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Sample records for fish diversion screen

  1. Fish screens at hydroelectric diversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Preventing downstream migrating fish from entering the turbines at hydroelectric projects is a standard mitigation goal of state and federal fishery management agencies. The object is to minimize the adverse impacts to the fish associated with the exclusion and passage through the bypass water conveyance facilities. In the western United States, most of the fishery management agencies have fish screen design criteria that focus on the approach and transportational velocities, maximum opening dimensions of the screen material, and the cleaning standards. Recently, more attention has been given to fish behavioral traits such as attraction and sustained and darting swimming speed, which has resulted in more attention to the position of the screens to the flow and the length of time the downstream migrants are exposed to the screens. Criteria for length of time of exposure, size and position of bypass, flow and velocities in the bypass entrances, discharge requirements back into the receiving water, and exposure to predation have created unique challenges to the fish screen designer. This paper discusses some of the more recent types of fixed fish screens that are being installed at hydroelectric plants that meet these challenges

  2. Evaluation of an eicher fish diversion screen at Elwha Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, F.C.; Sullivan, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the spring of 1990, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated testing of an inclined fish screen installed in a 9-foot diameter penstock at the Elwhat Hydroelectric Project in Washington State. In tests performed with coho salmon smolts, over 99 percent of the fish were diverted without mortality. At penstock velocities from 4 to 6 fps, less than 0.1 percent of the fish had scale loss exceeding 16 percent on either side (considered descaled in criteria used on the Columbia River), and less than 5 percent showed any type of injury. Slightly more descaling was observed at higher penstock velocities. At the maximum velocity tested (7.8 fps), 3.6 percent of the fish had scale loss of over 16 percent, and 18.1 percent of the fish had scale loss between 3 percent and 16 percent. Mortality after a 3 to 10-day holding period averaged 0.21 percent for test fish and 0.14 percent for controls

  3. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  4. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucelick, Jessica; McMichael, Geoffrey; Chamness, Mickie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-02-01

    In 2004, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2004, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (4) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites. (5) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve passage conditions for juvenile fish. For example, Taylor has had problems meeting bypass flow and submergence operating criteria since the main river channel shifted away from the site 2 years ago, and Fruitvale consistently has had problems meeting bypass flow criteria when the water is low. (6) Continued problems at Gleed point to design flaws. This site should be considered for redesign or replacement.

  5. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  6. Fish protection at steam-electric power plants: alternative screening devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, very few innovations have surfaced that advance the state of intake technology for fish protection at steam-electric power plants. After careful examination of basic hydrology, hydraulics, and ecology of the source water body is completed and after a suitable location for the intake is established, the design process reduces to the development of proper screening techniques and to the provision of a means of preventing resident and migratory species from entering the intake structure. As a result of this design process, three basic fish protection concepts have evolved: fish deterrence, fish collection and removal, and fish diversion. Intake screening devices that protect fish are discussed

  7. Biological Evaluations of an Off-Stream Channel, Horizontal Flat-Plate Fish Screen-The Farmers Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Screens are commonly installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District in Hood River, Oregon, developed a new flat-plate screen design that offers passive operation and may result in reduced operation and installation costs to irrigators. To evaluate the performance (its biological effect on fish) of this type of screen, two size classes of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch) were released over a small version of this screen in the field-the Herman Creek screen. The performance of the screen was evaluated over a range of inflow [0.02 to 0.42 m3/s (cubic meters per second)] and diversion flows (0.02 to 0.34 m3/s) at different weir wall heights. The mean approach velocities for the screen ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s (centimeters per second) and mean sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 centimeters and were directly related to weir wall height and inflow. Passage of juvenile coho salmon over the screen under a variety of hydraulic conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality. For all fish, the mean percentage of body surface area that was injured after passage over the screen ranged from about 0.4 to 3.0%. This occurred even though many fish contacted the screen surface during passage. No fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface (greater than 1 second contact with the screen). When operated within its design criteria (diversion flows of about 0.28 m3/s), the screen provided safe and effective downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions. However, we do not recommend operating the screen at inflows less than 0.14 m3/s (5 ft3/s) because water depth can get quite shallow and the screen can completely dewater, particularly at very low flows.

  8. Introducing a open-quote modular close-quote approach to fish screen installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.; Sullivan, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    A new fish screen design-the modular inclined screen-promises to offer a versatile and cost-effective solution for fish protection in many situation. In an effort to provide the hydroelectric industry with more cost-effective alternatives to existing fish screen designs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently has undertaken several research projects. One focus of EPRI's research has been on the development and testing of high-velocity fish screens. This program has led to the development of a new screening concept, which shows promise for providing effective protection for a wide range of fish species at hydro plants, steam generating facilities, and irrigation diversions. The concept, known as the Modular Inclined Screen (MIS), currently is being evaluated in laboratory studies prior to field application. The screen is of open-quotes modularclose quotes design so as to provide the flexibility necessary for application at a broad range of water intakes. The module is suitable for installation in penstocks, canals, and head pond intakes. The MIS module consists of an entrance with a trashrack, dewatering stoplog slots, an inclined wedgewire screen set at a shallow angle of 10 to 20 degrees to the flow, and a bypass for diverting fish to a transport pipe. The screen is mounted on a pivot shaft so that it can be cleaned via rotation and backflushing. The module is completely enclosed, and is designed to operate at water velocities ranging from 2 to 10 feet per second depending on the fish species and life stages to be protected. Laboratory studies are under way to evaluate the design configuration that yields the best hydraulic conditions for safe fish passage, and the biological effectiveness of this design in diverting selected fish species to the bypass

  9. Diversity of Coral Fish At Saebus Island, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Siti; Putra, Tri Widya Laksana; Kondang, Putranto; Suratman; Gamelia, Larossa; Syahputra, Hendry; Rahmadayanti; Rizmaaadi, Mada; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto

    2018-02-01

    Coral reef ecosystem is known as an important place to live various types of fish, where coral conditions will affect the diversity and abundance of the fish. In healthy coral reef ecosystems generally can be found many types of fish with high density. This research aims to investigate the diversity and abundance of coral fishes at Saebus Island, East Java. The observation conducted at 4 stations, according to cardinal point by UVS (underwater visual census) methods with belt transect with the visibility of 2,5 m horizontally, and 5 m vertically. The length of transect was 100 m parallel with coastline, with the area of observation is 500 m2. The censuses were conducted at 2 different depths (3 and 10 m). This study found 70 kinds of coral fish originated form 20 family at all stations. These fishes were from 3 different fish categories i.e. 7 target fishes, 13 indicator fishes, and 50 major fishes. Three different fishes that dominated target fish, indicator fish and major fish were Epinephelus fasciatus, Chaetodon baronessa and Aulostomus chinensis, respectively. There was similar value of fish diversity index at two different depths which were 3.635 and 3,623. While uniformity index at the depth of 3m was 0.153 and at 10m was 0.217, and domination index at the depth of 3m was 0.11 and at 10m was 0.167. These values suggest that diversity of coral fish at Saebus island can be categorized as high diversity.

  10. Fish-protection devices at unscreened water diversions can reduce entrainment: evidence from behavioural laboratory investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mussen, Timothy D.; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion (i.e. extraction) of water from rivers and estuaries can potentially affect native wildlife populations if operation is not carefully managed. For example, open, unmodified water diversions can act as a source of injury or mortality to resident or migratory fishes from entrainment and impingement, and can cause habitat degradation and fragmentation. Fish-protection devices, such as exclusion screens, louvres or sensory deterrents, can physically or behaviourally deter fish from approaching or being entrained into water diversions. However, empirical assessment of their efficacy is often lacking or is investigated only for particular economically or culturally important fishes, such as salmonids. The Southern population of anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is listed as threatened in California, and there is a high density of water diversions located within their native range (the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed). Coupled with their unique physiology and behaviour compared with many other fishes native to California, the green sturgeon is susceptible to entrainment into diversions and is an ideal species with which to study the efficacy of mitigation techniques. Therefore, we investigated juvenile green sturgeon (188–202 days post-hatch) in the presence of several fish-protection devices to assess behaviour and entrainment risk. Using a large experimental flume (∼500 kl), we found that compared with an open diversion pipe (control), the addition of a trash-rack box, louvre box, or perforated cylinder on the pipe inlet all significantly reduced the proportion of fish that were entrained through the pipe (P = 0.03, P = 0.028, and P = 0.028, respectively). Likewise, these devices decreased entrainment risk during a single movement past the pipe by between 60 and 96%. These fish-protection devices should decrease the risk of fish entrainment during water-diversion activities. PMID:27293725

  11. Satellite lakes as reservoirs of fish species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nkalubo, W.; Wandera, S.B.; Namulemo, G.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite lakes and rivers in the Victoria and Kyoga basins provide a sanctuary for endangered native fish species. The structural heterogeneity of macrophyte covering these lakes has made it possible for most of the biodiversity to be kept intact. The Kyoga minor lakes have the highest fish species diversity especially of the haplochromines. Most fish communities of these satellite lakes are composed of native species.

  12. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens, II: Testing of a unique off-stream channel device - The Farmers Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Screens are installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District (Oregon) developed a unique flat-plate screen (the “Farmers Screen”) that operates passively and may offer reduced installation and operating costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of this screen on fish, we conducted two separate field experiments. First, juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were released over a working version of this screen under a range of inflows (0.02–0.42 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.02–0.34 m3/s) at different water depths. Mean approach velocities ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s and sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 cm and were directly related to inflow. Passage of fish over the screen under these conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality, and no fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface. Second, juvenile coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss were released at the upstream end of a 34-m flume and allowed to volitionally move downstream and pass over a 3.5-m section of the Farmers Screen to determine whether fish would refuse to pass over the screen after encountering its leading edge. For coho salmon, 75–95% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 82–98% passed within 20 min, depending on hydraulic conditions. For steelhead, 47–90% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 79–95% passed within 20 min. Our results indicate that when operated within its design criteria, the Farmers Screen provides safe and efficient downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions.

  13. Fish species composition, diversity and abundance of the lower New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thirteen-week investigation to determine the fish species composition, diversity and abundance of the Lower New Calabar River, in Rivers State, aimed at providing information on the fish stock and their status for documentation, knowledge improvement, and development of conservation and management strategies was ...

  14. Fish Diversity in Relation to Aquatic Macrophytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of fish diversity in relation to aquatic macrophytes and physicochemical parameters of Ona Lake in Asaba was carried out within a period of eighteen months. Fish samples were collected fortnightly from three sampling sites using cast, gill and trigger nets. Aquatic macrophytes found in close association with ...

  15. Functionally diverse reef-fish communities ameliorate coral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo, Laurie J; Halford, Andrew R; Maypa, Aileen P; Kerr, Alexander M

    2009-10-06

    Coral reefs, the most diverse of marine ecosystems, currently experience unprecedented levels of degradation. Diseases are now recognized as a major cause of mortality in reef-forming corals and are complicit in phase shifts of reef ecosystems to algal-dominated states worldwide. Even so, factors contributing to disease occurrence, spread, and impact remain poorly understood. Ecosystem resilience has been linked to the conservation of functional diversity, whereas overfishing reduces functional diversity through cascading, top-down effects. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that reefs with trophically diverse reef fish communities have less coral disease than overfished reefs. We surveyed reefs across the central Philippines, including well-managed marine protected areas (MPAs), and found that disease prevalence was significantly negatively correlated with fish taxonomic diversity. Further, MPAs had significantly higher fish diversity and less disease than unprotected areas. We subsequently investigated potential links between coral disease and the trophic components of fish diversity, finding that only the density of coral-feeding chaetodontid butterflyfishes, seldom targeted by fishers, was positively associated with disease prevalence. These previously uncharacterized results are supported by a second large-scale dataset from the Great Barrier Reef. We hypothesize that members of the charismatic reef-fish family Chaetodontidae are major vectors of coral disease by virtue of their trophic specialization on hard corals and their ecological release in overfished areas, particularly outside MPAs.

  16. Diversity Patterns of Benthic Macrofauna Caused by Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Marín

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the patterns observed in the diversity and structure of the macrofauna benthic community under the influence of fish farming. First, we explain the effects of organic enrichment on the sediment and the consequences for the inhabiting communities. We describe the diversity trends in spatial and temporal gradients affected by fish farming and compare them with those described by the Pearson and Rosenberg model. We found that in general terms, the trends of diversity and other community parameters followed the Pearson and Rosenberg model but they can vary to some extent due to sediment local characteristics or to secondary disturbances. We also show the different mechanisms by which wild fish can affect macrofauna diversity patterns under fish farming influence. In addition, we comment the importance of the macrofauna diversity in the ecosystem functions and propose some guidelines to measure functional diversity related to relevant processes at ecosystem level. We propose more research efforts in the main topics commented in this review to improve management strategies to guarantee a good status of the diversity and ecosystem functioning of sediments influenced by fish farming.

  17. Fish microsporidia: fine structural diversity and phylogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lom, Jiří; Nilsen, F.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2003), s. 107-127 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : fish-infecting microsporidia * ultrastructure * small subunit rDNA analysis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.881, year: 2003

  18. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  19. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M.J.; Bagley, M.J.; Walters, D.M.; Jackson, S.A.; Daniel, F.B.; Chaloud, D.J.; Cade, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Impact of fishing and stocking practices on Coregonid diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anneville, Orlane; Lasne, Emilien; Guillard, Jean; Eckmann, Reiner; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gillet, Christian; Yule, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Fish species diversity can be lost through interacting stressors including habitat loss, stocking and overfishing. Although a multitude of stressors have played a role in the global decline of coregonid (Coregonus spp.) diversity, a number of contemporary studies have identified habitat loss stemming from eutrophication as the primary cause. Unfortunately, reconstructing the role of fishing and stocking practices can be difficult, because these records are incomplete or appear only in hard-to-access historic grey literature. Based on an illustrative set of historic and contemporary studies, we describe how fisheries management practices may have contributed to coregonid diversity loss in European and North American lakes. We provide case studies examining how fishing and stocking may reduce coregonid diversity through demographic decline and introgressive hybridization. In some lakes, fisheries management practices may have led to a loss of coregonid diversity well before issues with habitat degradation manifested. Our review suggests that fish conservation policies could beneficially consider the relative importance of all stressors, including management practices, as potential drivers of diversity loss.

  1. Composite fish diversity off southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map shows composite diversity averaged between 4 data sets: RecFIN recreational hook and line, SCCWRP trawls, NMFS benthic trawls, and kelp diver surveys....

  2. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes

    OpenAIRE

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L.; Hanner, Robert H.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a mor...

  3. Functional diversity of fish in estuaries at a global extent

    OpenAIRE

    Rita P Vasconcelos; Sébastien Villéger; François Guilhaumon

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is currently viewed as a framework encompassing multiple facets of the variety of life, including taxonomic and functional aspects. Species richness and composition of fish assemblages in estuaries is defined by global to local processes acting on community colonization. The present study further investigates how biodiversity of fish assemblages varies among estuaries globally, by simultaneously analysing taxonomic and functional richness and diversity of assemblages. A comprehen...

  4. Functional diversity of fish in estuaries at a global extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita P Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is currently viewed as a framework encompassing multiple facets of the variety of life, including taxonomic and functional aspects. Species richness and composition of fish assemblages in estuaries is defined by global to local processes acting on community colonization. The present study further investigates how biodiversity of fish assemblages varies among estuaries globally, by simultaneously analysing taxonomic and functional richness and diversity of assemblages. A comprehensive worldwide database was compiled on the fish assemblage composition and environmental characteristics of estuaries. In addition, functional attributes of the fish species were characterized such as body size, habitat use and trophic ecology. We investigated the relationship between taxonomic and functional aspects of biodiversity, i.e. the match or mismatch between the two. We also explored how functional diversity of fish assemblages varied among estuaries globally and related to environmental features of estuaries, i.e. historic and contemporary, global and local constraints. The results are explored in the context of ecosystem functioning and resilience, and outcomes relevant to assist in prioritizing conservation efforts are highlighted.

  5. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  6. Design of extended length submerged traveling screen and submerged bar screen fish guidance equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardy, D.; Lindstrom, M.; Fechner, D.

    1991-01-01

    The hydropower projects on the Snake and lower Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest are unique because these rivers are also the spawning grounds for migratory salmon. The salmon swim upstream from the ocean, lay their eggs, and die. The newly hatched fingerlings must then make their way past the hydroelectric dams to the ocean. Two separate bypass systems are needed, one to pass the adult fish going upstream, and one to pass the fingerlings going downstream. This paper addresses the design considerations for two of the components of the downstream migrant fish passage facilities, the extended Submerged Traveling Screen and Submerged Bar Screen

  7. Review of fish diversity in the Lake Huron basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Steen, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Huron has a rich aquatic habitat diversity that includes shallow embayments, numerous tributaries, shallow mid-lake reef complexes, archipelagos, and profundal regions. These habitats provide support for warm, cool, and cold water fish communities. Diversity of fishes in Lake Huron reflects post-glaciation colonization events, current climate conditions, accidental and intentional introductions of non-indigenous species, and extinctions. Most extinction events have been largely associated with habitat alterations, exploitation of fisheries, and interactions with non-indigenous species. The most recent historical survey of extirpated and imperiled species conducted in the late 1970s identified 79 fish species in Lake Huron proper and about 50 additional species in tributaries. Of those 129 species, 20 are now considered extirpated or imperiled. Extirpated species include Arctic grayling, paddlefish, weed shiner, deepwater cisco, blackfin cisco, shortnose cisco, and kiyi. Six species have declined appreciably due to loss of clear-water stream habitat: the river redhorse, river darter, black redhorse, pugnose shiner, lake chubsucker, redside dace, eastern sand darter, and channel darter. While numerous agencies, universities, and other organizations routinely monitor nearshore and offshore fish distribution and abundance, there is a need for more rigorous examination of the distribution and abundance of less-common species to better understand their ecology. This information is critical to the development of management plans aimed at ecosystem remediation and restoration.

  8. Impact of fishing on size composition and diversity of demersal fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, G.; Gislason, Henrik; Graham, K.

    2000-01-01

    . but particularly in high-latitude regions, we observe a decreasing trend in the slope, reflecting changes in size composition toward a relative decline in larger fish. The results from tropical regions are less conclusive, partly owing to the difficulty in obtaining consistent data series, but probably also......By analysing data sets from different world regions we add evidence to documented changes in demersal fish community structure that may be related to fishing. Changes are analysed by community properties that might be expected to capture relevant overall changes - size spectra slopes and intercepts...... because the generally higher growth rates of the constituent species make the slope less sensitive to changes in fishing. No evidence was found of any decline in species richness, while changes in diversity (richness and evenness) were caused either by changes in patterns of dominance or by changes...

