Paul Muller, who won the Nobel Prize in 1948. Since its discovery, DDT use revolutionized the control concepts against malaria and other tropical insect-borne diseases. A large-scale industrial production started in 1943 and it was used in great quantities mainly for the agricultural and forest pest control. A smaller quantity of the world production (20-30%) was used in tropical disease control. In 1946 it was established a regular system of DDT applications in Amazon houses. Its use became common in malaria vector control and other tropical diseases, like leishmaniasis. DDT began to be restricted after the discovery of its toxicity against wild animals, especially top predators and due to potential toxic effects against humans. The DDT restrictive measures in Brazil started in 19714. In 1985 DDT was prohibited for agricultural purposes, but continued to be use for Public Health Campaigns, under the responsibility of FUNASA, the Brazilian National Health Foundation. An investigation conducted by Vieira et al. detected {sigma}ODDT in soil, sediments and chicken eggs from an area seven and nine years after its last application for leishmaniasis vector control near the sprayed sites. Today DDT is recognized as one of the twelve Persistent Organic Pollutants - POPs. Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 20008 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme9 have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3}mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}DDT contaminated fish, accomplished by

  17. [Causes of drinking-water contamination in rain-fed cisterns in three villages in Ramallah and Al-Bireh District, Palestine].

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Orabi, Moammar

    2004-05-01

    We studied the biological characteristics of drinking-water in three villages in Ramallah and al-Bireh district, by testing the total coliforms. Water samples were collected from rain-fed cisterns between October and November 2001. The results show that 87% of tested samples of drinking-water were highly contaminated and in need of coagulation, filtration and disinfection based on the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking-water, and 10.5% had low contamination and were in need of treatment by disinfection only. Only 2.5% of the tested samples were not contaminated and were suitable for drinking without treatment. The main cause of drinking-water con tamination was the presence of cesspits, wastewater and solid waste dumping sites near the cisterns.

  18. Occurrence and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants in edible fish species collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Holmes, M; Rose, M; Zhihua, L; Huang, X; Smith, F; Panton, S; Marshall, L

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated. Sub-sets of samples (50-75) were also analysed for emerging contaminants: polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs and PXBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Contaminant occurrence varied with species and location, but all measured contaminants were detected, with sprats, sea bass, sardines, mackerel, and herring showing higher tissue concentrations. The concentrations of the different contaminants in the various samples were mapped utilising the GPS coordinate data of the capture locations to visualise spatial distribution levels. In terms of catch location, fish sampled from the coasts of southern Britain, north-western France and the Irish Sea appeared to contain proportionately higher levels of some contaminants - e.g. samples from the Irish Sea tended to show higher PCN concentrations, whereas higher levels of PCBs were observed in some fish sampled off the coasts of northern France. Similarly, samples of mullet from the southeast coast of UK showed much higher concentrations of BDE-99 than the other regions. In terms of occurrence trends, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations show a modest decline over the last decade but where limited background data is available for emerging

  19. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  20. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies

  1. Screening for dioxin contamination in fish oil by PARAFAC and N-PLSR analysis of fluorescence landscapes

    Kjær Pedersen, D.; Munck, L.; Balling Engelsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of fish oils demonstrates that fluorescence excitation-emission landscapes evaluated by 3-way chemometric methods may be a candidate for an inexpensive screening method to indicate the level of contamination by dioxins and PCB’s which are normally analysed with expensive...

  2. Prioritization of contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment plant discharges using chemical: Gene interactions in caged fish

    We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene expression changes in exposed fish. Fathead minnows were deployed in cages for 2, 4, or 8 days at three locations near two ...

  3. Radioactive contamination of some important fish species in fish ponds and natural waters with special attention to 90Sr radioisotope accumulation Pt. 1

    Kantor, D.; Szentjobi, O.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive contamination accumulated in the organs and bones of fishes, a major protein source for mankind, depends on the radioactive contamination of waters and aquatic vegetation. In addition to the activity per gram of water, K, Ca, and chloride contents of waters and oxygen consumption were studied, since radioactivity and radioactive material enrichment in natural waters are the consequence of complex geological and physico-chemical processes. The origin of the differences in radioactivity of rivers, lakes and fish ponds is tentatively explained from the results of analytical and radiometric measurements of waters. Results of similar investigations on aquatic and coastal vegetation of these waters cannot be explained in a simple way because the answer is uncertain due to the compositional differences of plant specimens and the sampling in changing seasons. Therefore, additional investigations are proposed. (P.J.)

  4. Application of Entropy and Fractal Dimension Analyses to the Pattern Recognition of Contaminated Fish Responses in Aquaculture

    Harkaitz Eguiraun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to develop a non-invasive methodology for image acquisition, processing and nonlinear trajectory analysis of the collective fish response to a stochastic event. Object detection and motion estimation were performed by an optical flow algorithm in order to detect moving fish and simultaneously eliminate background, noise and artifacts. The Entropy and the Fractal Dimension (FD of the trajectory followed by the centroids of the groups of fish were calculated using Shannon and permutation Entropy and the Katz, Higuchi and Katz-Castiglioni’s FD algorithms respectively. The methodology was tested on three case groups of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, two of which were similar (C1 control and C2 tagged fish and very different from the third (C3, tagged fish submerged in methylmercury contaminated water. The results indicate that Shannon entropy and Katz-Castiglioni were the most sensitive algorithms and proved to be promising tools for the non-invasive identification and quantification of differences in fish responses. In conclusion, we believe that this methodology has the potential to be embedded in online/real time architecture for contaminant monitoring programs in the aquaculture industry.

  5. Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to meet the water quality criterion in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams.

    Mathews, Teresa J; Southworth, George; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Ketelle, Richard H; Valentine, Charles; Gregory, Scott

    2013-01-15

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EF) and White Oak Creek (WC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in East Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EF by 85% (from >1600 ng/L to Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Recommended Water Quality Criteria (NRWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WC are an order of magnitude lower than in EF. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations (fish fillet concentrations in WC have also been above the NRWQC, making the aqueous Hg remediation goal of 200 ng/L in EF seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EF and in other point-source contaminated streams. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish.

    Letcher, Robert J; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Dietz, Rune; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Jørgensen, Even H; Sonne, Christian; Verreault, Jonathan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2010-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) encompass an array of anthropogenic organic and elemental substances and their degradation and metabolic byproducts that have been found in the tissues of exposed animals, especially POPs categorized as organohalogen contaminants (OHCs). OHCs have been of concern in the circumpolar arctic for decades. For example, as a consequence of bioaccumulation and in some cases biomagnification of legacy (e.g., chlorinated PCBs, DDTs and CHLs) and emerging (e.g., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA) found in Arctic biota and humans. Of high concern are the potential biological effects of these contaminants in exposed Arctic wildlife and fish. As concluded in the last review in 2004 for the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) on the effects of POPs in Arctic wildlife, prior to 1997, biological effects data were minimal and insufficient at any level of biological organization. The present review summarizes recent studies on biological effects in relation to OHC exposure, and attempts to assess known tissue/body compartment concentration data in the context of possible threshold levels of effects to evaluate the risks. This review concentrates mainly on post-2002, new OHC effects data in Arctic wildlife and fish, and is largely based on recently available effects data for populations of several top trophic level species, including seabirds (e.g., glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), polar (Arctic) fox (Vulpes lagopus), and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), as well as semi-captive studies on sled dogs (Canis familiaris). Regardless, there remains a dearth of data on true contaminant exposure, cause-effect relationships with respect to these contaminant exposures in Arctic wildlife and fish. Indications of exposure effects are largely

  7. Performance and lipid profiles of native chickens fed diet containing skipjack fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory

    Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.

  8. Performance, carcass traits, muscle fatty acid composition and meat sensory properties of male Mahabadi goat kids fed palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil.

    Najafi, M H; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Mohammadi, H; Hopkins, D L; Ponnampalam, E N

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effect of palm, soybean or fish oils on the performance, muscle fatty acid composition and meat quality of goat kids. Twenty-four male Mahabadi kids (BW=19.4±1.2 kg) were divided into three groups according to liveweight and randomly allocated to one of three diets. Animals were fed ad libitum for 84 days. Different dietary fat sources had no effect on performance and/or carcass quality attributes. The soybean oil diet decreased 16:0 and 18:0 concentrations and increased 18:2 and 18:3 and the ratio of PUFA/SFA in the muscle compared with other treatments. Fish oil feeding increased 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 concentrations and decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 in the muscle. The results demonstrate that the use of fish oil is a nutritional strategy to improve the health claimable long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content and n-6/n-3 ratio in goat meat without changing the sensory properties or colour of meat. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends.

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-07-10

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  10. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends

    Noemi Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docoxahexaenoic (DHA acids. However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6% on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC, showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  11. Direct-fed microbials in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima or raised on Clostridium spp.-contaminated used litter

    Dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) influence the composition of gut microbiota and enhance gut health in broiler chickens. Increasing scientific data have been gathered to show that gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of the immune system and the maintenance of homeostasis wi...

  12. The development of radioactive contamination of the North Sea fish and in the lower course of the rivers Elbe and Weser

    Feldt, W.; Kanisch, G.

    1985-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive waste water from radwaste treatment plants in England and in France has led to an increase in contamination of North Sea fish. In 1982, following water measurements, fish were caught in many places in the North Sea. The comparison similar measurements carried out in 1965 proves that in 1982 the contamination of North Sea fish with Cs-137 had increased by a factor of about 3. Subsequent developments of contamination of several kind of fish until 1984 are shown and the radiation exposure of the population from eating shrimps, mussels and fish is estimated. The radionuclides Cs-137, Ru-106 and Co-60 can be used to show to what extent the lower course of the rivers Elbe and Weser are affected by North Sea contamination, in particular by discharges from La Hague. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: Contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective

    Taylor, David L.; Kutil, Nicholas J.; Malek, Anna J.; Collie, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (L. ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ~ winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis (mean δ15N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted δ15N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (δ15N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to δ15N and carbon (δ13C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and < 2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely affect human health, whereas skates present minimal risk. PMID

  14. A latex agglutination test for the field determination of abnormal vitellogenin production in male fishes contaminated by estrogen mimics

    Magalhaes, Ilizabete; Pihan, Jean-Claude; Falla, Jairo

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen mimics are pollutants present in the aquatic environment. These compounds induce abnormalities in the reproductive system of male fishes, which lead to a total or partial male feminization, or to their demasculinization. Ultimately, these alterations could lead to a disappearance of the total contaminated fish population. Moreover, these toxic substances possess the capacity to mimic endogenous estrogens and to induce the abnormal production of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fishes. The purpose of this research was to develop an easy, specific, cheap and fast method for diagnosing the contamination of male fishes by estrogen mimics, using VTG as biomarker. The selected method is based on a reverse latex agglutination test (rLAT), developed with monoclonal antibodies specific of this biomarker. The development of this VTG-rLAT has involved, firstly, the purification of carp VTG to produce monoclonal antibodies, specifics of this protein. One of these antibodies was selected to recover latex particles (diameter: 1 μm). Finally, the immunoreactivity of the VTG-rLAT was verified with different fish plasma samples from males treated with 17β-estradiol and non-treated males or females in vitellogenesis

  15. Long lasting fish contamination with 90Sr of Ignalina NPP water cooling basin

    Dusauskiene-Duz, R.; Gudeliene, I.

    2003-01-01

    Between the nourishment chains in hydro ecosystem the main role have chain water-fish-man, because amount of 90 Sr in fish muscle is limited. 90 Sr accumulation and distribution between the fish organs and tissues was studied. It was found that the main way of 90 Sr enter to the Ignalina NPP water cooling basin fish is adsorption processes which is more active than that of absorption. Established regularities of distribution between the fish organs and tissues, which depends on the fish nourishment type and their species. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles increase from spring to autumn: in Rutilus rutilus - 8, Abramis brama - 6, Perca fluviatilis - 2,7 and Esox lucius - 22,3 times. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles is 24 times lower than permissible' standard. It was determined that 90 Sr activity in fish gonads is 2 times higher than that in muscles and depends on fish species. (author)

  16. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in healthy volunteers fed various doses of fish oil for 1 year.

    Blok, W.K.L.; Deslypere, J.P.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Ven-Jongekrijg, van der J.; Hectors, M.P.C.; Meer, van der J.W.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil alleviates inflammation in various chronic inflammatory disease states. Reductions in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been seen in humans

  17. Multi-metal contamination with uranium trend impact on aquatic environment and consequences for fish immune system and adaptive responses

    Le Guernic, A.; Gagnaire, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO (France); Sanchez, W. [Institut national de l' environnement industriel et des risques - INERIS (France); Betoulle, S. [Champagne Ardenne University (France)

    2014-07-01

    Human activities have conducted to an increase of concentrations of various metals in aquatic ecosystems, including uranium. Its extraction and use have been rapidly magnified because of its role in the nuclear fuel cycle. These activities have led to high concentrations of uranium in the aquatic environment and thus a potential risk to exposed organisms, including fish. Consequences can be observed through metabolic and physiological responses, called biomarkers. Some biomarkers are interesting in order to evaluate the effects of metal contamination, among other immunotoxicity markers, antioxidant defenses and genotoxicity. The aims of this study are: i) to investigate the effects of a multi-metal contamination on a fish, the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and ii) to observe the adaptive capacity of fish due to a combination of stress (chemical stress and biological stress). To meet the first objective, six water bodies (ponds and lakes) located in two departments (Cantal and Haute-Vienne, France) were chosen according to their proximity to old uranium mines and to their levels of metal contamination related to chemical processes appeared during extraction. 240 three-spined sticklebacks were caged for 28 days in the six selected sites. A battery of biomarkers was measured in fish sampled after 14 and 28 of caging. The results for the Haute-Vienne department showed that caged fish in the pond with the highest uranium concentration (20 μg.L{sup -1}) presented the most DNA damage after 14 days of caging. Leukocyte phagocytosis (marker of immunotoxicity) of caged fish in this pond was lower at 14 days and greater at 28 days compared to other ponds without uranium. The multi-metal contamination negatively affected other parameters such as the condition index, oxidative activity, viability of lysosomal membrane and leukocytes distribution. In order to study the response of fish to a combined stress (chemical + biological) (objective ii), a second

  18. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  19. Effect of three mycotoxin adsorbents on growth performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed.

    Liu, Y L; Meng, G Q; Wang, H R; Zhu, H L; Hou, Y Q; Wang, W J; Ding, B Y

    2011-04-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of an esterified glucomannan (EGM), a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and a compound mycotoxin adsorbent (CMA) on performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed. Mould-contaminated diets were prepared by replacing half of the non-contaminated maize in the basal diets with mould-contaminated maize, which contained 450·6 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1, 68·4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A and 320·5 µg/kg of T-2 toxin. 2. The mould-contaminated diet significantly decreased body weight gain (BWG) between 10 and 21 d, feed intake (FI) between 35 and 42 d, the apparent retention of crude lipid and phosphorus, and the lightness (L*) value of breast and thigh muscle. It also significantly increased the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) value in breast muscle and the b* value in thigh muscle. 3. The addition of 0·2% HSCAS significantly increased FI between 35 and 42 d and the apparent retention of phosphorus. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly improved BWG from 10 to 21 d, and increased FI from 35 to 42 d and from 10 to 42 d. CMA also significantly increased the apparent retention of crude lipid, crude protein, ash and phosphorus. All three mycotoxin-adsorbent treatments significantly improved the L* values of breast and thigh muscle when compared with the mould-contaminated group. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly decreased b* value and improved tenderness in thigh muscle. 0·05% EGM significantly decreased b* value of thigh muscle compared to mould-contaminated group. 4. The results indicated that mycotoxins in contaminated feed retard growth, nutrient retention and meat quality, whereas the addition of 0·05% EGM, 0·2% HSCAS or 0·1% CMA prevents the adverse effects of mycotoxins to varying extents, with 0·1% CMA being the most effective adsorbent treatment.

  20. Histological Lesions, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and T Cell Subsets Changes of Spleen in Chicken Fed Aflatoxin-contaminated Corn

    Xi Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen.

  1. Assessment of the genotoxic potential of contaminated estuarine sediments in fish peripheral blood: Laboratory versus in situ studies

    Costa, Pedro M.; Neuparth, Teresa S.; Caeiro, Sandra; Lobo, Jorge; Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M.; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; Angel DelValls, T.; Costa, Maria H.

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile Senegalese soles (Solea senegalensis) were exposed to estuarine sediments through 28-day laboratory and in situ (field) bioassays. The sediments, collected from three distinct sites (a reference plus two contaminated) of the Sado Estuary (W Portugal) were characterized for total organic matter, redox potential, fine fraction and for the levels of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichloro diphenyl tricholoethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs). Genotoxicity was determined in whole peripheral blood by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or 'comet') assay and by scoring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA). Analysis was complemented with the determination of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) protocol and cell type sorting. The results showed that exposure to contaminated sediments induced DNA fragmentation and clastogenesis. Still, laboratory exposure to the most contaminated sediment revealed a possible antagonistic effect between metallic and organic contaminants that might have been enhanced by increased bioavailability. The laboratory assay caused a more pronounced increase in ENA whereas a very significant increase in DNA fragmentation was observed in field-tested fish exposed to the reference sediment, which is likely linked to increased lipid peroxidation that probably occurred due to impaired access to food. Influence of natural pathogens was ruled out by unaltered leukocyte counts. The statistical integration of data correlated lipid peroxidation with biological variables such as fish length and weight, whereas the genotoxicity biomarkers were more correlated to sediment contamination. It was demonstrated that laboratory and field bioassays for the risk assessment of sediment contamination may yield different genotoxicity profiles although both provided results that are in overall accordance with sediment

  2. Assessment of the genotoxic potential of contaminated estuarine sediments in fish peripheral blood: Laboratory versus in situ studies

    Costa, Pedro M., E-mail: pmcosta@fct.unl.pt [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Neuparth, Teresa S. [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Caeiro, Sandra [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Aberta, Rua da Escola Politecnica, 141, 1269-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lobo, Jorge [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M.; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos [IPIMAR-INRB, Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Angel DelValls, T. [UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop Chair-Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Costa, Maria H. [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Juvenile Senegalese soles (Solea senegalensis) were exposed to estuarine sediments through 28-day laboratory and in situ (field) bioassays. The sediments, collected from three distinct sites (a reference plus two contaminated) of the Sado Estuary (W Portugal) were characterized for total organic matter, redox potential, fine fraction and for the levels of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichloro diphenyl tricholoethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs). Genotoxicity was determined in whole peripheral blood by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or 'comet') assay and by scoring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA). Analysis was complemented with the determination of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) protocol and cell type sorting. The results showed that exposure to contaminated sediments induced DNA fragmentation and clastogenesis. Still, laboratory exposure to the most contaminated sediment revealed a possible antagonistic effect between metallic and organic contaminants that might have been enhanced by increased bioavailability. The laboratory assay caused a more pronounced increase in ENA whereas a very significant increase in DNA fragmentation was observed in field-tested fish exposed to the reference sediment, which is likely linked to increased lipid peroxidation that probably occurred due to impaired access to food. Influence of natural pathogens was ruled out by unaltered leukocyte counts. The statistical integration of data correlated lipid peroxidation with biological variables such as fish length and weight, whereas the genotoxicity biomarkers were more correlated to sediment contamination. It was demonstrated that laboratory and field bioassays for the risk assessment of sediment contamination may yield different genotoxicity profiles although both provided results that are in overall accordance with

  3. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  4. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema, common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B, and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of these contaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of these species did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematic monitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  5. The effect of increasing levels of fish oil-containing structured triglycerides on protein metabolism in parenterally fed rats stressed by burn plus endotoxin.

    Gollaher, C J; Fechner, K; Karlstad, M; Babayan, V K; Bistrian, B R

    1993-01-01

    This report investigates the effect of various levels of medium-chain/fish oil structured triglycerides on protein and energy metabolism in hypermetabolic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (192 to 226 g) were continuously infused with isovolemic diets that provided 200 kcal/kg per day and 2 g of amino acid nitrogen per kilogram per day. The percentage of nonnitrogen calories as structured triglyceride was varied: no fat, 5%, 15%, or 30%. A 30% long-chain triglyceride diet was also provided as a control to compare the protein-sparing abilities of these two types of fat. Nitrogen excretion, plasma albumin, plasma triglycerides, and whole-body and liver and muscle protein kinetics were determined after 3 days of feeding. Whole-body protein breakdown, flux, and oxidation were similar in all groups. The 15% structured triglyceride diet maximized whole-body protein synthesis (p structured triglyceride (p triglycerides were markedly elevated in the 30% structured triglyceride-fed rats. The 30% structured triglyceride diet maintained plasma albumin levels better than those diets containing no fat, 5% medium-chain triglyceride/fish oil structured triglyceride, or 30% long-chain triglycerides. Nitrogen excretion was lower in animals receiving 30% of nonnitrogen calories as a structured triglyceride than in those receiving 30% as long-chain triglycerides, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = .1). These data suggest that protein metabolism is optimized when structured triglyceride is provided at relatively low dietary fat intakes.

  6. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic. [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Zainal A. Muchlisin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg-1 (control, 5 ml kg-1, 10 ml kg-1 and 15 ml kg-1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic to 10 ml kg-1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg-1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg-1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg-1 of feed.

  7. Lake fish as the main contributor of internal dose to lakeshore residents in the Chernobyl contaminated area

    Travnikova, I.G.; Bazjukin, A.N.; Bruk, G.Ja.; Shutov, V.N.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Mehli, H.; Strand, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two field expeditions in 1996 studied 137 Cs intake patterns and its content in the bodies of adult residents from the village Kozhany in the Bryansk region, Russia, located on the shore of a drainless peat lake in an area subjected to significant radioactive contamination after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The 137 Cs contents in lake water and fish were two orders of magnitude greater than in local rivers and flow-through lakes, 10 years after Chernobyl radioactive contamination, and remain stable. The 137 Cs content in lake fish and a mixture of forest mushrooms was between approximately 10-20 kBq/kg, which exceeded the temporary Russian permissible levels for these products by a factor of 20-40. Consumption of lake fish gave the main contribution to internal doses (40-50%) for Kozhany village inhabitants Simple countermeasures, such as Prussian blue doses for dairy cows and pre-boiling mushrooms and fish before cooking, halved the 137 Cs internal dose to inhabitants, even 10 years after the radioactive fallout

  8. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  9. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were

  10. Milk fat depression in dairy ewes fed fish oil: Might differences in rumen biohydrogenation, fermentation, or bacterial community explain the individual variation?

    Frutos, P; Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Hervás, G

    2018-07-01

    more abundant in RESPON+. Overall, the results suggest that individual variation in MFD severity in dairy ewes fed fish oil cannot be fully explained by differences in the processes of rumen biohydrogenation and fermentation or in the bacterial community, and further research would be necessary to elucidate the large variability in the responsiveness to MFD-inducing marine lipids. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently

  12. Trace contaminant determination in fish scale by laser-ablation technique

    Lee, I.; Coutant, C.C.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation on rings of fish scale has been used to analyze the historical accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in striped bass in the Watts Bar Reservoir. Rings on a fish scale grow in a pattern that forms a record of the fish's chemical intake. In conjunction with the migration patterns of fish monitored by ecologists, relative PCB concentrations in the seasonal rings of fish scale can be used to study the PCB distribution in the reservoir. In this study, a tightly-focused laser beam from a XeCl excimer laser was used to ablate and ionize a small portion of a fish scale placed in a vacuum chamber. The ions were identified and quantified by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Studies of this type can provide valuable information for the Department of Energy (DOE) off-site clean-up efforts as well as identifying the impacts of other sources to local aquatic populations

  13. Transcriptomic analyses in a benthic fish exposed to contaminated estuarine sediments through laboratory and in situ bioassays.

    Costa, Pedro M; Miguel, Célia; Caeiro, Sandra; Lobo, Jorge; Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T A; Costa, Maria H

    2011-11-01

    The transcription of contaminant response-related genes was investigated in juvenile Senegalese soles exposed to sediments from three distinct sites (a reference plus two contaminated) of a Portuguese estuary (the Sado, W Portugal) through simultaneous 28-day laboratory and in situ bioassays. Transcription of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), metallothionein 1 (MT1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), caspase 3 (CASP3) and 90 kDa heat-shock protein alpha (HSP90AA) was surveyed in the liver by real-time PCR. CASP3 transcription analysis was complemented by surveying apoptosis through the TUNEL reaction. After 14 days of exposure, relative transcription was either reduced or decreased in fish exposed to the contaminated sediments, revealing a disturbance stress phase during which animals failed to respond to insult. After 28 days of exposure all genes' transcription responded to contamination but laboratory and in situ assays depicted distinct patterns of regulation. Although sediments revealed a combination of organic and inorganic toxicants, transcription of the CYP1A gene was consistently correlated to organic contaminants. Metallothionein regulation was found correlated to metallic and organic xenobiotic contamination in the laboratory and in situ, respectively. The transcription of oxidative stress-related genes can be a good indicator of general stress but caution is mandatory when interpreting the results since regulation may be influenced by multiple factors. As for MT1, HSP90 up-regulation has potential to be a good indicator for total contamination, as well as the CASP3 gene, even though hepatocyte apoptosis depicted values inconsistent with sediment contamination, showing that programmed cell death did not directly depend on caspase transcription alone.

  14. An early approach for the evaluation of repair processes in fish after exposure to sediment contaminated by an oil spill.

    Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel

    2008-12-01

    A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future.

  15. Habitat use and trophic position effects on contaminant bioaccumulation in fish indicated by stable isotope composition

    The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between fish tissue stable isotope composition and total mercury or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in a Great Lakes coastal food web. We sampled two resident fishes, Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) and Bl...