  9. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Richland and Toppenish/Satus Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Abernethy, C. Scott; Lusty, E. William

    1987-05-01

    The fisheries evaluation phase of diversion screen effectiveness summarizes the results of work at the Richland and Toppenish/Satus Fish screening facilities (Richland Screens and Toppenish/Satus Screens) during 1986. More than 10,000 steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were released at the screen diversions. At the Richland Screens, 61% of the released steelhead were recovered and 1.1% were descaled; 93% of the spring chinook salmon were recovered and less than 1% were descaled. At the Toppenish/Satus Screens, only steelhead were evaluated for descaling; 88.9% were recovered and 23.9% were descaled. Only steelhead were evaluated because the Yakima River fisheries managers did not expect any other smolts to occur in Toppenish Creek. Because of the acclimation conditions and the amount of time the fish had to be held before testing, some of the test population were descaled during holding and transportation. The 23.9% descaling for the test fish was compared to 26.4% for the controls.

  10. Low Functional β-Diversity Despite High Taxonomic β-Diversity among Tropical Estuarine Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Miranda, Julia Ramos; Hernandez, Domingo Flores; Mouillot, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of β-diversity, defined as dissimilarity among communities, has been widely used to investigate biodiversity patterns and community assembly rules. However, in ecosystems with high taxonomic β-diversity, due to marked environmental gradients, the level of functional β-diversity among communities is largely overlooked while it may reveal processes shaping community structure. Here, decomposing biodiversity indices into α (local) and γ (regional) components, we estimated taxonomic and functional β-diversity among tropical estuarine fish communities, through space and time. We found extremely low functional β-diversity values among fish communities (diversities, α and γ functional diversities were very close to the minimal value. These patterns were caused by two dominant functional groups which maintained a similar functional structure over space and time, despite the strong dissimilarity in taxonomic structure along environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that taxonomic and functional β-diversity deserve to be quantified simultaneously since these two facets can show contrasting patterns and the differences can in turn shed light on community assembly rules. PMID:22792395

  11. Patterns of Macroinvertebrate and Fish Diversity in Freshwater Sulphide Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Greenway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments are characterised by the presence of physicochemical stressors and provide unique study systems to address problems in evolutionary ecology research. Sulphide springs provide an example of extreme freshwater environments; because hydrogen sulphide’s adverse physiological effects induce mortality in metazoans even at micromolar concentrations. Sulphide springs occur worldwide, but while microbial communities in sulphide springs have received broad attention, little is known about macroinvertebrates and fish inhabiting these toxic environments. We reviewed qualitative occurrence records of sulphide spring faunas on a global scale and present a quantitative case study comparing diversity patterns in sulphidic and adjacent non-sulphidic habitats across replicated river drainages in Southern Mexico. While detailed studies in most regions of the world remain scarce, available data suggests that sulphide spring faunas are characterised by low species richness. Dipterans (among macroinvertebrates and cyprinodontiforms (among fishes appear to dominate the communities in these habitats. At least in fish, there is evidence for the presence of highly endemic species and populations exclusively inhabiting sulphide springs. We provide a detailed discussion of traits that might predispose certain taxonomic groups to colonize sulphide springs, how colonizers subsequently adapt to cope with sulphide toxicity, and how adaptation may be linked to speciation processes.

  12. Large-scale diversity of slope fishes: pattern inconsistency between multiple diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Maiorano, Porzia; Mérigot, Bastien; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3'- 45°7' N; 5°3'W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness.

  13. Influence of approach velocity and mesh size on the entrainment and contact of a lowland river fish assemblage at a screened irrigation pump.

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    Craig A Boys

    Full Text Available Fish screens can help prevent the entrainment or injury of fish at irrigation diversions, but only when designed appropriately. Design criteria cannot simply be transferred between sites or pump systems and need to be developed using an evidence-based approach with the needs of local species in mind. Laboratory testing is typically used to quantify fish responses at intake screens, but often limits the number of species that can studied and creates artificial conditions not directly applicable to screens in the wild. In this study a field-based approach was used to assess the appropriateness of different screen design attributes for the protection of a lowland river fish assemblage at an experimental irrigation pump. Direct netting of entrained fish was used along with sonar technology to quantify the probability of screen contact for a Murray-Darling Basin (Australia fish species. Two approach velocities (0.1 and 0.5 m.sec(-1 and different sizes of woven mesh (5, 10 and 20 mm were evaluated. Smaller fish (<150 mm in the assemblage were significantly more susceptible to entrainment and screen contact, especially at higher approach velocities. Mesh size appeared to have little impact on screen contact and entrainment, suggesting that approach velocity rather than mesh size is likely to be the primary consideration when developing screens. Until the effects of screen contacts on injury and survival of these species are better understood, it is recommended that approach velocities not exceed 0.1 m.sec(-1 when the desire is to protect the largest range of species and size classes for lowland river fish assemblages in the Murray-Darling Basin. The field method tested proved to be a useful approach that could compliment laboratory studies to refine fish screen design and facilitate field validation.

  14. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Richland and Wapato Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1987 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Abernethy, C.Scott; Lusty, E.William; Wampler, Sally J.

    1988-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of new fish screening facilities at the Richland and Wapato canals in south-central Washington State. The screen integrity tests at the Richland Screens indicated that 100% of fall chinook salmon fry (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released in front of the screens were prevented from entering the canal behind the screens. Our estimate is based on a 61% catch efficiency for control fish planted behind the screens. At the Wapato Canal, we estimated that between 3% and 4% of the test fish were either impinged on the screen surface and passed over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based over the screens or passed through faulty screen seals. Our estimate is based on a greater than 90% capture of control fish released in front of the screens. At the Wapato Screens, we estimated that 0.8% of steelhead smolts (Salmo gairdneri) and 1.4% of spring chinook salmon smolts released during low canal flow tests wee descaled. During full canal flow tests, 1.6% of the steelhead and 3.1% of the spring chinook salmon released were descaled. The fish return pipe at the Wapato Canal was tested: the estimate of descaled test fish wa not different from the estimate of descaled control fish. The time required for fish to exit from the Wapato Screen forebay varied with species and with canal flow. During low canal flows, 43.2% of steelhead and 61.6% of spring chinook salmon smolts released at the trash racks were captured in the fish return within 96 hr. 11 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Determination of a Screening Metric for High Diversity DNA Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas J; Handerson, Steven; Joseph, Elaine M; Leake, Devin; Kung, Li A

    2016-01-01

    The fields of antibody engineering, enzyme optimization and pathway construction rely increasingly on screening complex variant DNA libraries. These highly diverse libraries allow researchers to sample a maximized sequence space; and therefore, more rapidly identify proteins with significantly improved activity. The current state of the art in synthetic biology allows for libraries with billions of variants, pushing the limits of researchers' ability to qualify libraries for screening by measuring the traditional quality metrics of fidelity and diversity of variants. Instead, when screening variant libraries, researchers typically use a generic, and often insufficient, oversampling rate based on a common rule-of-thumb. We have developed methods to calculate a library-specific oversampling metric, based on fidelity, diversity, and representation of variants, which informs researchers, prior to screening the library, of the amount of oversampling required to ensure that the desired fraction of variant molecules will be sampled. To derive this oversampling metric, we developed a novel alignment tool to efficiently measure frequency counts of individual nucleotide variant positions using next-generation sequencing data. Next, we apply a method based on the "coupon collector" probability theory to construct a curve of upper bound estimates of the sampling size required for any desired variant coverage. The calculated oversampling metric will guide researchers to maximize their efficiency in using highly variant libraries.

  16. Determination of a Screening Metric for High Diversity DNA Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Guido

    Full Text Available The fields of antibody engineering, enzyme optimization and pathway construction rely increasingly on screening complex variant DNA libraries. These highly diverse libraries allow researchers to sample a maximized sequence space; and therefore, more rapidly identify proteins with significantly improved activity. The current state of the art in synthetic biology allows for libraries with billions of variants, pushing the limits of researchers' ability to qualify libraries for screening by measuring the traditional quality metrics of fidelity and diversity of variants. Instead, when screening variant libraries, researchers typically use a generic, and often insufficient, oversampling rate based on a common rule-of-thumb. We have developed methods to calculate a library-specific oversampling metric, based on fidelity, diversity, and representation of variants, which informs researchers, prior to screening the library, of the amount of oversampling required to ensure that the desired fraction of variant molecules will be sampled. To derive this oversampling metric, we developed a novel alignment tool to efficiently measure frequency counts of individual nucleotide variant positions using next-generation sequencing data. Next, we apply a method based on the "coupon collector" probability theory to construct a curve of upper bound estimates of the sampling size required for any desired variant coverage. The calculated oversampling metric will guide researchers to maximize their efficiency in using highly variant libraries.

  17. Marine fish diversity at Kalpakkam coastal sites of Tamilnadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amrata; Ponnusamy, K.; Das, Subhashree; Munil Kumar, S.; Rajaram, S.; Lakra, W.S.; Pal, Asim K.; Sreedevi, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    In present study the marine fish diversity of Kalpakkam coastal sites of Tamil Nadu around Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) have been studied. The sampling was done seasonally viz post monsoon (January - March), Summer (April-June), and Premonsoon (July-September), for one year within 30 kilometer of MAPS. Total 69 species belonging to 10 order, 31 families and 42 genera were recorded. Different families such as Narcinidae -(1), Rhinobatidae-(1), Dasyatidae- (4), Clupeidae -(4), Pristigasteridae-(1), Engraulidae-(4), Ariidae-(1), Platycephalidae- (2), Polotosidae- (1), Ambassidae- (1), Sillaginidae- (1), Carangidae- (7), Sphyraenidae- (1), Scombridae- (1), Haemulidae- (1), Leiognathidae-(6), Lutjanidae-(3), Gerridae-(2), Sciaenidae- (8), Scatophagidae- (1), Mugilidae- (2), Ephippidae- (2), Mullidae- (3), Drepanidae- (1), Siganidae- (1), Paralichthyidae- (2), Trichiuridae- (1), Polynemidae- (1), Soleidae- (1), Cynoglossidae- (3), and Tetraodontidae- (1) were observed around Kalpakkam coastal sites. Among the collected species, order Perciformes was most dominant followed by Clupeiformes and Pleuronectiformes. The maximum fish collection was done during June to September and minimum during February to March. (author)

  18. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  19. Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Duchaud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold-water disease in salmonid fish, is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide. In this study, the genomic diversity of the F. psychrophilum species is analyzed using a set of 41 genomes, including 30 newly sequenced isolates. These were selected on the basis of available MLST data with the two-fold objective of maximizing the coverage of the species diversity and of allowing a focus on the main clonal complex (CC-ST10 infecting farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss worldwide. The results reveal a bacterial species harboring a limited genomic diversity both in terms of nucleotide diversity, with ~0.3% nucleotide divergence inside CDSs in pairwise genome comparisons, and in terms of gene repertoire, with the core genome accounting for ~80% of the genes in each genome. The pan-genome seems nevertheless “open” according to the scaling exponent of a power-law fitted on the rate of new gene discovery when genomes are added one-by-one. Recombination is a key component of the evolutionary process of the species as seen in the high level of apparent homoplasy in the core genome. Using a Hidden Markov Model to delineate recombination tracts in pairs of closely related genomes, the average recombination tract length was estimated to ~4.0 Kbp and the typical ratio of the contributions of recombination and mutations to nucleotide-level differentiation (r/m was estimated to ~13. Within CC-ST10, evolutionary distances computed on non-recombined regions and comparisons between 22 isolates sampled up to 27 years apart suggest a most recent common ancestor in the second half of the nineteenth century in North America with subsequent diversification and transmission of this clonal complex coinciding with the worldwide expansion of rainbow trout farming. With the goal to promote the development of

  20. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  1. Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chunguang Zhang; Yahui Zhao; Yingchun Xing; Ruilu Guo; Qing Zhang; Yun Feng; Enyuan Fan

    2011-01-01

    Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 in-troduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50...

  2. Addressing species diversity in biotransformation: variability in expressed transcripts of hepatic biotransformation enzymes among fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that diverse xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes exist among fishes, potentially resulting in different chemical sensitivities and accumulation, but this has never been systematically evaluated. One concern is that model test species such as rainbow trou...

  3. Diversity, extinction risk and conservation of Malaysian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, V C; Lee, P K Y; Lau, C M

    2010-06-01

    A total of 1951 species of freshwater and marine fishes belonging to 704 genera and 186 families are recorded in Malaysia. Almost half (48%) are currently threatened to some degree, while nearly one third (27%) mostly from the marine and coral habitats require urgent scientific studies to evaluate their status. Freshwater habitats encompass the highest percentage of threatened fish species (87%) followed by estuarine habitats (66%). Of the 32 species of highly threatened (HT) species, 16 are freshwater and 16 are largely marine-euryhaline species. Fish extinctions in Malaysia are confined to two freshwater species, but both freshwater and marine species are being increasingly threatened by largely habitat loss or modification (76%), overfishing (27%) and by-catch (23%). The most important threat to freshwater fishes is habitat modification and overfishing, while 35 species are threatened due to their endemism. Brackish-water, euryhaline and marine fishes are threatened mainly by overfishing, by-catch and habitat modification. Sedimentation (pollution) additionally threatens coral-reef fishes. The study provides recommendations to governments, fish managers, scientists and stakeholders to address the increasing and unabated extinction risks faced by the Malaysian fish fauna.

  4. Diversity and Ecological Correlates of Red Fluorescence in Marine Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Anthes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments at depths below -10 to -25 m are almost devoid of ambient red sunlight because water quickly attenuates long wavelengths. This stenospectral light environment presents unique opportunities for organisms that can transform ambient blue-green light into red light by fluorescence. Numerous marine fish species display intricate patterns of fluorescence. Because color vision is a key component of fish sensory ecology, several putative visual functions of red fluorescence have been proposed but are difficult to test experimentally. Here, we follow a comparative approach to assess the consistency between the phylogenetic distribution of red fluorescence with its presumed functions. We collected and analyzed the largest data set of red fluorescence in fishes to date, consisting of confirmed cases in 272 primarily diurnal fish species from 49 out of 90 surveyed fish families and 12 out of 21 surveyed fish orders, contrasted to 393 fish species with confirmed absence of red fluorescence. Based on a priori hypotheses on adaptive function, we compare the prevalence of red fluorescence among pre-defined sets of species based on ecological or biological characteristics while controlling for shared ancestry. When comparing between species, we find no evidence that red fluorescence is more prevalent in deep-water species, contrasting with our recent finding that fluorescence brightness increases with depth within species. There is also no evidence for a role in group-driven communication. Phylogenetic patterns are consistent, however, with three other predictions. First, fluorescence with a rather patchy distribution across the body occurred significantly more often among sit-and-wait predators or otherwise sedentary fish than in more mobile species, consistent with background matching for camouflage. Second, small, predatory fishes tended to show red fluorescent irides disproportionally often consistent with a proposed function in prey

  5. Survival of fishes after impingement on traveling screens at Hudson River power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muessig, P.H.; Hutchison, J.B.; King, L.R.; Ligotino, R.J.; Daley, M.

    1988-01-01

    The survival of Hudson River fishes, juveniles and adults, after they had been impinged on continuously rotated traveling screens at the Bowline Point and Danskammer Point power plants was examined. Survival of principal species was similar at the two plants, and estimates of survival improved as monitoring stress was reduced. Adjusted for survival of control fish, survival over 84-108 h after fish were recovered from the screens was highest for Atlantic tomcod, striped bass, and white perch (50-90%) and lowest for bay anchovy, alewife, and blueback herring; other species showed intermediate survival. Survival of striped bass and white perch was positively correlated with water temperature in winter and with conductivity in spring and fall. Continual rotation of the screens, which shortens the average time that fish are impinged, increased survival over that associated with intermittent rotation. 24 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2014-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  7. Additive diversity partitioning of fish in a Caribbean coral reef undergoing shift transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-González, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A; Hernández-Landa, Roberto C; Arias-González, Jesús E

    2013-01-01

    Shift transitions in dominance on coral reefs from hard coral cover to fleshy macroalgae are having negative effects on Caribbean coral reef communities. Data on spatiotemporal changes in biodiversity during these modifications are important for decision support for coral reef biodiversity protection. The main objective of this study is to detect the spatiotemporal patterns of coral reef fish diversity during this transition using additive diversity-partitioning analysis. We examined α, β and γ fish diversity from 2000 to 2010, during which time a shift transition occurred at Mahahual Reef, located in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Data on coral reef fish and benthic communities were obtained from 12 transects per geomorphological unit (GU) in two GUs (reef slope and terrace) over six years (2000, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010). Spatial analysis within and between the GUs indicated that the γ-diversity was primarily related to higher β-diversity. Throughout the six study years, there were losses of α, β and γ-diversity associated spatially with the shallow (reef slope) and deeper (reef terrace) GUs and temporally with the transition in cover from mound corals to fleshy macroalgae and boulder corals. Despite a drastic reduction in the number of species over time, β-diversity continues to be the highest component of γ-diversity. The shift transition had a negative effect on α, β and γ-diversity, primarily by impacting rare species, leading a group of small and less vulnerable fish species to become common and an important group of rare species to become locally extinct. The maintenance of fish heterogeneity (β-diversity) over time may imply the abetment of vulnerability in the face of local and global changes.

  8. Additive diversity partitioning of fish in a Caribbean coral reef undergoing shift transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Acosta-González

    Full Text Available Shift transitions in dominance on coral reefs from hard coral cover to fleshy macroalgae are having negative effects on Caribbean coral reef communities. Data on spatiotemporal changes in biodiversity during these modifications are important for decision support for coral reef biodiversity protection. The main objective of this study is to detect the spatiotemporal patterns of coral reef fish diversity during this transition using additive diversity-partitioning analysis. We examined α, β and γ fish diversity from 2000 to 2010, during which time a shift transition occurred at Mahahual Reef, located in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Data on coral reef fish and benthic communities were obtained from 12 transects per geomorphological unit (GU in two GUs (reef slope and terrace over six years (2000, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010. Spatial analysis within and between the GUs indicated that the γ-diversity was primarily related to higher β-diversity. Throughout the six study years, there were losses of α, β and γ-diversity associated spatially with the shallow (reef slope and deeper (reef terrace GUs and temporally with the transition in cover from mound corals to fleshy macroalgae and boulder corals. Despite a drastic reduction in the number of species over time, β-diversity continues to be the highest component of γ-diversity. The shift transition had a negative effect on α, β and γ-diversity, primarily by impacting rare species, leading a group of small and less vulnerable fish species to become common and an important group of rare species to become locally extinct. The maintenance of fish heterogeneity (β-diversity over time may imply the abetment of vulnerability in the face of local and global changes.

  9. Evidence of Increased Antibiotic Resistance in Phylogenetically-Diverse Aeromonas Isolates from Semi-Intensive Fish Ponds Treated with Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemant J; Benet-Perelberg, Ayana; Naor, Alon; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Nasser, Ahmed; Minz, Dror; Cytryn, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain the effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically to fingerling stocks and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an 11-month fish fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a 3-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas isolates were initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antimicrobials. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Multidrug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA , and intI1 gene-harboring strains were significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically distinct Aeromonas clusters were identified using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were identified, including an A. salmonicida

  10. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically upon fingerling stocking and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an eleven-month fish-fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a three-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas spp. were isolated, initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antibiotics. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Abundance of multi-drug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA and intI1 gene-harboring strains was significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically-distinct Aeromonas clusters were revealed using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were

  11. Diversitas Dan Hilangnya Jenis-jenis Ikan Disungai Ciliwung Dan Sungai Cisadane [Study of Fish Diversity and the Lost of Fish Species of River Ciliwung and R. Cisadane

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiaty, Renny Kurnia

    2011-01-01

    The fish research in Indonesian waters has been begun since 16 century ago. Most of the research collected fish around Batavia.Many new species was described and the type specimens deposited at the museums in Europe or America.The study of fish diversity and the lost of fish species was conducted at River Ciliwung and R. Cisadane in 2009. The aim of this study is to describe the recent fish diversity in both river drainages, then make a comparison with the number of species recorded based on ...

  12. DIVERSITY OF REEF FISH FUNGSIONAL GROUPS IN TERMS OF CORAL REEF RESILIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Nagib edrus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure development in the particular sites of  Seribu Islands as well as those in main land of Jakarta City increased with coastal population this phenomenon is likely to increase the effects to the adjacent coral waters of Seribu Islands.  Chemical pollutants, sedimentation, and domestic wastes are the common impact and threatening, the survival of coral reef ecosystem. Coral reef resiliences naturaly remained on their processes under many influences of supporting factors. One of the major factor is the role of reef fish functional groups on controling algae growth to recolonize coral juveniles. The  aim of this study to obtain data of a herbivory and other fish functional groups of reef fishes in the Pari Islands that are resilience indicators, or that may indicate the effectiveness of management actions. A conventional scientific approach on fish diversity and abundance data gathering was conducted by the underwater visual cencus. Diversity values of the reef fish functional groups, such as the abundance of individual fish including species, were collected and tabulated by classes and weighted as a baseline to understand the resilience of coral reed based on Obura and Grimsditch (2009 techniques. The results succesfully identified several fish functional groups such as harbivores (21 species, carnivores (13 species and fish indicator (5 species occurred in the area. Regarding the aspects of fish density and its diversity, especially herbivorous fish functional group, were presumably in the state of rarely available to support the coral reef resiliences. Resilience indices ranged from 1 (low level to 3 (moderate level and averages of the quality levels ranged from 227 to 674. These levels were inadequate to support coral reef recolonization.

  13. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A W.H.; Struthers, G; Hanson, P

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  14. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Turner, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic-spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most tributary basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and in response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    2012-01-01

    eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species....... Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied...

  16. Assessing the functional diversity of herbivorous reef fishes using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tietbohl, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Herbivorous coral reef fishes play an important role in helping to structure their environment directly by consuming algae and indirectly by promoting coral health and growth. These fishes are generally separated into three broad groups: browsers, grazers, and excavators/scrapers, with these groupings often thought to have a fixed general function and all fishes within a group thought to have similar ecological roles. This categorization assumes a high level of functional redundancy within herbivorous fishes. However, recent evidence questions the use of this broad classification scheme, and posits that there may actually be more resource partitioning within these functional groupings. Here, I use a compound-specific stable isotope approach (CSIA) to show there appears to be a greater diversity of functional roles than previously assumed within broad functional groups. The δ13C signatures from essential amino acids of reef end-members (coral, macroalgae, detritus, and phytoplankton) and fish muscle were analyzed to investigate differences in resource use between fishes. Most end-members displayed clear isotopic differences, and most fishes within functional groups were dissimilar in their isotopic signature, implying differences in the resources they target. No grazers closely resembled each other isotopically, implying a much lower level of functional redundancy within this group; scraping parrotfish were also distinct from excavating parrotfish and to a lesser degree distinct between scrapers. This study highlights the potential of CSIA to help distinguish fine-scale ecological differences within other groups of reef organisms as well. These results question the utility of lumping nominally herbivorous fishes into broad groups with assumed similar roles. Given the apparent functional differences between nominally herbivorous reef fishes, it is important for managers to incorporate the diversity of functional roles these fish play.

  17. Assessing the functional diversity of herbivorous reef fishes using a compound-specific stable isotope approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tietbohl, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous coral reef fishes play an important role in helping to structure their environment directly by consuming algae and indirectly by promoting coral health and growth. These fishes are generally separated into three broad groups: browsers, grazers, and excavators/scrapers, with these groupings often thought to have a fixed general function and all fishes within a group thought to have similar ecological roles. This categorization assumes a high level of functional redundancy within herbivorous fishes. However, recent evidence questions the use of this broad classification scheme, and posits that there may actually be more resource partitioning within these functional groupings. Here, I use a compound-specific stable isotope approach (CSIA) to show there appears to be a greater diversity of functional roles than previously assumed within broad functional groups. The δ13C signatures from essential amino acids of reef end-members (coral, macroalgae, detritus, and phytoplankton) and fish muscle were analyzed to investigate differences in resource use between fishes. Most end-members displayed clear isotopic differences, and most fishes within functional groups were dissimilar in their isotopic signature, implying differences in the resources they target. No grazers closely resembled each other isotopically, implying a much lower level of functional redundancy within this group; scraping parrotfish were also distinct from excavating parrotfish and to a lesser degree distinct between scrapers. This study highlights the potential of CSIA to help distinguish fine-scale ecological differences within other groups of reef organisms as well. These results question the utility of lumping nominally herbivorous fishes into broad groups with assumed similar roles. Given the apparent functional differences between nominally herbivorous reef fishes, it is important for managers to incorporate the diversity of functional roles these fish play.

  18. Repetitive sequences: the hidden diversity of heterochromatin in prochilodontid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Terencio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and organization of repetitive elements in fish genomes are still relatively poorly understood, although most of these elements are believed to be located in heterochromatic regions. Repetitive elements are considered essential in evolutionary processes as hotspots for mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, among other functions – thus providing new genomic alternatives and regulatory sites for gene expression. The present study sought to characterize repetitive DNA sequences in the genomes of Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841 and Semaprochilodus taeniurus (Valenciennes, 1817 and identify regions of conserved syntenic blocks in this genome fraction of three species of Prochilodontidae (S. insignis, S. taeniurus, and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 by cross-FISH using Cot-1 DNA (renaturation kinetics probes. We found that the repetitive fractions of the genomes of S. insignis and S. taeniurus have significant amounts of conserved syntenic blocks in hybridization sites, but with low degrees of similarity between them and the genome of P. lineatus, especially in relation to B chromosomes. The cloning and sequencing of the repetitive genomic elements of S. insignis and S. taeniurus using Cot-1 DNA identified 48 fragments that displayed high similarity with repetitive sequences deposited in public DNA databases and classified as microsatellites, transposons, and retrotransposons. The repetitive fractions of the S. insignis and S. taeniurus genomes exhibited high degrees of conserved syntenic blocks in terms of both the structures and locations of hybridization sites, but a low degree of similarity with the syntenic blocks of the P. lineatus genome. Future comparative analyses of other prochilodontidae species will be needed to advance our understanding of the organization and evolution of the genomes in this group of fish.

  19. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  20. Functional, size and taxonomic diversity of fish along a depth gradient in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindel, Beth L; Neat, Francis C; Trueman, Clive N; Webb, Thomas J; Blanchard, Julia L

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity is well studied in ecology and the concept has been developed to include traits of species, rather than solely taxonomy, to better reflect the functional diversity of a system. The deep sea provides a natural environmental gradient within which to study changes in different diversity metrics, but traits of deep-sea fish are not widely known, hampering the application of functional diversity to this globally important system. We used morphological traits to determine the functional richness and functional divergence of demersal fish assemblages along the continental slope in the Northeast Atlantic, at depths of 300-2,000 m. We compared these metrics to size diversity based on individual body size and species richness. Functional richness and size diversity showed similar patterns, with the highest diversity at intermediate depths; functional divergence showed the opposite pattern, with the highest values at the shallowest and deepest parts of the study site. Species richness increased with depth. The functional implications of these patterns were deduced by examining depth-related changes in morphological traits and the dominance of feeding guilds as illustrated by stable isotope analyses. The patterns in diversity and the variation in certain morphological traits can potentially be explained by changes in the relative dominance of pelagic and benthic feeding guilds. All measures of diversity examined here suggest that the deep areas of the continental slope may be equally or more diverse than assemblages just beyond the continental shelf.

  1. Functional, size and taxonomic diversity of fish along a depth gradient in the deep sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L. Mindel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is well studied in ecology and the concept has been developed to include traits of species, rather than solely taxonomy, to better reflect the functional diversity of a system. The deep sea provides a natural environmental gradient within which to study changes in different diversity metrics, but traits of deep-sea fish are not widely known, hampering the application of functional diversity to this globally important system. We used morphological traits to determine the functional richness and functional divergence of demersal fish assemblages along the continental slope in the Northeast Atlantic, at depths of 300–2,000 m. We compared these metrics to size diversity based on individual body size and species richness. Functional richness and size diversity showed similar patterns, with the highest diversity at intermediate depths; functional divergence showed the opposite pattern, with the highest values at the shallowest and deepest parts of the study site. Species richness increased with depth. The functional implications of these patterns were deduced by examining depth-related changes in morphological traits and the dominance of feeding guilds as illustrated by stable isotope analyses. The patterns in diversity and the variation in certain morphological traits can potentially be explained by changes in the relative dominance of pelagic and benthic feeding guilds. All measures of diversity examined here suggest that the deep areas of the continental slope may be equally or more diverse than assemblages just beyond the continental shelf.

  2. Impact of habitat diversity on the sampling effort required for the assessment of river fish communities and IBI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liefferinge, C.; Simoens, I.; Vogt, C.; Cox, T.J.S.; Breine, J.; Ercken, D.; Goethals, P.; Belpaire, C.; Meire, P.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial variation in the fish communities of four small Belgian rivers with variable habitat diversity was investigated by electric fishing to define the minimum sampling distance required for optimal fish stock assessment and determination of the Index of Biotic Integrity. This study shows that

  3. The Digital Fish Library: using MRI to digitize, database, and document the morphological diversity of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Rachel M; Gledhill, Kristen M; Peterson, Matthew W; Doan, Allyson H; Baxter, Gregory T; Yopak, Kara E; Kang, Ning; Walker, H J; Hastings, Philip A; Frank, Lawrence R

    2012-01-01

    Museum fish collections possess a wealth of anatomical and morphological data that are essential for documenting and understanding biodiversity. Obtaining access to specimens for research, however, is not always practical and frequently conflicts with the need to maintain the physical integrity of specimens and the collection as a whole. Non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) digital imaging therefore serves a critical role in facilitating the digitization of these specimens for anatomical and morphological analysis as well as facilitating an efficient method for online storage and sharing of this imaging data. Here we describe the development of the Digital Fish Library (DFL, http://www.digitalfishlibrary.org), an online digital archive of high-resolution, high-contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the soft tissue anatomy of an array of fishes preserved in the Marine Vertebrate Collection of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. We have imaged and uploaded MRI data for over 300 marine and freshwater species, developed a data archival and retrieval system with a web-based image analysis and visualization tool, and integrated these into the public DFL website to disseminate data and associated metadata freely over the web. We show that MRI is a rapid and powerful method for accurately depicting the in-situ soft-tissue anatomy of preserved fishes in sufficient detail for large-scale comparative digital morphology. However these 3D volumetric data require a sophisticated computational and archival infrastructure in order to be broadly accessible to researchers and educators.

  4. The Digital Fish Library: using MRI to digitize, database, and document the morphological diversity of fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Berquist

    Full Text Available Museum fish collections possess a wealth of anatomical and morphological data that are essential for documenting and understanding biodiversity. Obtaining access to specimens for research, however, is not always practical and frequently conflicts with the need to maintain the physical integrity of specimens and the collection as a whole. Non-invasive three-dimensional (3D digital imaging therefore serves a critical role in facilitating the digitization of these specimens for anatomical and morphological analysis as well as facilitating an efficient method for online storage and sharing of this imaging data. Here we describe the development of the Digital Fish Library (DFL, http://www.digitalfishlibrary.org, an online digital archive of high-resolution, high-contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans of the soft tissue anatomy of an array of fishes preserved in the Marine Vertebrate Collection of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. We have imaged and uploaded MRI data for over 300 marine and freshwater species, developed a data archival and retrieval system with a web-based image analysis and visualization tool, and integrated these into the public DFL website to disseminate data and associated metadata freely over the web. We show that MRI is a rapid and powerful method for accurately depicting the in-situ soft-tissue anatomy of preserved fishes in sufficient detail for large-scale comparative digital morphology. However these 3D volumetric data require a sophisticated computational and archival infrastructure in order to be broadly accessible to researchers and educators.

  5. Distribution, abundance, and diversity of stream fishes under variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Taylor; Thomas L. Holder; Richard A. Fiorillo; Lance R. Williams; R. Brent Thomas; Melvin L. Warren

    2006-01-01

    The effects of stream size and flow regime on spatial and temporal variability of stream fish distribution, abundance, and diversity patterns were investigated. Assemblage variability and species richness were each significantly associated with a complex environmental gradient contrasting smaller, hydrologically variable stream localities with larger localities...

  6. Body size diversity and frequency distributions of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Steele

    Full Text Available Body size is an important correlate of life history, ecology and distribution of species. Despite this, very little is known about body size evolution in fishes, particularly freshwater fishes of the Neotropics where species and body size diversity are relatively high. Phylogenetic history and body size data were used to explore body size frequency distributions in Neotropical cichlids, a broadly distributed and ecologically diverse group of fishes that is highly representative of body size diversity in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We test for divergence, phylogenetic autocorrelation and among-clade partitioning of body size space. Neotropical cichlids show low phylogenetic autocorrelation and divergence within and among taxonomic levels. Three distinct regions of body size space were identified from body size frequency distributions at various taxonomic levels corresponding to subclades of the most diverse tribe, Geophagini. These regions suggest that lineages may be evolving towards particular size optima that may be tied to specific ecological roles. The diversification of Geophagini appears to constrain the evolution of body size among other Neotropical cichlid lineages; non-Geophagini clades show lower species-richness in body size regions shared with Geophagini. Neotropical cichlid genera show less divergence and extreme body size than expected within and among tribes. Body size divergence among species may instead be present or linked to ecology at the community assembly scale.

  7. Effect of some socio-economic activities on fish diversity of lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some socio-economic activities on fish diversity of lagoon systems in Ogun waterside Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  8. Impact of fishing with Tephrosia candida (Fabaceae) on diversity and abundance of fish in the streams at the boundary of Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epa, Udaya Priyantha Kankanamge; Mohotti, Chamari Ruvandika Waniga Chinthamanie

    2016-09-01

    Local communities in some Asian, African and American countries, use plant toxins in fish poisoning for fishing activities; however, the effects of this practice on the particular wild fish assemblages is unknown. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of fish poisoning using Tephrosia candida, on freshwater fish diversity and abundance in streams at the boundary of the World Natural Heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. A total of seven field trips were undertaken on a bimonthly basis, from May 2013 to June 2014. We surveyed five streams with similar environmental and climatological conditions at the boundary of Sinharaja forest. We selected three streams with active fish poisoning practices as treatments, and two streams with no fish poisoning as controls. Physico-chemical parameters and flow rate of water in selected streams were also measured at bimonthly intervals. Fish were sampled by electrofishing and nets in three randomly selected confined locations (6 x 2 m stretch) along every stream. Fish species were identified, their abundances were recorded, and Shannon-Weiner diversity index was calculated for each stream. Streams were clustered based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for fish composition and abundance. Physico-chemical parameters of water were not significantly different among streams (P > 0.05). A total of 15 fish species belonging to four different orders Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes were collected; nine species (60 %) were endemic, and six (40 %) were native species. From these, 13 fish species were recorded in streams with no poisoning, while five species were recorded in streams where poisoning was practiced. Four endemic and one native fish species were locally extinct in streams where fish poisoning was active. Fish abundance was significantly higher in control streams (32-39/m2) when compared to treatment streams (5-9/m2) (P fish poisoning with T. candida may

  9. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  10. Fish diversity in adjacent ambient, thermal, and post-thermal freshwater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant area is drained by five streams of various sizes and thermal histories. One has never been thermally stressed, two presently receive thermal effluent, and two formerly received thermal effluent from nuclear production reactors. Sixty-four species of fishes are known to inhabit these streams; 55 species is the highest number obtained from any one stream. Thermal effluent in small streams excludes fish during periods of high temperatures, but the streams are rapidly reinvaded when temperatures subside below lethal limits. Some cyprinids become extinct in nonthermal tributaries upstream from the thermal effluents after extended periods of thermal stress. This extinction is similar to that which follows stream impoundment. Post-thermal streams rapidly recover their fish diversity and abundance. The alteration of the streambed and removal of overhead canopy may change the stream characteristics and modify the post-thermal fish fauna

  11. Community structure and diversity of demersal fish assemblages: the role of fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Labropoulou

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal experimental trawl surveys were carried out in the Northern Aegean and Thracian seas (NE Mediterranean, Greece, from summer 1990 to autumn 1993, during which a total of 172 fish species were caught. In these areas, fishing pressure is very high, since approximately 50% of the Greek otter trawl fleet operates there, producing more than 57% of the total demersal landings. Different statistics were used to assess spatial structure, seasonal changes and diversity of the demersal fish assemblages on the continental shelf and upper slope. The following measures were applied to the species abundance matrix: species diversity, species richness, evenness and dominance. The analysis of 501 bottom trawls revealed that, in general, species diversity, richness and evenness decreased with water depth, with the highest values at depths 200 m. The effect of depth on the diversity patterns observed was always significant, while seasonal trends were similar with those described for the overall diversity characteristics in each area. Classification and ordination methods showed the existence of 4 groups associated with the continental shelf and upper slope in each area. Classification of the top ranking species at each group and area revealed that commercially important species were dominant in the shallowest zone (

  12. Expanding diversity of potential bacterial partners of the methanotrophic ANME archaea using Magneto-FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath-Reichert, E.; Green-Saxena, A.; Steele, J. A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfate-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is the major sink for methane in the oceans. This process is believed to be catalyzed by as yet uncultured syntrophic consortia of ANME archaea (affiliated with the Methanosarcinales) and sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus and Desulfobulbaceae. These syntrophic consortia have been described from methane-rich habitats worldwide and appear to be most concentrated in areas of high methane flux, such as cold seeps along continental margins. The extent of the diversity and ecophysiological potential of these microbial associations is still poorly constrained. In an effort to better characterize the diversity of microorganisms forming associations with different clades of methanotrophic ANME archaea (ANME-1, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3) and link these organisms to potentially diagnostic metabolic genes (e.g. mcrA, dsrAB, aprA), we employed a unique culture-independent whole cell capture technique which combines Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with immuno-magnetic cell capture (Magneto-FISH). We used Magneto-FISH for targeted enrichment of specific ANME groups and their associated bacteria directly from formalin- and ethanol-fixed methane seep sediment. The identity and metabolic gene diversity of captured microorganisms were then assessed by clone library construction and sequencing. Diversity recovered from Magneto-FISH experiments using general and clade-specific ANME targeted probes show both the expected selectivity of the FISH probes (i.e. predominately ANME-2c subclade captured with an ANME-2c probe and multiple ANME groups recovered with the general probe targeting most ANME). Follow up FISH experiments were conducted to confirm physical associations between ANME and unique bacterial members (deltaproteobacteria and other non-sulfate reducing groups) that were common to multiple Magneto-FISH capture experiments. Analyses of metabolic gene diversity for archaeal

  13. [Species composition, diversity and density of small fishes in two different habitats in Niushan Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shao-Wen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Cao, Wen-Xuan

    2007-07-01

    This paper studied the spatial distribution of small fishes in a shallow macrophytic lake, Niushan Lake in spring 2003, and its relations with habitat heterogeneity. Based on the macrophyte cover condition, distance from lake shore and water depth, two representative habitat types in the lake were selected. Habitat A was near the shore with dense submersed macrophyte, while habitat B was far from the shore with sparse submersed macrophyte. Small fishes were sampled quantitatively by block net (180 m2), and their densities within the net area were estimated by multiple mark-recapture or Zippin's removal method. The results showed that there were some differences in species composition, biodiversity measurement, and estimated density of small fishes between the two habitats: 1) the catches in habitat A consisted of 14 small fish species from 5 families, among which, benthopelagic species Rhodeus ocellatus, Paracheilognathus imberbis and Pseudorasbora parva were considered as dominant species, while those in habitat B consisted of 9 small fish species from 3 families, among which, bottom species Rhinogobius giurinus and Micropercops swinhonis were dominant; 2) the Bray-Curtis index between the two small fish communities was 0.222, reflecting their low structure similarity, and no significant difference was observed between their rank/ abundance distributions, both of which belonged to log series distribution; 3) the total density of 9 major species in habitat A was 8.71 ind x m(-2), while that of 5 major species in habitat B was only 3.54 ind x m(-2). The fact that the spatial distribution of the small fishes differed with habitats might be related to their habitat need for escaping predators, feeding, and breeding, and thus, aquatic macrophyte habitat should be of significance in the rational exploitation of small fish resources as well as the conservation of fish resource diversity.