  16. Analysis of lubricant oil contamination and degradation and wear of a biogas-fed otto cycle engine

    Rovian Bertinatto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of biodigesters for the treatment of waste on farms and the use of the biogas generated in the production of energy have highlighted the need for knowing the influence of this fuel on internal combustion engines. This study aimed to analyze the influence of filtrated biogas on lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as on engine wear and corrosion. Lubricant oil samples were collected every 75 engine operating hours (EOH and then correlated between each other and with a sample of new oil, determining the elements present in the biogas that contribute to lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as lubricant oil performance in the course of EOH and engine wear. The results demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide affects the performance of the lubricant oil and engine wear. Among the metals, we observed that the copper concentration exceeded the maximum limit recommended in the literature. As for the additives, the variation in concentrations of magnesium impacted on lubricant performance. By monitoring lubricant oil quality were able to extend the engine oil change interval of this study by 50%, what resulted in a savings of 33.3% in the cost of lubricant per hour worked.

  17. Diversity of phytoplankton in some domestic wastewater-fed urban fish pond ecosystems of the Chota Nagpur Plateau in Bankura, India

    Das, Debjyoti; Pathak, Arabinda; Pal, Sudin

    2018-06-01

    The present limnological investigation is conducted to study the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and five important physicochemical factors in urban wastewater-fed seven fish ponds of Chota Nagpur Plateau area. A total number of 43 phytoplankton taxa representing four classes, namely Cyanophyceae (7), Chlorophyceae (29), Bacillariophyceae (5) and Euglenophyceae (2), are thriving in these ponds which may suggest that different nutrient-rich wastewater supports the diversity and abundance of the phytoplankton. Different values of diversity indices, results of post hoc analysis and rarefaction curve are depicted spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance and physicochemical factors. From the Principal Component Analysis, out of 43 phytoplankton species, 23 important species are extracted. The canonical correspondence analysis presents that most of the phytoplankton species densities are associated with higher values of the physicochemical variables in these ponds. Correspondingly, in the present study, Algal Genus Pollution Index (AGPI) is employed to study the water quality of seven sites. From the AGPI score, it is revealed that Site 4 has probable high organic pollution and Site 2 and Site 3 have moderate organic pollution. Therefore, long-term intensive studies and proper management are necessary to protect these ponds toward eutrophication and degradation, because these ponds not only act as a safeguard of livelihoods but also contribute significantly at local level food and water security and economic prosperity.

  18. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  19. Oxidative stress biomarkers and aggressive behavior in fish exposed to aquatic cadmium contamination

    Jeane A. Almeida

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the possible link between cadmium exposure, hepatic markers of oxidative stress and aggressive behavior in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were first exposed to 0.75 mg/L CdCl2 for 15 days (12 isolated fish for each group and afterward a behavioral test was performed. Fish from the control and cadmium-exposed groups were paired for 1 h (6 pairs of fish per group for determination of aggressiveness parameters. Immediately after the behavioral test, the animals were sacrificed and the liver was used to determine biochemical parameters. Cadmium decreased aggression in Nile tilapia. Subordinate animals exposed to cadmium showed decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity compared to dominant ones. No alterations were observed in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase Se-GSH-P and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, but total superoxide dismutase activity was increased in subordinate animals exposed to cadmium compared to subordinate control. Catalase activity was increased in cadmium-exposed fish. Lipoperoxide concentrations also increased in cadmium exposed fish indicating that cadmium toxicity may affect oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia. Social stress induced lipoperoxidation in Nile tilapia, and subordinate animals exposed to cadmium responded with lower activities of liver antioxidant enzymes compared to dominant fish. The present study shows that cadmium exposure is capable of inducing changes in the social status and oxidative stress parameters in this species.

  20. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in three commercial fish species in the Persian Gulf.

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Hassanaghaei, Mina; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Soltanian, Siyavash; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmad Reza; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Five heavy metals/metalloids and related potential health risks were investigated in three commercially important fish species (Anodontostoma chacunda, Belangerii, and Cynoglossurs arel) in Musa Estuary and Mahshahr Harbour of the Persian Gulf. A total of 116 fish samples were collected, and their liver and muscle organs were separately analyzed using ICP-MS. Results revealed that studied metals concentrations (with some exceptions) varied among sampling stations, fish species and their organs. Human health risk is evaluated using different indices. The results indicated that arsenic and mercury are the most hazardous elements. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for the metals exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for all studied fish species. Also, target risk (TR) of arsenic indicated that consumption over a long period of time may result in a carcinogenic effect. The results are expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming food products grown in particular areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Contaminants in fish tissue from US lakes and reservoirs: A national probabilistic study

    An unequal probability design was used to develop national estimates for 268 persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals in fish tissue from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake). Predator (fillet) ...

  2. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National Fish...

  3. Towards Safer Seafood: What Indonesian Law Should “Say” about Mercury-Contaminated Fish

    Margaretha Quina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a popular culinary dish in Indonesian culture and a major economic resource on which many people depend their livelihood. However, with severe pollution in Indonesian water, including uncontrolled mercury pollution which persists in the food chain and eventually gets into humans’ body as the top predator, fish safety is particularly worrying – especially taking into account the frequency of average Indonesians’ consumption of fish. In various jurisdictions, the management tool used by lawmakers and regulators with regard to this issue is information disclosure, or known as “fish advisory warning,” to cover the failure of command and control. This paper analyses whether Indonesian laws have provided the mandate or authority to issue fish advisory warning under Fishery Law, Food Law, Environmental Protection and Management Law, and Public Information Disclosure Law. It concluded that Indonesian law implies a statutory mandate for the government to issue fish advisory warning, at least in a situation involving the threat to general life – not specifically through the Fishery Law, Food Law, or EPML, but through PIDL’s immediate information mandate.  

  4. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Rio Grande and its U.S. tributaries: spatial and temporal trends.

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Dethloff, Gail M; Bartish, Timothy M; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2005-11-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites on rivers of the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998 to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Rio Grande and on the Arroyo Colorado and Pecos River in Texas (TX), New Mexico (NM), and Colorado. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were the targeted species. Fish were examined in the field for internal and external visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Whole fish from each station were composited by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods, and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from lower RGB stations contained greater concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by a general gradient of residue concentrations and biomarker responses. A minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted in fish from the upper RGB. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 microg/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from the Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM, a condition documented in previous studies. Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations were greatest in fish from sites in the central RGB; Se concentrations in fish from the Pecos River at Red Bluff Lake, TX and from the Rio Grande at Langtry, TX and Amistad International Reservoir, TX exceeded

  5. Trace metal contamination in estuarine fishes from Vitória Bay, ES, Brazil

    Jean-Christophe Joyeux

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscular tissue from wild-caught mullet (Mugil spp. and snook (Centropomus spp. was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry to determine muscle contamination levels for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc and evaluate risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. Fishes were captured by subsistence fishermen in Vitória Bay, a Brazilian tropical estuary with numerous outfalls of untreated industrial and residential sewage. Based on the premisses that subsistence fisherman and local consumer show weak (culinary or other preferences within the taxa studied, analyses were conducted and results are reported for genera. Snook cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations were positively correlated with size or weight. Mullet chromium concentration decreased with size. Cadmium and lead were higher and zinc lower in mullet than in snook. Summer cadmium and lead concentrations were higher than in winter. Chromium presented concentrations consistently over the legal Brazilian limit for seafood. However, the greatest health concern was probably related to lead concentration, especially in respect to consumption by young children.Tecidos musculares de tainhas (Mugil sp. e robalos (Centropomus sp. foram analisados por espectrometria de absorção atômica para determinar as concentrações dos metais cádmio, cromo, cobre, chumbo e zinco no músculo e avaliar os riscos a saúde humana resultante do consumo do pescado. Todos os indivíduos foram capturados por pescadores de subsistência na Baía de Vitória, um estuário brasileiro com numerosos lançamentos de efluentes não tratados de origem doméstica e industrial. Baseado na presunção que pescador de subsistência e consumidor local mostram pouca preferência (culinária ou outra dentro de cada desses taxa, análises foram conduzidas, e resultados reportados, para gêneros em vez de espécies. Em robalos, as concentrações de cádmio, cromo, cobre e zinco aumentaram

  6. Organic contaminants in thermal plume resident brown trout

    Romberg, G.P.; Bourne, S.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to identify possible contaminants accumulated by thermal plume-resident fish in Lake Michigan. Brown trout were maintained in tanks receiving intake and discharge (less than or equal to 21 0 C) water from a power plant and were fed a diet of frozen alewife. Fish were sampled over a period of 127 days in order to estimate uptake rates and equilibrium levels for toxic organic and inorganic materials occurring in Lake Michigan fish and water. Experimental fish and natural samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of contaminants in various tissues and the corresponding pollutant levels in similar size brown trout from Lake Michigan. The quantitative analyses for the major organic contaminants are summarized. Without exception, the pyloric caecum of brown trout contained the highest concentration of lipids, PCB's, and chlorinated pesticides. Gill and kidney samples contained lower concentrations of contaminants than the caecum, while liver and muscle values were lowest

  7. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna.

  8. [Contamination characteristics of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in edible fish of Shanghai].

    Jiang, Guo; Chen, Lai-guo; He, Qiu-sheng; Meng, Xiang-zhou; Feng, Yong-bin; Huang, Yu-mei; Tang, Cai-ming

    2013-09-01

    According to the local habit of eating fish, in a total of 68 samples, 8 kinds of different trophic levels of edible fish collected in Shanghai were determined in terms of concentration and distribution profile of short chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCPs) in muscles to investigate the pollution status of SCCPs in edible fish from the Yangtze River Delta region. The results indicated that the concentrations (dw) of SCCPs in edible fish were in the range of 36-801 ng x g(-1). With the increase in carbon chain length, the concentration of SCCPs decreased. In addition, lower chlorinated (Cl6-Cl8) and shorter chain (Cl10, C11) congeners were the dominant chlorine and carbon homologues groups, respectively, contributing a total relative abundance of 61.46%-82.50% to the total abundance of SCCPs. The levels of SCCPs in fish of Shanghai were in the medium level worldwide, and the distribution pattern was in line with those of the domestic and foreign studies.

  9. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MERCURY-CONTAMINATED FISH AND ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Cropotova Janna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is an important part of human diet due to essential omega-3 fatty acids found naturally in this product. Many researchers from all over the world found that high mercury concentrations in the body reduced the heart-protective effects of the fatty acids in fish oils. People shouldn't be constrained by choosing between the health hazards related to toxins caused by industrial pollution and the nutritional benefits provided by consummation of essential fatty acids contained in oily fish. It is very important to find an alternative natural source of essential omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA to restore an optimal ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the human diet.

  11. Evolution study of contamination Russian Baltic fish by PCDD/F and WHO-PCB

    Shelepchikov, A.; Brodsky, E. [Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) (Russian Federation); Shenderyuk, V.; Baholdina, L. [Atlantic Research Inst. of Fish Industry and Oceanography, (AtlantNIRO) (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Baltic Sea is well known as the most polluted sea in the world, but its fish products have a significant role in diet of Baltic countries habitants. In Dioxin 2003 meeting we have present first results of analysis of Baltic fishes caught by Russian fisherman for market. The results confirmed a rather high level of pollution in the Baltic seafood by PCDD/Fs and have shown necessity of the further researches. Although PCDD/Fs profile in fisher's body is not consist unsteady and was formed under affection of various factors, it was obvious that essential path comes with PCB; also previously were found that WHO-TEQ{sub PCB} in seafood could exceed WHO-TEQ{sub PCDD/F} level. In given works we present results of the analysis of two freshwater species of fishes and updating research of former analyzed kinds, included of WHO-PCBs determination.

  12. Mercury in western North America: A synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wiener, James G.; Eckley, Chris S.; Willacker, James J.; Evers, David C.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Obrist, Daniel; Fleck, Jacob; Aiken, George R.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Webster, Jackson; Stewart, Robin; Davis, Jay; Alpers, Charles N.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Western North America is a region defined by extreme gradients in geomorphology and climate, which support a diverse array of ecological communities and natural resources. The region also has extreme gradients in mercury (Hg) contamination due to a broad distribution of inorganic Hg sources. These diverse Hg sources and a varied landscape create a unique and complex mosaic of ecological risk from Hg impairment associated with differential methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation. Understanding the landscape-scale variation in the magnitude and relative importance of processes associated with Hg transport, methylation, and MeHg bioaccumulation requires a multidisciplinary synthesis that transcends small-scale variability. The Western North America Mercury Synthesis compiled, analyzed, and interpreted spatial and temporal patterns and drivers of Hg and MeHg in air, soil, vegetation, sediments, fish, and wildlife across western North America. This collaboration evaluated the potential risk from Hg to fish, and wildlife health, human exposure, and examined resource management activities that influenced the risk of Hg contamination. This paper integrates the key information presented across the individual papers that comprise the synthesis. The compiled information indicates that Hg contamination is widespread, but heterogeneous, across western North America. The storage and transport of inorganic Hg across landscape gradients are largely regulated by climate and land-cover factors such as plant productivity and precipitation. Importantly, there was a striking lack of concordance between pools and sources of inorganic Hg, and MeHg in aquatic food webs. Additionally, water management had a widespread influence on MeHg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems, whereas mining impacts where relatively localized. These results highlight the decoupling of inorganic Hg sources with MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Together the findings indicate that developing

  13. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  14. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety. - Highlights: • Analyses of surface sediment and animal tissue samples from a tropical coastal system • Non-target screening enabled identification of a wide range of organic contaminants. • Comparison of contaminant patterns in surface sediments and animal tissue samples • Results illustrate compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. • Higher concentrations of all contaminants in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue

  15. Reducing organic contamination of shallow areas in brackish lagoons during rearing fish in cages in polyculture

    P. Shekk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the technology of the controlled rearing of marine fish remains one of the priority strategic trends of development of national mariculture. A study of the possibility of using polyculture for cage culture has a particular interest. Joint cultivation of several species of fish in the same cage, as practice of fish farming has demonstrated, does not have a tangible positive effect. At the same time, the use of cages of special design can provide significant additional fish products through the use of additional aquaculture objects. The ecological state of water areas, where the cages are located, is of great importance. High fish stocking density and the use of artificial feeds can serve as a source of powerful biogenic and organic pollution, which is especially important for shallow water areas with weak water exchange. The purpose of the study is to develop the methods for joint fish production in cage mariculture capable to provide high fish production and to weaken organic pollution of shallow water areas where cage farms are located. Methodology. The studies were conducted in 1999 and 2004. Cages of special design (internal 10 m3 and external 18.75 m3 installed in the brackish Shabolat Lagoon were used for rearing, steelhead trout, haarder, grass goby and round goby in polyculture. The standard aquaculture research methods were used. For express-analysis of environment hydrochemical parameters in cage location area the following devices were used: "ECOTEST-2000 T" (О2, NO2, NO3, NH4, CO2, phosphates, pH; termooksimetr "АJА-101М" (Т; О2; "pH meter-150 M; Refractometer "ATAGO-100" (salinity and water density. Findings. The results of marine fish cultivation in cages in polyculture in the shallow Shabolat lagoon are presented. It has been shown that joint cultivation of salmon, mullet and gobies in specially designed cages in shallow marine lagoons allows using artificial and natural feeds more fully and

  16. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levles in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined.There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  17. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levels in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined. There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  18. heavy metal contamination of clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish ...

    Adult Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) were purchased from Eleiyele Lake and Zartech fish farm in Ibadan. Water samples were also collected in February (dry season) and. June (rainy season), 2002. Gill, bone, intestine, muscle and water samples were analyzed for five metals: manganese, copper, zinc, iron, and ...

  19. The effect of Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, Fumonisin, and Moniliformin from contaminated moldy grains on aquaculture fish

    Fusarium spp. are fungi that invade agriculturally important grains such as corn and wheat, where they may produce mycotoxins that are harmful to the productivity and health of food animals such as swine, poultry, and aquacultural fish. Because corn and wheat are used for other industrial purposes ...

  20. Heavy metal contamination of water and fish in peri-urban dams ...

    Heavy metals were measured in water, sediment and fish in dams located downstream of effluent discharge zones in Bulawayo and were compared to those in a pristine upstream dam. Water conductivity indicated pollution of downstream dams. Levels of lead (0.13 – 0.28 ppm) and cadmium (0.02 – 0.06 ppm) in water from ...

  1. Histopathology of feral fish from a PCB-contaminated freshwater lake

    Koponen, Kari; Ritola, Ossi; Huuskonen, Sirpa E.; Lindstroem-Seppae, Pirjo [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Myers, Mark S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). National Marine Fisheries Service

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of chronic sublethal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on feral fish, using histopathology as an endpoint. Histopathological study of bream (Abramis brama) and asp (Aspius aspius) living in a PCB-polluted freshwater lake revealed abnormal cellular changes in the renal corpuscle of both species. Dilation of glomerular capillaries (DGC), mesangial edema (ME), an adhesion between visceral and parietal layers of Bowman's capsule (ABC), and filling of Bowman's space (FBS), were highly prevalent features in lake fish. The prevalence of each of these lesions was significantly lower, or totally absent in fish caught from reference locations. Cellular alterations in liver, gill, gonads, spleen, and intestine were all linked to seasonal changes. The results suggest that some of the observed histopathological changes in renal glomeruli, particularly DGC and ME, could possibly indicate a prolonged chemical stress caused by PCBs and related compounds. It is also possible that chronic PCB exposure may have suppressed and weakened the immuno systems of exposed fish making them more vulnerable to secondary parasitic infection.

  2. The determination of pesticide residues and contaminants in fish and rice. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear detection and analysis

    Lee, C.; Kim, Y.S.

    1975-03-01

    Neutron activation involving chemical procedures was used in order to present a reliable picture of the backgrounds of toxic elements such as Hg, As, Cd, Br, Cu and others in the biosphere. This report covers the analyses of reference kale samples, rice, fresh-water fish, marine fish, river water, fruits and farm products. Two results of Hg contents which were obtained by two independent methods indicated the difference in matrix effects depending on the type of samples, e.g., the standard reference kale of Bowen and fish showed the same effect while rice was different. Among fresh-water fish, snakeheads contained high Hg contents compared to other species. This could be attributed to their characteristics of feeding on fish. The analytical results of fish and waters of Han River show that the river is heavily contaminated with Hg and Cd of which sources are manifold and increase in number as the stream flows downward. Some species of marine fish which are expected to dwell on the sea beds or sea shores contained relatively high Hg and/or Cd contents compared to other species. Some interpretations of the analytical results were attempted with the object of pointing out the sources of the contamination, but this met some difficulties

  3. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan

    Nancy J. Brown-Peterson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia (Oreochromis spp. were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers.

  4. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan

    Sun, Peter Lin; Hawkins, William E.; Overstreet, Robin M.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.

    2009-01-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers. PMID:19742162

  5. Verifying Food Web Bioaccumulation Models by Tracking Fish Exposure and Contaminant Uptake

    2012-03-01

    remote dispatch of fish, so accepted procedures (CCAC, 1983; Lines et al. 2003; EFSA , 2004) will be incorporated into the design of the tracking and...Material selection and design will be made with an eye on biocompatibility to minimize any stress associated with inflammatory response. Safety and...Prototype Concept (Version 1 Tag) Squib inside capsule of dry reagent Membrane filled with KCl and heparin Cap Tracking, power, and timing module

  6. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  7. Nutrients and contaminants in tissues of five fish species obtained from Shanghai markets: Risk–benefit evaluation from human health perspectives

    Geng, Jing-Jing [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Li, Huan; Liu, Jin-Pin [Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yyang@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jin, Ze-Lin; Zhang, Yun-Ni; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Li-Qiao [Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China); Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zydu@bio.ecnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Environmental Health (LANEH), School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 200241 Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-01

    Shanghai is a Chinese megacity in the Yangtze River Delta area, one of the most polluted coastal areas in China. The inhabitants of Shanghai have very high aquatic product consumption rates. A risk–benefit assessment of the co-ingestion of fish nutrients and contaminants has not previously been performed for Shanghai residents. Samples of five farmed fish species (marine and freshwater) with different feeding habits were collected from Shanghai markets in winter and summer. Fatty acids, protein, mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes were measured in liver, abdominal fat, and dorsal, abdominal, and tail muscles from fish. Tolerable daily intakes and benefit–risk quotients were calculated to allow the benefits and risks of co-ingesting n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and contaminants to be assessed according to the cancer slope factors and reference doses of selected pollutants. All of the contaminant concentrations in the muscle tissues were much lower than the national maximum limits, but the livers generally contained high Hg concentrations, exceeding the regulatory limit. The organic pollutant and n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations correlated with the lipid contents of the fish tissues, and were higher in carnivorous marine fish than in omnivorous and herbivorous freshwater fish. The tolerable daily intakes, risk–benefit quotients, and current daily aquatic product intakes for residents of large Chinese cities indicated that the muscle tissues of most of the fish analyzed can be consumed regularly without significant contaminant-related risks to health. However, attention should be paid to the potential risks posed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large yellow croaker and Hg in tilapia. Based on the results of this study, we encourage people to consume equal portions of marine and freshwater fish. - Highlights: • Shanghai coast

  8. Nutrients and contaminants in tissues of five fish species obtained from Shanghai markets: Risk–benefit evaluation from human health perspectives

    Geng, Jing-Jing; Li, Huan; Liu, Jin-Pin; Yang, Yi; Jin, Ze-Lin; Zhang, Yun-Ni; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Li-Qiao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai is a Chinese megacity in the Yangtze River Delta area, one of the most polluted coastal areas in China. The inhabitants of Shanghai have very high aquatic product consumption rates. A risk–benefit assessment of the co-ingestion of fish nutrients and contaminants has not previously been performed for Shanghai residents. Samples of five farmed fish species (marine and freshwater) with different feeding habits were collected from Shanghai markets in winter and summer. Fatty acids, protein, mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes were measured in liver, abdominal fat, and dorsal, abdominal, and tail muscles from fish. Tolerable daily intakes and benefit–risk quotients were calculated to allow the benefits and risks of co-ingesting n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and contaminants to be assessed according to the cancer slope factors and reference doses of selected pollutants. All of the contaminant concentrations in the muscle tissues were much lower than the national maximum limits, but the livers generally contained high Hg concentrations, exceeding the regulatory limit. The organic pollutant and n − 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations correlated with the lipid contents of the fish tissues, and were higher in carnivorous marine fish than in omnivorous and herbivorous freshwater fish. The tolerable daily intakes, risk–benefit quotients, and current daily aquatic product intakes for residents of large Chinese cities indicated that the muscle tissues of most of the fish analyzed can be consumed regularly without significant contaminant-related risks to health. However, attention should be paid to the potential risks posed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large yellow croaker and Hg in tilapia. Based on the results of this study, we encourage people to consume equal portions of marine and freshwater fish. - Highlights: • Shanghai coast

  9. Solid-phase extraction clean-up of ciguatoxin-contaminated coral fish extracts for use in the mouse bioassay.

    Wong, Chun Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Kellie L H; Kam, Kai Man

    2009-02-01

    Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used for purifying ciguatoxin (CTX)-contaminated coral fish extracts, with the aim of removing extracted lipid but retaining optimal level of CTXs in the purified fractions. The CTX-containing fraction (target fraction) in fish ether extract was isolated and purified by eluting through a commercially available Florisil cartridge with hexane-acetone-methanol solvent mixtures of increasing polarity (hexane-acetone (4:1, v/v) < acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) < 100% methanol). Application of Florisil SPE using acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) condition facilitated the separation of 4.2 +/- 0.4 mg (mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM)) of purified target fraction from 20 mg ether extract with good retention of CTXs. The mouse bioassay was used to demonstrate that the average CTX recovery of the target fraction from CTX-spiked samples was 75.8% +/- 3.3%, which was significantly increased by 96.7% +/- 15% when compared with CTX recovery from ether extracts (44.8% +/- 5.2%) without performing SPE purification. Over 70% of non-target lipids were removed in which no CTX toxicity was found. Moreover, the target fractions of both CTX-spiked and naturally CTX-contaminated samples gave more prominent toxic responses of hypothermia and/or induced more rapid death of the mice. The use of acetone-methanol (7:3, v/v) condition in the elution could significantly improve overall recovery of CTXs, while minimizing the possible interferences of lipid matrix from co-extractants on mice.

  10. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  11. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  12. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  13. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  14. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakata@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2005-02-01

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  15. The effects of 4-nonylphenol contamination on livers of Tilapia fish (Oreochromus spilurs in Jeddah

    El-jawaher Abdulla Bin-Dohaish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylphenol polyethoxylates is a group of estrogenic compounds. Natural or synthetic types of these compounds react with the endocrine system by binding hormone receptors, resulting in interference with their action, which is why they are called endocrine disrupting chemicals. Among their hydrolytic products are nonylphenols (NP, which are considered pollutants of aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathological alterations on liver tissue of fish exposed to these compounds for long durations, starting from beginning of life and during the period of sexual maturity. Tilapia fish were obtained from Abhur fish farms, reared in the laboratory in special basins, and divided into two groups. The first maternal group was untreated and their larvae were divided into three sub-groups: control; exposed to 15μg/L; and exposed to 30 μg/L. The second maternal group was divided into 2 sub-groups: with larvae exposed to 15μg/L; and with their larvae exposed to 30 μg/L. Larvae and mother exposed to different concentrations of NP (15 and 30 μg/L showed an increased accumulation of NP in both livers and muscles compared to the control group due to bioaccumulation. Tissue section examinations of the treated group (15 μg NP /L showed disruption of liver architecture, with lyses, loss of nuclei, necrosis, and fatty infiltration. The changes were more marked in tissues exposed to (30 μg NP /L. Although this pollution was not lethal, its effect may be reflected in vital activities and in the economy.