  14. A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryonic development in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Kühnlein, R; Henrich, T; Mücke, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    2000-10-01

    In a pilot screen, we assayed the efficiency of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) as a chemical mutagen to induce mutations that lead to early embryonic and larval lethal phenotypes in the Japanese medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. ENU acts as a very efficient mutagen inducing mutations at high rates in germ cells. Three repeated treatments of male fish in 3 mM ENU for 1 h results in locus specific mutation rates of 1.1-1.95 x10(-3). Mutagenized males were outcrossed to wild type females and the F1 offspring was used to establish F2 families. F2 siblings were intercrossed and the F3 progeny was scored 24, 48 and 72 h after fertilization for morphological alterations affecting eye development. The presented mutant phenotypes were identified using morphological criteria and occur during early developmental stages of medaka. They are stably inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The high efficiency of ENU to induce mutations in this pilot screen indicates that chemical mutagenesis and screening for morphologically visible phenotypes in medaka fish allows the genetic analysis of specific aspects of vertebrate development complementing the screens performed in other vertebrate model systems.

  15. Composition and diversity of larval fish in the mangrove estuarine area of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezagholinejad, Sadaf; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Ara, Roushon

    2016-07-01

    The composition of fish larvae and their diversity in different habitats are very important for fisheries management. Larval fishes were investigated in a mangrove estuary of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia from October 2012 to September 2013 at five different sites. Monthly samples of fish larvae were collected at five sampling sites by a plankton net with a mouth opening of 40.5 cm in diameter. In total, 3879 larval fish were caught in the investigated area. The mean density of ichthyoplankton at this area was 118 larvae/100 m(3). The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families whereas 13 families occurred at St1, 16 at St2, 16 at St3, 12 at St4 and 16 at St5. The top major families were Sillaginidae, Engraulidae, Mugilidae and Sparidae with Sillaginidae consisted 44% of total larval composition. St3 with 143 larvae/100 m(3) had the highest density amongst the stations which was due to higher abundance of Sillaginidae. Shannon-Wiener diversity index represented significant variation during monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, peaking in the months December-January and May-June. However, Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and family richness showed significant differences among stations and months (p < 0.05).

  16. Nocturnality constrains morphological and functional diversity in the eyes of reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Lars

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient light levels are often considered to drive the evolution of eye form and function. Diel activity pattern is the main mechanism controlling the visual environment of teleost reef fish, with day-active (diurnal fish active in well-illuminated conditions, whereas night-active (nocturnal fish cope with dim light. Physiological optics predicts several specific evolutionary responses to dim-light vision that should be reflected in visual performance features of the eye. Results We analyzed a large comparative dataset on morphological traits of the eyes in 265 species of teleost reef fish in 43 different families. The eye morphology of nocturnal reef teleosts is characterized by a syndrome that indicates better light sensitivity, including large relative eye size, high optical ratio and large, rounded pupils. Improved dim-light image formation comes at the cost of reduced depth of focus and reduction of potential accommodative lens movement. Diurnal teleost reef fish, released from the stringent functional requirements of dim-light vision have much higher morphological and optical diversity than nocturnal species, with large ranges of optical ratio, depth of focus, and lens accommodation. Conclusions Physical characteristics of the environment are an important factor in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate eye. Both teleost reef fish and terrestrial amniotes meet the functional requirements of dim-light vision with a similar evolutionary response of morphological and optical modifications. The trade-off between improved dim-light vision and reduced optical diversity may be a key factor in explaining the lower trophic diversity of nocturnal reef teleosts.

  17. Fishes and aquatic habitats of the Orinoco River Basin: diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, C A; Machado-Allison, A; Taphorn, D C

    2016-07-01

    About 1000 freshwater fishes have been found so far in the Orinoco River Basin of Venezuela and Colombia. This high ichthyological diversity reflects the wide range of landscapes and aquatic ecosystems included in the basin. Mountain streams descend from the high Andes to become rapid-flowing foothill rivers that burst out upon vast savannah flatlands where they slowly make their way to the sea. These white-water rivers are heavily laden with sediments from the geologically young Andes. Because their sediment deposits have formed the richest soils of the basin, they have attracted the highest density of human populations, along with the greatest levels of deforestation, wildfires, agricultural biocides and fertilizers, sewage and all the other impacts associated with urban centres, agriculture and cattle ranching. In the southern portion of the basin, human populations are much smaller, where often the only inhabitants are indigenous peoples. The ancient rocks and sands of the Guiana Shield yield clear and black water streams of very different quality. Here, sediment loads are miniscule, pH is very acid and fish biomass is only a fraction of that observed in the rich Andean tributaries to the north. For each region of the basin, the current state of knowledge about fish diversity is assessed, fish sampling density evaluated, the presence of endemic species and economically important species (for human consumption or ornamental purposes) described and gaps in knowledge are pointed out. Current trends in the fishery for human consumption are analysed, noting that stocks of many species are in steep decline, and that current fishing practices are not sustainable. Finally, the major impacts and threats faced by the fishes and aquatic ecosystems of the Orinoco River Basin are summarized, and the creation of bi-national commissions to promote standardized fishing laws in both countries is recommended. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Consistent nutrient storage and supply mediated by diverse fish communities in coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Layman, Craig A; Mumby, Peter J; Rosemond, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    Corals thrive in low nutrient environments and the conservation of these globally imperiled ecosystems is largely dependent on mitigating the effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. However, to better understand the implications of anthropogenic nutrients requires a heightened understanding of baseline nutrient dynamics within these ecosystems. Here, we provide a novel perspective on coral reef nutrient dynamics by examining the role of fish communities in the supply and storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). We quantified fish-mediated nutrient storage and supply for 144 species and modeled these data onto 172 fish communities (71 729 individual fish), in four types of coral reefs, as well as seagrass and mangrove ecosystems, throughout the Northern Antilles. Fish communities supplied and stored large quantities of nutrients, with rates varying among ecosystem types. The size structure and diversity of the fish communities best predicted N and P supply and storage and N : P supply, suggesting that alterations to fish communities (e.g., overfishing) will have important implications for nutrient dynamics in these systems. The stoichiometric ratio (N : P) for storage in fish mass (~8 : 1) and supply (~20 : 1) was notably consistent across the four coral reef types (but not seagrass or mangrove ecosystems). Published nutrient enrichment studies on corals show that deviations from this N : P supply ratio may be associated with poor coral fitness, providing qualitative support for the hypothesis that corals and their symbionts may be adapted to specific ratios of nutrient supply. Consumer nutrient stoichiometry provides a baseline from which to better understand nutrient dynamics in coral reef and other coastal ecosystems, information that is greatly needed if we are to implement more effective measures to ensure the future health of the world's oceans. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The biological features and genetic diversity of novel fish rhabdovirus isolates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Liang, Hongru; Liu, Lihui; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Ningqiu; Su, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    The Rhabdoviridae is a diverse family of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses which infects mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants. Herein, we reported the isolation and characterization of 6 novel viruses from diseased fish collected from China including SCRV-QY, SCRV-SS, SCRV-GM, CmRV-FS, MsRV-SS, OmbRV-JM. The typical clinical symptom of diseased fish was hemorrhaging. Efficient propagation of these isolates in a Chinese perch brain cell line was determined by means of observation of cytopathic effect, RT-PCR and electron microscopy. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the complete G protein sequences revealed that these isolates were clustered into one monophyletic lineage belonging to the species Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus.

  20. Temporal changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages downstream from mountaintop mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Chambers, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Mountaintop mining (MTM) affects chemical, physical, and hydrological properties of receiving streams, but the long-term consequences for fish-assemblage structure and function are poorly understood. We sampled stream fish assemblages using electrofishing techniques in MTM exposure sites and reference sites within the Guyandotte River basin, USA, during 2010–2011. We calculated indices of taxonomic diversity (species richness, abundance, Shannon diversity) and functional diversity (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence) to compare exposure and reference assemblages between seasons (spring and autumn) and across years (1999–2011). We based temporal comparisons on 2 sites that were sampled during 1999–2001 by Stauffer and Ferreri (2002). Exposure assemblages had lower taxonomic and functional diversity than reference assemblages or simulated assemblages that accounted for random variation. Differences in taxonomic composition between reference and exposure assemblages were associated with conductivity and aqueous Se concentrations. Exposure assemblages had fewer species, lower abundances, and less biomass than reference assemblages across years and seasons. Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) became numerically dominant in exposure assemblages over time because of their persistence and losses of other taxa. In contrast, species richness increased over time in reference assemblages, a result that may indicate recovery from drought. Mean individual biomass increased as fish density decreased and most obligate invertivores were apparently extirpated at MTM exposure sites. Effects of MTM were not related to physical-habitat conditions but were associated with water-quality variables, which may limit quality and availability of benthic macroinvertebrate prey. Simulations revealed effects of MTM that could not be attributed to random variation in fish assemblage structure.

  1. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  2. THE INVENTORY OF FISH FROM THE NATIONAL PARK CĂLIMANI - DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Florea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Călimani National Park, the inventory of the fish species of community importance, carried out in 2013 through a project from the Sectoral Operational Program for Environment, revealed that there is only one species of community interest in the park, namely Cottus gobio (bullhead. This is a normal fact given that the site is located at altitudes ranging from a maximum of 2083 m to a minimum of 470, and most of the waters are represented by alpine creek. In the all four fishing campaigns, 30 tributaries were investigated and a total of 220 individuals were fished out of which: 156 individuals of river trout (Salmo trutta fario, 9 individuals of common bullhead (Cottus gobio, 52 individuals of rare bullhead (Cottus poecilopus, 2 individuals of grayling (Thymallus thymallus and 1 individuals of minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus. Ihtiofauna has a very low diversity, being constantly represented by one species of fish, Salmo trutta fario, which is well suited to the conditions of the creek situated on slopes of 1-3 m/km. Thus, out of the 30 investigated water courses, Salmo trutta fario is present in 17 water courses. Instead of this, Cottus gobio, a species of fish of community importance, has a very low presence on the territory of Calimani National Park, this situation is, to some extent, inadequate.

  3. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Leader, Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 752 County Road 99W... old and eroding, it plays a key role in protecting the PCGID-PID pumping plant. As the bank erodes... interdisciplinary team began studies to examine measures to protect the PCGID-PID pumping plant and fish screen...

  4. Climate mediates hypoxic stress on fish diversity and nursery function at the land–sea interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brent B.; Levey, Matthew D.; Fountain, Monique C.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Chavez, Francisco P.; Gleason, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems provide numerous important ecological services, including maintenance of biodiversity and nursery grounds for many fish species of ecological and economic importance. However, human population growth has led to increased pollution, ocean warming, hypoxia, and habitat alteration that threaten ecosystem services. In this study, we used long-term datasets of fish abundance, water quality, and climatic factors to assess the threat of hypoxia and the regulating effects of climate on fish diversity and nursery conditions in Elkhorn Slough, a highly eutrophic estuary in central California (United States), which also serves as a biodiversity hot spot and critical nursery grounds for offshore fisheries in a broader region. We found that hypoxic conditions had strong negative effects on extent of suitable fish habitat, fish species richness, and abundance of the two most common flatfish species, English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus). The estuary serves as an important nursery ground for English sole, making this species vulnerable to anthropogenic threats. We determined that estuarine hypoxia was associated with significant declines in English sole nursery habitat, with cascading effects on recruitment to the offshore adult population and fishery, indicating that human land use activities can indirectly affect offshore fisheries. Estuarine hypoxic conditions varied spatially and temporally and were alleviated by strengthening of El Niño conditions through indirect pathways, a consistent result in most estuaries across the northeast Pacific. These results demonstrate that changes to coastal land use and climate can fundamentally alter the diversity and functioning of coastal nurseries and their adjacent ocean ecosystems. PMID:26056293

  5. Climate mediates hypoxic stress on fish diversity and nursery function at the land-sea interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brent B; Levey, Matthew D; Fountain, Monique C; Carlisle, Aaron B; Chavez, Francisco P; Gleason, Mary G

    2015-06-30

    Coastal ecosystems provide numerous important ecological services, including maintenance of biodiversity and nursery grounds for many fish species of ecological and economic importance. However, human population growth has led to increased pollution, ocean warming, hypoxia, and habitat alteration that threaten ecosystem services. In this study, we used long-term datasets of fish abundance, water quality, and climatic factors to assess the threat of hypoxia and the regulating effects of climate on fish diversity and nursery conditions in Elkhorn Slough, a highly eutrophic estuary in central California (United States), which also serves as a biodiversity hot spot and critical nursery grounds for offshore fisheries in a broader region. We found that hypoxic conditions had strong negative effects on extent of suitable fish habitat, fish species richness, and abundance of the two most common flatfish species, English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus). The estuary serves as an important nursery ground for English sole, making this species vulnerable to anthropogenic threats. We determined that estuarine hypoxia was associated with significant declines in English sole nursery habitat, with cascading effects on recruitment to the offshore adult population and fishery, indicating that human land use activities can indirectly affect offshore fisheries. Estuarine hypoxic conditions varied spatially and temporally and were alleviated by strengthening of El Niño conditions through indirect pathways, a consistent result in most estuaries across the northeast Pacific. These results demonstrate that changes to coastal land use and climate can fundamentally alter the diversity and functioning of coastal nurseries and their adjacent ocean ecosystems.

  6. Zooplankton diversity and the predatory impact by larval and small juvenile fish at the Fisher Banks in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Munk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The biomass and diversity of the mesozooplankton and fish larvae community were investigated across a frontal zone in the central North Sea in the early summer, to investigate whether larval fish predation is a regulator of mesozooplankton production. Pronounced changes in the mesozooplankton com...

  7. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the Irrawaddy River in China: changes, threats and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompletely known fish assemblages and species diversity are substantial obstacles in fish conservation, particularly when their aquatic habitats are under threat due to rapid human-induced changes. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the upper Irrawaddy River in China (the Dulong, Daying and Ruili rivers were examined based on field collections and literature resources. The newly compiled fish assemblage recorded 85 species (in 8 orders, 20 families and 51 genera distributed in the upper Irrawaddy. The fish compositions in the Daying (67 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 7 orders and Ruili rivers (65 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 8 orders were more similar to each other and more speciose than that in the Dulong River (14 species, 10 genera, 4 families, 3 orders. Two indices of taxonomic diversity (the average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+, and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were used to discriminate four collections spanning a ten-year period. A decrease in taxonomic diversity and an increase in unevenness of the fish assemblages were found in both the Daying River and Ruili rivers, which indicated that the impacts were accumulated gradually during this decade, when dams and the spread of non-native species were major threats. Comparatively speaking, the Dulong River is still in a near-natural state, and thus the fish community has experienced less disturbance. In situ conservation (nature reserves and tributary protection and ex situ conservation (artificial propagation and release should be combined and managed to promote fish conservation in the future.

  8. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  9. Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the skin and mucus of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Rocco C.; Dove, Alistair; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    During horizontal or water-borne infection involving an obligate pathogen (e.g. – Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis), the pathogen interacted with and influenced the microbial diversity of the dermal mucus of fish. Prior to infection, the prevalent bacterial flora cultured from juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Comomonas terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Pseudomonas dimunita, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Serratia liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, other motile Aeromonas spp., and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After A. salmonicida was initially detected in this population as an external mucus infection, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., C. terrigenia, P. fluorescens, and P. dimunita, Staphylococcus sp., and A. hydrophila, were also present in appreciable numbers. Within several weeks, however, the A. salmonicida infection amplified and composed 78% of the total flora in the mucus. Only P. dimunita (4%). P. fluorescens (2%), and C. terrigenia (1%) were cultured at that time and more than a third of these fish showed evidence of a systemic A. salmonicida infection within their kidneys. Eight weeks after oral oxytetracycline treatments, A. salmonicida was no longer isolated from the mucus or kidneys of any fish and glucose inert or other oxidative microbes (e.g., P. fluorescens, C. terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp.) were beginning to repopulate the external surface of the salmon in increasing frequency. Still present and composing fairly large percentages of the total flora were A. hydrophila, as well as Enterobacter sp., and P. putrefaciens. A normal microbial diversity was re-established as the fish recovered. In another investigation, reduced biological diversity was noted in the dermal mucus among smallmouth bass that were sampled from the Jackson River (Covington, VA). In these fish, A. hydrophila and P. putrefaciens were the two

  10. DNA barcoding as a screening tool for cryptic diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huemer, Peter; Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    We explore the potential value of DNA barcode divergence for species delimitation in the genus Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), based on data from 44 European species (including 4 subspecies). Low intraspecific divergence of the DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (cytochrome c...... oxidase 1) gene and/or distinct barcode gaps to the nearest neighbor support species status for all examined nominal taxa. However, in 8 taxa we observed deep splits with a maximum intraspecific barcode divergence beyond a threshold of 3%, thus indicating possible cryptic diversity. The taxonomy...

  11. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso Aller

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones and two unprotected (open-access sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania. We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of culturable Actinobacteria isolated from freshwater fish gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Mansooreh; Ghanbari, Mahdi; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of Actinobacteria isolated from the gut microbiota of two freshwater fish species namely Schizothorax zarudnyi and Schizocypris altidorsalis was investigated employing classical cultivation techniques, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), partial and full 16S rDNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. A total of 277 isolates were cultured by applying three different agar media. Based on rep-PCR profile analysis a subset of 33 strains was selected for further phylogenetic investigations, antimicrobial activity testing and diversity analysis of secondary-metabolite biosynthetic genes. The identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates belong to eight genera distributed among six families. At the family level, 72% of the 277 isolates belong to the family Streptomycetaceae. Among the non-streptomycetes group, the most dominant group could be allocated to the family of Pseudonocardiaceae followed by the members of Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that many of the isolates in the genera Streptomyces, Saccharomonospora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium and Agromyces formed a single and distinct cluster with the type strains. Notably, there is no report so far about the occurrence of these Actinobacteria in the microbiota of freshwater fish. Of the 33 isolates, all the strains exhibited antibacterial activity against a set of tested human and fish pathogenic bacteria. Then, to study their associated potential capacity to synthesize diverse bioactive natural products, diversity of genes associated with secondary-metabolite biosynthesis including PKS I, PKS II, NRPS, the enzyme PhzE of the phenazine pathways, the enzyme dTGD of 6-deoxyhexoses glycosylation pathway, the enzyme Halo of halogenation pathway and the enzyme CYP in polyene polyketide biosynthesis were investigated among the isolates. All the strains possess at least two types of the investigated

  13. Evolutionary diversity and turn-over of sex determination in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, J E; Avise, J C

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination, due to the obvious association with reproduction and Darwinian fitness, has been traditionally assumed to be a relatively conserved trait. However, research on teleost fishes has shown that this need not be the case, as these animals display a remarkable diversity in the ways that they determine sex. These different mechanisms, which include constitutive genetic mechanisms on sex chromosomes, polygenic constitutive mechanisms, environmental influences, hermaphroditism, and unisexuality have each originated numerous independent times in the teleosts. The evolutionary lability of sex determination, and the corresponding rapid rate of turn-over among different modes, makes the teleost clade an excellent model with which to test theories regarding the evolution of sex determining adaptations. Much of the plasticity in sex determination likely results from the dynamic teleost genome, and recent advances in fish genetics and genomics have revealed the role of gene and genome duplication in fostering emergence and turn-over of sex determining mechanisms. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Trematode diversity in freshwater fishes of the Globe II: 'New World'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anindo; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Curran, Stephen S; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski; Overstreet, Robin M; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2016-03-01

    We provide a summary overview of the diversity of trematode parasites in freshwater fishes of the 'New World', i.e. the Americas, with emphasis on adult forms. The trematode fauna of three regions, South America, Middle America, and USA and Canada (North America north of Mexico), are considered separately. In total, 462 trematode species have been reported as adults from the Americas. The proportion of host species examined for parasites varies widely across the Americas, from a high of 45% in the Mexican region of Middle America to less than 5% in South America. North and South America share no adult species, and one exclusively freshwater genus, Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928 in the Allocreadiidae Looss, 1902 is the most widely distributed. Metacercariae of strigeiforms maturing in fish-eating birds (e.g. species of the Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886) are common and widely distributed. The review also highlights the paucity of known life-cycles. The foreseeable future of diversity studies belongs to integrative approaches and the application of molecular ecological methods. While opportunistic sampling will remain important in describing and cataloguing the trematode fauna, a better understanding of trematode diversity and biology will also depend on strategic sampling throughout the Americas.

  15. Diversity and composition of estuarine and lagoonal fish assemblages of Socotra Island, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, E; Zajonz, U; Krupp, F; Naseeb, F; Aideed, M S

    2016-05-01

    Estuarine and lagoonal surveys of Socotra Island and selected sites on the Hadhramout coast of Yemen were conducted with the objective of documenting and analysing fish diversity and assemblage structure. A total of 74 species in 35 families were recorded, among which 65 species in 32 families were from Socotra and 20 species in 17 families were from mainland Yemen. Twenty-one species represent new faunal records for Socotra. Including historic records re-examined in this study, the total fish species richness of estuaries and lagoons of Socotra Island reaches 76, which is relatively high compared to species inventories of well-researched coastal estuaries in southern Africa. Five species dominate the occurrence and abundance frequencies: Terapon jarbua, Hyporhamphus sindensis, Aphanius dispar, Ambassis gymnocephala and Chelon macrolepis. Rarefaction and extrapolation analyses suggest that the actual number of fish species inhabiting some of those estuaries might be higher than the one observed. Thus, additional sampling at specific sites should be conducted to record other less conspicuous species. Ordination and multivariate analyses identified four main distinct assemblage clusters. Two groups are geographically well structured and represent northern Socotra and mainland Yemen, respectively. The other two assemblage groups tend to be determined to a greater extent by the synchrony between physical (e.g. estuary opening periods) and biological (e.g. spawning and recruitment periods) variables than by geographical location. Finally, the single intertidal lagoon of Socotra represents by itself a specific fish assemblage. The high proportion of economically important fish species (38) recorded underscores the paramount importance of these coastal water bodies as nursery sites, and for sustaining vital provisioning ecosystem services. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Integrating abundance and functional traits reveals new global hotspots of fish diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Bates, Amanda E; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Duffy, J Emmett; Baker, Susan C; Thomson, Russell J; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F; Hill, Nicole A; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Airoldi, Laura; Becerro, Mikel A; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Navarrete, Sergio A; Soler, German A; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Willis, Trevor J; Edgar, Graham J

    2013-09-26

    Species richness has dominated our view of global biodiversity patterns for centuries. The dominance of this paradigm is reflected in the focus by ecologists and conservation managers on richness and associated occurrence-based measures for understanding drivers of broad-scale diversity patterns and as a biological basis for management. However, this is changing rapidly, as it is now recognized that not only the number of species but the species present, their phenotypes and the number of individuals of each species are critical in determining the nature and strength of the relationships between species diversity and a range of ecological functions (such as biomass production and nutrient cycling). Integrating these measures should provide a more relevant representation of global biodiversity patterns in terms of ecological functions than that provided by simple species counts. Here we provide comparisons of a traditional global biodiversity distribution measure based on richness with metrics that incorporate species abundances and functional traits. We use data from standardized quantitative surveys of 2,473 marine reef fish species at 1,844 sites, spanning 133 degrees of latitude from all ocean basins, to identify new diversity hotspots in some temperate regions and the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. These relate to high diversity of functional traits amongst individuals in the community (calculated using Rao's Q), and differ from previously reported patterns in functional diversity and richness for terrestrial animals, which emphasize species-rich tropical regions only. There is a global trend for greater evenness in the number of individuals of each species, across the reef fish species observed at sites ('community evenness'), at higher latitudes. This contributes to the distribution of functional diversity hotspots and contrasts with well-known latitudinal gradients in richness. Our findings suggest that the contribution of species diversity to a range of

  17. Spatial and temporal fish diversity patterns from Santa Catarina Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cattani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Santa Catarina Island has a mosaic of ecosystems, with great importance for the fishes. There is the presence of estuaries, lagoons, mangroves and sandy beaches in the same island. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the spatio and temporal fish diversity patterns in estuaries, lagoons and beach systems of Santa Catarina Island, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Fish data collected between 1983 to 2011 in the baía Norte, saco dos Limões, Itacorubi and Ratones mangroves, Conceição lagoon and Índio beach was analyzed. Fish were sampled with different gear techniques. In the North Bay and saco dos Limões individuals were caught by trawl, but in the mangroves and lagoon were used gillnets, cast nets and dip nets. In the Índio beach the fishes were collected using fyke nets. For each local, species accumulation curves were plotted to compare the observed pattern with modelled data, using first order Jackknife estimator. Species richness differences among locals and seasons were tested using PERMANOVA, followed by a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. To assess the taxonomic structures at each location, the average taxonomic distinctness (AvTD and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (VarTD were also used. Higher average species richness was found in the saco dos Limões (mean ± SE; 59.8 ± 2.5, followed by Índio Beach (55.7 ± 2.7, Conceição lagoon (52.3 ± 6.4, North bay (45.0 ± 2.5, mangrove Itacorubi (34.5 ± 3.2 and mangrove Ratones (30.8 ± 3.8. No significate differences for the taxonomic patterns were observed between seasons. Furthermore the hereby data suggest that the fish assemblages of the inner portion of the island of Santa Catarina are mainly formed by estuarine and marine fish, but differing in species richness among locals.

  18. Diversity of fish sound types in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Repetitive species-specific sound enables the identification of the presence and behavior of soniferous species by acoustic means. Passive acoustic monitoring has been widely applied to monitor the spatial and temporal occurrence and behavior of calling species. Methods Underwater biological sounds in the Pearl River Estuary, China, were collected using passive acoustic monitoring, with special attention paid to fish sounds. A total of 1,408 suspected fish calls comprising 18,942 pulses were qualitatively analyzed using a customized acoustic analysis routine. Results We identified a diversity of 66 types of fish sounds. In addition to single pulse, the sounds tended to have a pulse train structure. The pulses were characterized by an approximate 8 ms duration, with a peak frequency from 500 to 2,600 Hz and a majority of the energy below 4,000 Hz. The median inter-pulsepeak interval (IPPI of most call types was 9 or 10 ms. Most call types with median IPPIs of 9 ms and 10 ms were observed at times that were exclusive from each other, suggesting that they might be produced by different species. According to the literature, the two section signal types of 1 + 1 and 1 + N10 might belong to big-snout croaker (Johnius macrorhynus, and 1 + N19 might be produced by Belanger’s croaker (J. belangerii. Discussion Categorization of the baseline ambient biological sound is an important first step in mapping the spatial and temporal patterns of soniferous fishes. The next step is the identification of the species producing each sound. The distribution pattern of soniferous fishes will be helpful for the protection and management of local fishery resources and in marine environmental impact assessment. Since the local vulnerable Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis mainly preys on soniferous fishes, the fine-scale distribution pattern of soniferous fishes can aid in the conservation of this species. Additionally, prey and predator

  19. Effectiveness of common fish screen materials for protecting lamprey ammocoetes—Influence of sweeping velocities and decreasing flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2017-12-14

    In previous tests of the effectiveness of four common fish screen materials for excluding lamprey ammocoetes, we determined that woven wire (WW) allowed substantially more entrainment than perforated plate (PP), profile bar (PB), or Intralox (IL) material. These tests were simplistic because they used small vertically-oriented screens positioned perpendicular to the flow without a bypass or a sweeping velocity (SV). In the subsequent test discussed in this report, we exposed ammocoetes to much larger (2.5-m-wide) screen panels with flows up to 10 ft3 /s, a SV component, and a simulated bypass channel. The addition of a SV modestly improved protection of lamprey ammocoetes for all materials tested. A SV of 35 cm/s with an approach velocity (AV) of 12 cm/s, was able to provide protection for fish about 5–15 mm smaller than the protection provided by an AV of 12 cm/s without a SV component. The best-performing screen panels (PP, IL, and PB) provided nearly complete protection from entrainment for fish greater than 50-mm toal length, but the larger openings in the WW material only protected fish greater than 100-mm total length. Decreasing the AV and SV by 50 percent expanded the size range of protected lampreys by about 10–15 mm for those exposed to IL and WW screens, and it decreased the protective ability of PP screens by about 10 mm. Much of the improvement for IL and WW screens under the reduced flow conditions resulted from an increase in the number of lampreys swimming away from the screen. Fish of all sizes became impinged (that is, stuck on the screen surface for more than 1 s) on the screens, with the rate of impingement highest on PP (39– 72 percent) and lowest on WW (7–22 percent). Although impingements were common, injuries were rare, and 24-h post-test survival was greater than 99 percent. Our results refined the level of protection provided by these screen materials when both an AV and SV are present and confirmed our earlier recommendation that

  20. Speciation and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Insights from the Global Distribution of Endemic Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Patrick J; Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-06-01

    The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG. Here we examine the global distribution of endemic lake fishes to determine how lake age, area, and latitude each affect the probability of speciation and the extent of diversification occurring within a lake. We analyzed the distribution of endemic fishes worldwide (1,933 species and subspecies from 47 families in 2,746 lakes) and find that the probability of a lake containing an endemic species and the total number of endemics per lake increase with lake age and area and decrease with latitude. Moreover, the geographic locations of endemics in 34 of 41 families are found at lower latitudes than those of nonendemics. We propose that the greater diversification of fish at low latitudes may be driven in part by ecological opportunities promoted by tropical climates and by the coevolution of species interactions.

  1. Qualitative screening of undesirable compounds from feeds to fish by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Ibáñez, María; Serrano, Roque; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Hernández, Félix

    2013-03-06

    This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a rapid screening method for the detection and identification of undesirable organic compounds in aquaculture products. A generic sample treatment was applied without any purification or preconcentration step. After extraction of the samples with acetonitrile/water 80:20 (0.1% formic acid), the extracts were centrifuged and directly injected in the LC-HRMS system, consisting of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). A qualitative validation was carried out for over 70 representative compounds, including antibiotics, pesticides, and mycotoxins, in fish feed and fish fillets spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg. At the highest level, the great majority of compounds were detected (using the most abundant ion, typically the protonated molecule) and unequivocally identified (on the basis of the presence of two accurate-mass measured ions). At the 20 μg/kg level, many contaminants could already be detected, although identification using two ions was not fully reached for some of them, mainly in fish feed due to the complexity of this matrix. Subsequent application of this screening methodology to aquaculture samples made it possible to find several compounds from the target list, such as the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, the insecticide pirimiphos-methyl, and the mycotoxins fumonisin B2 and zearalenone. A retrospective analysis of accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition data provided by QTOF MS was also made, without either reprocessing or injecting the samples. This allowed the detection and tentative identification of other organic undesirables different from those included in the validated list.

  2. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  3. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJEY KUMAR PATHAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathak AK, Sarkar UK, Singh SP. 2014. Spatial gradients in freshwater fish diversity, abundance and current pattern in the Himalayan region of Upper Ganges Basin, India. Biodiversitas 15: 186-194.The present study describes the analysis and mapping of the different measurements of freshwater fish biodiversity of the Upper Ganges basin in the Himalayan region using spatial interpolation methods of Geographical Information System. The diversity, richness and abundance of fishes for each sampling location were determined and Kriging interpolation was applied on each fisheries measurement to predict and produce semivariogram. The semivariogarms produced were cross validated and reclassified. The reclassified maps for richness, abundance and diversity of fishes, occurrence of cold water threatened fish and abundance of important genera like Tor, Schziothorax and species were produced. The result of the Kriging produced good results and overall error in the estimation process was found significant. The cross validation of semovariograms also provided a better result with the observed data sets. Moreover, weighted overlay analysis of the reclassified raster maps of richness and abundance of fishes produced the classified raster map at different evaluation scale (0-10 qualitatively describing the gradient of species richness and abundance compositely. Similarly, the classified raster map at same evaluation scale qualitatively describing the gradient of species abundance and diversity compositely was produced and published. Further, basin wise analysis between Alaknanda/Pindar and Ganga1 sub basins showed 0.745 disparities at 0.745 distances in 2 dimensional spaces. The richness, diversity and abundance of threatened fishes among the different sampling locations were not significant (p = 0.9.

  4. Elevational gradients in fish diversity in the Himalaya: water discharge is the key driver of distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2012-01-01

    Studying diversity and distribution patterns of species along elevational gradients and understanding drivers behind these patterns is central to macroecology and conservation biology. A number of studies on biogeographic gradients are available for terrestrial ecosystems, but freshwater ecosystems remain largely neglected. In particular, we know very little about the species richness gradients and their drivers in the Himalaya, a global biodiversity hotspot. We collated taxonomic and distribution data of fish species from 16 freshwater Himalayan rivers and carried out empirical studies on environmental drivers and fish diversity and distribution in the Teesta river (Eastern Himalaya). We examined patterns of fish species richness along the Himalayan elevational gradients (50-3800 m) and sought to understand the drivers behind the emerging patterns. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and generalized additive models (GAM) to examine the richness patterns; GLM was used to investigate relationship between fish species richness and various environmental variables. Regression modelling involved stepwise procedures, including elimination of collinear variables, best model selection, based on the least Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and the highest percentage of deviance explained (D(2)). This maiden study on the Himalayan fishes revealed that total and non-endemic fish species richness monotonously decrease with increasing elevation, while endemics peaked around mid elevations (700-1500 m). The best explanatory model (synthetic model) indicated that water discharge is the best predictor of fish species richness patterns in the Himalayan rivers. This study, carried out along one of the longest bioclimatic elevation gradients of the world, lends support to Rapoport's elevational rule as opposed to mid domain effect hypothesis. We propose a species-discharge model and contradict species-area model in predicting fish species richness. We suggest that drivers of

  5. Functional diversity of fish in tropical estuaries: A traits-based approach of communities in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Júnior, C. A. B.; Mérigot, B.; Lucena-Frédou, F.; Ferreira, B. P.; Coxey, M. S.; Rezende, S. M.; Frédou, T.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental changes and human activities may have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. While biodiversity is traditionally based on species richness and composition, there is a growing concern to take into account functional diversity to assess and manage species communities. In spite of their economic importance, functional diversity quantified by a traits-based approach is still poorly documented in tropical estuaries. In this study, the functional diversity of fishes was investigated within four estuaries in Pernambuco state, northeast of Brazil. These areas are subject to different levels of human impact (e.g. mangrove deforestation, shrimp farming, fishing etc.) and environmental conditions. Fishes were collected during 34 scientific surveys. A total of 122 species were identified and 12 functional traits were quantified describing two main functions: food acquisition and locomotion. Fish abundance and functional dissimilarities data were combined into a multivariate analysis, the Double Principal Coordinate Analysis, to identify the functional typology of fish assemblages according to the estuary. Results showed that Itapissuma, the largest estuary with a wider mangrove forest area, differs from the other three estuaries, showing higher mean values per samples of species richness S and quadratic entropy Q. Similarly, it presented a different functional typology (the first two axes of the DPCoA account for 68.7% of total inertia, while those of a traditional PCA based solely on species abundances provided only 17.4%). Conversely, Suape, Sirinhaém, and to a lower extent Rio Formoso, showed more similarity in their diversity. This result was attributed to their predominantly marine influenced hydrological features, and similar levels of species abundances and in morphological traits. Overall, this study, combining diversity indices and a recent multivariate analysis to access species contribution to functional typology, allows to deepen

  6. Functional diversity and redundancy across fish gut, sediment and water bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Troussellier, Marc; Yuan, Tong; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvier, Corinne; Mouchet, Maud A; Flores Hernandez, Domingo; Ramos Miranda, Julia; Zhou, Jizhong; Mouillot, David

    2017-08-01

    This article explores the functional diversity and redundancy in a bacterial metacommunity constituted of three habitats (sediment, water column and fish gut) in a coastal lagoon under anthropogenic pressure. Comprehensive functional gene arrays covering a wide range of ecological processes and stress resistance genes to estimate the functional potential of bacterial communities were used. Then, diversity partitioning was used to characterize functional diversity and redundancy within (α), between (β) and across (γ) habitats. It was showed that all local communities exhibit a highly diversified potential for the realization of key ecological processes and resistance to various environmental conditions, supporting the growing evidence that macro-organisms microbiomes harbour a high functional potential and are integral components of functional gene dynamics in aquatic bacterial metacommunities. Several levels of functional redundancy at different scales of the bacterial metacommunity were observed (within local communities, within habitats and at the metacommunity level). The results suggested a high potential for the realization of spatial ecological insurance within this ecosystem, that is, the functional compensation among microorganisms for the realization and maintenance of key ecological processes, within and across habitats. Finally, the role of macro-organisms as dispersal vectors of microbes and their potential influence on marine metacommunity dynamics were discussed. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Combination of genetics and spatial modelling highlights the sensitivity of cod (Gadus morhua) population diversity in the North Sea to distributions of fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Michael R.; Culling, Mark A.; Crozier, Walter W.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving genetic diversity in animal populations is important for sustaining their ability to respond to environmental change. However, the “between-population” component of genetic diversity (biocomplexity) is threatened in many exploited populations, particularly marine fish, where harvest ma...