  16. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  17. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-01

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  18. Occurrence and Biological Fate of Persistent Organic Contaminants in Yellow Sea Fish

    Narayanan Kannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, namely, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlors, mirex and chlordane compounds were investigated in muscle and liver tissues of Yellow Sea croakers (Collichthys niveatus and Pseudosciaena crocea from 16 stations on the off shore waters of South Korea within the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME. The sum concentration (minimum-maximum - ng/g lipid wt. was: PCBs: non-detectable to 21; Pesticides non-detectable to 63. Among the 26 individual pesticide compounds measured in fishes, except 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TCBZ, all the other compounds were determined in almost in all samples. The levels in Yellow Sea croakers were similar to levels reported in the Baltic fish. The differential ratios of isomers/congeners in biota in comparison to the original commercial mixtures suggest possible metabolism by cytochrome P450 isozymes. The induction of such drug metabolizing enzymes suggests an ecotoxicological stress. Principle Component Analysis identifies ‘hot spots’ within the sampled area including the Korean off shore sewage dumpsite.

  19. Reductions in fish-community contamination following lowhead dam removal linked more to shifts in food-web structure than sediment pollution.

    Davis, Robert P; Sullivan, S Mažeika P; Stefanik, Kay C

    2017-12-01

    Recent increases in dam removals have prompted research on ecological and geomorphic river responses, yet contaminant dynamics following dam removals are poorly understood. We investigated changes in sediment concentrations and fish-community body burdens of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and chlorinated pesticides before and after two lowhead dam removals in the Scioto and Olentangy Rivers (Columbus, Ohio). These changes were then related to documented shifts in fish food-web structure. Seven study reaches were surveyed from 2011 to 2015, including controls, upstream and downstream of the previous dams, and upstream restored vs. unrestored. For most contaminants, fish-community body burdens declined following dam removal and converged across study reaches by the last year of the study in both rivers. Aldrin and dieldrin body burdens in the Olentangy River declined more rapidly in the upstream-restored vs. the upstream-unrestored reach, but were indistinguishable by year three post dam removal. No upstream-downstream differences were observed in body burdens in the Olentangy River, but aldrin and dieldrin body burdens were 138 and 148% higher, respectively, in downstream reaches than in upstream reaches of the Scioto River following dam removal. The strongest relationships between trophic position and body burdens were observed with PCBs and Se in the Scioto River, and with dieldrin in the Olentangy River. Food-chain length - a key measure of trophic structure - was only weakly related to aldrin body burdens, and unrelated to other contaminants. Overall, we demonstrate that lowhead dam removal may effectively reduce ecosystem contamination, largely via shifts in fish food-web dynamics versus sediment contaminant concentrations. This study presents some of the first findings documenting ecosystem contamination following dam removal and will be useful in informing future dam removals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site

    Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

  1. Radioactive material in the radiologically contaminated fishes caught in the Pacific Ocean in 1954

    Saiki, M; Okano, S; Mori, T

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivity of several samples of Coryphaena Hippyrus caught in the southern Pacific in May, 1954, after the atomic explosion at Bikini, was found, in decreasing order, in spleen, kidney, liver, pyloric ceca, heart, gill, intestine, gastric wall, ovary, testis, gastric content, red muscle, skin, vertebrae, and muscle. The red muscle of Neothunnus Macropterus showed 54.8 counts/min./0.20 g. activity on dry basis, the activity was decreased to 27.6 by soaking 25 g. muscle in 25 cc. water, and to 14.1 by soaking in 0.5% Na ethylenediaminetetraacetate solution. The radioactive substances in these fish tissues were found, upon analysis, to belong to the III group, particularly to III-B group. Examination of synchroscope patterns by scintillation counter indicated the presence of /sup 65/Zn among the radioactive substances. /sup 90/Sr was suggested to be present in very small amount.

  2. An androgenic agricultural contaminant impairs female reproductive behaviour in a freshwater fish.

    Minna Saaristo

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are a large group of environmental pollutants that can interfere with the endocrine system function of organisms at very low levels. One compound of great concern is trenbolone, which is widely used as a growth promoter in the cattle industry in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to test how short-term (21-day exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (measured concentration 6 ng/L affects reproductive behaviour and fin morphology in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki. The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with males inseminating females using their modified anal fin, the gonopodium, as an intromittent organ. Although the species has a coercive mating system, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. We found that females exposed to trenbolone approached males less and spent more time swimming away from males than non-exposed (control females. By contrast, we found no difference in the behaviour of exposed and non-exposed males. Furthermore, exposure did not affect the anal fin morphology of males or females. This is the first study to demonstrate that exposure to an androgenic EDC can impair female (but not male behaviour. Our study illustrates how anthropogenic contaminants can have sex-specific effects, and highlights the need to examine the behavioural responses of environmental contaminants in both sexes.

  3. The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Granby, Kit; Rainieri, Sandra; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Barranco, Alex; Marques, António; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2018-07-01

    When microplastics pollute fish habitats, it may be ingested by fish, thereby contaminating fish with sorbed contaminants. The present study investigates how combinations of halogenated contaminants and microplastics associated with feed are able to alter toxicokinetics in European seabass and affect the fish. Microplastic particles (2%) were added to the feed either with sorbed contaminants or as a mixture of clean microplastics and chemical contaminants, and compared to feed containing contaminants without microplastics. For the contaminated microplastic diet, the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in fish was significantly higher, increasing up to 40 days of accumulation and then reversing to values comparable to the other diets at the end of accumulation. The significant gene expression results of liver (cyp1a, il1β, gstα) after 40 days of exposure indicate that microplastics might indeed exacerbate the toxic effects (liver metabolism, immune system, oxidative stress) of some chemical contaminants sorbed to microplastics. Seabass quickly metabolised BDE99 to BDE47 by debromination, probably mediated by deiodinase enzymes, and unlike other contaminants, this metabolism was unaffected by the presence of microplastics. For the other PCBs and BFRs, the elimination coefficients were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with contaminants sorbed to microplastic compared to the other diets. The results indicate that microplastics affects liver detoxification and lipid distribution, both of which affect the concentration of contaminants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  5. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinateddibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema,common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetibabay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution GasChromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B,and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g wwand PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of thesecontaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of thesespecies did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematicmonitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  6. Recycle food wastes into high quality fish feeds for safe and quality fish production.

    Wong, Ming-Hung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Choi, Wai-Ming; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon

    2016-12-01

    The amount of food waste generated from modern societies is increasing, which has imposed a tremendous pressure on its treatment and disposal. Food waste should be treated as a valuable resource rather than waste, and turning it into fish feeds would be a viable alternative. This paper attempts to review the feasibility of using food waste to formulate feed pellets to culture a few freshwater fish species, such as grass carp, grey mullet, and tilapia, under polyculture mode (growing different species in the same pond). These species occupy different ecological niches, with different feeding modes (i.e., herbivorous, filter feeding, etc.), and therefore all the nutrients derived from the food waste could be efficiently recycled within the ecosystem. The problems facing environmental pollution and fish contamination; the past and present situation of inland fish culture (focusing on South China); upgrade of food waste based feed pellets by adding enzymes, vitamin-mineral premix, probiotics (yeast), prebiotics, and Chinese medicinal herbs into feeds; and potential health risks of fish cultivated by food waste based pellets are discussed, citing some local examples. It can be concluded that appropriate portions of different types of food waste could satisfy basic nutritional requirements of lower trophic level fish species such as grass carp and tilapia. Upgrading the fish pellets by adding different supplements mentioned above could further elevated the quality of feeds, leading to higher growth rates, and enhanced immunity of fish. Health risk assessments based on the major environmental contaminants (mercury, PAHs and DDTs) in fish flesh showed that fish fed food waste based pellets are safer for consumption, when compared with those fed commercial feed pellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical Resources for Fish and Shellfish Consumption

    Information on ways to develop local fish advisories, access national state and local fish advisories, obtain information on fish tissue contamination and fish tissue studies, and access information on fish consumption and human health.

  8. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Rio Grande and its U.S. tributaries: Spatial and temporal trends

    Schmitt, C.J.; Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Dethloff, G.M.; Bartish, T.M.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites on rivers of the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998 to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Rio Grande and on the Arroyo Colorado and Pecos River in Texas (TX), New Mexico (NM), and Colorado. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were the targeted species. Fish were examined in the field for internal and external visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute ponderal and organosomatic indices, and samples of tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Whole fish from each station were composited by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods, and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, fish from lower RGB stations contained greater concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and appeared to be less healthy than those from sites in the central and upper parts of the basin, as indicated by a general gradient of residue concentrations and biomarker responses. A minimal number of altered biomarkers and few or no elevated contaminant concentrations were noted in fish from the upper RGB. The exception was elevated concentrations [up to 0.46 ??g/g wet-weight (ww)] of total mercury (Hg) in predatory species from the Rio Grande at Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM, a condition documented in previous studies. Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations were greatest in fish from sites in the central RGB; Se concentrations in fish from the Pecos River at Red Bluff Lake, TX and from the Rio Grande at Langtry, TX and Amistad International Reservoir, TX exceeded published

  9. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  10. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  11. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  12. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Characterisation of the impacts of pre- and post- remedial contaminant loads from the Rum Jungle on riparian vegetation and fishes of the Finniss River system

    Jeffree, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The status of the riparian vegetation and fish biodiversity in the Finniss River (FR) system is compared before and after remediation at the Rum Jungle (RJ) mine site. Whereas observations recorded during pre-remedial field studies in 1974 indicate no obvious effects of mine effluents on the riparian vegetation in the FR, the impacts in the Eeast Branch were severe. The tolerance to Cu that has been measured in one fish species (Gale et al., submitted) suggests the possibility that the exposure of the fish community to contaminant loadings over more than four decades may have led to the development of tolerance that may also contribute to the ecological recovery that has been observed

  14. The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II, isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: one containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6 cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control. Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

  15. Assessment of metal contamination in the Hun River, China, and evaluation of the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei as potential biomonitors.

    Wu, Xing; Wang, Shaofeng; Chen, Hongxing; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hongwei; Gao, Mi; Bi, Ran; Klerks, Paul L; Wang, He; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2017-03-01

    The Hun River is a major tributary of the Liao River in the northeast area of China and provides drinking water for 23 million local residents. This study was designed to assess the severity of metal contamination in the Hun River and the potential use of indigenous organisms (the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei) as biomonitors of metal contamination. Water, sediment, and the native fish and snails were collected at four sampling sites that differed in their physicochemical characteristics and their contamination levels. The samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-MS. The results showed that although the overall potential ecological risks of the metals were low at our sampling sites, Cd posed a noteworthy ecological risk. Strong correlations were obtained between Cd concentrations in the organisms and in the environment. The results indicated that Z. platypus and R. swinhoei can be useful biomonitoring species for assessing Cd contamination. Biomonitoring with the snail may be most effective when focused on the gonad/digestive tissue (because of the high metal accumulation there), but further work is needed to confirm this.

  16. Assessment of Enterotoxin Production and Cross-Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus between Food Processing Materials and Ready-To-Eat Cooked Fish Paste.

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Hong, Sung-Sam; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent staphylococcal enterotoxin A production in tryptone soy broth and on ready-to-eat cooked fish paste at 12 to 37 °C, as well as cross-contamination between stainless steel, polyethylene, and latex glove at room temperature. A model was developed using Barany and Roberts's growth model, which satisfactorily described the suitable growth of S. aureus with R(2)-adj from 0.94 to 0.99. Except at 12 °C, S. aureus cells in TSB presented a lag time lower (14.64 to 1.65 h), grew faster (0.08 to 0.31 log CFU/h) and produced SEA at lower cell density levels (5.65 to 6.44 log CFU/mL) compare to those inoculated on cooked fish paste with data of 16.920 to 1.985 h, 0.02 to 0.23 log CFU/h, and 6.19 to 7.11 log CFU/g, respectively. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) visual immunoassay test showed that primary SEA detection varied considerably among different storage temperature degrees and media. For example, it occurred only during exponential phase at 30 and 37 °C in TSB, but in cooked fish paste it took place at late exponential phase of S. aureus growth at 20 and 25 °C. The SEA detection test was negative on presence of S. aureus on cooked fish paste stored at 12 and 15 °C, although cell density reached level of 6.12 log CFU/g at 15 °C. Cross-contamination expressed as transfer rate of S. aureus from polyethylene surface to cooked fish paste surface was slower than that observed with steel surface to cooked fish paste under same conditions. These results provide helpful information for controlling S. aureus growth, SEA production and cross-contamination during processing of cooked fish paste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination.

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of the Bílina River (Czech Republic using passive water samplers and fish biliary metabolites

    Jana Blahová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination on the Bílina River (the Czech Republic by measurement of three PAH biliary metabolites in fish and 16 PAHs in passive samplers. A total of sixty-one fish were collected; the indicator species were chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.; n = 25, roach (Rutilus rutilus L.; n = 17 and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.; n = 19. Three biliary PAH metabolites were measured: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP, 2-naphtol, and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, but only 1-OHP was detected in all fish. The highest median value of 32.3 ng·mg-1of 1-OHP was found at Ústí nad Labem, while the lowest median value of 27.6 ng·mg-1was found in the control site, Březenec. No significant differences (P < 0.05 among the sites were found. The highest concentration of PAH was detected in Litvínov-Záluží (172.0 ng·l-1 and the lowest concentration (7.9 ng·l-1 was detected in Březenec. A positive, but non-significant correlation (rs = 0.8 was confirmed between biliary 1-OHP and total PAH in passive samplers. These results indicate the highest pollution in the middle stretches of the Bílina River, especially at Litvínov-Záluží. We confirmed 1-OHP as the most prevalent PAH biliary metabolite in fish that could be used as a biomarker for assessment of PAH pollution of the aquatic ecosystem. The main importance of the present study is in the combination of biochemical and chemical monitoring that provides complex evaluation of aquatic environment contamination. It was the first study on the Bílina River, in which the assessment of PAH contamination in the aquatic ecosystem was realized using combination of biotic and abiotic monitoring.

  19. Assessment of contaminant concentrations in sediments, fish and mussels sampled from the North Atlantic and European regional seas within the ICON project.

    Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matthew J; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; McIntosh, Alistair D; Hylland, Ketil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the status of contaminants in the marine environment is a requirement of European Union Directives and the Regional Seas Conventions, so that measures to reduce pollution can be identified and their efficacy assessed. The international ICON workshop (Hylland et al., in this issue) was developed in order to test an integrated approach to assessing both contaminant concentrations and their effects. This paper describes and assesses the concentrations of trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments, mussels, and fish collected from estuarine, coastal and offshore waters from Iceland to the Mediterranean Sea. For organic contaminants, concentrations progressively increased from Iceland, to the offshore North Sea, to the coastal seas, and were highest in estuaries. Metals had a more complex distribution, reflecting local anthropogenic inputs, natural sources and hydrological conditions. Use of internationally recognised assessment criteria indicated that at no site were concentrations of all contaminants at background and that concentrations of some contaminants were of significant concern in all areas, except the central North Sea. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: A report on sediment, water, and fish tissue chemistry collected in 2010-2012

    Choy, Steven J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Banda, JoAnn; Bowman, Sarah R.; Brigham, Mark E.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Tucker, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being detected at low levels in surface waters and sediments across the United States, contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the Great Lakes Basin are not well characterized in terms of spatial and temporal occurrence. Additionally, although the detrimental effects of exposure to CECs on fish and wildlife have been documented for many CECs in laboratory studies, we do not adequately understand the implications of the presence of CECs in the environment. Based on limited studies using current environmentally relevant concentrations of chemicals, however, risks to fish and wildlife are evident. As a result, there is an increasing urgency to address data gaps that are vital to resource management decisions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, is leading a Great Lakes Basin-wide evaluation of CECs (CEC Project) with the objectives to (a) characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of CECs; (b) evaluate risks to fish and wildlife resources; and (c) develop tools to aid resource managers in detecting, averting, or minimizing the ecological consequences to fish and wildlife that are exposed to CECs. This report addresses objective (a) of the CEC Project, summarizing sediment and water chemistry data collected from 2010 to 2012 and fish liver tissue chemistry data collected in 2012; characterizes the sampling locations with respect to potential sources of CECs in the landscape; and provides an initial interpretation of the variation in CEC concentrations relative to the identified sources. Data collected during the first three years of our study, which included 12 sampling locations and analysis of 134 chemicals, indicate that contaminants were more frequently detected in sediment compared to water. Chemicals classified as alkyphenols, flavors/ fragrances, hormones, PAHs, and sterols had higher average detection frequencies in sediment compared to water, while the opposite was observed for pesticides

  1. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions

    Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 μg·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 μg·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

  3. CRESCIMENTO DE TILÁPIA-DO-NILO ALIMENTADA COM PEIXES MARINHOS PROVENIENTES DA PESCA DO CAMARÃO GROWTH IN NILE TILAPIA FED WITH MARINE FISH FROM SHRIMP FISHERY

    Jullyermes Araújo Lourenço

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de peixes marinhos no crescimento de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (ração para peixes com 28% de PB, Pellona harroweri e Pomadasys croco, três repetições cada. Utilizaram-se 63 peixes, com peso médio inicial de 3,059±0,846 g e 44,1±4,0 mm para o tratamento com ração, 3,015±0,892 g e 44,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. harroweri e 2,736±0,803 g e 43,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. croco, distribuídos homogeneamente em nove tanques de alvenaria de 2 m3 cada, contendo sete peixes por tanque. Após 91 dias, os resultados indicaram que as dietas com ração resultaram em melhores ganhos em peso e crescimento específico (P < 0,05. A tilápia-do-Nilo, mesmo sendo uma espécie omnívora, aceitou bem as dietas compostas pelas espécies de peixes marinhos utilizadas neste trabalho. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentação de peixes, aqüicultura alternativa, Oreochromis niloticus. The objective of this work was to verify the use of marine fish on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, growth performance. Sixty three Nile tilapia juveniles, with an average weight and length of 3.059±0.846 g and 44.1±4.0 mm to treatment with ration, 3.015±0.892 g and 44.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pellona harroweri and 2.736±0.803 g and 43.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pomadasys croco, were stocked into nine floating cages with 2 m3 (seven fish per cage, in a complete randomized design with three treatments (ration to fish with 28% PB, P. harroweri and P. croco, in three replicates each. After ninety one days, results showed that diet with ration produced a better weight gain, specific growth rate (P < 0.05. The Nile tilapia is an omnivorous species, but fed on marine fish used in this work. KEY- WORDS: Alternatives aquaculture, feeding of fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

  4. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  5. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  6. Quantitative analysis on dose to humans as a result of consuming tuna fish contaminated by cesium radionuclides

    Khani, J.; Donev, J.M.K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative empirical data is presented on the dose exposure to North Americans consuming tuna fish that have accumulated concentrations of radioactive isotopes. The two particular radioactive isotopes of interest are cesium-137 and cesium-134. Though biological effects of radiation are a widely debatable topic, the consumption of tuna fish does not support significant increased risk of cancer to humans. An important comparison is made between the elevated levels of radioactive cesium concentrations to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely potassium-40 and polonium-210. It is calculated that naturally occurring radioactive isotopes are in the orders of magnitude greater than the cesium radionuclides in tuna fish. (author)

  7. Quantitative analysis on dose to humans as a result of consuming tuna fish contaminated by cesium radionuclides

    Khani, J.; Donev, J.M.K.C., E-mail: jykhani@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative empirical data is presented on the dose exposure to North Americans consuming tuna fish that have accumulated concentrations of radioactive isotopes. The two particular radioactive isotopes of interest are cesium-137 and cesium-134. Though biological effects of radiation are a widely debatable topic, the consumption of tuna fish does not support significant increased risk of cancer to humans. An important comparison is made between the elevated levels of radioactive cesium concentrations to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely potassium-40 and polonium-210. It is calculated that naturally occurring radioactive isotopes are in the orders of magnitude greater than the cesium radionuclides in tuna fish. (author)

  8. Growth and survival of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797 paralarvae fed on three Artemia-based diets complemented with frozen fish flakes, crushed zooplankton and marine microalgae

    Lidia Fuentes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During one month, paralarvae of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris were fed 3 different diets: (1 Artemia sp. enriched with Isochrysis galbana (AI complemented with sand eel (Hyperoplus lanceolatus flakes (AH; (2 Artemia sp. enriched with crushed marine zooplankton (AZ; and (3 Artemia sp. cultured with Isochrysis galbana and further enriched with the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (AN. The highest dry weight (1.6179±0.3861 mg was registered with the AN diet and the best average survival (67.0% with the AZ diet. Considering the highest dry weight obtained, the moderate high survival and the fact that with this diet it was possible to attain the adult stage, the AN diet was the most appropriate. The reasons for the best result in growth observed with AN are discussed as: (1 the combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provided by Isochrysis galbana and the high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content present in Nannochloropsis sp.; (2 the fact that the higher protein/lipid ratio of this diet improves the final dry weight of the paralarvae; and (3 the fact that Nannochloropsis sp. could inhibit the harmful microflora growth in the rearing tank. Regarding nutritional aspects, DHA content per se is not the only determinant factor for growth and survival of O. vulgaris paralarvae, but the presence of a high protein/lipid ratio and a high phospholipid content in the diet could possibly explain the better quality and strength of the paralarvae.

  9. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua

    Zhang Wei; Huang Liangmin; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Radiotracer technique was used to quantify the biokinetics of As(V) in a marine fish. As(V) had a low bioavailability to Terapon jarbua. Dietary assimilation of As was only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with different preys. Dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μg L −1 , with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g −1 d −1 . The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d −1 . Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua.

  10. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  11. Concentration Trends for Lead and Calcium-Normalized Lead in Fish Fillets from the Big River, a Mining-Contaminated Stream in Southeastern Missouri USA.

    Schmitt, Christopher J; McKee, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005-2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005-2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  12. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    MU, Jenny; PM, Adria

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  13. Primary investigation on contamination pattern of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutions in freshwater fish from Liaohe River, Northeast China

    Ren Guofa, E-mail: rgf2008@shu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhao, Wang [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhiqiang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Wang [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shengtao, Ma [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Minghong, Wu [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Guoying, Sheng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiamo, Fu [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Legacy halogenated compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging organo-halogen pollutants such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were detected in fish from an old industrial region in Northeast China. PCBs and PBDEs were detected in all of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 38.15 to 170.51 ng/g lipid weight, and 9.40-39.69 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. DP was detected in more than 90% of the samples with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 470 pg g/g lipid weight. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in fish from Liaohe River were at medium or low level. An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China. Other halogenated pollutions, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, octachlorostyrene, chlorinated anisole, chlorinated thioanisole, triclosan-methyl, and other pesticides, have also been identified in the fish samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP was reported in fish samples from river close to an old industrial base in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first report on the unusually high fraction of PCB-209 in samples from China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC Multiplication-Sign GC-TOFMS was used to identify non-targeted halogenated pollutants. - An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China, which might indicate that there were distinct sources of pure PCB-209 in the region of Liaohe River.

  14. Primary investigation on contamination pattern of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutions in freshwater fish from Liaohe River, Northeast China

    Ren Guofa; Wang Zhao; Yu Zhiqiang; Wang Yang; Ma Shengtao; Wu Minghong; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2013-01-01

    Legacy halogenated compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging organo-halogen pollutants such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were detected in fish from an old industrial region in Northeast China. PCBs and PBDEs were detected in all of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 38.15 to 170.51 ng/g lipid weight, and 9.40–39.69 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. DP was detected in more than 90% of the samples with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 470 pg g/g lipid weight. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in fish from Liaohe River were at medium or low level. An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China. Other halogenated pollutions, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, octachlorostyrene, chlorinated anisole, chlorinated thioanisole, triclosan-methyl, and other pesticides, have also been identified in the fish samples. - Highlights: ► DP was reported in fish samples from river close to an old industrial base in China. ► The first report on the unusually high fraction of PCB-209 in samples from China. ► GC × GC–TOFMS was used to identify non-targeted halogenated pollutants. - An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China, which might indicate that there were distinct sources of pure PCB-209 in the region of Liaohe River.

  15. Prioritization of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharges using Chemical:Gene Interactions in Caged Fish.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene...

  16. Can energy willow (Salix sp.) remediate cadmium- and nickel-contaminated fish farm sludge?

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    it meets the criteria. Phytoremediation by willow may combine accumulation of cadmium and nickel from the sludge with the production of an energy crop. The ability of eight selected willow clones to take up and tolerate cadmium and nickel was studied in pots under outdoor conditions. Fish farm sludge...