  8. Validation of rapid dioxin screening by GC-FID in fish products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassompierre, M.; Munck, L.; Bro, R.; Tomasi, G.; Engelsen, S.B. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark). Food Technology, Institute of Food Science, Centre for Advanced Food Studies

    2004-09-15

    A novel, cost- and time-effective dioxin screening method was developed and validated for fish product. The method is based on multivariate covariance between fatty acid composition monitored by GC-FID and dioxin content as teq WHO pg/ g fat. A dioxin range varying from 1.1 to 47.1 pg TEQ-WHO/ g fat using 65 fish meal samples was accessible for model calibration. An optimal multivariate dioxin prediction model was developed based on automatic peak integration, thereby enabling extraction of the area of 140 peaks from the gas chromatogramms. Models were produced employing partial least squares regression (PLS) based upon the duplicate GC-FID run and 46 specific peaks, selected after variable selection from the 140 investigated. The best results were yielded by local pls modelling employing three latent variables based upon the 12 nearest neighbors. For each prediction sample, the neighbors, yielding the 12 smallest sum of squares of differences to the test sample using the 140 peaks, were extracted from the whole calibration set and a local model built using these 12 chromatograms and related dioxin content. Prediction performance was thereafter validated for 10 fully independent samples. The performance of this model, yielded a correlation of 0.85 (r{sup 2}) and a root mean square error of prediction of 2.3 pg PCDD/F TEQWHO/ g fat.

  9. Prevalence and diversity of Salmonella enterica in water, fish and lettuce in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2015-07-31

    This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.

  10. Functional diversity of non-lethal effects, chemical camouflage, and variation in fish avoidance in colonizing beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetarits, William J; Pintar, Matthew R

    2016-12-01

    Predators play an extremely important role in natural communities. In freshwater systems, fish can dominate sorting both at the colonization and post-colonization stage. Specifically, for many colonizing species, fish can have non-lethal, direct effects that exceed the lethal direct effects of predation. Functionally diverse fish species with a range of predatory capabilities have previously been observed to elicit functionally equivalent responses on oviposition in tree frogs. We tested this hypothesis of functional equivalence of non-lethal effects for four predatory fish species, using naturally colonizing populations of aquatic beetles. Among taxa other than mosquitoes, and with the exception of the chemically camouflaged pirate perch, Aphredoderus sayanus, we provide the first evidence of variation in colonization or oviposition responses to different fish species. Focusing on total abundance, Fundulus chrysotus, a gape-limited, surface-feeding fish, elicited unique responses among colonizing Hydrophilidae, with the exception of the smallest and most abundant taxa, Paracymus, while Dytiscidae responded similarly to all avoided fish. Neither family responded to A. sayanus. Analysis of species richness and multivariate characterization of the beetle assemblages for the four fish species and controls revealed additional variation among the three avoided species and confirmed that chemical camouflage in A. sayanus results in assemblages essentially identical to fishless controls. The origin of this variation in beetle responses to different fish is unknown, but may involve variation in cue sensitivity, different behavioral algorithms, or differential responses to species-specific fish cues. The identity of fish species occupying aquatic habitats is crucial to understanding community structure, as varying strengths of lethal and non-lethal effects, as well as their interaction, create complex landscapes of predator effects and challenge the notion of functional

  11. Microbial abundance and diversity in water, and immune parameters of red tilapia reared in bioflocs system with different fish density (25 fish/m3, 50 fish/m3, and 100 fish/m3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frid Agustinus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to study microbial abundance and diversity in the water, and immune parameters of red tilapia Oreochromis sp. cultured in bioflok system with different fish stocking densities. The experiment comprised of two different factors, carbon source addition (bioflocs and control, and fish stocking density (25 fish/m3, 50 fish/m3, dan 100 fish/m3, with an experimental period of 99 days. Microbial load in water was determined biweekly, whereas immune parameters represented by fish blood profile were measured on day 0, 50, and 90. There was no significant difference in total bacteria count in the water of all treatments; there was however a tendency shown by all treatments that the microbial load in water increased along with the culture period. There were 4 genera of bacteria which particularly found in bioflok system, which are Acinetobacter sp., Corynobacterium sp., Listeria sp., dan Pseudomonas sp, and are suggested to play a role in bioflok formation. The percentage of phagocytic index of fish in bioflok system was higher than that in control, and may indicate that bioflok may stimulate the fish immune system.Keywords: bioflocs, red tilapia, bacteria, blood profile. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kelimpahan dan keragaman jenis bakteri dalam air dan parameter imunitas ikan nila Oreochromis sp. yang dipelihara dalam sistem bioflok dengan kepadatan ikan yang berbeda. Penelitian terdiri atas dua faktor perlakuan yaitu penambahan sumber carbon (bioflok dan kontrol, dan padat penebaran ikan (25 ekor/m3, 50 ekor/m3, dan 100 ekor/m3 dengan lama waktu pemeliharaan ikan selama 99 hari. Kelimpahan bakteri diukur setiap 2 minggu sekali selama masa pemeliharaan. Parameter imunitas meliputi gambaran darah diukur dengan pengambilan contoh darah yang dilakukan pada tiga ekor ikan pada hari ke 0, 50, dan 99. Kelimpahan bakteri pada semua perlakuan pada setiap titik pengamatan tidak menunjukkan

  12. Screening for dioxin contamination in fish oil by PARAFAC and N-PLSR analysis of fluorescence landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Pedersen, D.; Munck, L.; Balling Engelsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of fish oils demonstrates that fluorescence excitation-emission landscapes evaluated by 3-way chemometric methods may be a candidate for an inexpensive screening method to indicate the level of contamination by dioxins and PCB’s which are normally analysed with expensive...

  13. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in

  14. 78 FR 16705 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... removal and management of invasive plant species would occur at the Riparian Sanctuary. No active... impact statement and environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit...

  15. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... and Wildlife (CDFW), announce that the record of decision (ROD) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary...: www.fws.gov/refuge/sacramento river/ and http://www.riverpartners.org/where-we-work/sanctuary...

  16. 77 FR 26569 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...-FF08RSRC00] Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/ Fish Screen Facility Protection... would occur at the Riparian Sanctuary. No active restoration of native plants would occur. Maintenance... statement and environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration...

  17. Patterns of fish diversity and assemblage structure and water quality in the longest Asian tropical river (Mekong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, R.; Lek, S.; Grenouillet, G.

    2016-12-01

    Although the Mekong River is one of the world's 35 biodiversity hotspots, the large-scale patterns of fish diversity and assemblage structure remain poorly addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial variability of water quality in the Lower Mekong Basin and the fish distribution patterns in the Lower Mekong River (LMR) and to identify their environmental determinants. Daily fish catch data at 38 sites distributed along the LMR were related to 15 physicochemical and 19 climatic variables. As a result, four different clusters were defined according to the similarity in assemblage composition and 80 indicator species were identified. While fish species richness was highest in the Mekong delta and lowest in the upper part of the LMR, the diversity index was highest in the middle part of the LMR and lowest in the delta. We found that fish assemblages changed along the environmental gradients and that the main drivers affecting the fish assemblage structure were the seasonal variation of temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total phosphorus. Specifically, upstream assemblages were characterized by cyprinids and Pangasius catfish, well suited to low temperature, high dissolved oxygen and high pH. Fish assemblages in the delta were dominated by perch-like fish and clupeids, more tolerant to high temperatures, and high levels of nutrients (nitrates and total phosphorus) and salinity. Overall, the patterns were consistent between seasons. Our study contributes to establishing the first holistic fish community study in the LMR. Overall of the LMR water quality, we found that the water in the mainstream was less polluted than its tributaries; eutrophication and salinity could be key factors affecting water quality in LMR. Moreover, the seasonal variation of water quality seemed to be less marked than spatial variation occurring along the longitudinal gradient of Mekong River. Significant degradations were mainly associated with human

  18. Design of a multi-purpose fragment screening library using molecular complexity and orthogonal diversity metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wan F.; Withka, Jane M.; Hepworth, David; Magee, Thomas V.; Du, Yuhua J.; Bakken, Gregory A.; Miller, Michael D.; Hendsch, Zachary S.; Thanabal, Venkataraman; Kolodziej, Steve A.; Xing, Li; Hu, Qiyue; Narasimhan, Lakshmi S.; Love, Robert; Charlton, Maura E.; Hughes, Samantha; van Hoorn, Willem P.; Mills, James E.

    2011-07-01

    Fragment Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) continues to advance as an efficient and alternative screening paradigm for the identification and optimization of novel chemical matter. To enable FBDD across a wide range of pharmaceutical targets, a fragment screening library is required to be chemically diverse and synthetically expandable to enable critical decision making for chemical follow-up and assessing new target druggability. In this manuscript, the Pfizer fragment library design strategy which utilized multiple and orthogonal metrics to incorporate structure, pharmacophore and pharmacological space diversity is described. Appropriate measures of molecular complexity were also employed to maximize the probability of detection of fragment hits using a variety of biophysical and biochemical screening methods. In addition, structural integrity, purity, solubility, fragment and analog availability as well as cost were important considerations in the selection process. Preliminary analysis of primary screening results for 13 targets using NMR Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) indicates the identification of uM-mM hits and the uniqueness of hits at weak binding affinities for these targets.

  19. Environmental Determinants Influencing Fish Community Structure and Diversity in Two Distinct Seasons among Wetlands of Northern Region (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ayine Nsor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish community structure was assessed in six wetlands using cast nets, to correlate with environmental variables with diversity and distribution patterns, from 2010 to 2012. A total of 2,239 individuals belonging to 44 species and 1,938 individuals belonging to 40 species were sampled in the dry and wet seasons. Mochokid and Mormyrid families dominated fish community and constituted 14.8%, respectively, followed by Alestids (12.9% and Chlariids (11.1%. Rarer taxons were centropomids, channids, malapteruds, and oesteoglossids and represented 1.9%, respectively. Overall, CPUE per net did not vary significantly (Tukey HSD test, p=0.27 in the dry and wet seasons. Wuntori marsh consistently showed dominance in mean monthly CPUE per net (dry = 115±4.5; wet = 107±7.7 seasons, while Bunglung constructed wetland was the least recorded (dry = 56.5±6.2; wet = 58.3±4.1 seasons. Fish diversity and richness differed significantly (F=0.11, p=0.03 among seasons. Environmental disturbances were season-specific and did not differ significantly (F=0.16, df=14, p=0.97 among sites. A DCA ordination explained 69% variability in fish distribution patterns, while PCA showed that 81.8% of nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate, and grazing intensity on axis 1 and conductivity, temperature, and turbidity on axis 2 influenced fish community structure. Wetland conservation must be promoted to sustain fish abundance and overall ecosystem stability.

  20. The influence of Pacific Equatorial Water on fish diversity in the southern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Thompson, Andrew R.; Alin, Simone R.; Siedlecki, Samantha; Watson, William; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-08-01

    The California Undercurrent transports Pacific Equatorial Water (PEW) into the Southern California Bight from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. PEW is characterized by higher temperatures and salinities, with lower pH, representing a source of potentially corrosive (aragonite,Ωaragonite saturation with depth. Although there is substantial variability in PEW presence as measured by spice on the 26.25-26.75 isopycnal layer, as well as in pH and aragonite saturation, we found fish diversity to be stable over the decades 1985-1996 and 1999-2011. We detected significant difference in species structure during the 1998 La Niña period, due to reduced species evenness. Species richness due to rare species was higher during the 1997/1998 El Niño compared to the La Niña but the effect on species structure was undetectable. Lack of difference in the species abundance structure in the decade before and after the 1997/1999 ENSO event showed that the assemblage reverted to its former structure following the ENSO perturbation, indicating resilience. While the interdecadal species structure remained stable, the long tail of the distributions shows that species richness increased between the decades consistent with intrusion of warm water with more diverse assemblages into the southern California region.

  1. FISH DIVERSITY ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT IN A MAN–MADE LAKE OF WEST AFRICA, TAABO HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIR, IVORY COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Aliko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage patterns in Taabo Reservoir, a hydroelectric lake of Ivory Coast, were studied and related to the longitudinal gradient (river–dam gradient composed of riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. Data were collected at 5 stations and each one was sampled during 5 surveys. Fish community structure was analysed using alpha and beta diversity indices. In total, 53 fish species were obtained in the whole ecosystem. Total species richness recorded at each ecological zone was 42, 43 and 45 species respectively in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones. Alpha diversity did not differed significantly along the longitudinal gradient but reached the highest value (33 species in the transitional zone and the lowest (18 species occurred in both the riverine and lacustrine zones. Temporal variability of Alpha diversity according to the hydrological regime of the lake differed with the zone. Beta diversity showed that fish assemblages similarity was higher between the transitional and the riverine zones (βw = 0.43 and lower between the riverine and the lacustrine zones (βw = 0.79.

  2. Preservation of the genetic diversity of a local common carp in the agricultural heritage rice–fish system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weizheng; Hu, Liangliang; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Lu; Zhang, Entao; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    We examined how traditional farmers preserve the genetic diversity of a local common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which is locally referred to as “paddy field carp” (PF-carp), in a “globally important agricultural heritage system” (GIAHS), i.e., the 1,200-y-old rice–fish coculture system in Zhejiang Province, China. Our molecular and morphological analysis showed that the PF-carp has changed into a distinct local population with higher genetic diversity and diverse color types. Within this GIAHS region, PF-carps exist as a continuous metapopulation, although three genetic groups could be identified by microsatellite markers. Thousands of small farmer households interdependently obtained fry and parental carps for their own rice–fish production, resulting in a high gene flow and large numbers of parent carps distributing in a mosaic pattern in the region. Landscape genetic analysis indicated that farmers’ connectivity was one of the major factors that shaped this genetic pattern. Population viability analysis further revealed that the numbers of these interconnected small farmer households and their connection intensity affect the carps’ inherent genetic diversity. The practice of mixed culturing of carps with diverse color types helped to preserve a wide range of genetic resources in the paddy field. This widespread traditional practice increases fish yield and resource use, which, in return, encourages famers to continue their practice of selecting and conserving diverse color types of PF-carp. Our results suggested that traditional farmers secure the genetic diversity of PF-carp and its viability over generations in this region through interdependently incubating and mixed-culturing practices within the rice−fish system. PMID:29295926

  3. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial Complexity, Resilience, and Policy Diversity: Fishing on Lake-rich Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of and policies governing spatially coupled social-ecological mosaics are considered for the case of fisheries in a lake district. A microeconomic model of households addresses agent decisions at three hierarchic levels: (1 selection of the lake district from among a larger set of alternative places to live or visit, (2 selection of a base location within the lake district, and (3 selection of a portfolio of ecosystem services to use. Ecosystem services are represented by dynamics of fish production subject to multiple stable domains and trophic cascades. Policy calculations show that optimal policies will be highly heterogeneous in space and fluid in time. The diversity of possible outcomes is illustrated by simulations for a hypothetical lake district based loosely on the Northern Highlands of the State of Wisconsin. Lake districts are frequently managed as if lakes were independent, similar, endogenously regulating systems. Our findings contradict that view. One-size-fits-all (OSFA policies erode ecological and social resilience. If regulations are too stringent, social resilience declines because of the potential rewards of overharvesting. If regulations are too lax, ecological resilience is diminished by overharvesting in some lakes. In either case, local collapses of fish populations evoke spatial shifts of angling effort that can lead to serial collapses in neighboring fisheries and degraded fisheries in most or all of the lakes. Under OSFA management, the natural resources of the entire landscape become more vulnerable to transformation because of changes in, e.g., human population, the demand for resources, or fish harvesting technology. Multiplicity of management regimes can increase the ecological resilience, social resilience, and inclusive value of a spatially heterogeneous social-ecological system. Because of the complex interactions of mobile people and multistable ecosystems, management regimes must also be flexible

  5. Functional diversity measures revealed impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation on species-poor freshwater fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Villéger, Sébastien; Wilkes, Martin; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2018-06-01

    Trait-based ecology has been developed for decades to infer ecosystem responses to stressors based on the functional structure of communities, yet its value in species-poor systems is largely unknown. Here, we used an extensive dataset in a Spanish region highly prone to non-native fish invasions (15 catchments, N=389 sites) to assess for the first time how species-poor communities respond to large-scale environmental gradients using a taxonomic and functional trait-based approach in riverine fish. We examined total species richness and three functional trait-based indices available when many sites have ≤3 species (specialization, FSpe; originality, FOri and entropy, FEnt). We assessed the responses of these taxonomic and functional indices along gradients of altitude, water pollution, physical habitat degradation and non-native fish biomass. Whilst species richness was relatively sensitive to spatial effects, functional diversity indices were responsive across natural and anthropogenic gradients. All four diversity measures declined with altitude but this decline was modulated by physical habitat degradation (richness, FSpe and FEnt) and the non-native:total fish biomass ratio (FSpe and FOri) in ways that varied between indices. Furthermore, FSpe and FOri were significantly correlated with Total Nitrogen. Non-native fish were a major component of the taxonomic and functional structure of fish communities, raising concerns about potential misdiagnosis between invaded and environmentally-degraded river reaches. Such misdiagnosis was evident in a regional fish index widely used in official monitoring programs. We recommend the application of FSpe and FOri to extensive datasets from monitoring programs in order to generate valuable cross-system information about the impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation, even in species-poor systems. Scoring non-native species apart from habitat degradation in the indices used to determine ecosystem health is

  6. A role for partially protected areas on coral reefs: Maintaining fish diversity?

    KAUST Repository

    Tyler, Elizabeth; Manica, Andrea; Jiddawi, Narriman S.; Speight, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    1. Completely banning fishing from coral reefs is now accepted to have significant benefits for marine biodiversity and in many cases, fisheries. However, the benefits of regulating fishing on coral reefs, by restricting the methods used

  7. The status of fish diversity and fisheries of the Keta lagoon, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish and fisheries of three fish landing sites around the Keta lagoon in Ghana have been studied. A total of 18 fish species belonging to 13 families were encountered in the study. Four of the species were found to be commercially important notably, the cichlids (Tilapia guineensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron), the ...