  17. Contamination of fish by organochlorine pesticide residues in the Oueme River catchment in the Republic of Benin

    Yehouenou, E.; Lalèyè, P.; Boko, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Ahissou, H.; Akpona, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Swart, C.P.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the Republic of Bénin, aquatic ecosystems are subject to poisoning risks due to the inappropriate use of pesticides, such as washing of empty bottles in rivers and using pesticides to catch fish. In some areas, cotton fields are located near riverbanks, increasing the probability of pesticide

  18. Toxicity of inorganic contaminants, individually and in environmental mixtures, to three endangered fishes (Colorado squawfish, bonytail, and razorback sucker)

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two life stages of three federally-listed endangered fishes, Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), bonytail (Gila elegans), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were exposed to copper, selenate, selenite, and zinc individually, and to mixtures of nine inorganics in a reconstituted water that simulated the water quality of the middle Green River, Utah. The mixtures simulated environmental ratios of arsenate, boron, copper, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc in two tributaries, Ashley Creek and Stewart Lake outlet, of the middle Green River. The rank order of toxicity of the individual inorganics, from most to least toxic, was: copper > zinc > selenite > selenate. Colorado squawfish larvae were more sensitive to all four inorganics and the two mixtures than the juveniles, whereas there was no consistent response between the two life stages for the other two species. There was no consistent difference in sensitivity to the inorganics among the three endangered fishes. Both mixtures exhibited either additive or greater than additive toxicity to these fishes. The primary toxic components in the mixtures, based on toxic units, were copper and zinc. Acute toxicity values were compared to measured environmental concentrations in the two tributaries to derive margins of uncertainty. Margins of uncertainty were low for both mixtures (9–22 for the Stewart Lake outlet mixture, and 12–32 for the Ashley Creek mixture), indicating that mixtures of inorganics derived from irrigation activities may pose a hazard to endangered fishes in the Green River.

  19. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction

  20. Cytochrome P450 1A expression in midwater fishes: Potential effects of chemical contaminants in remote oceanic zones

    Stegeman, John J.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.; Craddock, James E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction is a robust marker for exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that are aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. We examined CYP1A expression in mesopelagic fishes from the western North Atlantic. Individuals in 22 species were obtained from slope water and the Sargasso Sea in 1977, 1978, and 1993. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), a CYP1A activity, was detected in liver from all species in 1977/78. In some, including Gonostoma elongatum, AHH was inhibited by the CYP1A inhibitor ??-naphthoflavone. CYP1A-dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) was detected in liver microsomes of all species in 1993; rates were highest in G. elongatum and Argyropelecus aculeatus. Immunoblot analysis with the CYP1A-specific monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 detected a single microsomal protein band in most 1993 samples; the highest content was in G. elongatum. Immunohistochemical analysis showed CYP1A staining in gill, heart, kidney, and/or liver of several species. Extracts of the 1993 G. elongatum and A. aculeatus, when applied to fish hepatoma cells (PLHC-1) in culture, elicited a significant induction of EROD in those cells. The capacity of the extracts to induce CYP1A correlated with the content of PCBs measured in the same fish (2-4.6 ng/g total body weight). Mesopelagic fish in the western North Atlantic, which experience no direct exposure to surface waters or sediments, are exposed chronically to inducers of CYP1A at levels that appear to be biochemically active in those fish.Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction is a robust marker for exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that are awl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. We examined CYP1A expression in mesopelagic fishes from the western North Atlantic. Individuals in 22 species were obtained from slope water and the Sargasso Sea in 1977, 1978, and 1993. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), a CYP1A

  1. Modelling the dynamics of fish contamination by Chernobyl radiocaesium: an analytical solution based on potassium mass balance

    Koulikov, Alexei O.; Meili, Markus

    2003-01-01

    After the sudden fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, activities and bioaccumulation factors of radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) fluctuated strongly over several years before reaching quasi-equilibrium, with patterns significantly differing among organisms. To model these dynamic relaxation processes based on ecological mechanisms we developed mass balance equations for 137 Cs in an aquatic food chain on the following basis: (a) potassium acts as a biogeochemical analogue ('carrier') of caesium; (b) the concentration of potassium in fish and other animals is effectively constant; (c) the main source of potassium in freshwater fish is the dietary uptake. The model is applicable to linear food chains of any number of trophic levels, while solutions evaluated here include the following food chain compartments: water, invertebrates (fish food), non-piscivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The activity concentration in the water, which is considered as the secondary source of 137 Cs, is described by multi-component first-order decay function, although two components (fast and slow) are often sufficient to provide agreement with empirical data. In every compartment the turnover rate of caesium is considered as a constant over time. The analytical solution of the model equations describes the 137 Cs activity concentration in every compartment as a series of exponential functions, of which some are derived from the source pattern, and the others determined by the 137 Cs turnover rate in each food chain compartment. The model was tested with post-Chernobyl data from several long-term studies in lakes and provided a reasonable description of important radioecological aspects

  2. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    Daniel Brèthes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw basis were hair (733 ng/g and kidney (511 ng/g, followed by the liver (77 ng/g. Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex. The metallothionein (MT protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2/ mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes

  3. Effects of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Feed on Immunological Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

    Amal Bitsayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin contamination is a common natural phenomenon that is difficult to avoid or control and it can occur during pre and post-harvest periods under high humidity and temperature conditions, and are potentially dangerous to fish. In the present study, a feeding trial evaluated the effects of diets contaminated with aflatoxin on certain immunological parameters of common carp. Methods: The immunotoxicity assessment of juvenile common carp was performed on 180 fish divided into five groups with triplicate: Control group received normal feed (Group I; group II was fed diets contaminated with extraction solution (methanol, acetone and diluted water as a positive control. Group III-V was respectively fed diets contaminated with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed for 3 wk. Results: Lysozyme activities, total immunoglobulin contents, complement C3 and C4 activities in plasma of common carp fed with different concentrations of aflatoxins significantly decreased when compared to that of the control fish. Although plasma ACH50 contents remained unchanged in 0.5 mg kg-1 aflatoxins, ACH50 contents decreased in 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 groups after 21 d of aflatoxin treatment. No significant changes were observed in immunological parameters between the control positive and control groups throughout the experimental periods. Conclusion: Oral exposure to aflatoxin (0.5 mg kg-1≤ could adversely affect immunological parameters of common carp.

  4. Evaluation of the carcinogenic, reproductive, and developmental effects of mixtures of contaminants on the Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes)

    Hartley, W.; Roy, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper details the initial results of a study to evaluate the effects of mixtures. The study, when completed, will include cadmium in combination with other chemicals. The primary mechanism of cadmium toxicity in adult fishes is gill tissue necrosis, but this was observed at very high laboratory concentrations or special circumstances. There is a lack of aquatic toxicological research involving specific developmental effects of cadmium in the medaka embryo. There is a need to investigate the sublethal effects of cadmium in low concentration where mortality of the exposed biological organism is not the endpoint of toxicity. The toxicity of cadmium for embryonic, juvenile, and adult fish is variable according to species and stage of life. The object of the following experiments was to observe the various physiological, morphological, and limited behavioral effects of cadmium on the medaka embryo

  5. Analysis of water, sediment and fish to detect contaminations with polychlorinated biphenyls (PVB) in the profile of the river Inde

    Schwiening, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schuphan, I.

    1993-01-01

    Water, sediment and fish samples of the river Inde in the course from source to mouth were analysed for their contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (6 indicator-congeners). Analysis of the water samples showed no contents of PCB (detection limit: 10 ng/l). The resulting PCB concentration profile of the sediment showed at the upper part of the Inde uniform PCB values of 18 μg/kg dry weight sediment. In the middle part, after the tributary of an industrial influenced brook, the Vicht, the contents of PCB increased precipitously to about 110 μg/kg dry weight. In the further course - downstream near the mouth into the river Rur - the PCB contents in the sediment decreased steplike along a distance of about 20 km resulting in a level of 34 μg/kg dry weight. From the analysed fishes the brook trout (Salmo trutta forma fario) also showed PCB contents dependent on the position in the river where they were cought. In relation to muscle lipid content the averange values at the upper part of the river amounted to 6 mg/kg, in the middle part to ca 38 mg/kg and downstream to ca 8 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. Because of absence at some sampling points for the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) an analogues correlation could not be found. This fishes showed concentrations of PCB ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. (orig.) [de

  6. A retrospective analysis to explore the applicability of fish biomarkers and sediment bioassays along contaminated salinity transects

    Schipper, C.A.; Lahr, J.; Brink, van den P.J.; George, S.G.; Hansen, P.D.; Silva de Assis, Da H.C.; Oost, van der R.; Thain, J.E.; Livingstone, D.; Mitchelmore, C.; Schooten, van F.J.; Ariese, F.; Murk, A.J.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Klamer, H.; Kater, J.; Postma, J.F.; Werf, van der B.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Biological-effects monitoring in estuarine environments is complex as a result of strong gradients and fluctuations in salinity and other environmental conditions, which may influence contaminant bioavailability and the physiology and metabolism of the organisms. To select the most robust and

  7. Associating Changes in Endogenous Metabolite Profiles of Field-Deployed Fish with Chemical Contaminants and Other Stressors

    Assessing risk from contaminant exposure in the aquatic environment typically begins (and often ends) with identification of “listed” chemicals in water samples. While providing useful information about potential exposures, this approach to monitoring – in the absence of site-spe...

  8. The emerging farmed fish species meagre (Argyrosomus regius): how culinary treatment affects nutrients and contaminants concentration and associated benefit-risk balance.

    Costa, Sara; Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria; Gueifão, Sandra; Castanheira, Isabel; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Cardoso, Carlos; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-10-01

    The effect of cooking methods (boiling, grilling, and roasting) on the proximate and mineral composition, contaminants concentration and fatty acids profile was evaluated aiming to understand the benefits and risks associated to the consumption of the emerging farmed fish meagre (Argyrosomus regius). All the treatments led to lower moisture content. After grilling and roasting, the SFA, MUFA and PUFA contents increased. There was no degradation of EPA and DHA during the culinary processes. Significant retention of minerals in grilled and roasted meagre samples was registered. For Pb and Cd there were no concentration differences between culinary treatments and regarding raw fish. Whereas As level was higher in grilled meagre, total Hg and Me-Hg values were augmented in grilled and roasted meagre. The consumption of meagre is advisable due to the low and healthy fat, high selenium and protein content. Grilling would be the best culinary treatment due to the retention of protein, EPA, DHA and minerals. But as the risk of ingestion of Me-Hg content also increases, based on the risk assessment, intake should not exceed two weekly meals, provided that no other important Me-Hg food source is present in the diet. Otherwise, even this maximum threshold should be lower. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organohalogen compounds in deep-sea fishes from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan: Contamination status and bioaccumulation profiles

    Takahashi, Shin; Oshihoi, Tomoko; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ohmori, Koji; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of deep-sea fishes collected in 2005 from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan were analyzed for organohalogen compounds. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of DDTs and PCBs (up to 23,000 and 12,400 ng/g lipid wt, respectively) were the highest. The present study is the foremost to report the occurrence of brominated flame retardants such as PBDEs and HBCDs in deep-sea organisms from the North Pacific region. Significant positive correlations found between δ 15 N ( per mille ) and PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs suggest the high biomagnification potential of these contaminants in food web. The large variation in δ 13 C ( per mille ) values observed between the species indicate multiple sources of carbon in the food web and specific accumulation of hydrophobic organohalogen compounds in benthic dwelling carnivore species like snubnosed eel. The results obtained in this study highlight the usefulness of deep-sea fishes as sentinel species to monitor the deep-sea environment.

  10. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  11. Liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry for identification of organic contaminants in fish fillet: screening and quantification assessment using two scan modes for data acquisition.

    Munaretto, Juliana S; May, Marília M; Saibt, Nathália; Zanella, Renato

    2016-07-22

    This study proposed a strategy to identify and quantify 182 organic contaminants from different chemical classes, as for instance pesticides, veterinary drug and personal care products, in fish fillet using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS). For this purpose, two different scan methods (full scan and all ions MS/MS) were evaluated to assess the best option for screening analysis in spiked fish fillet samples. In general, full scan acquisition was found to be more reliable (84%) in the automatic identification and quantification when compared to all ions MS/MS with 72% of the compounds detected. Additionally, a qualitative automatic search showed a mass accuracy error below 5ppm for 77% of the compounds in full scan mode compared to only 52% in all ions MS/MS scan. However, all ions MS/MS provides fragmentation information of the target compounds. Undoubtedly, structural information of a wide number of compounds can be obtained using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), but it is necessary thoroughly assess it, in order to choose the best scan mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pollutants and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches

    Judith S. WEIS, Allison CANDELMO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish behavior can be altered by contaminants. There is an extensive literature on laboratory behavioral assays, with many chemicals impairing feeding or predator avoidance. However, there is not extensive work on fishes that live in contaminated environments. Therefore, we then review our recent research on feeding and trophic relations of populations from contaminated estuaries compared with relatively unpolluted sites. The mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus, is a non-migratory fish; those from more contaminated areas are poor predators and slower to capture active prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In the field, they consume much detritus and sediment, which is not nutritious. They are less active than fish from cleaner sites and more vulnerable to predation. They have altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels, which may underlie altered behaviors. Fish from the reference site kept in tanks with sediment and food from the polluted site showed bioaccumulation and reduced prey capture after two months, although fish from the polluted site did not show significant improvement when maintained in a clean environment. Poor nutrition and predator avoidance may be responsible for their being smaller and having a shorter life span than reference fish. Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, are a marine species in which the young-of-the-year spend their first summer in estuaries. We found bioaccumulation of contaminants and reduced activity, schooling, and feeding in young-of-the-year bluefish from a relatively unpolluted site that were fed prey fish from a contaminated site. They also had altered thyroid glands and neurotransmitter levels. Many field-caught specimens had empty stomachs, which is rare in this species. In the fall, when they migrate back out to the ocean, they are smaller, slower, and more likely to starve or to be eaten than those that spent their summer in cleaner estuaries [Current Zoology 58 (1: 9-20, 2012].

  13. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ListexTM P100 for the removal of Listeria monocytogenes surface contamination of raw fish

    Hald, Tine

    Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of Listex™ P100 to reduce Listeria monocytogenes contamination on raw fish were assessed. The material should not present human toxicological problems because the bacteriophage P100, used as active principle, is not regarded as harmful to consumers nor...

  14. Vitellogenin, a Marker of Estrogen Mimicking Contaminants in Fishes: Characterization, Quantification and Interference by Anti-Estrogens

    Palumbo, Amanda J.

    2008-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), the estrogen inducible protein precursor to egg yolk, serves as an indicator of exposure to estrogen mimicking environmental contaminants. Vg was isolated by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography from plasma of California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) treated with estrogen. MALDI TOF mass spectrometry (MS) analysis resulted in a molecular mass of 188 kDa. MS/MS de novo sequencing provided evidence that California halibut has more than one form of Vg. Similar ...

  15. Contaminant levels in Gulf of Mexico reef fish after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as measured by a fishermen-led testing program.

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Gohlke, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    The BP oil disaster posed a significant threat to the U.S. seafood industry. Invertebrates (shrimp, oyster, crab) and other nearshore species comprised the majority of postspill testing by federal and state agencies. Deeper water finfish were sampled less frequently, despite population ranges that overlapped with affected waters. We report on a voluntary testing program with Gulf of Mexico commercial fishermen to ensure the safety of their catch. Seven species of reef fish were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, several metals, and a constituent of Corexit 9500A and 9527A dispersants. Only two of 92 samples had detectable levels of benzo(a)pyrene-equivalents (a combined measure of carcinogenic potency across 7 different PAHs), which were still below federal safety thresholds. PAH ratios for these samples suggest pyrogenic (not petrogenic) contamination - indicating potential sources other than Deepwater Horizon. Metals were largely absent (cadmium, lead) or consistent with levels previously reported (mercury, arsenic). One notable exception was tilefish, which showed mercury concentrations lower than expected. We did not detect dispersant in any of our samples, indicating that it was not present in these species during the study period. Our findings suggest minimal risk to public health from these seafoods as a result of the disaster; however, the most contaminated areas were not sampled through this program.

  16. Biological dosimetric studies in the Chernobyl radiation accident, on populations living in the contaminated areas (Gomel regions) and in Estonian clean-up workers, using FISH technique

    Darroudi, F.; Natarajan, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to perform retrospective estimations of radiation doses seven years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in contaminated areas around Chernobyl and the Estonian clean-up workers were determined. The first study group composed of 45 individuals living in four areas (i.e. Rechitsa, Komsomolski, Choiniki and Zaspa) in the vicinity (80-125 km) of Chernobyl and 20 individuals living in Minsk (control group - 340 km from Chernobyl). The second study group (Estonian clean-up workers) composed of 26 individuals involved in cleaning up the Chernobyl for a different period of time (up to 7 months) and a matched control group consisting of 9 probands. Unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings) were scored in Giemsa stained preparations and stable aberrations (translocations) were analyzed using chromosome specific DNA libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. For both study groups the estimated average dose is between 0,1-0,4 Gy. Among the people living in the contaminated areas in the vicinity of Chernobyl, a higher frequency of numerical aberrations (i.e. trisomy, hyper diploidy) was evident

  17. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Slaughter characteristics in three groups of fattening pigs fed in different ways were ... INTRODUCTION. Probiotic preparations are used as food additives ...... Effect of use of Vitaprotein 50 as fish meal substitute in nutrition of.

  18. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C 4 -C 10 sulfonates and C 5 -C 14 carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 ± 3.0 ng L -1 in water and 8.4 ± 0.5 ng g -1 in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g -1 in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K d ) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: → PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. → K d and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. → BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. → BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  19. Effects of fish oil replacement and re-feeding on the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) of market size.

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; López, Francisco J; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14 months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented trace concentrations of contaminants at the ng/g level, which varied according to the contribution of the different resources used in their manufacture. Contaminants did not accumulate during the first 11 months of exposure, and low concentrations of organochlorine compounds were found both at the start and at the end of this feeding period. Fillets from fish fed the fish oil diet presented the highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds, with these decreasing in proportion to fish oil replacement. Three months of fish oil re-feeding during the finishing phase only produced significant bioaccumulation over the course of the first month. By optimizing fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable oils alternative feeds can contribute to significantly reduce the risk of organochlorine uptake by consumers.

  20. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that

  1. Contaminants of emerging concern presence and adverse effects in fish: A case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Randolph, Eric C.; Choy, Steven J.; Alvarez, David; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2018-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a valuable natural resource that is affected by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including sex steroid hormones, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and new generation pesticides. However, little is known about the fate and biological effects of CECs in tributaries to the Great Lakes. In the current study, 16 sites on three rivers in the Great Lakes basin (Fox, Cuyahoga, and Raquette Rivers) were assessed for CEC presence using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and grab water samplers. Biological activity was assessed through a combination of in vitro bioassays (focused on estrogenic activity) and in vivo assays with larval fathead minnows. In addition, resident sunfish, largemouth bass, and white suckers were assessed for changes in

  2. Gills of juvenile fish piaractus mesopotamicus as histological biomarkers for experimental sub-lethal contamination with the Organophosphorus Azodrin®400

    Cácia Aparecida Mendes Rudnicki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Piaractus mesopotamicus is a freshwater native fish from rivers of the Paraná-Paraguay Basin and of the Pantanal region and has been used for repopulation programs in Brazil. Juvenile fishes were exposed to the sub-lethal dose of 1.08mg/L of the OP Azodrin®400 containing 0.43µL/L of the active principle monocrotophos for 96 h. A frequent pathology in the gills at all times of exposure was epithelial detachment, from minimal until 24 h of exposure, to intense after 48 h of contamination. Deformed pillar cells in the respiratory lamellae leading to irregular blood spaces and blood congestion, as well as hyperplasia and lamellar fusion were observed. These histopathologies suggested that 48 h after T0 was an important time when a reduction in the capability for gaseous exchange with consequent weakening of the fishes' condition could occur. This could impair growth and development of juveniles introduced in water bodies for repopulation programs.Piaractus mesopotamicus é um peixe de água doce encontrado na Bacia Paraná-Paraguai e na região do Pantanal, tendo sido usado em programas de repovoamento no Brasil. Peixes juvenis foram expostos por 96 horas à dose sub-letal de 1.08mg/L do organofosforado (OP Azodrin®400 que contém 0,43µL/L do principio ativo monocrotofós. A patologia freqüente nas brânquias foi o descolamento epitelial que variou de mínimo nas primeiras 24 horas a severo ou intenso após 48 horas de contaminação. Deformações e degeneração de células pilares nas lamelas respiratórias levando à formação de espaços sanguíneos irregulares e congestão sanguínea, hiperplasia e fusão lamelar também foram observadas. Sugere-se que 48 horas após o T0 é um tempo crítico após exposição a níveis subletais de OP, pois a capacidade de trocas gasosas poderá ter diminuído, levando ao enfraquecimento dos peixes. Os sintomas poderão prejudicar o desenvolvimento dos juvenis introduzidos em corpos de água em

  3. Mercury effects on predator avoidance behavior of a forage fish, golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    Webber, H.M.; Haines, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury contamination of fish is widespread in North America and has resulted in the establishment of fish consumption advisories to protect human health, However, the effects of mercury exposure to fish have seldom been investigated. We examined the effects of dietary mercury exposure at environmental levels in a common forage species, golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas). Fish were fed either an unaltered diet (12 ng/g wet wt methylmercury [MeHg] as Hg), a low-Hg diet (455 ng/g Hg), or a high-Hg diet (959 ng/g Hg). After 90 d mean fish whole-body total Hg concentrations were 41, 230, and 518 ng/g wet wt, respectively, which were within the range of concentrations found in this species in northern U.S. lakes. There were no mortalities or differences in growth rate among groups. Groups of fish from each treatment were exposed to a model avian predator and their behavioral response videotaped for analysis. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined in fish after behavioral testing. Fish fed the high-Hg diet had significantly greater shoal vertical dispersal following predator exposure, took longer to return to pre-exposure activity level, and had greater shoal area after return to pre-exposure activity than did the other treatments, all of which would increase vulnerability of the fish to predation. There were no differences in brain AChE among treatments. We conclude that mercury exposure at levels currently occurring in northern United States lakes alters fish predator-avoidance behavior in a manner that may increase vulnerability to predation. This finding has significant implications for food chain transfer of Hg and Hg exposure of fish predators.

  4. Study of cultured rainbow trout contamination with Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae in some fish markets of Tehran and Karaj(orginal reserch article

    Ali Taheri Mirghaed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcosis is one of the economically important diseases in the aquaculture industry particularly in rainbow trout aquaculture causing remarkable annual losses. Streptococcosis is known as a zoonotic disease causing morbidity and mortality in some consumers. In this study the status of farmed rainbow trout contamination with Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae was assessed. For this reason, during summer months, 64 apparently diseased trout were sampled from fish markets of Tehran and Karaj. Gram staining was performed on grown colonies and then gram-positive cocci were further characterized using biochemical and PCR assays. The obtained results showed that 56.23% (36 samples of the samples were infected with the both bacterial pathogens. The prevalence of S. iniae and L. garvieae were 32.8 % (21 samples and 23.43% (15 samples, respectively. The highest and lowest prevalence rate of S. iniae was observed in the samples of Karaj (15.62% and Kahrizak (0% markets, respectively. In the case of L. garvieae, the highest and lowest rates were obtained in Karaj/Kahrizak (7.81% and Meidan-Nabi (1.56% markets, respectively. The results revealed that in some markets, the prevalence of streptococcosis and lactococcusis in cultured rainbow were relatively high. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further trials.

  5. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: Influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Lee, C.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.T. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liao, P.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Su, H.J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.L. [Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, 34 Chung Chie Rd. Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hsiulin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw

    2006-05-15

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P < 0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. - Inhabitants living near a deserted PCP factory are exposed to high PCDD/F levels.

  6. Contaminação salivar da extrusa em novilhos alimentados com diferentes volumosos, com e sem suplementação Saliva contamination in the extrusa in steers fed with different forages, supplemented or not

    S.P. Gomes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as alterações nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, compostos nitrogenados não protéicos (NNP, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, lignina (LIG, cinzas, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, magnésio (Mg, potássio (K e sódio (Na de alimentos usados para novilhos, provocadas pela contaminação da extrusa pela saliva. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos fistulados no rúmen e esôfago, cinco dietas e cinco períodos experimentais. Os tratamentos foram: capim-elefante picado (CE, capim-elefante obtido em pastejo simulado (CES, capim-braquiária obtido em pastejo simulado (CBS, pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 (PS, feno de capim-braquiária (FB1, feno de capim-tifton 85 (FT, feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 0,5% PV (FB2 e feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado 1,0% PV (FB3. A presença de saliva na extrusa não alterou (P>0,05 o teor de proteína bruta dos alimentos. Os teores de NNP foram superestimados (PAlterations on the levels of crude protein (CP, non-protein nitrogen compounds (NNP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin (LIG, ash, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na of feeds used for steers, caused by the saliva contamination in the extrusa, were evaluated. Five steers, fistulated in the rumen and esophagus were fed five diets, in five experimental periods. The treatments were: chopped elephantgrass (CE, elephantgrass obtained by hand-plucked (CES, Brachiaria decumbens obtained by hand-plucked (CBS, Tifton-85 bermudagrass haylage (PS, Brachiaria decumbens hay (FB1, Brachiaria decumbens hay and concentrate at 0.5% LW (FB2, and Brachiaria decumbens hay and concentrate at 1.0% LW (FB3. The extrusa CP content was not affected (P>0.05 by saliva contamination. The NNP levels were overestimated (P<0.05 in the extrusa in 135.0%. The NDF levels were underestimated (P<0.05 in 3.4%. The ADF and LIG contents were overestimated (P<0.05 in extrusa

  7. Depletion of selected polychlorodibenzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans in farmed trout exposed to contaminated feeds

    Brambilla, G.; Dellatte, E.; Fochi, I.; Iacovella, N.; Domenico, A. di [Dept. Food Safety and Animal Health, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)]|[Dept. Environment and Primary Health Care, Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Farmed fish can bioaccumulate persistent toxic substances when fed on animal-based fat feeds. This fact has recently prompted a re-evaluation of the overall toxicological risk associated with contamination levels recorded in farmed vs. wild salmons. The bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in farmed trout has recently been described nevertheless, poor information is available about their depletion under controlled conditions. In this paper, the results of a 90-day depletion study in groups of trout exposed to three different levels of feed contamination for 30 days are reported. As a follow-up of a PCB depletion study the present paper aims at giving indications for risk management in fish farming practices, to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the produce intended for human consumption.

  8. Development of suspect and non-target screening methods for detection of organic contaminants in highway runoff and fish tissue with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Du, Bowen; Lofton, Jonathan M; Peter, Katherine T; Gipe, Alexander D; James, C Andrew; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Baker, Joel E; Kolodziej, Edward P

    2017-09-20

    Untreated urban stormwater runoff contributes to poor water quality in receiving waters. The ability to identify toxicants and other bioactive molecules responsible for observed adverse effects in a complex mixture of contaminants is critical to effective protection of ecosystem and human health, yet this is a challenging analytical task. The objective of this study was to develop analytical methods using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) to detect organic contaminants in highway runoff and in runoff-exposed fish (adult coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch). Processing of paired water and tissue samples facilitated contaminant prioritization and aided investigation of chemical bioavailability and uptake processes. Simple, minimal processing effort solid phase extraction (SPE) and elution procedures were optimized for water samples, and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) procedures were optimized for fish tissues. Extraction methods were compared by detection of non-target features and target compounds (e.g., quantity and peak area), while minimizing matrix interferences. Suspect screening techniques utilized in-house and commercial databases to prioritize high-risk detections for subsequent MS/MS characterization and identification efforts. Presumptive annotations were also screened with an in-house linear regression (log K ow vs. retention time) to exclude isobaric compounds. Examples of confirmed identifications (via reference standard comparison) in highway runoff include ethoprophos, prometon, DEET, caffeine, cotinine, 4(or 5)-methyl-1H-methylbenzotriazole, and acetanilide. Acetanilide was also detected in runoff-exposed fish gill and liver samples. Further characterization of highway runoff and fish tissues (14 and 19 compounds, respectively with tentative identification by MS/MS data) suggests that many novel or poorly characterized organic contaminants exist in urban

  9. The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Granby, Kit; Rainieri, Sandra; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Kotterman, Michiel J.J.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Barranco, Alex; Marques, António; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2018-01-01

    When microplastics pollute fish habitats, it may be ingested by fish, thereby contaminating fish with sorbed contaminants. The present study investigates how combinations of halogenated contaminants and microplastics associated with feed are able to alter toxicokinetics in European seabass and

  10. Radiocesium dynamics in herons inhabiting a contaminated reservoir system

    Dombey, A.H.; Paine, D.; McFarlane, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The little blue heron (Florida caerulea) and the green heron (Butorides virescens) nest at a radionuclide-contaminated reservoir on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Green herons distributed their nests singly along the periphery of the reservoir but fed their nestlings exclusively upon amphibians collected from adjacent uncontaminated Carolina bays. Radiocesium burdens in green heron nestlings did not exceed 5 pCi/g wet wt. and 12 regurgitated food pellets averaged 0.2 pCi/g. Twelve pairs of little blue herons established a heronry upon a small island and fed their nestlings fish and amphibians foraged from within the differentially radionuclide-contaminated reservoir system. Nestlings within the same nest did not exhibit significant differences in body burdens, and the maximum radiocesium burden determined was 27.4 pCi/g wet wt. Substantial differences were found between nestlings from different nests however. The radiocesium level of 43 regurgitated food pellets had a high correlation with observed levels in the nestlings, and variation in food contamination is believed to be the major contributor in the observed variation in the nestlings. The variable contamination of primary prey species was correlated with the differentially contaminated foraging sites and indicates that adult little blue herons tended to spatially partition the available foraging areas. (author)

  11. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  12. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  13. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Lee Ching-Chang; Lin Wu-Ting; Liao Po-Chi; Su Huey-Jen [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health/Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic substances, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan); Chen Hsiu-Lin [Inst. of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Many reports have suggested that PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) contribute to immune deficiency, liver damage, human carcinogenesis, and neuromotor maturation in children. Therefore, beginning in 1999, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a survey to determine serum levels of PCDD/Fs in the general populations living around 19 incinerators in Taiwan. Relatively high average serum PCDD/F levels were unexpectedly found in Tainan city, a less industrialized area in southwestern Taiwan, than in other urban areas. We therefore reviewed the usage history of the land and found that a factory situated between Hsien-Gong Li and Lu-Erh Li, two administrative units of Tainan city, had been manufacturing pentachlorophenol (PCP) between 1967 and 1982. PCDD/Fs are formed as byproducts in the PCP manufacturing process. Exposure to PCP and its derivatives via the food chain is the most significant intake route of PCDD/Fs in consumers in the European Union (EU). In Japan, in addition to combustion processes, PCP and chlornitrofen (CNP) have also been identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs in Tokyo Bay7. A preliminary investigation showed that the soil in the PCP factory and sediments in the sea reservoir (13 hectares) near the deserted factory were seriously contaminated with PCDD/Fs (260-184,000 and 20-6220 pg I-TEQ/g, respectively), levels higher than those in other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the PCDD/F levels of fish meat in the sea reservoir and the serum in inhabitants living in the vicinity of the closed PCP plant and other nearby areas. The data from human and other biota samples might clarify the transmission pathway of the PCDD/F contaminants from the PCP factory to local residents, provide information about the exposure status of those living in the vicinity of the deserted PCP factory, and also lead to useful suggestions for controlling PCDD/F accumulation in those living near such

  14. Antioxidant capacity of meagre (Argyrossomus regius fed different lipid content and source, with and without selenium

    Sthelio Braga Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Meagre (600 animals were kept in 24 tanks (80 L with constant renovation and aeration and maintained at 20.7 ± 0.7ºC and oxygen 8.8 ± 1.7 mg L-1. Fish were fed twice per day, six days per week, with eight different experimental diets for 60 days. Diets were formulated to have two different oil sources (fish or vegetable blend oils with 45% of linseed, 35% of rapeseed and 20% of soybean oil, two lipid levels (12 and 17% and two selenium supplementation (0 and 1 mg/kg diet. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (TG and catalase (CAT were analyzed in liver of fish. CAT, GPx and GR activities were not significantly altered in fish fed with diets with different oil sources. However, TG in fish fed with fish oil diet was higher than the levels observed in fish fed with vegetable blend oil. Furthermore, fish fed with fish oil diet showed lower lipid peroxidation when compared with fish fed vegetable blend oil diet (Table 1. Concerning the oil level in diet, it was observed that fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids had a higher level of total glutathione when compared to fish fed with a diet of 12% lipids. On the other hand, the fish fed with a diet with 12% lipids showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids. Fish fed with diets supplemented with selenium showed a significantly increased activity of GPx when compared with fish fed without selenium. Three-way ANOVA analysis showed that dietary lipid level and the presence of selenium have a significant interaction on the activities of CAT and GR, as well as, levels of TG and LPO. A significant interaction between the source of oil and the presence of selenium on GR activities was observed. Interaction on source and level was observed to CAT. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of meagre is influenced by the source of oil, the level of lipids and the presence of selenium in their diet.

  15. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are incr...

  16. Fish Allergy

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  17. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  18. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M. [Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-9005 Tromsoe (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment.

  19. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  20. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  1. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klop, A.; Herbes, R.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated

  2. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  3. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Mobile, Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, Savannah, and Pee Dee River Basins

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; May, Tom W.; Claunch, Rachael; Wieser, Carla; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from 13 sites in 4 river basins in the southeastern United States to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Mercury concentrations in bass samples from all sites exceeded toxicity thresholds for mammals [>0.1 micrograms per gram wet weight (ug/g ww)], fish (>0.2 ug/g ww), and birds (>0.3 ug/g ww) and were greatest (>0.5 ug/g ww) in samples from the Alabama River at Eureka Landing, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks, Alabama; the Apalachicola River at Blountstown, Florida; the Savannah River at Sylvania, Georgia; and the Pee Dee River at Bucksport, South Carolina. Selenium concentrations were relatively high (>0.75 ug/g ww) in fish from the Tombigbee River at Lavaca, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks; and the Chattahoochee River at Omaha, Georgia compared to those from other sites. Concentrations of 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)- 1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were high in fish from the Chattahoochee River at Omaha and the Mobile River near Bucks, which was near a 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1- dichloroethylene (DDT) formulating facility that historically discharged into the lower Mobile River. Toxaphene concentrations in fish from the Flint River near Albany, Georgia (60-100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) ww) may pose a risk to fish. Concentrations of other formerly used (total chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene) and currently used (pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole

  4. Assessment of metal contamination in water, sediment, and tissues of Arius thalassinus fish from the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the potential human risk assessment.

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic, the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd in water, sediment, and some vital organs of sea catfish, Arius thalassinus collected from polluted and unpolluted sites, were determined. The risk of these metals to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The results showed that the concentration order of metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The levels of studied metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were significantly higher in the polluted site than those of the unpolluted site, with few exceptions. Linear correlation incorporating paired variables (water-sediment, water-fish, and fish-fish) exhibited several significant correlations indicating a common metal pollution. The risk assessment performed revealed that fish consumption was safe for consumers. This field investigation provides a baseline data on metal pollution in this region.

  5. Freshwater and fish

    Saxen, R.

    1997-01-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland's surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and 90 Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG)

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  7. Effect of soybean diet: Growth and conversion efficiencies of fingerling of stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch

    Muzzammil Iqbal Siddiqui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of 15% protein from soybean meal in Diet II was feasible for the stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis and no significant differences in growth parameters were found in fish fed soybean meal-based diets compared to those fed control diet (Diet I. Live weight gain percent (165% obtained in fish fed soybean meal based diet was not significantly different to that achieved (171% in fish fed Diet I. Specific growth rate percent, SGR (2.79%, feed conversion ratio FCR (1.40 and protein efficiency ratio PER (1.79 recorded in fish fed Diet II were also more less comparable to those fed control diet. Mortality was not recorded in the period of the feeding trial. Body composition of the fish fed soybean meal based diet (Diet II was also comparable to that fed control diet. Significantly higher fat content was noted in fish fed Diet II. However, the protein contents were not changed in fish fed Diet I and II. Similarly, no significant differences (P > 0.05 in protein productive value were noted between the two groups. However, ash content differed significantly (P < 0.05 in fish fed Diet I and II. Although soybean meal-based diet depressed growth and feed conversion efficiencies of the fish to some extent, inclusion of soybean meal was found to be cost-effective alternative to fish meal.

  8. Pesticide-contaminated feeds in integrated grass carp aquaculture: toxicology and bioaccumulation.

    Pucher, J; Gut, T; Mayrhofer, R; El-Matbouli, M; Viet, P H; Ngoc, N T; Lamers, M; Streck, T; Focken, U

    2014-02-19

    Effects of dissolved pesticides on fish are widely described, but little is known about effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds taken up orally by fish. In integrated farms, pesticides used on crops may affect grass carp that feed on plants from these fields. In northern Vietnam, grass carp suffer seasonal mass mortalities which may be caused by pesticide-contaminated plants. To test effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds on health and bioaccumulation in grass carp, a net-cage trial was conducted with 5 differently contaminated grasses. Grass was spiked with 2 levels of trichlorfon/fenitrothion and fenobucarb. Unspiked grass was used as a control. Fish were fed at a daily rate of 20% of body mass for 10 d. The concentrations of fenitrothion and fenobucarb in pond water increased over time. Effects on fish mortality were not found. Fenobucarb in feed showed the strongest effects on fish by lowering feed uptake, deforming the liver, increasing blood glucose and reducing cholinesterase activity in blood serum, depending on feed uptake. Fenobucarb showed increased levels in flesh in all treatments, suggesting bio-concentration. Trichlorfon and fenitrothion did not significantly affect feed uptake but showed concentration-dependent reduction of cholinesterase activity and liver changes. Fenitrothion showed bioaccumulation in flesh which was dependant on feed uptake, whereas trichlorfon was only detected in very low concentrations in all treatments. Pesticide levels were all detected below the maximum residue levels in food. The pesticide-contaminated feeds tested did not cause mortality in grass carp but were associated with negative physiological responses and may increase susceptibility to diseases.

  9. Biomonitoring of lead-contaminated Missouri streams with an assay for erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in fish blood

    Schmitt, C.J.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Hunn, J.B.; Nash, T.; Tieger, M. N.; Steadman, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) in erythrocytes has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and, more recently, in fishes. The assay was tested for ALA-D activity in fishes from streams affected by lead in combination with other metals from lead-zinc mining and related activities. Fishes (mostly catostomids) were collected from sites affected by historic and current mining activities, and from sites considered to be unaffected by mining (reference sites). A group of potentially toxic elements was measured in blood and carcass samples of individual fish, as were ALA-D activity, total protein (TP), and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood. Concentrations of mining-related metals (lead, zinc, and cadmium) were significantly greater (P<0.05) in fish blood and carcass at sites affected by historic mining activities than at reference and active mining sites. When analyzed by multiple regression, ALA-D activity, Hb, and TP accounted for 66% of blood-lead and 69% of carcass-lead variability. Differences among species were small. ALA-D activity as a biomarker adequately distinguished sites affected by bioavailable environmental lead. Zinc was the only other metal that affected ALA-D activity; it appeared to ameliorate the inactivation of ALA-D by lead.

  10. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus

    Siriporn Tola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1 on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg−1. Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05. Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05. Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance.

  11. Bioeffects Assessment in Kvichak and Nushagak Bay, Alaska: Characterization of Soft Bottom Benthic Habitats, Fish Body Burdens and Contaminant Baseline Assessment

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of this project is to assess habitat conditions that influence biodiversity and distribution of benthic infaunal communities, contaminants, and chemical...

  12. Growth, Feed Utilization and Blood Metabolic Responses to Different Amylose-amylopectin Ratio Fed Diets in Tilapia (

    Meng-Yao Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted in tilapia to determine the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes, and postprandial blood metabolites in response to different dietary amylose-amylopectin ratios. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing an equal starch level with different amylose-amylopectin ratios of 0.11 (diet 1, 0.24 (diet 2, 0.47 (diet 3, 0.76 (diet 4 and 0.98 (diet 5 were formulated using high-amylose corn starch (as the amylose source and waxy rice (as the amylopectin source. Each diet was hand-fed to six tanks of 15 fish each, three times a day over a 6-wk period. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood metabolic test was carried out. Fish fed diet 2 exhibited the highest percent weight gain and feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, whereas fish fed with diet 5 showed the lowest growth and feed utilization among treatments. The digestibility for starch in fish fed diet 1 and 2 was higher than those in fish fed with other diets (p<0.05. The highest activities for protease, lipase and amylase were found in fish fed the diet 2, diet 1, and diet 1 respectively among dietary treatments, while the lowest values for these indexes were observed in fish fed the diet 3, diet 5 and diet 4, respectively. The liver glycogen concentrations in fish fed diets 4 and 5 were found higher than in fish fed other diets (p<0.05. The feeding rate, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and plasma parmeters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ across treatments. In terms of postprandial blood responses, peak blood glucose and triglycerides were lower after 3 or 6 h in the fish fed with diets 3–5 than in the fish fed diet 1, but delayed peak blood total amino acid time was observed in fish fed with the diets 1 or 2. The lowest peak values for each of the three blood metabolites were observed in fish fed diet 5. The

  13. Produtos de pesca e contaminantes químicos na água da Represa Billings, São Paulo (Brasil Fishing yield and chemical contamination of the water of the Billings Reservoir, S. Paulo (Brazil

    Aristides Almeida Rocha

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise dos surfactantes determinados pelo método colorimétrico com azul de metileno, e dos metais pesados determinados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, como o cádmio, chumbo, cobre, cromo, mercúrio e zinco, foi caracterizada a poluição na Represa Billings, SP (Brasil, enfatizando a qualidade sanitária da água e a contaminação dos peixes. Com base nos dados coligidos, é mostrado o perigo potencial que representa o consumo do pescado proveniente da Billings, se bem que a pesca comercial esteja hoje praticamente restrita às cabeceiras dos braços dos rios Capivari e Pequeno, na junção próxima a Ribeirão Pires e nos braços dos rios Curucutu e Taquacetuba. Os dados da CEAGESP - Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo - indicam que, no ano de 1980, apenas 64 toneladas de peixe provieram de São Bernardo do Campo.Data on detergents and heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, mercury and zinc are used in order to estimate pollution and sanitary quality of water as well as contamination of fish from Billings Reservoir, SP, Brazil. The results of this work are a warning with regard to the potential risk of human consumption of fish from that Reservoir, even though commercial fishing is now practically restricted to the riverheads of the affluents of the rivers Capivari and Pequeno near Ribeirão Pires and along the rivers Curucutu and Taquacetuba. Data from CEAGESP (Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo show that in 1980 only 64 tons of fish came from S. Bernardo do Campo.

  14. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    Dear User!

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... The chickens fed diets containing palm oil, soybean oil or fish oil as the ... polyunsaturated fatty acids; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, .... content of muscles in broilers fed different dietary CLA levels. Javadi et al. (2007) ...

  15. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  16. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  17. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element variation in otoliths from fish collected near acid mine tailings: Potential for monitoring contaminant dispersal

    Saquet, M.; Halden, N.M.; Babaluk, J.; Campbell, J.L.; Nejedly, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Otoliths from fish sampled proximal to acid mine tailings located near Sherridon, Manitoba contain elevated abundances of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. Sr is also present in amounts ranging from 250 to 1200 ppm with the actual levels dependent on the lake from which fish were taken. Previous work on analyzing Zn and Mn suggests Zn will typically vary between 50 and ∼100 ppm (in marine and non-marine species) and Mn between 10 and ∼100 ppm. Otoliths analyzed in this study contain up to ∼1000 ppm Zn and up to ∼400 ppm Mn; Fe is present, ranging between 50 and 100 ppm and Cu is typically 40-50 ppm. Water samples showed variation in these elements depending on proximity to the tailings

  18. Assessment of contaminant concentrations in sediments, fish and mussels sampled from the North Atlantic and European regional seas within the ICON project

    Robinson, Craig D.; Webster, Lynda; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matthew J.; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; McIntosh, Alistair D.; Hylland, Ketil

    Understanding the status of contaminants in the marine environment is a requirement of European Union Directives and the Regional Seas Conventions, so that measures to reduce pollution can be identified and their efficacy assessed. The international ICON workshop (Hylland et al., in this issue) was

  19. Monoculture of the ciliate protozoan Euplotes sp. (Ciliophora; Hypotrichia fed with different diets - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.11795

    Emílio Mateus Costa Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciliate protozoa of the genus Euplotes commonly appears contaminating mass cultures of rotifers but also with potential to be used as live food in the larviculture of marine fish. To obtain a monoculture of Euplotes sp., three diets were tested: 1 microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata, 2 commercial diet for rotifers Culture Selco 3000, and 3 baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ciliates were inoculated at 10 ind. mL-¹. On day 5, protozoa densities in the groups fed the commercial diet (1,911.0 ± 248.7 ind. mL-¹ and the baker’s yeast (2,600.0 ± 195.3 ind. mL-1 did not differ, but were higher than the group fed microalgae (2.0 ± 1.4 ind. mL-1 (p -¹ than in the groups fed microalgae (3.0 ± 1.4 ind. mL-¹ or commercial diet (11,287.0 ± 1,468.0 ind. mL-¹. An exponential growth curve was observed for the protozoa fed baker’s yeast (R² = 0.992; p Euplotes sp. can result in very high densities of this protozoan.  

  20. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO.

    Ekman, Drew R; Keteles, Kristen; Beihoffer, Jon; Cavallin, Jenna E; Dahlin, Kenneth; Davis, John M; Jastrow, Aaron; Lazorchak, James M; Mills, Marc A; Murphy, Mark; Nguyen, David; Vajda, Alan M; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Winkelman, Dana L; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-08-01

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are increasingly being used to complement routine chemical monitoring. This study was initiated to assess the ability of both targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring tools to discriminate impacts of two adjacent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Colorado's South Platte River. A cell-based estrogen assay (in vitro, targeted) determined that water samples collected downstream of the larger of the two WWTPs displayed considerable estrogenic activity in its two separate effluent streams. Hepatic vitellogenin mRNA expression (in vivo, targeted) and NMR-based metabolomic analyses (in vivo, untargeted) from caged male fathead minnows also suggested estrogenic activity downstream of the larger WWTP, but detected significant differences in responses from its two effluent streams. The metabolomic results suggested that these differences were associated with oxidative stress levels. Finally, partial least squares regression was used to explore linkages between the metabolomics responses and the chemical contaminants that were detected at the sites. This analysis, along with univariate statistical approaches, identified significant covariance between the biological endpoints and estrone concentrations, suggesting the importance of this contaminant and recommending increased focus on its presence in the environment. These results underscore the benefits of a combined targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring strategy when used alongside contaminant monitoring to more effectively assess ecological impacts of exposures to complex mixtures in surface waters. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A Comparison of Growth and Survival of Aquacultured Juvenile Florida Pompano fed Fishmeal and Plant-Based Diets

    Budden, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the growth and survival of aquacultured juvenile Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed two different diets. Pompano (initial weight 7.7 g /fish) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: Zeigler pellets (fishmeal; 35% protein, 5% lipid) and a plant-based Repashy Soilent Green algae gel (plant-based; 35% protein, 6% lipid). Fish were fed rations of 5% body weight twice daily for eight weeks. Despite nearly equivalent proximate compositions for the two feeds, survival rates were significantly affected by diet. All fish fed the Zeigler diet survived; however, mortality was observed in 92% of the fish fed the Repashy diet. At the end of the trial, mean weight gain of surviving pompano was highest in fish fed Zeigler pellets. Mean specific growth rate (SGR) for fish fed the Zeigler diet (0.24% per day) was higher than for fish fed Repashy (-2.44%).While plant-based feeds have been successfully used with the species, these results suggest that the plant-based Repashy diet is not suitable for survival or growth of aquacultured Florida pompano.

  2. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  3. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus)

    Tola, Siriporn; Bureau, Dominique P.; Hooft, Jamie M.; Beamish, Frederick W. H.; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Encarnação, Pedro; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg−1). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. PMID:26035489

  4. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  5. Spatial distribution of organochlorine contaminants in soil, sediment, and fish in Bikini and Enewetak Atolls of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Ocean.

    Wang, Jun; Caccamise, Sarah A L; Wu, Liejun; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X

    2011-08-01

    Several nuclear tests were performed at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. The events at Bikini Atoll involved several ships that were tested for durability during nuclear explosions, and 24 vessels now rest on the bottom of the Bikini lagoon. Nine soil samples were collected from different areas on the two islands of the atoll, and eighteen sediment, nine fish, and one lobster were collected in the vicinity of the sunken ships. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in these samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS). The average recoveries ranged from 78% to 104% for the different PCB congeners. The limits of detection (LOD) for PCBs, PCTs, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin ranged 10-50 pg g(-1). Some fish from Enewetak contained PCBs at a concentration range of 37-137 ng g(-1), dry weight (dw), and most of the soils from Enewetak showed evidence of PCBs (22-392 ng g(-1)dw). Most of the Bikini lagoon sediment samples contained PCBs, and the highest was the one collected from around the Saratoga, an aircraft carrier (1555 ng g(-1)dw). Some of the fish samples, most of the soil samples, and only one of the sediment samples contained 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs. In addition to PCBs, the soils from Enewetak Atoll contained PCTs. PCTs were not detected in the sediment samples from Bikini Atoll. The results suggest local pollution sources of PCBs, PCTs, and OCPs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta , through ...

    Setting: Fish landing sites and retail markets in Homa Bay County Subject: Studies on fish contamination are critical for the acceptance of fish food locally and in international markets. In this study, Rastrineobola argentea were examined for microbial loads. Results: Samples indicated high levels of coliforms and Escherichia ...

  7. Fish allergy in childhood.

    Pascual, Cristina Y; Reche, Marta; Fiandor, Ana; Valbuena, Teresa; Cuevas, Teresa; Esteban, Manuel Martin

    2008-11-01

    Fish and its derived products play an important role in human nutrition, but they may also be a potent food allergen. Fish can be an ingested, contact, and inhalant allergen. Gad c I, a Parvalbumin, the major allergen in codfish, is considered as fish and amphibian pan-allergen. Prevalence of fish allergy appears to depend on the amount of fish eaten in the local diet. In Europe, the highest consumption occurs in Scandinavian countries, Spain and Portugal. In Spain, fish is the third most frequent allergen in children under 2 yr of age after egg and cow's milk. An adverse reaction to fish may be of non-allergic origin, due to food contamination or newly formed toxic products, but the most frequent type of adverse reactions to fish are immunologic-mediated reactions (allergic reactions). Such allergic reactions may be both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated. Most cases are IgE-mediated, due to ingestion or contact with fish or as a result of inhalation of cooking vapors. Some children develop non-IgE-mediated type allergies such as food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome. The clinical symptoms related to IgE-mediated fish allergy are most frequently acute urticaria and angioedema as well as mild oral symptoms, worsening of atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms such as rhinitis or asthma, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Anaphylaxis may also occur. Among all the species studied, those from the Tunidae and Xiphiidae families appear to be the least allergenic.

  8. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  9. Fish Allergy

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  10. Farming in a fish tank.

    Youth, H

    1992-01-01

    Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost.

  11. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tissue deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in cats fed Atlantic Ocean bluefish.