  8. Diversity of parasites in wild Astronotus ocellatus (Perciformes, Cichlidae), an ornamental and food fish in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Neves, Ligia R

    2017-01-01

    The community composition of parasites was characterized in Astronotus ocellatus from a tributary of the Amazon River, northern Brazil. The prevalence was 87.9%, and a total of 526,052 parasites were collected, with a mean of 15,941 parasites per host. Nine taxa of ecto- and endo-parasites were identified, but Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, while Piscinoodinium pillulare, Clinostomum marginatum and Argulus multicolor were the least prevalent parasites. The parasite community was characterized by a low species richness, low diversity and low evenness. Host body size was not found to influence the composition of the parasite community, and there was no significant correlation between abundance of any parasite species and host body size. Papers published concerning the presence of parasites in this host in different hydrographic basins within Brazil indicate that 22 species of parasites are known to infect A. ocellatus, including species of ectoparasites and endoparasites. In Brazil, ectoparasites species, particularly crustaceans, have been found to parasitize A. ocellatus in relatively high numbers. This predominance of ectoparasites is typical of fish of lentic ecosystems. Finally, the presence of different endoparasites taxa suggest that A. ocellatus acts as an intermediate or definitive host.

  9. Diversity of parasites in wild Astronotus ocellatus (Perciformes, Cichlidae, an ornamental and food fish in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS TAVARES-DIAS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The community composition of parasites was characterized in Astronotus ocellatus from a tributary of the Amazon River, northern Brazil. The prevalence was 87.9%, and a total of 526,052 parasites were collected, with a mean of 15,941 parasites per host. Nine taxa of ecto- and endo-parasites were identified, but Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, while Piscinoodinium pillulare, Clinostomum marginatum and Argulus multicolor were the least prevalent parasites. The parasite community was characterized by a low species richness, low diversity and low evenness. Host body size was not found to influence the composition of the parasite community, and there was no significant correlation between abundance of any parasite species and host body size. Papers published concerning the presence of parasites in this host in different hydrographic basins within Brazil indicate that 22 species of parasites are known to infect A. ocellatus, including species of ectoparasites and endoparasites. In Brazil, ectoparasites species, particularly crustaceans, have been found to parasitize A. ocellatus in relatively high numbers. This predominance of ectoparasites is typical of fish of lentic ecosystems. Finally, the presence of different endoparasites taxa suggest that A. ocellatus acts as an intermediate or definitive host.

  10. Diversity of neotropical electric fish Microsternarchus (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae: an electrophysiological and geometric morphometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adília Nogueira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The South American hypopomid electric fish tribe Microsternarchini includes three small species from the Upper Orinoco and Negro rivers. These are placed in monotypic genera: Microsternarchus, Racenisia and Procerusternarchus. Recent collections from tributaries in Negro, Solimões and Amazonas Basins have revealed new specimens of Microsternarchus with significant variations in external morphology and in Electric Organ Discharge parameters (EOD. In order to estimate the diversity within the genus a previous molecular study was done using DNA barcoding, that suggested the presence of multiple Microsternarchus's lineages with high levels of genetic divergence between them. Here we try to determine if the variation in morphology and EOD parameters in the new specimens meet the genetic divergence found. To test the presence of differences in shape among the different lineages we performed a geometric morphometric analysis, which included a relative warp and multivariate analysis on distances between 14 anatomical landmarks defined on the basis of external morphology and homologous among the lineages. The EOD variations were also explored using multivariate analyses of 20 electrophysiological parameters calculated through an algorithm developed in Matlab. The results show that there are significant differences in body shape and EOD in three lineages of Microsternarchus, and the features that contributed most were related to the shape of the head, the coefficient of variation of the signal and the duration and area of the different phases of the pulse. The discrimination of the three lineages confirms the occurrence of new species in the group that are currently being described.

  11. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess...... the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus curriculus (6......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  12. Patterns of change in the size spectra of numbers and diversity of the North Sea fish assemblage, as reflected in surveys and models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, J.; Gislason, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    data. The shape showed no overall trend, but diversity of smaller size classes showed a different temporal pattern from the diversity of intermediate and large size classes. The patterns in modelled output are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that trophic interactions are an important...... were very similar. Annual abundance spectra were linear and slopes increased significantly and fairly smoothly over the 20 years? indicating significant effects of fishing on the size composition of the exploited fish assemblage. The annual diversity spectra were more dome-shaped than in the survey...... factor in the fish community structure in the North Sea. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea....

  13. A role for partially protected areas on coral reefs: Maintaining fish diversity?

    KAUST Repository

    Tyler, Elizabeth

    2011-04-15

    1. Completely banning fishing from coral reefs is now accepted to have significant benefits for marine biodiversity and in many cases, fisheries. However, the benefits of regulating fishing on coral reefs, by restricting the methods used, or the total amount of fishing, are less well understood, even though such regulations are much more likely to be supported by fishermen. 2. This study assesses whether banning illegal, destructive fishing methods and reducing the numbers of fishermen visiting from outside an area benefits a coral reef fishery, despite unregulated fishing by local fishermen using non-destructive methods. 3. The abundance, biomass, mean length, and species richness of nine commercially important fish families are compared across ten independent patch reefs inside and outside the 470km2 Menai Bay Conservation Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania. 4. Even after taking into account the effect of differences in habitat and the distance between reefs, 61% (±19.7%) more fish species were found in regulated than unregulated reefs. Fish abundance, biomass, and length were not affected, suggesting that banning destructive fishing may improve biodiversity, but that further regulations may be required to improve fish stocks. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  14. DNA barcoding and evaluation of genetic diversity in Cyprinidae fish in the midstream of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanjun; Guan, Lihong; Wang, Dengqiang; Gan, Xiaoni

    2016-05-01

    The Yangtze River is the longest river in China and is divided into upstream and mid-downstream regions by the Three Gorges (the natural barriers of the Yangtze River), resulting in a complex distribution of fish. Dramatic changes to habitat environments may ultimately threaten fish survival; thus, it is necessary to evaluate the genetic diversity and propose protective measures. Species identification is the most significant task in many fields of biological research and in conservation efforts. DNA barcoding, which constitutes the analysis of a short fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence, has been widely used for species identification. In this study, we collected 561 COI barcode sequences from 35 fish from the midstream of the Yangtze River. The intraspecific distances of all species were below 2% (with the exception of Acheilognathus macropterus and Hemibarbus maculatus). Nevertheless, all species could be unambiguously identified from the trees, barcoding gaps and taxonomic resolution ratio values. Furthermore, the COI barcode diversity was found to be low (≤0.5%), with the exception of H. maculatus (0.87%), A. macropterus (2.02%) and Saurogobio dabryi (0.82%). No or few shared haplotypes were detected between the upstream and downstream populations for ten species with overall nucleotide diversities greater than 0.00%, which indicated the likelihood of significant population genetic structuring. Our analyses indicated that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of cyprinidae fish in the midstream of the Yangtze River. It is vital that some protective measures be taken immediately because of the low COI barcode diversity.

  15. Simultaneous screening and confirmation of multiple classes of drug residues in fish by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shani; Gieseker, Charles; Reimschuessel, Renate; Decker, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-13

    LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to screen and confirm 38 compounds from a variety of drug classes in four species of fish: trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and hexane. The acetonitrile phase was evaporated, redissolved in water and acetonitrile, and analyzed by gradient chromatography on a phenyl column. MS(2) or MS(3) spectra were monitored for each compound. Qualitative method performance was evaluated by the analysis over several days of replicate samples of control fish, fish fortified with a drug mixture at 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm, and fish dosed with a representative from each drug class. Half of the 38 drugs were confirmed at 0.01 ppm, the lowest fortification level. This included all of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the macrolides, malachite green, and most of the imidazoles. Florfenicol amine, metronidazole, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and most of the betalactams were confirmed at 0.1 ppm. Ivermectin and penicillin G were only detectable in the 1 ppm fortified samples. With the exception of amoxicillin, emamectin, metronidazole, and tylosin, residue presence was confirmed in all the dosed fish.

  16. Could FISH on buccal smears become a new method of screening in children suspect of HNF1B anomaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffargue, Fanny; Bourthoumieu, Sylvie; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Guigonis, Vincent; Yardin, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    HNF1B gene anomalies include renal development defects associated with cysts and are well known by pediatric nephrologists that ask for molecular analysis of this gene. Two types of genomic rearrangements are reported: mutation and more frequently deletion. Using microsatellites or CGH array the size of the deletion was found to be at least of 1.2 Mb including 15 genes among which HNF1B, leading to the diagnosis of chromosomal microdeletion. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) is a simple routinely performed technique, considered as the referring tool to diagnose microdeletion in genetic practice. We performed interphasic FISH on buccal smears from 6 patients known to have HNF1B deletion to valid our technique and to determine the size of the 17q12 deletion. All the patients were found to present a 17q12 microdeletion. Our results showed that FISH is a rapid, reliable and specific technique to diagnose 17q12 microdeletion and might be performed as non invasive sampling procedure useful in pediatric practice. In conclusion we propose to use interphasic FISH to screen pediatric patients presenting with renal abnormalities possibly linked to HNF1B anomaly. Molecular analysis and MLPA (Multiplex Ligand Probe Analysis) could be performed in cases with normal interphasic FISH to detect a point mutation of the gene or more rarely a single exon deletion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversity of Aplochiton fishes (Galaxiidea and the taxonomic resurrection of A. marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Alò

    Full Text Available Aplochiton is a small genus of galaxiid fishes endemic to Patagonia and the Falkland Islands whose taxonomy is insufficiently resolved. Recent genetic analyses confirmed the existence of only two closely related species, Aplochiton taeniatus and Aplochiton zebra, while a third controversial species, Aplochiton marinus, remained lost to synonymy with A. taeniatus. Using an integrative taxonomy framework, we studied original samples and published sequences from a broad range in western Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, and generated robust species hypotheses based on single-locus (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I; COI species-delineation methods and known diagnostic morphological characters analyzed in a multivariate context. Results revealed three distinct evolutionary lineages that morphologically resemble, in important respects, existing nominal species descriptions. Interestingly, the lineage associated with A. marinus was unambiguously identifiable (100% accuracy both from the genetic and morphological viewpoints. In contrast, the morphology of A. taeniatus and A. zebra overlapped substantially, mainly due to the high variability of A. taeniatus. Discriminant function analysis aided the identification of these species with 83.9% accuracy. Hence, for their unambiguous identification, genetic screening is needed. A. marinus has seldom been documented, and when recorded, it has always been found in sites with clear marine influence. It is possible that only A. marinus preserves a life cycle related to the sea akin to the hypothesized ancestral galaxiid. We did not find evidence of claimed diadromy in A. taeniatus or A. zebra, and, therefore, these should be regarded as freshwater species. Finally, a lack of phylogeographic patterns and overrepresentation of uncommon haplotypes suggested demographic expansions in recent evolutionary time, especially of A. zebra, in line with the hypothesis of large-scale range expansion and lineage spread in

  18. High-throughput screening of a diversity collection using biodefense category A and B priority pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Esther W; Clinkenbeard, Patricia A; Duncan-Decocq, Rebecca A; Perteet, Rachel F; Hill, Kimberly D; Bourne, Philip C; Valderas, Michelle W; Bourne, Christina R; Clarkson, Nicole L; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D; Barrow, William W

    2012-08-01

    One of the objectives of the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Biodefense Program is to identify or develop broad-spectrum antimicrobials for use against bioterrorism pathogens and emerging infectious agents. As a part of that program, our institution has screened the 10 000-compound MyriaScreen Diversity Collection of high-purity druglike compounds against three NIAID category A and one category B priority pathogens in an effort to identify potential compound classes for further drug development. The effective use of a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-based high-throughput screening (HTS) 96-well-based format allowed for the identification of 49 compounds that had in vitro activity against all four pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentration values of ≤16 µg/mL. Adaptation of the HTS process was necessary to conduct the work in higher-level containment, in this case, biosafety level 3. Examination of chemical scaffolds shared by some of the 49 compounds and assessment of available chemical databases indicates that several may represent broad-spectrum antimicrobials whose activity is based on novel mechanisms of action.

  19. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. RESULTS: Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  20. Fatty acid composition indicating diverse habitat use in coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Amalina, Razikin; Bachok, Zainudin

    2015-02-22

    In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

  1. In vitro screening of organotin compounds and sediment extracts for cytotoxicity to fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltrap, Michelle; Macken, Ailbhe; McHugh, Brendan; McGovern, Evin; Foley, Barry; Davoren, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports an in vitro screening method for contaminants in sediment samples utilizing an RTG-2 cell line. This technique integrates cytotoxicity testing with analytical chemistry with the aim of achieving a toxicity evaluation of the sediment sample. The toxic effect of individual organotin (OT) compounds and their presence in the sediment sample is the focus of the present study; however, other contaminants are also discussed. The following OT compounds: tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), triphenyltin (TPT), diphenyltin (DPT), and a sediment solvent extract are exposed to the RTG-2 fish cell line. Both the alamar blue (AB) and neutral red (NR) assays are used to assess cytotoxicity after 24-h and 96-h exposure. Methodology for preparation of a sediment solvent extract suitable for biological testing and analytical determination is also described. With the RTG-2 cells, the AB and NR assays had comparable sensitivity for each individual OT compound exposure after 24 h, with TPT being the most toxic compound tested. The individual OT compound concentrations required to induce a 50% toxic effect on the cells (369 ng ml⁻¹ TBT, 1,905 ng ml⁻¹ DBT) did not equate to the concentrations of these contaminants present in the sediment extract that induced a 50% effect on the cells (294 ng ml⁻¹ TBT, 109 ng ml⁻¹ DBT). The solvent extract therefore exhibited a greater toxicity, and this suggests that the toxic effects observed were not due to OT compounds alone. The presence of other contaminants in the solvent extract is confirmed with chemical analysis, warranting further toxicity testing of contaminant mixtures and exposure to the cell line to further elucidate a complete toxicity evaluation. © 2010 SETAC.

  2. Global diversity patterns of freshwater fishes - potential victims of their own success

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo-Villamil, P.; Guisande, C.; Vari, R. P.; Manjarres-Hernandez, A.; Garcia-Rosello, E.; Gonzalez-Dacosta, J.; Heine, J.; Vilas, L. G.; Patti, B.; Quinci, E. M.; Jimenez, L. F.; Granado-Lorencio, C.; Tedesco, Pablo; Lobo, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    AimTo examine the pattern and cumulative curve of descriptions of freshwater fishes world-wide, the geographical biases in the available information on that fauna, the relationship between species richness and geographical rarity of such fishes, as well as to assess the relative contributions of different environmental factors on these variables. LocationGlobal. MethodsModestR was used to summarize the geographical distribution of freshwater fish species using information available from data-...

  3. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted......, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib...

  4. Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Vinod, K.; Saravanan, K.R.; Anbalagan, T.; Saravanan, R.; Sanaye, S.V.; Mojjada, S.K.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 43 (4), April 2014, pp. 618-633 Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India A. Murugan...] Introduction The role of human activity on marine ecosystems is receiving increased attention with the perception that human activities are causing considerable economic loss for local fishing communities1. In particular, the increase in fishing pressure...

  5. Abrolhos bank reef health evaluated by means of water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover, and fish biomass data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruce

    Full Text Available The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (Southwestern Atlantic was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the "paper park" of Timbebas Reef. The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic

  6. Change and diversity in smallholder rice-fish systems: Recent evidence and policy lessons from Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, M.M.; Spielman, D.J.; Haque, A.B.M.M.; Rahman, M.S.; Valmonte-Santos, R.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to unlock the genetic potential of both rice and fish, when combined with improvements in the management of rice-fish systems, can potentially increase agricultural productivity and food security in some of the poorest and most populous countries in Asia. In Bangladesh, estimates suggest

  7. Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callaway, R.; Alsväg, J.; de Boois, I.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of North Sea benthic invertebrate and fish communities is an important indicator of anthropogenic and environmental impacts. Although North Sea fish stocks are monitored regularly, benthic fauna are not. Here, we report the results of a survey carried out in 2000, in which five...

  8. Diversity of selective and non-selective fishing gear and their impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey was conducted in Al-Kalakla Fishery (KF) and Jabel Awlia Dam Fishery (JADF) in the White Nile River, Khartoum state to identify the selective and non-selective fishing gear. The results showed the selective fishing gear represented by gill-nets and seine nets (beach nets) in both fisheries with clear variation in ...

  9. Screening of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish available in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the current status of insecticides used in dry fish. The most popular dry fish– ribbon fish (Chhuri, shrimp (Chingri and bombay duck (Loittya were selected for this study and these dry fishes were collected from different markets of Dhaka and Chittagong. The range of DDT used in all the samples was 3.038 ppb to 874.966 ppb. The range of DDT in ribbon fish 131.611 ppb to 149.430 ppb, in shrimp 3.038 ppb to 318.206 ppb and in bombay duck 61.918 ppb to 874.966 ppb was found. The range of heptachlor used in all the samples was 0.682 ppb to 5.464 ppb. The range of heptachlor in ribbon fish 1.710 ppb to 2.306 ppb, in shrimp 0.682 ppb to 3.806 ppb and in bombay duck 1.762 ppb to 5.464 ppb was found. The heptachlor was not found in ribbon fish (CTG-2, shrimp (DHK-2 and CTG-1 and bombay duck (DHK-1. The concentration of heptachlor in dry fish compare to DDT was found too much less.

  10. Investigation into the fungal diversity within different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of Panaque nigrolineatus, a wood-eating fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Marden

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus have several physiological adaptions enabling the scraping and consumption of wood (xylivory, facilitating a detritivorous dietary strategy. Composed of lignocellulose, wood is a difficult substrate to degrade and as yet, it is unclear whether the fish obtains any direct nutritional benefits from wood ingestion and degradation. However, there are numerous systems that rely on microbial symbioses to provide energy and other nutritional benefits for host organisms via lignocellulose decomposition. While previous studies on the microbial community of P. nigrolineatus have focused upon the bacterial population, the role of fungi in lignocellulose degradation in the fish has not yet been examined. This study describes the detection of fungi within the fish gastrointestinal tract. Using next generation sequencing, the effects of diet on enteric fungal populations were examined in each gastrointestinal tract region. Fungal species were found to vary in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract as a function of diet. This study is the first to examine the fungal community in a xylivorous fish and results support the hypothesis that diet influences fungal distribution and diversity within the gastrointestinal tract of P. nigrolineatus.

  11. Diversity of aquatic Pseudomonas species and their activity against the fish pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Rzeszutek, E.; Voort, van der M.; Wu, C.H.; Thoen, E.; Skaar, I.; Bulone, V.; Dorrestein, P.C.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, de I.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of

  12. Advances in directed monooxygenase evolution : from diversity generation and flow cytometry screening to tailor-made monooxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Ruff, Anna Joëlle

    2012-01-01

    Directed Evolution became a powerful tool for proteins engineers to generate tailor-made biocatalyst. Directed protein evolution consist of the following three consecutive main steps, which are performed in iterative cycles; Step 1 the gene diversity generation, Step 2 the screening for improved variants and Step 3 the isolation of gene encoding for improved proteins. In this thesis, methodological advancements in the two key steps of the directed evolution, the diversity generation (SeSaM me...