    Carbone, L G; Alo, D K; Scarlett, J M; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1991-07-01

    Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), a very popular marine sport fish caught in Atlantic coastal waters, contain significant levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since fish can be an appreciable portion of human and feline diets, a feeding study was conducted with cats fed exclusively bluefish for 86 days with determination of tissue concentrations of PCBs. The concentrations of PCBs in brain, liver, and fat were significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the fish-fed cats than in the control group using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The highest PCB levels were in fat, the median concentrations being 48 and 0.61 ppm (dry weight) in the fish-fed and control cats, respectively. The significance of the results is discussed.

  13. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  14. Cognitive antecedents of consumers' willingness to purchase fish rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

    Foxall, G; Leek, S; Maddock, S

    1998-12-01

    A sample of UK consumers (N = 311) was interviewed in order to identify the attitudinal, cognitive and involvement characteristics of probable early adopters of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fed fish. Attitude to fish significantly influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish, PUFA salmon, PUFA eel and PUFA sturgeon purchase. Involvement in healthy eating influenced PUFA fish, premium price PUFA fish and PUFA salmon purchase. Cognitive style did not influence PUFA fish and premium price PUFA fish purchase; nor, contrary to earlier research, did cognitive style and involvement interact to influence intended PUFA fish purchases.

  15. Lindane residues in fish inhabiting Nigerian rivers

    Okereke, G.U.; Dje, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis for residues of lindane in fish collected from various rivers close to rice agroecosystems showed that the concentrations of lindane ranged from none detectable to 3.4 mg kg -1 . Fish from rivers where strict regulations prohibits its use had no detectable lindane residues while appreciable amounts of lindane were found in fish were such restriction was not enforced with the variation attributed to the extent of use of lindane in the area of contamination. The investigation confirms that the use of lindane in rice production in Nigeria can cause the contamination of fish in nearby rivers. (author). 16 refs, 2 tab

  16. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish.

    Gingerich, Andrew James; Philipp, David P; Suski, Cory D

    2010-03-01

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  17. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  18. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  19. FEEDING FREQUENCY OF NILE TILAPIA FED RATIONS SUPPLEMENTED WITH AMINO ACIDS

    EDUARDO ARRUDA TEIXEIRA LANNA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the feeding frequency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed low-protein diets (29% crude protein supplemented with commercial amino acids (L-lysine-HCl, DL-methionine, and L-threonine. Sex-reversed Nile tilapia (240 of Thai origin, with initial body weight of 0.93 ± 0.03 g each, were allocated in a completely randomized design, to five groups with various feeding frequencies (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 times a day. Six replications were conducted on separate experimental units comprising eight fishes each. The fish were maintained in 30 130-L aquariums, each equipped with individual water supply and controlled temperature and aeration. Fish were fed identical quantities among all treatments over a period of 30 days. Performance parameters, feed conversion efficiency, body composition, daily protein and fat deposition rates, and nitrogen retention efficiency were evaluated. Increased feeding frequency affected neither performance parameters nor body composition. Values for protein and fat deposition rates and nitrogen retention efficiency were significantly lower in fish fed twice daily than in those fed five times daily. Fish subjected to other feeding frequencies yielded intermediate values without any significant differences. The minimum feeding frequency of Nile tilapia fingerlings fed a low-protein ration supplemented with commercial amino acids is three times a day, owing to increased protein deposition rates and nitrogen retention efficiency.

  20. Haematology and melanoma crophage centers of Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with propolis

    Jerko Ledic-Neto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis on hematology and number and area of melanomacrophage centers in spleen and kidney of tilapia. After acclimation, fish (24.7 ± 7.4 gmean weight were distributed in 6 tanks 100 L, 6 fish per tank, in triplicate, at a temperature 24.0 ± 2.8oC, with two treatments: Fish fed 2% propolis supplemented diet and fish fed non-supplemented diet. To monitor the evolution of the effects, two samples were collected: half of the fish from each treatment were used after 15 days and the other half after 21, composing two feeding times. After each feeding time, blood, spleen and kidney were collected. After twenty one days feeding on 2% propolis supplemented diet, fish showed a lower number of total leukocytes and lymphocytes and an increase in the total erythrocytes number. Fish fed supplemented diet presented an increased number of melanomacrophage centers. We observed hemosiderin in all spleen samples. Kidney showed no significant difference on the presence of melanomacrophage centers containing hemosiderin. Despite these changes, the fish health status was not affected. The results showed that propolis supplementation in the diet ofNile tilapia may be physiologically feasible.

  1. Nutritional characteristics of amazonian fish fat (Colossoma macropomum and its effect on lipid metabolism of rats fed hypercholesterolemic diets Características nutricionais do tambaqui (Colossoma Macropomum e seu efeito no metabolismo lipídico de ratos alimentados com dietas ricas em colesterol

    Raimundo Vicente de Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fat from tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, an Amazonian fish, on some nutritional and lipid parameters in rats were evaluated. Weaned Wistar rats were fed for 6 weeks with hypercholesterolemic diets containing 7.5% of soybean oil (SO, cod liver oil (CO, lard (LA, or tambaqui fat (TF. Food consumption, weight gain, and food conversion were measured weekly. Plasma triglycerides was determined at the beginning and on the 6th week of experiment. Plasma cholesterol was determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the sacrifice, hepatic lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol and plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL fractions were determined. Food consumption and weight gain were the same for all groups. There were no differences in plasma triglycerides among the four groups in the 1st and 6th weeks. Regarding the cholesterolemia, TF animals were similar to those fed SO diet, significantly lower than in LA group but higher compared to the CO group. The levels of very low density lipoprotein + low density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL were higher in the TF and LA groups compared to the CO and SO groups. However, TA fed animals had high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels higher than the CO group. The ratio (VLDL+LDL/HDL was higher in the LA group when compared with the remaining groups. In the TA group, the triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations in the liver were similar to the SO group. It may be concluded that tambaqui fat is a good dietary source of lipids as a substitute for lard and similar to soybean oil, as far as atherosclerosis risks is concerned.Os efeitos da ingestão da gordura de Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram analisados em relação a alguns parâmetros nutricionais e lipídicos. Para isso ratos Wistar recém desmamados alimentados por 6 semanas com dietas aterogênicas contendo 7,5% óleo de soja (SO, óleo de fígado de bacalhau (CO, sebo (LA, ou gordura de Tambaqui (TF foram utilizados. Consumo alimentar e

  2. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    Milohnoja, M [Veterinary College, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1986-07-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg.

  3. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    Milohnoja, M.

    1986-01-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg

  4. Comparison of endogenous loss and maintenance need for minerals in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed fishmeal or plant ingredient-based diets

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Mariojouls, C.; Surget, A.; Fontagné-Dicharry, S.; Schrama, J.W.; Geurden, I.

    2015-01-01

    Mineral needs as affected by changes in dietary protein and oil sources were studied in rainbow trout. Duplicate groups (n = 30 fish per replicate) of rainbow trout (initial BW: 37 g) were fed either a fish meal/fish oil-based (M) or a complete plant ingredient (V)-based diet at four graded ration

  5. Atmospheric contamination

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  6. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong [State Key Laboratory for Marine Environmental Science, College of Oceanography and Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 {mu}g/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 {mu}g/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 {mu}g/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 {mu}g/g THg and 0.13 {mu}g/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 {mu}g/g THg and 0.01 {mu}g/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope {delta}{sup 15}N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that {delta}{sup 15}N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  7. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mercury concentrations in caged fish were closely related to Hg concentrations in fish feeds. ► The trophic transfer factor of methylmercury was dependent on fish feeds, and was the highest for fish fed on pellet feeds. ► Fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because Hg levels can be carefully controlled. - Abstract: Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 μg/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 μg/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01–0.03 μg/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 μg/g THg and 0.13 μg/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 μg/g THg and 0.01 μg/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12–64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope δ 15 N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that δ 15 N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems.

  8. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  9. Elimination of {sup 137}Cs from Japanese Catfish Acutely Contaminated by Labelled Food

    Malek, M. A. [Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nakahara, M. [Laboratory for Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Isozaki, Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs in acutely contaminated Japanese catfish was determined. The fish were fed with fish meal incorporated with {sup 137}CsCl and then released into aquaria. To assess the {sup 137}Cs activity retained in the fish body, the whole body radioactivity of each fish was measured at regular intervals for up to 157 days. The data were plotted with relative counts on the y-axis and corresponding elapsed time on the x-axis. Relative count plotted against elapsed time was found to consist of three components, namely the first fast, second fast and the slow component. The true elimination curves of the first components were calculated by the peeling off method. The effective half-life of the fast components was determined from the slope of the true curves. The effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs for the first fast, second fast and the slow component in Japanese catfish was found to be 1.27, 5.76 and 251 days, respectively. (author)

  10. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  11. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish in Sokoto ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... monocytogenes and other Listeria species are common contaminant of smoked fish, and this may pose serious public health implications. Key words: Smoked fish, Listeria monocytogenes, contamination, public health. INTRODUCTION ... L. monocytogenes belong to the recently emerging psychrotrophic ...

  12. Fish health and fish quality

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  13. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  14. Fish, seafood and food from inland waters

    Feldt, A.

    1985-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of fish for radioactive nuclides yields data on the radiation exposure of the population as a consequence of fish consumption, and information on radioecological parameters (uptake by ingestion). Radioecological investigations have been made in the environment of nuclear installations and in marine regions where dumping of radioactive solid wastes was known to have been done. The paper reports on whole-fish monitoring for contamination with Sr-90 and Cs-137, and on examinations of pikes in the Kolksee of Northern Germany, for Cs-137 contamination. (DG) [de

  15. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallards

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Because consumption of lead-contaminated sediment has been suspected as the cause of waterfowl mortality in the Coeur d?Alene River basin in Idaho, we studied the bioavailability and toxicity of this sediment to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In experiment 1, one of 10 adult male mallards died when fed a pelleted commercial duck diet that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 3,400 μg/g lead in the sediment). Protoporphyrin levels in the blood increased as the percentage of lead-contaminated sediment in the diet increased. Birds fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment exhibited atrophy of the breast muscles, green staining of the feathers around the vent, viscous bile, green staining of the gizzard lining, and renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment had means of 6.1 μg/g of lead in the blood and 28 μg/g in the liver (wet-weight basis) and 1,660 μg/g in the feces (dry-weight basis). In experiment 2, we raised the dietary concentration of the lead-contaminated sediment to 48%, but only about 20% sediment was actually ingested due to food washing by the birds. Protoporphyrin levels were elevated in the lead-exposed birds, and all of the mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment had renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. The concentrations of lead in the liver were 9.1 μg/g for mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment and 16 μg/g for mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment. In experiment 3, four of five mallards died when fed a ground corn diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 4,000 μg/g lead in this sample of sediment), but none died when the 24% lead-contaminated sediment was mixed into a nutritionally balanced commercial duck diet; estimated actual ingestion rates for sediment were 14% and 17% for the corn and commercial diets. Lead exposure caused elevations in protoporphyrin, and four of the five mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment in a commercial diet and all five

  16. Fish pelleting

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  17. Fish parasites

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  18. Fish reproduction

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  19. Fish assemblages

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  20. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments

    Bernardes, B.; Dias Filho, M.

    1983-07-01

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 10 0 C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.)

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DO GANHO DE PESO DE PÓS-LARVAS DO CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, ALIMENTADOS COM PEIXES DA FAUNA ACOMPANHANTE DO CAMARÃO MARINHO EVALUATION OF WEIGHT GAIN IN POST-LARVAE OF MARINE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 FED ON FISH SPECIES WHICH COMPOSE THE MARINE SHRIMP FISHERIES BYCATCH

    Henrique José Mascarenhas dos Santos Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar o desenvolvimento inicial de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei em água doce utilizando como alimento peixes da fauna acompanhante da pesca do camarão marinho. Cultivaram-se 48 pós-larvas com peso e comprimento médio total iniciais de 0,008±0,001 g e 11,0±0,5 mm, respectivamente. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados, como alimento, ração comercial (RC para camarão marinho com 45% de proteína bruta, Opisthonema oglinum (OO (sardinha bandeira e Chloroscombus chrysurus (CC (palombeta, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A densidade de estocagem consistiu de quatro camarões por aquário. Durante os 75 dias de experimento, a alimentação foi administrada ad libitum. Registrou-se a temperatura média final de 27,1±0,8ºC para os três tratamentos e o pH médio final de 7,68±0,27 para os camarões alimentados com RC e 7,66±0,22 para os indivíduos alimentados com OO e CC, respectivamente. Os pesos médios finais foram de 0,560±0,096 g, 0,495±0,091 g e 0,500±0,101 g e os comprimentos totais finais de 62,1±0,9 mm, 57,0±0,8 mm e 56,2±0,9 mm para os tratamentos com RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Os resultados do peso e comprimento final mostraram que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos testados. A sobrevivência final foi de 87,5±14,4%, 68,8±12,5% e 62,5±14,3% para o RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização de ração para camarão marinho e os peixes marinhos O. oglinum e C. chrysurus como alimento para pós-larvas de camarão marinho apresentam desenvolvimento semelhante. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Camarão marinho, dietas, Chloroscombus chrysurus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Opisthonema oglinum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early development of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae in freshwater fed on fish species that compose the shrimp fisheries bycatch. Forty eight post

  2. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  3. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  4. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  5. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  7. Oxidative stress induced on Cyprinus carpio by contaminants present in the water and sediment of Madin Reservoir.

    Galar-Martinez, Marcela; Gomez-Olivan, Leobardo Manuel; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Razo-Estrada, Celene; Garcia-Medina, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Madin Reservoir (MR), located in the State of Mexico, is fed mainly by the Rio Tlalnepantla. MR supplies potable water to the municipalities of Naucalpan and Atizapan, and various recreational activities take place in its vicinity, such as sailing and the fishing of diverse species including the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxic effects of contaminants present in MR water and sediment on C. carpio. Five sampling stations were selected (those considered to have the most problems due to discharges). Water and sediment samples were taken and toxicity studies were performed, including acute toxicity (lethality) and subacute toxicity assays. The biomarkers used in the subacute assays were lipid peroxidation (LPX) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver and brain of test organisms. These biomarkers were also evaluated in local carp, i.e. carp with chronic exposure in situ to reservoir contaminants. Results show that contaminants in the water and sediment of the different sampling stations induce oxidative stress, this toxicity being more evident in samples from stations near the entry point of the Rio Tlalnepantla tributary and in local carp. This may be due to high contaminant levels as well as the fact that the physicochemical characteristics of the matrices might favor their bioavailability. Thus, both the water and sediment of this reservoir are contaminated with xenobiotics hazardous to C. carpio, a species consumed by the local human population.

  8. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  9. Fish oil concentrate delays sensitivity to thermal nociception in mice

    Veigas, Jyothi M.; Williams, Paul J.; Halade, Ganesh; Rahman, Mizanur M.; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil has been used to alleviate pain associated with inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. The anti-inflammatory property of fish oil is attributed to the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Contrarily, vegetable oils such as safflower oil are rich in n-6 fatty acids which are considered to be mediators of inflammation. This study investigates the effect of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids rich oils as dietary supplements on the thermally induced pain sensitivity in healthy mice. C57Bl/6J mice were fed diet containing regular fish oil, concentrated fish oil formulation (CFO) and safflower oil (SO) for 6 months. Pain sensitivity was measured by plantar test and was correlated to the expression of acid sensing ion channels (ASICs), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and c-fos in dorsal root ganglion cells. Significant delay in sensitivity to thermal nociception was observed in mice fed CFO compared to mice fed SO (p<0.05). A significant diminution in expression of ion channels such as ASIC1a (64%), ASIC13 (37%) and TRPV1 (56%) coupled with reduced expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was observed in the dorsal root ganglion cells of mice fed CFO compared to that fed SO. In conclusion, we describe here the potential of fish oil supplement in reducing sensitivity to thermal nociception in normal mice. PMID:21345372

  10. The growth of juvenile jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense fed diets with different carbohydrate levels (ESP

    Juan B Ulloa R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05 . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa values were found with the 18.8% carbohydrate diet. Growth performance, feed utilization parameters and the survival were the lowest with fish fed the highest carbohydrate level (35.6%. Fish body protein increased and body fat decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. The body ash showed a trend similar to the body protein. It is concluded that juvenile C. managuense can grow well when fed 40% protein diets containing up to 26.5% carbohydrate.

  11. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats?

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  12. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  17. Evolving Microbial Communities in Cellulose-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell

    Renata Toczyłowska-Mamińska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of cellulosic wastes make them attractive source of energy for producing electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. However, electricity production from cellulose requires obligate anaerobes that can degrade cellulose and transfer electrons to the electrode (exoelectrogens, and thus most previous MFC studies have been conducted using two-chamber systems to avoid oxygen contamination of the anode. Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs typically produce higher power densities than aqueous catholyte MFCs and avoid energy input for the cathodic reaction. To better understand the bacterial communities that evolve in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose, we examined the changes in the bacterial consortium in an MFC fed cellulose over time. The most predominant bacteria shown to be capable electron generation was Firmicutes, with the fermenters decomposing cellulose Bacteroidetes. The main genera developed after extended operation of the cellulose-fed MFC were cellulolytic strains, fermenters and electrogens that included: Parabacteroides, Proteiniphilum, Catonella and Clostridium. These results demonstrate that different communities evolve in air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose than the previous two-chamber reactors.

  18. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Hoh, Eunha; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Teh, Swee J.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris litters aquatic habitats globally, the majority of which is microscopic (plastic and accumulated pollutants are largely unknown. Here, we show that fish, exposed to a mixture of polyethylene with chemical pollutants sorbed from the marine environment, bioaccumulate these chemical pollutants and suffer liver toxicity and pathology. Fish fed virgin polyethylene fragments also show signs of stress, although less severe than fish fed marine polyethylene fragments. We provide baseline information regarding the bioaccumulation of chemicals and associated health effects from plastic ingestion in fish and demonstrate that future assessments should consider the complex mixture of the plastic material and their associated chemical pollutants. PMID:24263561

  19. Fishing Access Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  20. Ra-226 bioaccumulation and growth indices in fish.

    Shi, Xiaopei; Smith, Richard; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2017-06-01

    To determine the accumulated activity of Ra-226 in fathead minnows fed with environmentally relevant levels of Ra-226 for 5 months in water at 20 °C, and to evaluate the influence of this level of Ra-226 on the growth of fathead minnows. Fathead minnows were fed with fish food containing 10-10,000 mBq/g Ra-226 for 5 months. At the end of the experiment, the fish were sacrificed, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at -20 °C. Longitudinal sections of 40 μm thickness were cut at the middle of the fish body using a cryostat. The activity of Ra-226 in each section was determined using autoradiography with a nuclear track detector CR-39. According to the weight and the width of the fish, the activity of Ra-226 in the whole fish body could be estimated. In addition, the length and the weight of the fish were measured and the condition factor was calculated to evaluate the growth and fitness of the fish. There is a positive but non-linear relationship between the accumulated activity of Ra-226 in fish body and the concentration of Ra-226 in fish food. The highest activity of Ra-226 accumulated in fish body was found from fish fed with 10,000 mBq/g Ra-226 food. This was calculated as 256.4 ± 49.1 mBq/g, p fish fed with food containing lower concentration of Ra-226 (up to 1000 mBq/g), the bioaccumulation of Ra-226 in the body saturated. The Ra-226 concentration factor (CF) for fish was inversely proportional to the Ra-226 activity in food, and the highest CF value was 2.489, obtained from the lowest dietary Ra-226 activity (10 mBq/g). In addition, condition factors (K) of fish in all Ra-226-treated groups were significantly lower than those of the controls. The results show that the bioaccumulation of Ra-226 in fish is not simply related to the dietary Ra-226 activity, and has a saturation value when the dietary activity is low. In addition, the environmental level of Ra-226 in the fish food has a small adverse effect on the growth and fitness of fathead

  1. Reproduction in eastern screech-owls fed selenium

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Raptors are occasionally exposed to excessive selenium from contaminated prey, but the effects of this exposure on reproduction are unknown. Therefore, we fed captive eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) diets containing 0, 4.4, or 13.2 ppm (wet wt) added selenium in the form of seleno-DL-methionine. Adult mass at sacrifice and reproductive success of birds receiving 13.2 ppm selenium were depressed (P biochemistries indicative of oxidative stress were affected (P < 0.05) in 5-day-old nestlings from parents fed 4.4 ppm selenium and included a 19% increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, a 43% increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH), and a 17% increase in lipid peroxidation. Based on reproductive effects relative to dietary exposure, sensitivity of eastern screech-owls to selenium was similar to that of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) but less than that of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  2. Semiquantitative mercury determination in fish: a tool for poisoning prevention

    YALLOUZ ALLEGRA V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mercury intoxication through contaminated fish ingestion has been well studied, mainly among Japanese population. The Brazilian population, particulaly in the Amazon region, is now in focus due to findings of fish contamination. Major health impacts caused by mercury affect mostly people who have a regular fish diet. A continuous checking for mercury content in the most consumed fish could prevent human intoxication. A simple, non-instrumental method to allow a continuous checking of the mercury content in fish was developed. Based on this method, we are proposing a prevention action where community agents can be trained to perform fish analysis. Technical Schools and Universities located nearby the affected areas would be in charge of quality control programs for the fish analysis as well as for the selection, training and update for operators.

  3. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  4. Bioaccumulation of organic micropollutants in different aquatic organisms. Sublethal toxic effects on fish

    van der Oost, Ron; Heida, Henk; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Vermeulen, Nico P E

    1991-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in plankton, crustaceans, and fish from two relatively small Amsterdam lakes, with different levels of contamination. Ratios between contaminant

  5. Scrapie infectivity is quickly cleared in tissues of orally-infected farmed fish

    Faoro Franco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE belongs to the group of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE. BSE epidemic in the UK and elsewhere in Europe has been linked to the use of bovine meat and bone meals (MBM in the feeding of cattle. There is concern that pigs, poultry and fish bred for human consumption and fed with infected MBM would eventually develop BSE or carry residual infectivity without disease. Although there has been no evidence of infection in these species, experimental data on the susceptibility to the BSE agent of farm animals other than sheep and cow are limited only to pigs and domestic chicken. In the framework of a EU-granted project we have challenged two species of fish largely used in human food consumption, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, with a mouse-adapted TSE strain (scrapie 139A, to assess the risk related to oral consumption of TSE contaminated food. In trout, we also checked the "in vitro" ability of the pathological isoform of the mouse prion protein (PrPSc to cross the intestinal epithelium when added to the mucosal side of everted intestine. Results Fish challenged with a large amount of scrapie mouse brain homogenate by either oral or parenteral routes, showed the ability to clear the majority of infectivity load. None of the fish tissues taken at different time points after oral or parenteral inoculation was able to provoke scrapie disease after intracerebral inoculation in recipient mice. However, a few recipient mice were positive for PrPSc and spongiform lesions in the brain. We also showed a specific binding of PrPSc to the mucosal side of fish intestine in the absence of an active uptake of the prion protein through the intestinal wall. Conclusion These results indicate that scrapie 139A, and possibly BSE, is quickly removed from fish tissues despite evidence of a prion like protein in fish and of a specific binding of Pr

  6. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  7. Determination of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine in fish muscle plus skin by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Withdrawal-time calculation after in-feed administration in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed two different diets.

    Zonaras, V; Tyrpenou, A; Alexis, M; Koupparis, M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a depletion study for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in muscle plus skin of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine, the main metabolite of sulfadiazine (SDZ), was also examined. The fish were held in seawater at a temperature of 24-26 °C. SDZ and trimethoprim (TMP) were administered orally with medicated feed for five consecutive days at daily doses of 25 mg SDZ and 5 mg TMP per kg of fish body weight per day. Two different diets, fish oil- and plant oil-based diets, were investigated. Ten fish were sampled at each of the days 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 after the start of veterinary medicine administration. However for the calculation of the withdrawal periods, sampling day 1 was set as 24 h after the last dose of the treatment. Fish samples were analyzed for SDZ, TMP, and acetyl-sulfadiazine (AcSDZ) residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SDZ and TMP concentrations declined rapidly from muscle plus skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 100 μg/kg for the total of sulfonamides and 50 μg/kg for TMP residues in fish muscle plus skin, the withdrawal periods of the premix trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 50% were calculated as 5 and 6 days, at 24-26 °C, in fish oil (FO) and plant oil (PO) groups, respectively. The investigation of this work is important to protect consumers by controlling the undesirable residues in fish. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The application of radiography to the study of fish nutrition

    Carter, C.G.; Houlihan, D.F.; Fonseca, M.; Perera, W.M.K.; Sillah, A.B.S.; McCarthy, I.D.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of individual food consumption rates of fish held in groups using radiography has enabled the development of a new approach to fish nutrition trials. In order to compare diets, groups of individually numbered fish are fed different experimental diets over extended periods of time (similar to standard nutrition trials) and food consumption rates are measured regularly over the course of the experiment. Analysis of covariance is then used to compare regression coefficients, obtained from mean consumption-growth relationships, from each diet. The advantages of the approach are several: (1) differences in appetite between fish fed different diets are monitored; (2) fewer fish are needed to establish consumption-growth curves over a large range of consumption rates; (3) measured food consumption rates, not ration levels, are used to calculate ‘true’ growth efficiencies; and (4) other factors, such as absorption efficiency, trypsin activity, the concentration of free amino acids in tissues and protein turnover can be measured for individual fish and related to differences in food consumption between fish in the same group. The approach has been used successfully with a variety of species to compare the growth response of groups fed two or more diets

  9. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.

  10. Proteome Analysis of Pyloric Ceca: A Methodology for Fish Feed Development?

    Wulff, Tune; Petersen, Jørgen; Nørrelykke, Mette R.

    2012-01-01

    Changing the protein source of fish feed from fish meal to alternative sources of protein will affect traits such as fish growth, quality, and feed utilization. The present investigation was initiated to introduce a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic workflow as a tool to investi......Changing the protein source of fish feed from fish meal to alternative sources of protein will affect traits such as fish growth, quality, and feed utilization. The present investigation was initiated to introduce a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic workflow as a tool...... to investigate feed effects on fish by analyzing protein changes in the fish gut. The workflow was used to study the effect of substituting fish meal in fish feed by alternative sources of protein. Rainbow trout divided into five groups were fed for 72 days with feeds varying in protein composition. By two...

  11. Effects of fermentation time and low temperature during the production process of Thai pickled fish (pla-som) on the viability and infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae.

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Pinlaor, Porntip; Haonon, Ornuma; Chaidee, Apisit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Boonmars, Thidarut; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2016-02-02

    Contamination of a popular fermented fish dish, pla-som, by Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OVMC) is a possible cause of carcinogenic liver fluke infection in Thailand. Affected individuals are at risk of bile duct cancer, which is a major health problem for people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In order to investigate concerns about food safety, we studied the effects of fermentation time and low temperature on the viability and infectivity of OVMC during the pla-som production process. Pla-som was prepared at room temperature for up to 1 week in duplicate experiments using cyprinid freshwater fish obtained from an O. viverrini-endemic area. OVMC were then isolated and identified under a stereomicroscope. Complete and viable OVMC were found on days 1-4 of fermentation, while their morphology was degenerated thereafter. After OVMC were fed to hamsters, the percentage of the worm recovery after 1 to 2 months of infection was 52%, 44.7%, 11.3% and 1% for days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In order to measure the effect of low temperature on OVMC, fish were kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) for up to five days and then subsequently fermented for three days. In fish stored in a refrigerator for 1 and 2 days, viable OVMC were clearly observed and were able to infect hamsters, a worm-recovery percentage of 3.3% and 12.7%, respectively. By contrast, in pla-som prepared from fish stored for 3 to 5 days, OVMC were degenerated and could not infect the host. In conclusion, pla-som fermentation for more than four days and refrigerating fish for three days before pla-som processing can prevent O. viverrini infection. This study may increase awareness of fermented-fish dish preparation to prevent liver fluke infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Food wastes as fish feeds for polyculture of low-trophic-level fish: bioaccumulation and health risk assessments of heavy metals in the cultured fish.

    Cheng, Zhang; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The major purpose of this study was to use different types of food wastes which serve as the major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. Two types of food waste-based feed pellets FW A (with cereals) and FW B (with cereals and meat products) and the commercial feed Jinfeng® were used to culture fingerlings of three low-trophic-level fish species: bighead carp, grass carp, and mud carp (in the ratio of 1:3:1) for 1 year period in the Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm in Hong Kong. Heavy metal concentrations in all of the fish species fed with food waste pellets and commercial pellets in Sha Tau Kok fish ponds were all below the local and international maximum permissible levels in food. Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of the fish fed with food waste feed pellets was safe for the Hong Kong residents. The present results revealed that recycling of food waste for cultivating low-trophic-level fish (mainly herbivores and detritus feeders) is feasible, and at the same time will ease the disposal pressure of food waste, a common problem of densely populated cities like Hong Kong.

  13. Fish irradiation

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  14. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  15. Prevalence and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated seafood

    Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes contamination of seafood varies with product category. The highest prevalence was found in cold- smoked fish (34-60%), while the lowest was found in heat- treated and cured seafood (4-12%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes differed greatly in cold-smoked salmon between...... production sites, ranging from monocytogenes. The organism showed moderate growth...... in naturally contaminated cold-smoked, and 'gravad', fish while the growth appeared faster in hot smoked fish. Thus L. monocytogenes is not under control in these products. Finally, the prevalence and growth of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated cold-smoked salmon are discussed in relation...

  16. SEASONAL INFLUENCES ON PCB RETENTION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN FISH

    James, Margaret O.; Kleinow, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that fish from waters with PCB-contaminated sediments accumulate PCBs and related chemicals, and that people who eat fish from contaminated waters have higher body burdens of PCBs and PCB metabolites than those who do not. PCBs and their metabolites are potentially toxic, thus it is important to human health to understand the uptake, biotransformation and elimination of PCBs in fish, since these processes determine the extent of accumulation. The intestinal uptake of PCBs present in the diet of fish into fish tissues is a process that is influenced by the lipid composition of the diet. Biotransformation of PCBs in fish, as in mammals, facilitates elimination, although many PCB congeners are recalcitrant to biotransformation in fish and mammals. Sequential biotransformation of PCBs by cytochrome P450 and conjugation pathways is even less efficient in fish than in mammalian species, thus contributing to the retention of PCBs in fish tissues. A very important factor influencing overall PCB disposition in fish is water temperature. Seasonal changes in water temperature produce adaptive physiological and biochemical changes in fish. While uptake of PCBs from the diet is similar in fish acclimated to winter or summer temperatures, there is evidence that elimination of PCBs occurs much more slowly when the fish is acclimated at low temperatures than at warmer temperatures. Research to date suggests that the processes of elimination of PCBs are modulated by several factors in fish including seasonal changes in water temperature. Thus, the body burden of PCBs in fish from a contaminated location is likely to vary with season. PMID:23494683

  17. Light contamination

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  18. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  19. Chemical and biological contamination of fish products; Contaminazione chimica e biologica dei prodotti della pesca. Corso tenuto presso l`Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Roma, 1-2 giugno 1994

    Stacchini, Angelo [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. Alimenti

    1997-03-01

    The first contribution deals with chemical contaminants, particularly heavy metals and their acceptable daily intake (ADI). The following contributions deals with sanitary measures concerning biological contamination associated with the consumption of seafood, especially shellfish, taking into consideration the epidemiological relevance of some biological contaminants in Italy and Europe. Particular sanitary aspects concerning the presence of enteric viruses in mussels are presented; new molecular biology methodologies and the different techniques for enteroviruses concentration are discussed. Some questions concerning the detection of algal bio toxins are shown, based on the experience recently acquired by the Istituto Superiore di Sanita` about the biological methods. The current chromatographic methods for PSP and DSP biotoxin determination and the most recent developments in chemical methods based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric techniques are presented. The last section is devoted to the parasitic contamination of seafood.

  20. Hurricane Katrina: Fishing and Aquaculture Industries -- Damage and Recovery

    Buck, Eugene H

    2005-01-01

    ...% of the shrimp and 40% of the oysters consumed in the United States. Because of the damage wrought by Katrina, many areas of the Gulf Coast have been closed to fishing because of pollution-related contamination concerns...

  1. Monitoring of heavy metals in marine and freshwater fishes and nutritional evaluation of fish consumption

    Rina Mulyaningsih

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a food source of minerals. Uptake of heavy metals in fish could come from water, sediment and fish feed. Monitoring of minerals content and contaminants in fish has been carried out to evaluate nutrition and food safety, using neutron activation analysis techniques. Marine fish species that being analyzed are Kembung (Rastrelliger faughni), mackerel (Acanthocybium solandri), Tuna (Authis thazard) and freshwater fishes are Bawal (Colossoma macropomum), Nila (Oreochromis niloticus), Mas (Cyprinus carpio), sampled from 6 markets in North Jakarta. Monitoring results indicate that the essential minerals contained in fish are Fe, K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Se. Se and Ca concentrations in marine fish are higher than in freshwater fish. The concentration of other essential elements varies depending on the type of fish. The concentration of arsenic in marine fish is 3 times higher than that of freshwater fish; Hg and Cr content in all fish species were observed. From the evaluation of the adequacy of nutrition, with assuming a consumption of 86.68 g fish/day, for men aged 19 - 30 years, and referring to data from the Institute of Medicine USA, the Ca intake : 2.5 - 6.3; Cl : 1.5 - 3.3; Fe : 11.5 - 26.9; Na : 1.5 - 4.1; K : 3.4 - 6.7 and Zn 3.9 - 7.2% of the recommended value. Cr intake exceeds the recommended value, while As and Hg is not recommended in the food. In fact these metals contained in the studied fish, but the concentration is still below the value of standards issued by BPOM. (author)

  2. Biological influence of ash from radioactive fish

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T. Nakae, Y.; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Bones of a radioactive fish were ashed, extracted with 10 per cent HCl, and the extraction was neutralized with 10 per cent NaOH to give a white precipitate suspended in H/sub 2/O. The suspension was fed to rabbits. Most of the radioactivity was excreted in the feces; a small portion was retained in the cecum. Internal radioactivity was highest in the bones.

  3. Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: preliminary study and first evidence.

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Bender, Coline; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fish oil feeding is associated with an increased accumulation of dietary lipids in enterocytes: Results from an in vivo study in rats

    Larsen, L.F.; Marckmann, P.; Hansen, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Chronic fish oil consumption is associated with reduced postprandial lipaemia, but the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. We studied whether lipid absorption might be altered in rats fed fish oil. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed fish oil enriched chow (n = 6...... contents of enterocytes were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Two other groups of rats (2 x 6) fed the experimental diets were given an oral fat load and fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken. Results: The accumulation of H-3-lipids in enterocytes was higher in rats fed fish oil...... than in controls (area under the H-3-lipid time curve: 1041.3 versus 670.3 nmol oleic acid x min/mug DNA, P fish oil. The amount of non-absorbed H-3-lipid tended to be higher in the fish...

  5. DOMESTICATION OF FRESHWATER PUFFER FISH OR BUNTAL (Tetraodon palembangensis

    I Wayan Subamia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Research Institute for Freshwater Ornamental Fish Culture has been conducting domestication research since 2004 on adult freshwater puffer fish or buntal broodstock in which the fish were reared in aquaria and fed with small feed fish teri (anchovy and earthworm (Lumbricus sp.. The domestication of freshwater puffer fish or buntal has resulted in successful environmental adaptation and reproductive ability of the fish and further rearing of its fry. The adaptive ability was indicated by its high survival rate, good growth and development, and the reproductive success in spawning, egg production, hatching as well as growing of the larvae to fry stages. The mature gonad stage of the fish was reached at an average body weight of 150 g with a reproductive period of 5 months. The spawning occurred naturally and the eggs were gradually released at interval periods of 14—18 days with egg production rates of 1,000—1,900 eggs per spawning. The highest egg fertilization rate was 96%, with the highest egg hatching rate of 78.6%. Hatching process took place on the 6th to 13th days after spawning process. The surviving larvae began feeding filtered natural foods Moina sp. on the 3rd day up to the 6th day, whereas unfiltered Moina sp. was given from the 7th to 14th days. The fish were fed the live feed Culex sp. from the 15th to 30th days. In the following period the fish was fed earthworm and small feed fish teri (anchovy.

  6. Mercury and its toxic effects on fish

    Patricia Morcillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg and its derivative compounds have been parts of widespread pollutants of the aquatic environment. Since Hg is absorbed by fish and passed up the food chain to other fish-eating species, it does not only affect aquatic ecosystems but also humans through bioaccumulation. Thus, the knowledge of toxicological effects of Hg on fish has become one of the aims in research applied to fish aquaculture. Moreover, the use of alternative methods to animal testing has gained great interest in the field of Toxicology. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with Hg poisoning on fish. Such data are extremely useful to the scientific community and public officials involved in health risk assessment and management of environmental contaminants as a guide to the best course of action to restore ecosystems and, in turn, to preserve human health.

  7. Experimental and natural warming elevates mercury concentrations in estuarine fish.

    Jennifer A Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Marine food webs are the most important link between the global contaminant, methylmercury (MeHg, and human exposure through consumption of seafood. Warming temperatures may increase human exposure to MeHg, a potent neurotoxin, by increasing MeHg production as well as bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through marine food webs. Studies of the effects of temperature on MeHg bioaccumulation are rare and no study has specifically related temperature to MeHg fate by linking laboratory experiments with natural field manipulations in coastal ecosystems. We performed laboratory and field experiments on MeHg accumulation under varying temperature regimes using the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Temperature treatments were established in salt pools on a coastal salt marsh using a natural temperature gradient where killifish fed on natural food sources. Temperatures were manipulated across a wider range in laboratory experiments with killifish exposed to MeHg enriched food. In both laboratory microcosms and field mesocosms, MeHg concentrations in killifish significantly increased at elevated temperatures. Moreover, in field experiments, other ancillary variables (salinity, MeHg in sediment, etc. did not relate to MeHg bioaccumulation. Modeling of laboratory experimental results suggested increases in metabolic rate as a driving factor. The elevated temperatures we tested are consistent with predicted trends in climate warming, and indicate that in the absence of confounding factors, warmer sea surface temperatures could result in greater in bioaccumulation of MeHg in fish, and consequently, increased human exposure.

  8. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  9. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  10. Fish gelatin.

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  12. Fish cognition

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  13. Fish hemoglobins

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  14. Fish hemoglobins

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-fed Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Kaartikey Misra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid propellants are fast becoming attractive for pulsed plasma thrusters due to their high efficiency and low contamination issues. However, the complete plasma interaction and acceleration processes are still not very clear. Present paper develops a multi-layer numerical model for liquid propellant PPTs (pulsed plasma thrusters. The model is based on a quasi-steady flow assumption. The model proposes a possible acceleration mechanism for liquid-fed pulsed plasma thrusters and accurately predicts the propellant utilization capabilities and estimations for the fraction of propellant gas that is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities. Validation of the numerical model and the assumptions on which the model is based on is achieved by comparing the experimental results and the simulation results for two different liquid-fed thrusters developed at the University of Tokyo. Simulation results shows that up-to 50 % of liquid propellant injected is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities (>50 Km/s, whereas, neutral gas contribute to only 7 % of the total specific impulse and accelerated to low exit velocity (<4 Km/s. The model shows an accuracy up-to 92 % . Optimization methods are briefly discussed to ensure efficient propellant utilization and performance. The model acts as a tool to understand the background physics and to optimize the performance for liquid-fed PPTs.

  16. Water Contamination

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  17. Bait preference in basket trap fishing operation and heavy metal ...

    The bait preference of basket traps fishing operation and heavy metal contamination in the trap catches from Lagos Lagoon were carried out between January and June 2011. Sixty baskets traps were used for the fishing operation, twenty basket traps were baited each with soap, coconut and maize. Clibanarius africanus ...

  18. Analysis of the Physicochemical Burden of Oyo State Fish Pond ...

    UCHWW was transparent, foamy, slimy, slightly smelly and no animal life was sighted in it. BDJWW was clear, no odour, animal life forms including fish and surface arthropods were sighted. Results of physicochemical parameters reported in the present study indicate contamination in OYSFP and fish produced there may ...

  19. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders

    Jenny L. Carwile

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a major source of nutrients critical for brain development during early life. The importance of childhood fish consumption is supported by several studies reporting associations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation with better behavior and school performance. However, fish may have a different effect than n-3 PUFA alone due to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, a frequent contaminant. We investigated associations of childhood fish consumption with learning and behavioral disorders in birth cohort study of the neurotoxic effects of early life exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Childhood (age 7–12 years fish consumption and learning and behavioral problems were reported in self-administered questionnaires (age 23–41 at questionnaire completion. Fish consumption was not meaningfully associated with repeating a grade, tutoring, attending summer school, special class placement, or low educational attainment. However, participants who ate fish several times a week had an elevated odds of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (odds ratio: 5.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–18 compared to participants who did not eat fish. While these findings generally support the safety of the observed level of fish consumption, the absence of a beneficial effect may be attributed to insufficient fish intake or the choice of relatively low n-3 PUFA fish.

  20. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective...

  1. Fish consumption by children in Canada: Review of evidence, challenges and future goals

    Wine, Osnat; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Buka, Irena S

    2012-01-01

    Fish consumption is of great importance to children’s health and is essential for neurodevelopment, which begins in pregnancy and continues throughout early childhood and into adolescence. However, fish consumption presents conflicting health outcomes associated with its nutritional benefits and its adverse contaminant risks, because both avoiding fish as well as the consumption of contaminated fish can potentially harm children. This may be challenging to communicate. The present review was performed to assess the current knowledge and recommendations around ‘smart’ fish-consumption decisions. Health Canada advises, as well as other advisories and guides, that fish should be consumed for its health benefits, while also informing consumers, especially women and children, to limit certain fish consumption. The current literature must attempt to handle the challenges inherent in communicating the dilemmas of children’s fish consumption. Incorporation of new knowledge translation strategies are proposed as a means to raise the level of knowledge about optimal fish consumption practices. PMID:23633896

  2. Probabilistic framework for assessing the arsenic exposure risk from cooked fish consumption.

    Ling, Min-Pei; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chio, Chia-Pin; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a major ecological and human health problem in southwestern and northeastern coastal areas of Taiwan. Here, we present a probabilistic framework for assessing the human health risks from consuming raw and cooked fish that were cultured in groundwater As-contaminated ponds in Taiwan by linking a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model and a Weibull dose-response model. Results indicate that As levels in baked, fried, and grilled fish were higher than those of raw fish. Frying resulted in the greatest increase in As concentration, followed by grilling, with baking affecting the As concentration the least. Simulation results show that, following consumption of baked As-contaminated fish, the health risk to humans is fish is unlikely to pose a significant risk to human health. However, contaminated fish cooked by frying resulted in significant health risks, showing the highest cumulative incidence ratios of liver cancer. We also show that males have higher cumulative incidence ratio of liver cancer than females. We found that although cooking resulted in an increase for As levels in As-contaminated fish, the risk to human health of consuming baked fish is nevertheless acceptable. We suggest the adoption of baking as a cooking method and warn against frying As-contaminated fish. We conclude that the concentration of contaminants after cooking should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk to human health.

  3. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  4. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  5. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    SAM

    Quantitative determination of heavy metals: zinc, iron, lead, copper, cadmium and aluminium ...... consumption of dairy products, fish/seafood and meat from Ismailia ... Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Grown in Bangalore Urban.

  6. Fish Tales

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  7. Fish Tales

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  8. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Thillart, van den G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four

  9. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  10. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  11. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  12. MERCURY EXPOSURE FROM FISH CONSUMPTION WITHIN THE JAPANESE AND KOREAN COMMUNITIES

    Public health guidance pertaining to fish consumption requires that we be cognizant of the health concerns associated with eating contaminated fish and the nutritional benefits obtained from fish consumption. In doing so, a need exists for an improved understanding of the extent ...

  13. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: → Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. → Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. → The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  14. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  15. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: carsanz@um.es [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  16. Pyrosequencing survey of intestinal microbiota diversity in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed functional diets.

    Carda Diéguez, Miguel; Mira, Alex; Fouz Rodríguez, Belén

    2014-01-01

    The routine use of chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases in aquatic populations has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The inclusion of immunostimulants in fish diets (functional diets) is one of the main strategies to solve this threat. This study aimed to analyse the intestinal microbiota of cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed two functional diets applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Quality-filtered reads were assigned...

  17. Fishing activities

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  18. Food contamination with salmonella and human health in Kinshasa ...

    SARAH

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of salmonella contamination of fish and meat from public markets, meat from ... Material and sampling: Seventy-two samples of fresh fish, 120 samples of meat (beef, ..... prevalence and number of. Salmonella in sausages and their destruction.

  19. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  20. Fish tapeworm infection

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  1. Reproductive performance and larval quality of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus broodstock, fed with different feeds

    Vutthichai Oniam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity, hatching rate and crab larvae quality of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, broodstock reared inearthen ponds, fed with different feeds, were studied for about 150 days. Results showed that average fecundity ofP. pelagicus broodstock fed with trash fish (569,842±243,173 eggs, shrimp feed (464,098±188,884 eggs, mixed feeds(544,875.3±169,357.3 eggs and hatching rate (50.78±25.19%, 62.33±26.79% and 50.86±20.76% were not significantly different(P>0.05. Zoea produced by female broodstock fed with mixed feeds had a significantly higher survival rate (89.47±5.03%,P<0.05 compared to those produced by female broodstock fed with trash fish (73.40±14.61% and shrimp feeds (67.33±12.80%, but the survival rate of megalopa and first crab stages was not affected. This study recommends that the mixed feedwas suitable feed for rearing of P. pelagicus broodstock in an earthen pond as evidenced by the quality of zoea I or 1 dayafter hatching and growth of female broodstock.

  2. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  3. Differentiation between microcystin contaminated and uncontaminated fish by determination of unconjugated MCs using an ELISA anti-Adda test based on receiver-operating characteristic curves threshold values: application to Tinca tinca from natural ponds.

    Moreno, Isabel María; Herrador, M Ángeles; Atencio, Loyda; Puerto, María; González, A Gustavo; Cameán, Ana María

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) anti-Adda technique could be used to monitor free microcystins (MCs) in biological samples from fish naturally exposed to toxic cyanobacteria by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve software to establish an optimal cut-off value for MCs. The cut-off value determined by ROC curve analysis in tench (Tinca tinca) exposed to MCs under laboratory conditions by ROC curve analysis was 5.90-μg MCs/kg tissue dry weight (d.w.) with a sensitivity of 93.3%. This value was applied in fish samples from natural ponds (Extremadura, Spain) in order to asses its potential MCs bioaccumulation by classifying samples as either true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN), or false negative (FN). In this work, it has been demonstrated that toxic cyanobacteria, mainly Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon issatchenkoi, and Anabaena spiroides, were present in two of these ponds, Barruecos de Abajo (BDown) and Barruecos de Arriba (BUp). The MCs levels were detected in waters from both ponds with an anti-MC-LR ELISA immunoassay and were of similar values (between 3.8-6.5-μg MC-LR equivalent/L in BDown pond and 4.8-6.0-μg MC-LR equivalent/L in BUp). The MCs cut-off values were applied in livers from fish collected from these two ponds using the ELISA anti-Adda technique. A total of 83% of samples from BDown pond and only 42% from BUp were TP with values of free MCs higher than 8.8-μg MCs/kg tissue (d.w.). Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  5. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.

    Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

    2010-02-01

    A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed.

  6. Mercury in fish from two Nicaraguan lakes: A recommendation for increased monitoring of fish for international commerce

    McCrary, Jeffrey K.; Castro, Mark; McKaye, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    We measured total mercury concentrations in water and fish of Lake Managua and Lake Apoyo. Water mercury concentrations were 10-fold higher in Lake Managua than in Lake Apoyo, although differences in mercury concentration in the most common native fish were not significant. One-fourth of the commercially fished tilapia in Lake Managua exceeded maximum recommended mercury levels for consumption among pregnant women and other at-risk groups, although bioavailability to fishes was lower than in previously studied sites in Brazil and Western Maryland. The lower bioavailiability may present important information for management options to reduce mercury exposure to fishes and humans. We recommend closer mercury monitoring among freshwater fish destined for international commerce. - Fish commonly exported into the international food supply may be contaminated with mercury

  7. Mercury in fish from two Nicaraguan lakes: A recommendation for increased monitoring of fish for international commerce

    McCrary, Jeffrey K. [University of Central America, Apdo. 69, Managua (Nicaragua) and College of Natural Resources, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)]. E-mail: jmccrary2@yahoo.com; Castro, Mark [Appalachian Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 301 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD 21532 (United States); McKaye, Kenneth R. [University of Central America, Apdo. 69, Managua (Nicaragua); Appalachian Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 301 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD 21532 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    We measured total mercury concentrations in water and fish of Lake Managua and Lake Apoyo. Water mercury concentrations were 10-fold higher in Lake Managua than in Lake Apoyo, although differences in mercury concentration in the most common native fish were not significant. One-fourth of the commercially fished tilapia in Lake Managua exceeded maximum recommended mercury levels for consumption among pregnant women and other at-risk groups, although bioavailability to fishes was lower than in previously studied sites in Brazil and Western Maryland. The lower bioavailiability may present important information for management options to reduce mercury exposure to fishes and humans. We recommend closer mercury monitoring among freshwater fish destined for international commerce. - Fish commonly exported into the international food supply may be contaminated with mercury.

  8. Effects of supplemental enzymes on apparent nutrient digestibility in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant-based diets

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    2010-01-01

    in fish feed due to growing demands for and high price variations in fish meal, but high inclusion levels in diets for carnivorous fish are hampered by a great variety of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), which reduce nutrient utilisation. Exogenous dietary enzymes may potentially help to alleviate...... on the effects of enzymes in fish feed apart from phytase. Phytase works by hydrolyzing phytic acid, and numerous studies have documented that phytase supplementation increases phosphorus availability in fish fed diets with high inclusion levels of plant proteins. Plant derived proteins are increasingly used...... these effects, and the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing protease and pectinase to a diet containing approximately 30% soybean meal, rapeseed meal or sunflower meal on nutrient digestibility in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Digestibility trials were...

  9. Contents and risks of potentially toxic elements in wastewater-fed food production systems in Southeast Asia

    Marcussen, Helle

    , fish, soil and sediment from wastewater-fed production systems in Hanoi and Phnom Penh. Another aim was to assess the food safety risks of water spinach and fish with respect to PTEs. The third aim was to assess PTE retention capacity of river sediment in Hanoi and the governing retention mechanisms...... the concentration range observed for water spinach grown at agricultural soil not exposed to wastewater in Malaysia. Water spinach grown at sites of high and low wastewater exposure did not show a significantly higher accumulation of PTEs compared to sites without wastewater exposure. In Phnom Penh, water spinach...... than 11% of the tolerable intake for each element. The PTE content of water spinach in Hanoi and Cheung Ek Lake in Phnom Penh constituted low food safety risks for consumers. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle, skin and liver of fish grown in wastewater-fed systems in Hanoi and Phnom were low...

  10. Contamination shield

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  11. Cotton contamination

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  12. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  13. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  14. The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Granby, Kit; Rainieri, Sandra; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2018-01-01

    When microplastics pollute fish habitats, it may be ingested by fish, thereby contaminating fish with sorbed contaminants. The present study investigates how combinations of halogenated contaminants and microplastics associated with feed are able to alter toxicokinetics in European seabass...... and affect the fish. Microplastic particles (2%) were added to the feed either with sorbed contaminants or as a mixture of clean microplastics and chemical contaminants, and compared to feed containing contaminants without microplastics. For the contaminated microplastic diet, the accumulation...... days of exposure indicate that microplastics might indeed exacerbate the toxic effects (liver metabolism, immune system, oxidative stress) of some chemical contaminants sorbed to microplastics. Seabass quickly metabolised BDE99 to BDE47 by debromination, probably mediated by deiodinase enzymes...

  15. Evaluation of Sediment Contamination in Pearl Harbor

    1992-06-01

    ancient Hawaiians, was a large natural inland lagoon. Numerous walled fishponds located inside the harbor were used to cultivate various species of fishes... Ecotoxicology , Commission on Natural Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 103 pp. National Research Council, 1989. Contaminated Marine

  16. Pasteurization of fish meal by irradiation. Pt. 1

    Reusse, U.; Bischoff, J.; Fleischhauer, G.; Geister, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made on a number of samples of fish meal heavily contaminated (several foci of infection per sample, corresponding 'more than 100% contamination') with salmonella. A dose of 0.7 Mrad proved to be sufficient to inactivate all salmonellaes in all samples. The apparently reduced effect of radiation after artificial contamination of the meal was due to the extreme super-infection. Inactivation curves showed that the salmonella strains used for artificial contamination were more susceptible than those in naturally infected fish meal. Calculation of the slope parameter for a single salmonella type enables the dose of radiation needed to ensure freedom of the meal from salmonella to be determined for each level of infection. With two naturally infected fish meals which contained a total of 18 different serotypes a mean slope parameter of b = -1.99 was calculated which met the requirements posed by the problem of freeing meal from salmonella. (orig.) [de

  17. Control of radioactive contamination of food in the country Somogy

    Varga, E.; Viragh, I.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of spinach, sorrel, lettuce, animal bones, milk and fish was determined in the period 1961-1978. Peak values were measured in 1963 and 1976. The contamination of plants reached higher levels, however, it did not exceed 25 pCi per g dry weight. (L.E.)

  18. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fermented By-product of Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, as a Fish Meal Replacer in Juvenile Amur Catfish, Silurus asotus: Effects on Growth, Serological Characteristics and Immune Responses

    Katya, Kumar; Yun, Yong-hyun; Park, Gunhyun; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yoo, Gwangyeol; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary fermented by-product of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, (FBPM) as a fish meal (FM) replacer in juvenile Amur catfish, Silurus asotus. A total number of 225 fish averaging 5.7±0.1 g (mean±standard deviation) were fed one of the five experimental diets formulated to replace FM with FBPM at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (FBPM0, FBPM5, FBPM10, FBPM20, and FBPM30, respectively). At the end of eight weeks of the experiment, average weight gain (WG) of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). However, there was no significant differences in WG among the fish fed FBPM0, FBPM5 or FBPM10, and between fish fed FBPM10 or FBPM20, and also between those fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets. Lysozyme activity of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM10, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). The chemiluminescent response of fish fed FBPM5 was significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM0, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). Broken line regression analysis of WG suggested that the maximal dietary inclusion level for FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% without any adverse effects on whole body composition and on serological characteristics. Therefore, these results may indicate that the maximal dietary inclusion level of FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% in juvenile Amur catfish. PMID:25178300

  19. FLUCTUATION OF POST-PRANDIAL PLASMA MINERAL LEVEL OF JUVENILE JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus FED DIETARY PHOSPHORUS AND PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATION

    Asda Laining

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the phytic acid degradation in the gut of post juvenile Japanese flounder, indirect method was carried out by measuring the pre-prandial and postprandial plasma mineral and alkaline phosphatase (ALP level as well as liver phosphorus content. The experiment was designed into a Randomized Block in which experiment units were grouped according to sampling days at 10, 20 and 30 days of feeding time. Experimental diets contained three levels of dietary inorganic phosphorus at 0.0; 0.25 and 0.5% combined with two levels of dietary phytase at 0 and 2,000 FTU/kg diet. Juvenile Japanese flounder (IBW = 36.2 g were randomly distributed into 6 tanks of a 200 L capacity with density of 15 fish/tank. Blood sampling was carried out at 0 hour (before feeding or pre-prandial and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 hour post feeding (post-prandial time in three sampling days, respectively. Plasma was measured for mineral and ALP levels, while liver was analyzed for P content. The observation showed that fish fed without both dietary IP and phytase supplements had the lowest postprandial plasma IP, Mg and ALP levels during 12-h postprandial period. Plasma IP level at 6-h post-feeding in groups fed dietary 0.25 and 0.5% IP were significant higher when diet supplemented with phytase than those without phytase supplement. Peak level of plasma IP in fish fed 0.25% IP was similar to fish fed 0.5% with the presence of dietary phytase. At 1 and 3-h post-feeding, plasma Ca level increased in all groups, but significant difference was only observed between group fed diet without both dietary IP and phytase and other groups. Similar to plasma IP level, peak of plasma Mg and ALP concentration occurred in fish fed 0.25% IP together with phytase, and did not significantly differ from fish fed with 0.5% IP even when phytase was included in diet.

  20. Fish consumption limit for mercury compounds

    Abbas Esmaili-Sari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Methyl mercury can carry out harmful effects on the reproductive, respiratory, and nervous system of human. Moreover, mercury is known as the most toxic heavy metal in nature. Fish and seafood consumption is the major MeHg exposure route for human. The present study tries to cover researches which have been conducted on mercury levels in 21 species of fish from Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea and Anzali Wetland during the past 6 years, and in addition to stating mercury level, it provides recommendations about the restriction of monthly fish consumption for each species separately. Material and methods: Fish samples were transferred to the laboratory and stored in refrigerator under -20oC until they were dissected. Afterwards, the muscle tissues were separated and dried. The dried samples were ground and changed into a homogenous powder and then the mercury concentration rate has been determined by advanced mercury analyzer, model 254. Results: In general, mercury contamination in fishes caught from Anzali Wetland was much more than fishes from Caspian Sea. Also, from among all studied fishes, oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis, caught from Persian Gulf, allocated the most mercury level to itself with the rate of 5.61ml per kg., therefore, it exercises a severe consumption restriction for pregnant women and vulnerable groups. Conclusion: Based on the calculations, about 50% of fishes, mostly with short food chain, can be easily consumed during the year. However, with regard to Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis and shark (Carcharhinus dussumieri, caught from Persian Gulf, special consideration should be taken in their consumption. On the other hand, careful planning should be made for the high rate of fish consumption among fishing community.

  1. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Kang-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, biometrics, hematology and body composition in juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish averaging 7.1 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD was randomly distributed into 15 net cages (each size: 60 × 40 × 90 cm, W × L × H as groups of 20 fish. Five isocaloric diets (16.7 kJ/g energy were formulated to contain crude protein levels (CP as 35 (CP35, 40 (CP40, 45 (CP45, 50 (CP50 and 60 % (CP60 in the diets. Fish were fed one of the experimental diets at apparent satiation twice a day in triplicate groups. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG of fish fed with CP50 and CP60 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed with CP35, CP40 and CP45 diets. Fish fed with CP45, CP50 and CP60 diets had higher feed efficiency (FE and specific growth rate (SGR than those of fish fed with CP35 and CP40 diets. Protein retention efficiency (PRE decreased with increase of dietary protein levels among fish fed with the experimental diets. Whole-body crude protein and lipid contents increased with the dietary protein level up to CP50 diet. In conclusion, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that the optimum dietary protein level could be 50 % for maximum growth of juvenile parrot fish, while the broken-line analysis of WG suggested that the level could be 48.5 %, in a diet containing 16.7 kJ/g energy.

  2. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  3. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. Fish under exercise

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  5. Meet the surrogate fish

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  6. Plastic fish

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  7. Effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish.

    Steffenak, I; Hormazabal, V; Yndestad, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle, skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed. Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures reached when cooking the fish. However, fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from reservoirs in the fish.

  8. Effects of growth and change of food on the δ15N in marine fishes

    Kasamatsu, Fujio; Sato, Rie; Park, Kwang Lai

    1998-01-01

    Information is limited concerning variation of the δ 15 N with growth in marine organisms and consequently the effect of growth of marine biota on the δ 15 N is not yet well understood. The δ 15 N in 26 species of marine fishes taken from Japanese coastal waters together with 4664 stomach contents of these fishes were examined to investigate the effects of food habits and growth on the δ 15 N. The mean δ 15 N for two species that fed mainly on large-size fishes and six species that fed mainly on small-size fishes were 14.5±1.0per mille and 12.8±0.7per mille, respectively. For five species that fed mainly on decapod crustaceans, two species that fed mainly on zooplankton, and three species that fed mainly on benthos (mainly Polychaeta), the δ 15 N were 13.0±0.7, 9.7±0.9, and 12.2±1.2per mille, respectively. The mean δ 15 N in the species whose prey were mainly fish or decapod crustaceans was about 3-5per mille higher than the species whose prey was mainly zooplankton. Within the four species that shift their food habits with growth to higher trophic level, the δ 15 N significantly increased with growth in one species (Pacific cod), while not significant increase in the δ 15 N with growth in the remaining species. (author)

  9. Three Kinds of Fish

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  10. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively.

  11. Diarrhea in enterally fed patients: blame the diet?

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Huang, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Diarrhea has great impact on enteral nutrition. The purpose of this review is to identify the factors leading to diarrhea during enteral nutrition and to provide the published updates on diarrhea prevention through nutritional intervention. Diarrhea in enteral fed patients is attributed to multiple factors, including medications (major contributor), infections, bacterial contamination, underlying disease, and enteral feeding. Diet management can alleviate diarrhea in enteral feeding. High content of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in enteral formula is postulated to induce diarrhea and lower FODMAPs formula may reduce the likelihood of diarrhea in enterally fed patients. Fiber-enriched formula can reduce the incidence of diarrhea and produce short-chain fatty acids for colonocytes. Ingesting prebiotics, nonviable probiotics or probiotic derivatives, and human lactoferrin may provide alternatives for reducing/preventing diarrhea. Enteral feeding is not generally considered the primary cause of diarrhea, which is frequently linked to prescribed medications. When diarrhea is apparent, healthcare members should evaluate the possible risk factors and systematically attempt to eliminate the underlying causes of diarrhea before reducing or suspending enteral feeding. Lower FODMAPs formula, prebiotics, probiotic derivatives, and lactoferrin may be used to manage enteral feeding-related diarrhea.

  12. Gastrointestinal transit of extruded or pelletized diets in pacu fed distinct inclusion levels of lipid and carbohydrate

    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pelletized or extruded diets, with different levels of carbohydrate and lipid, on the gastrointestinal transit time (GITT and its modulation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. One hundred and eighty pacu juveniles were fed with eight isonitrogenous diets containing two carbohydrate levels (40 and 50% and two lipid levels (4 and 8%. Four diets were pelletized and four were extruded. Carbohydrate and lipid experimental levels caused no changes to the bolus transit time. However, the bolus permanence time was related to diet processing. Fish fed pelletized diets exhibited the highest gastrointestinal transit time. Regression analysis of bolus behavior for pelletized and extruded diets with 4% lipid depicted different fits. GITT regression analysis of fish fed 8% lipid was fitted to a cubic equation and displayed adjustments of food permanence, with enhanced utilization of the diets, either with extruded or pelletized diets. GITT of fish fed extruded diets with 4% lipid was adjusted to a linear equation. The GITT of pacu depends on the diet processing and is affected by dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate.

  13. Effective dose equivalent to breast fed infants due to artificial and natural radioactivity

    Campos Venuti, G.; Felici, F.; Grisanti, A.; Grisanti, G.; Risica, S.; Simula, S.

    1988-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), with the collaboration of the Epidemiological Unit of Latium District, started a research devoted to the study of the radioactive contamination of human milk in Latium. The motivation is three-fold, namely: to measure the contamination of a food product utilised for infants in order to assess the corresponding dose to breast-fed infants; to clarify any possible correlations between radioactive levels in human milk and those in the total body; to correlate the levels in human milk with those in the maternal diet

  14. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( Preplacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  15. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  16. Sustained swimming improves fish dietary nutrient assimilation efficiency and body composition of juvenile Brycon amazonicus

    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sustained swimming (SS usually promotes beneficial effects in growth and feed conversion of fishes. Although feed efficiency is improves at moderate water velocity, more information is required to determine the contributions of this factor on growth and body composition. Body composition and efficiency responses to the use of nutrients were determined in juvenile matrinxa Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 fed with two dietary amounts of protein, 28 or 38% of crude protein (CP, and subjected to sustained swimming at a constant speed of 1.5 body lengths s−1 (BL s−1 or let to free swimming. The fish body composition under SS and fed with 28% of dietary protein showed 22% of increased in bulk protein and a 26% of decrease in water content in the white muscle. Red muscle depicted 70% less water content and a 10% more lipid. Nutrient retention was enhanced in fish subjected to SS and a higher gain of ethereal extract sustained was observed in the white muscle of exercised fish fed with 38% CP. The interaction between swimming and dietary protein resulted in a larger bulk of lipid in red muscle. Fish fed with 28% CP under SS at 1.5 BL s−1 presented the best utilization of dietary nutrients and body composition. Thus, this fish farming procedure is proposed as a promising management strategy for rearing matrinxa.

  17. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  18. Contamination Analyzer

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  19. Development of forage cryo minced fish technology

    Titova S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of grinding the frozen fish raw material using the useful model of a piston-type extrusion plant with cold working bodies for fodder minced fish (cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion has been developed. The possibility of replacing the standard manufacturing operations (defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials to the one (cryoextrusion has been substantiated. The optimal shape of holes of the die for forcing the raw material has been determined in the form of "hourglass", the hole diameter is 7 mm, the length of the process of pushing is 40 s. It has been established that the finished product (cryo minced fish feed has a homogeneous grinding, juicy, crumbly texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is equal to the temperature of the raw material before processing (–18 °C. The technological scheme of producing the minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion has been developed. Researching the chemical composition of fish and feed of mince produced by the traditional and developed methods it has been established that protein content in the cryo minced fish feed remains unchanged. The amino acid composition of cryo minced fish feed has been determined, the amount of essential amino acids is 365.6 mg/g of protein. In the proteins of the cryo minced fish feed methionine has been contained in the minimum quantity (10.0 mg/g protein and in the maximum – serine (155.3 mg/g protein. In the protein of the cryo minced fish feed the only limiting amino acid is methionine. The coefficient of rationality of the cryo minced fish feed whiting is equal to 0.33. The product is not toxic, is not subject to contamination with dangerous microorganisms, has high biological value, contains necessary in animal nutrition mineral elements, the energy value per 100 g of the product is 87 kcal. The combination of the processes of cryoextrusion and lyophilization allows to obtain a new food product with high

  20. Effects of feeding frequency on growth, survival rate and body composition in sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed a commercial diet under laboratory condition

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, survival rate and body composition of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed commercial diet, reared under laboratory condition. The average initial weight of fish was 4.59 g and its initial total length of 7.11 cm was determined for the conditions factors. Ten fish were stocked in each 12 - 100 L conical fiberglass tanks filled with 90 L seawater at three replicates ...

  1. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  2. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates of laying hens and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2005-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of laying hens. Thirty-six 32-wk-old laying hens were fed diets formulated with 1) uncontaminated grains, 2) contaminated grains, or 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent for a period of 4 wk. Hepatic FSR were measured in vivo by the flooding-dose method. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased hepatic FSR in laying hens compared with controls after 4 wk. The hepatic FSR of birds fed contaminated grains and contaminated grains + glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent were not different. It was concluded that the in vivo hepatic FSR of laying hens was inhibited by the feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and that this may explain some of the adverse effects seen when contaminated grains were fed to laying hens.

  3. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  4. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  5. Bibliographic study of radiostrontium uptake capacity and processes in fish

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1979-09-01

    This report is a synthesis of published work on the contamination of fish by radiostrontium, covering 143 publications and reports. The authors highlight the most important findings, since past activity levels in fish allow the effects of future discharges to be estimated. Both marine and freshwater environments are analyzed. The radiostrontium activity is evaluated in fish from zones both directly and not directly affected by liquid effluent discharges. Quantitative data is cited for the concentration factors and biological half lives determined from field measurements and laboratory experiments. Physiological phenomena discussed include contamination kinetics, radiostrontium distribution in fish organisms and the extent of transfer through food chains. The effects of biological factors (age, weight, species) and environmental factors (temperature, salinity, influence of stable elements) are examined. The radiostrontium uptake potential is higher in fresh water fish than in marine fish. In both cases, however, the water itself is the principal contamination source, and food is not of major importance; only the intake path varies. In both freshwater and seawater areas not directly affected by waste discharge, the 90 Sr content in fish was observed to rise until 1966, when it began to drop. Maximum values of 42000 pCi/kg live weigth were recorded in the skeletons of lacustrine fish. The mean concentration factors are 20 for marine fish and 300 for freshwater fish, while the biological half-lives are 138 days and 2 years, respectively. This bibliographic synthesis clearly demonstrates the need to determine baseline conditions prior to reactor divergence, and to make sufficient allowance for the local ecological characteristics of each site [fr

  6. Bibliographic study of radiostrontium uptake capacity and processes in fish

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1979-09-01

    This report is a synthesis of published work on the contamination of fish by radiostrontium, covering 143 publications and reports. The authors highlight the most important findings, since past activity levels in fish allow the effects of future discharges to be estimated. Both marine and freshwater environments are analyzed. The radiostrontium activity is evaluated in fish from zones both directly and not directly affected by liquid effluent discharges. Quantitative data is cited for the concentration factors and biological half lives determined from field measurements and laboratory experiments. Physiological phenomena discussed include contamination kinetics, radiostrontium distribution in fish organisms and the extent of transfer through food chains. The effects of biological factors (age, weight, species) and environmental factors (temperature, salinity, influence of stable elements) are examined. The radiostrontium uptake potential is higher in fresh water fish than in marine fish. In both cases, however, the water itself is the principal contamination source, and food is not of major importance; only the intake path varies. In both freshwater and seawater areas not directly affected by waste discharge, the 90 Sr content in fish was observed to rise until 1966, when it began to drop. Maximum values of 42000 pCi/kg live weight were recorded in the skeletons of lacustrine fish. The mean concentration factors are 20 for marine fish and 300 for freshwater fish, while the biological half-lives are 138 days and 2 years, respectively. This bibliographic synthesis clearly demonstrates the need to determine baseline conditions prior to reactor divergence, and to make sufficient allowance for the local ecological characteristics of each site [fr

  7. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  8. Effects of radiations on ornamental fish

    Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D.; Ohlyan, Sunita; Gupta, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. There are two distinct types of radiations: ionizing and non-ionizing. Ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays are some examples of radiation. 'Ornamental fish' is designed for aquatic hobbyists and the aquatic industry for several purposes. UV light has two primary uses in fish culture: Controlling green water and disinfecting the water supply. Many proponents of UV disinfection sometimes overlook the additional benefits relating to ornamental fish; those being that cleaner water reduces the stress on the fish by not having to fight off diseases, thus enhancing its immune system and leading to faster growth and more brilliant colors. Ultraviolet sterilizers are often used in aquaria to help control unwanted microorganisms in the water. UV radiation also ensures that exposed pathogens cannot reproduce, thus decreasing the likelihood of a disease outbreak in an aquarium. Despite of these benefits, the ill-effects of radiations cannot be ruled out. Ultraviolet Radiation-induced DNA Damage is seen in the skin of the Platyfish Xiphophorus. Higher radiation doses may cause the gastrointestinal syndrome that leads to defects of the intestinal mucosa barrier with successive contamination of musculature. Exposure to UV radiation can kill the fish and induce sublethal effects in embryos, larvae and adults. The change in skin includes irregularity of skin surface, epidermal oedema, necrosis etc. Irradiation may badly influence the textural attributes of fish muscle. (author)

  9. Effluent profile of commercially used low-phosphorus fish feeds

    Sugiura, Shozo H.; Marchant, Daniel D.; Kelsey, Kevin; Wiggins, Thomas; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2006-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) in aquaculture feeds contributes to the eutrophication of natural waters. While commercially available low-P (LP) fish feeds have been developed, there is uncertainty about their potential to reduce effluent P while maintaining fish growth relative to regular P (RP) feeds. We therefore simulated commercial aquaculture conditions and fed for 55 days rainbow trout (∼190 kg/raceway, n = 3 raceways/diet) RP (1.4% total P) and LP (1.0%) feeds then determined effluent P levels, fish growth, and feed costs. Excretions of fecal-P and soluble-P, but not particulate-P, in effluents were greater in RP than in LP ponds. Fish growth, bone-P and plasma-P were similar between diets, demonstrating that LP feeds can lower effluent P levels without compromising growth. Costs were $0.97/kg fish production for LP feeds, and $0.74/kg for RP. Because feed is the largest variable cost in commercial aquaculture, the use of LP feeds can significantly increase production costs. - Commercial low-phosphorus fish feeds pollute less but are more costly than standard fish feeds that provide similar fish growth rates

  10. Oxidative changes during ice storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed different ratios of marine and vegetable feed ingredients

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline P.

    2013-01-01

    Recently fish meal and oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate...... the influence of feeding regime on composition of rainbow trout fillets, as well as on lipid and protein oxidation during storage on ice. Rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in their levels of marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Fish fillets were characterised...... significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil reduced formation of primary oxidation products, but the effect on secondary oxidation products differed between different types of volatiles. The differences in protein and amino acid composition were not significant...

  11. Tokamak-FED plasma-engineering assessments

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the current US tokamak FED concept, which aims to provide a controlled, long pulse (approx. 100 s) burning plasma with an energy amplification of greater than or equal to 5, a fusion power of 180 MW, and a neutron wall load of greater than or equal to 0.4 MW/m 2 . The results of the assessment suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 5.0 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 5.4 MA are appropriate in reaching the above plasma performance, despite uncertainties in several plasma physics areas, such as confinement scaling, achievable beta, impurity control, etc. To enhance the probability of achieving fusion ignition and to provide some margin against a short fall in our physics projections in FED, a limited operating capability at B/sub t/ = 4.6 T and I/sub p/ = 6.5 MA is incorporated. Various other options and remedies have also been assessed aiming to alleviate the impact of the uncertainties on the FED design concept. These approaches appear promising because they can be studied within the current fusion physics program and may lead to drastically more cost-effective FED concepts

  12. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Blackfield, D.; Bobrov, E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Diatchenko, N.; LeClaire, R.

    1982-12-01

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m 2 ; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  13. Mercury in Forage Fish from Mexico and Central America: Implications for Fish-Eating Birds.

    Elliott, John E; Kirk, David A; Elliott, Kyle H; Dorzinsky, Jessica; Lee, Sandi; Inzunza, Ernesto Ruelas; Cheng, Kimberly M T; Scheuhammer, Tony; Shaw, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of aquatic food chains. Aquatic birds, such as the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), with migratory populations breeding in Canada and the northern United States and wintering in the Central and South America, can be exposed to mercury on both the breeding and wintering ranges. We examined Hg levels in 14 fish taxa from 24 osprey wintering sites identified from satellite telemetry. Our main goal was to determine whether fish species that feature in the diet of overwintering and resident fish-eating birds reached toxicity thresholds for Hg. Mean Hg levels in fish whole carcasses ranged from a high of 0.18 µg g(-1) (wet weight) in Scomberomorus sierra to a low of 0.009 µg g(-1) in Catostomidae. Average Hg levels were within published toxicity threshold values in forage fish for only two sites in Mexico (Puerto Vallarta and San Blas Estuary), and all were marine species, such as mackerel (Scomberomorus sierra), sea catfish (Ariopus spp.), and sardinas species (Centropomus spp.). Except for one sample from Nicaragua, sea catfish from Puerto Morazan, none of the fish from sites in Central America had Hg levels which exceeded the thresholds. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed geographical differences in Hg levels with significant pairwise differences between sites along the Pacific Ocean (Mexico) versus the Bay of Campeche, partly due to differences in species composition of sampled fish (and species distributions). Hg increased with trophic level, as assessed by nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N but not δ(13)C), in freshwater and marine, but not estuarine, environments. Hg concentrations in forage fish do not account for the elevated Hg reported for many osprey populations on the breeding grounds, thus primary sources of contamination appear to be in the north.

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning--Texas, 1998, and South Carolina, 2004.

    2006-09-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and neurologic symptoms such as weakness, tingling, and pruritus (itching). The condition is caused by eating fish containing toxins produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, a one-celled plantlike organism that grows on algae in tropical waters worldwide. Because these toxins are lipid soluble, they accumulate through the food chain as carnivorous fish consume contaminated herbivorous reef fish; toxin concentrations are highest in large, predatory fish such as barracuda, grouper, amberjack, snapper, and shark. Because fish caught in ciguatera-endemic areas are shipped nationwide, ciguatera fish poisoning can occur anywhere in the United States. This report describes ciguatera fish poisoning in four persons (two in 1998, two in 2004) who ate fish caught by recreational fishers in waters outside of ciguatera-endemic areas (e.g., the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic and Gulf Coast waters off southern Florida). These cases underscore the need for physicians, regardless of whether they are in a ciguatera-endemic area, to consider ciguatera in patients who have gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms after eating large, predatory fish.

  15. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  16. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...