  13. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sandlund

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  14. Cancer screening education: can it change knowledge and attitudes among culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Queensland, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton, Katherine; Gallegos, Danielle; Ashley, Ella; Do, Hong; Voloschenko, Anna; Fleming, MaryLou; Ramsey, Rebecca; Gould, Trish

    2016-06-29

    Issue addressed: Screening for cancer of the cervix, breast and bowel can reduce morbidity and mortality. Low participation rates in cancer screening have been identified among migrant communities internationally. Attempting to improve low rates of cancer screening, the Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland developed a pilot Cancer Screening Education Program for breast, bowel and cervical cancer. This study determines the impact of education sessions on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in screening for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities living in Brisbane, Queensland. Methods: Seven CALD groups (Arabic-speaking, Bosnian, South Asian (including Indian and Bhutanese), Samoan and Pacific Island, Spanish-speaking, Sudanese and Vietnamese) participated in a culturally-tailored cancer screening education pilot program that was developed using the Health Belief Model. A pre- and post-education evaluation session measured changes in knowledge, attitudes and intention related to breast, bowel and cervical cancer and screening. The evaluation focussed on perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness and the target population's beliefs about reducing risk by cancer screening. Results: There were 159 participants in the three cancer screening education sessions. Overall participants' knowledge increased, some attitudes toward participation in cancer screening became more positive and intent to participate in future screening increased (n=146). Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of developing screening approaches that address the barriers to participation among CALD communities and that a culturally-tailored education program is effective in improving knowledge, attitudes about and intentions to participate in cancer screening. So what?: It is important that culturally-tailored programs are developed in conjunction with communities to improve health outcomes.

  15. Effects of streamflow diversion on a fish population: combining empirical data and individual-based models in a site-specific evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto; Steven F. Railsback

    2014-01-01

    Resource managers commonly face the need to evaluate the ecological consequences of specific water diversions of small streams. We addressed this need by conducting 4 years of biophysical monitoring of stream reaches above and below a diversion and applying two individual-based models of salmonid fish that simulated different levels of behavioral complexity. The...

  16. Effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density (European continental margin: Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea): Data from three baited lander systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, T. D.; Lavaleye, M.; Maiorano, P.; Bergman, M.; Capezzuto, F.; Cousins, N. J.; D'Onghia, G.; Duineveld, G.; Shields, M. A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.; Priede, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous photographic landers are a low-impact survey method for the assessment of mobile fauna in situations where methods such as trawling are not feasible or ethical. Three institutions collaborated through the CoralFISH project, each using differing lander systems, to assess the effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density. The Biogenic Reef Ichthyofauna Lander (BRIL, Oceanlab), Autonomous Lander for Biological Experiments (ALBEX, NIOZ) and the Marine Environment MOnitoring system (MEMO, CoNISMa) were deployed in four CoralFISH European study regions covering the Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean, namely Northern Norway (275-310 m depth), Belgica Mound Province (686-1025 m depth), the Bay of Biscay (623-936 m depth), and Santa Maria di Leuca (547-670 m depth). A total of 33 deployments were carried out in the different regions. Both the time of first arrival (Tarr) and the maximum observed number of fish (MaxN) were standardised between the different lander systems and compared between coral and reference stations as indicators of local fish density. Fish reached significantly higher MaxN at the coral stations than at the reference stations. Fish were also found to have significantly lower Tarr in the coral areas in data obtained from the BRIL and MEMO landers. All data indicated that fish abundance is higher within the coral areas. Fish species diversity was higher within the coral areas of Atlantic Ocean while in Northern Norway and Santa Maria di Leuca coral areas, diversity was similar at coral and reference stations but a single dominant species (Brosme brosme and Conger conger respectively) showed much higher density within the coral areas. Indicating that, while cold-water coral reefs have a positive effect on fish diversity and/or abundance, this effect varies across Europe's reefs.

  17. [Seasonal changes of fish species composition and diversity in mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xing-huan; Zhang, Heng; Jiang, Ke-yi; Wu, Ming

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand the spatiotemporal variation of fish species composition and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay, thirty six surveys were conducted in the mudflat area, inning area, and aquaculture area in the south bank of the Bay in. March (early spring), May (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn), 2009. A total of 41 species belonging to 9 orders and 16 families were observed, among which, Cyprinid had the largest species number (14 species, 33.3% of the total), followed by Gobiidae (8 species, 19.1%). According to the lifestyle of fish, these 41 species could be divided into five ecological types, i.e., freshwater type (21 species), brackish-water type (16 species), inshore type (2 species), anadromous type (Coilia ectenes), and catadromios type (Anguilla japonica). The fish abundance was the highest (54. 5 fish per net) in summer, followed by in spring and autumn, and the lowest (17.7 fish per net) in early spring. In the three habitats, mudflat area and inning area had the similar seasonal change of fish abundance, i.e., the lowest in early spring, the highest in summer, and then decreased in autumn. Only two or three species were the dominant species in different seasons. In mudflat area, the dominant species were Mugil cephalus and Liza carinatus; while in inning and aquaculture areas, the dominant species were Carassius auratus, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Pseudorasbora parva. The values of Margalef's richness index (D), Pielou's evenness index (J), and Shannon index (H) were lower in March than in other months, but had no significant differences among May, July, and October (P > 0.05). The H value ranged in 0. 27-2. 13, being the lowest in March and higher in May and October (1.66 and 1.63, respectively). Overall, the fish abundance and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay had apparent seasonal changes.

  18. Microbial Diversity and Parasitic Load in Tropical Fish of Different Environmental Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Hennersdorf

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed fecal bacterial communities and parasites of three important Indonesian fish species, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus sexfasciatus and Atule mate. We then compared the biodiversity of bacterial communities and parasites of these three fish species collected in highly polluted Jakarta Bay with those collected in less polluted Indonesian areas of Cilacap (E. sexfasciatus, A. mate and Thousand Islands (E. fuscoguttatus. In addition, E. fuscoguttatus from net cages in an open water mariculture facility was compared with free living E. fuscoguttatus from its surroundings. Both core and shared microbiomes were investigated. Our results reveal that, while the core microbiomes of all three fish species were composed of fairly the same classes of bacteria, the proportions of these bacterial classes strongly varied. The microbial composition of phylogenetically distant fish species, i.e. A. mate and E. sexfasciatus from Jakarta Bay and Cilacap were more closely related than the microbial composition of more phylogentically closer species, i.e. E. fuscoguttatus, E. sexfasciatus from Jakarta Bay, Cilacap and Thousand Islands. In addition, we detected a weak negative correlation between the load of selected bacterial pathogens, i.e. Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. and the number of endoparasites. In the case of Flavobacterium sp. the opposite was observed, i.e. a weak positive correlation. Of the three recorded pathogenic bacterial genera, Vibrio sp. was commonly found in E. fuscoguttatus from mariculture, and lessly in the vicinity of the net cages and rarely in the fishes from the heavily polluted waters from Jakarta Bay. Flavobacterium sp. showed higher counts in mariculture fish and Photobacteria sp. was the most prominent in fish inside and close to the net cages.

  19. Variation in fish mercury concentrations in streams of the Adirondack region, New York: A simplified screening approach using chemical metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Simple screening approaches for the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems may be helpful in risk assessments of natural resources. We explored the development of such an approach in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA, a region with high levels of MeHg bioaccumulation. Thirty-six perennial streams broadly representative of 1st and 2nd order streams in the region were sampled during summer low flow and analyzed for several solutes and for Hg concentrations in fish. Several landscape and chemical metrics that are typically strongly related to MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota were explored for strength of association with fish Hg concentrations. Data analyses were based on site mean length-normalized and standardized Hg concentrations (assumed to be dominantly MeHg) in whole juvenile and adult Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus, Blacknose Dace Rhinichthys atratulus, and Central Mudminnow Umbra limi, as well as on multi-species z-scores. Surprisingly, none of the landscape metrics was related significantly to regional variation in fish Hg concentrations or to z-scores across the study streams. In contrast, several chemical metrics including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, sulfate concentrations (SO42−), pH, ultra-violet absorbance (UV254), and specific ultra-violet absorbance were significantly related to regional variation in fish Hg concentrations. A cluster analysis based on DOC, SO42−, and pH identified three distinct groups of streams: (1) high DOC, acidic streams, (2) moderate DOC, slightly acidic streams, and (3) low DOC circum-neutral streams with relatively high SO42−. Preliminary analysis indicated no significant difference in fish Hg z-scores between the moderate and high DOC groups, so these were combined for further analysis. The resulting two groups showed strong differences (p 6.9 mg/L, SO42− 0.31 cm−1 were tested as thresholds to identify Adirondack

  20. Variation in fish community structure, richness, and diversity in 56 Danish lakes with contrasting depth, size, and trophic state: does the method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menezes, Rosemberg; Borchsenius, Finn; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    a better understanding of fish communities. We compare fish community composition, richness, and diversity in 56 Danish lakes using data obtained by gillnetting in different lake zones and near-shore electrofishing, respectively. On average, electrofishing captured more species than offshore gillnets......, but not more than littoral gillnets. Overall, the different fish sampling methods showed consistency as to fish community structure, but noticeable differences in community–environment relationships. Lake area was the best predictor for fish species richness in the littoral samplings, while it was poor...... community, as all methods miss some important species that other methods capture. However, electrofishing seems to be a fast alternative to gillnets for monitoring fish species richness and composition in littoral habitats of Danish lakes....

  1. Diversity and distribution of parasites from potentially cultured freshwater fish in Nakhon Si Thammarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species from 16 genera of potentially cultured freshwater fish were examined for external and internal parasites. Ten individuals of each fish species were sampled from various places in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Eight groups, 72 species were identified and the majority was external (52 spp.. The parasites found were ciliated protozoan (2 spp., myxozoan (2 spp., monogenean (44 spp., digenean (7 spp., cestode (6 spp., nematode (6 spp., acanthocephalan (2 spp. and crustacean (3 spp.. Monogenean was regarded as a major group of parasites with 44 species. Dactylogyrus (Monogenea had the highest number of species (12 spp., whereas Trichodina pediculus (Ciliophora was the most widely distributed species observed from at least 7 fish species (7 families. Most of the parasites (72 % found in this study were specific to their host species.

  2. Tuneable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy hyphenated to chemically derivatized thin-layer chromatography plates for screening histamine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengjun; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Ding, Yunlian; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng

    2017-09-01

    Reliable screening of histamine in fish was of urgent importance for food safety. This work presented a highly selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method mediated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which was tailored for identification and quantitation of histamine. Following separation and derivatization with fluram, plates were assayed with SERS, jointly using silver nanoparticle and NaCl. The latter dramatically suppressed the masking effect caused by excessive fluram throughout the plate, thus offering clear baseline and intensive Raman fingerprints specific to the analyte. Under optimized conditions, the usability of this method was validated by identifying the structural fingerprints of both targeted and unknown compounds in fish samples. Meanwhile, the quantitative results of this method agreed with those by an HPLC method officially suggested by EU for histamine determination. Showing remarkable cost-efficiency and user-friendliness, this facile TLC-SERS method was indeed screening-oriented and may be more attractive to controlling laboratories of limited resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of consecutive breeding generations of golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner) using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X N; Yang, M; Liang, X F; Jin, K; Lv, L Y; Tian, C X; Yuan, Y C; Sun, J

    2015-09-25

    In this study, 12 polymorphic microsatellites were inves-tigated to determine the genetic diversity and structure of 5 consecu-tive selected populations of golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner). The total numbers of alleles, average heterozyosity, and average polymorphism information content showed that the genetic diversity of these breeding populations was decreasing. Additionally, pairwise fixation index FST values among populations and Da values in-creased from F1 generation to subsequent generations (FST values from 0.0221-0.1408; Da values from 0.0608-0.1951). Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most genetic variations arise from individuals within populations (about 92.05%), while variation among populations accounted for only 7.95%. The allele frequency of the loci SC75-220 and SC101-222 bp changed regularly in the 5 breeding generations. Their frequencies were gradually increased and showed an enrichment trend, indicating that there may be genetic correlations between these 2 loci and breeding traits. Our study indicated that microsatellite markers are effective for assessing the genetic variability in the golden mandarin fish breeding program.

  4. The Diverse Uses Of Fish-Poison Plants In Northwest Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    Although prohibited by law, fish poison plants are still widely used by indigenous tribes in Guyana. The latest ethnobotanical collections date from the first half of the 20th century and, from recent anthropological studies, it cannot be deduced whether the same species are still used today. The

  5. Understanding the Spatio-Temporal Response of Coral Reef Fish Communities to Natural Disturbances: Insights from Beta-Diversity Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Thomas; Legendre, Pierre; Chancerelle, Yannick; Siu, Gilles; Claudet, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communities respond to natural disturbances is fundamental to assess the mechanisms of ecosystem resistance and resilience. However, ecosystem responses to natural disturbances are rarely monitored both through space and time, while the factors promoting ecosystem stability act at various temporal and spatial scales. Hence, assessing both the spatial and temporal variations in species composition is important to comprehensively explore the effects of natural disturbances. Here, we suggest a framework to better scrutinize the mechanisms underlying community responses to disturbances through both time and space. Our analytical approach is based on beta diversity decomposition into two components, replacement and biomass difference. We illustrate this approach using a 9-year monitoring of coral reef fish communities off Moorea Island (French Polynesia), which encompassed two severe natural disturbances: a crown-of-thorns starfish outbreak and a hurricane. These disturbances triggered a fast logistic decline in coral cover, which suffered a 90% decrease on all reefs. However, we found that the coral reef fish composition remained largely stable through time and space whereas compensatory changes in biomass among species were responsible for most of the temporal fluctuations, as outlined by the overall high contribution of the replacement component to total beta diversity. This suggests that, despite the severity of the two disturbances, fish communities exhibited high resistance and the ability to reorganize their compositions to maintain the same level of total community biomass as before the disturbances. We further investigated the spatial congruence of this pattern and showed that temporal dynamics involved different species across sites; yet, herbivores controlling the proliferation of algae that compete with coral communities were consistently favored. These results suggest that compensatory changes in biomass among species and spatial

  6. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  7. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  8. Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an analysis of their role in freshwater fish diversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Clavero, Miguel; Blanco-Garrido, Francisco; Prenda, José

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean endemic freshwater fish are among the most threatened biota in the world. Distinguishing the role of different extinction drivers and their potential interactions is crucial for achieving conservation goals. While some authors argue that invasive species are a main driver of native species declines, others see their proliferation as a co-occurring process to biodiversity loss driven by habitat degradation. It is difficult to discern between the two potential causes given that few invaded ecosystems are free from habitat degradation, and that both factors may interact in different ways. Here we analyze the relative importance of habitat degradation and invasive species in the decline of native fish assemblages in the Guadiana River basin (southwestern Iberian Peninsula) using an information theoretic approach to evaluate interaction pathways between invasive species and habitat degradation (structural equation modeling, SEM). We also tested the possible changes in the functional relationships between invasive and native species, measured as the per capita effect of invasive species, using ANCOVA. We found that the abundance of invasive species was the best single predictor of natives' decline and had the highest Akaike weight among the set of predictor variables examined. Habitat degradation neither played an active role nor influenced the per capita effect of invasive species on natives. Our analyses indicated that downstream reaches and areas close to reservoirs had the most invaded fish assemblages, independently of their habitat degradation status. The proliferation of invasive species poses a strong threat to the persistence of native assemblages in highly fluctuating environments. Therefore, conservation efforts to reduce native freshwater fish diversity loss in Mediterranean rivers should focus on mitigating the effect of invasive species and preventing future invasions.

  9. Increased extinction potential of insular fish populations with reduced life history variation and low genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmair, Michael; Kinziger, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical work has shown that reduced phenotypic heterogeneity leads to population instability and can increase extinction potential, yet few examples exist of natural populations that illustrate how varying levels expressed diversity may influence population persistence, particularly during periods of stochastic environmental fluctuation. In this study, we assess levels of expressed variation and genetic diversity among demographically independent populations of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi), show that reductions in both factors typically coincide, and describe how low levels of diversity contribute to the extinction risk of these isolated populations. We illustrate that, for this annual species, continuous reproduction is a safeguard against reproductive failure by any one population segment, as natural, stochastically driven salinity increases frequently result in high mortality among juvenile individuals. Several study populations deviated from the natural pattern of year-round reproduction typical for the species, rendering those with severely truncated reproductive periods vulnerable to extinction in the event of environmental fluctuation. In contrast, demographically diverse populations are more likely to persist through such periods through the continuous presence of adults with broader physiological tolerance to abrupt salinity changes. Notably, we found a significant correlation between genetic diversity and demographic variation in the study populations, which could be the result of population stressors that restrict both of these diversity measures simultaneously, or suggestive of a causative relationship between these population characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of biocomplexity at the population level, and assert that the maintenance of diversity contributes to population resilience and conservation of this endangered species.

  10. Increased extinction potential of insular fish populations with reduced life history variation and low genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hellmair

    Full Text Available Theoretical work has shown that reduced phenotypic heterogeneity leads to population instability and can increase extinction potential, yet few examples exist of natural populations that illustrate how varying levels expressed diversity may influence population persistence, particularly during periods of stochastic environmental fluctuation. In this study, we assess levels of expressed variation and genetic diversity among demographically independent populations of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi, show that reductions in both factors typically coincide, and describe how low levels of diversity contribute to the extinction risk of these isolated populations. We illustrate that, for this annual species, continuous reproduction is a safeguard against reproductive failure by any one population segment, as natural, stochastically driven salinity increases frequently result in high mortality among juvenile individuals. Several study populations deviated from the natural pattern of year-round reproduction typical for the species, rendering those with severely truncated reproductive periods vulnerable to extinction in the event of environmental fluctuation. In contrast, demographically diverse populations are more likely to persist through such periods through the continuous presence of adults with broader physiological tolerance to abrupt salinity changes. Notably, we found a significant correlation between genetic diversity and demographic variation in the study populations, which could be the result of population stressors that restrict both of these diversity measures simultaneously, or suggestive of a causative relationship between these population characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of biocomplexity at the population level, and assert that the maintenance of diversity contributes to population resilience and conservation of this endangered species.

  11. Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portraits In Courage Vol. VIII Portraits In Courage Vol. IX Portraits In Courage Vol. X AF Sites Social -Wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce Executive Order 13548 : Virtual Diversity Conference Air Force Diversity & Inclusion Air Force Diversity Graphic There is no

  12. Fish diversity in southern California using scuba surveys in kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from diver surveys on kelp beds in Southern California. Kelp diver visual census data was combined for two separate...

  13. Identifying fish diversity hot-spots in data-poor situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinícius Prado; Pennino, Maria Grazia; de Nóbrega, Marcelo Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge Eduardo Lins; de Figueiredo Mendes, Liana

    2017-08-01

    One of the more challenging tasks in Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is identifying critical areas for management and conservation of fish stocks. However, this objective is difficult to achieve in data-poor situations with different sources of uncertainty. In the present study we propose a combination of hierarchical Bayesian spatial models and remotely sensed estimates of environmental variables to be used as flexible and reliable statistical tools to identify and map fish species richness and abundance hot-spots. Results show higher species aggregates in areas with higher sea floor rugosity and habitat complexity, and identify clear richness hot-spots. Our findings identify sensitive habitats through essential and easy-to-use interpretation tools, such as predictive maps, which can contribute to improving management and operability of the studied data-poor situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphological diversity of fish along the rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Tadini Junqueira

    Full Text Available The rio das Velhas, located in central Minas Gerais State (Brazil, is a major tributary of the rio São Francisco. Despite several anthropogenic pressures, this basin supports more than 115 fish species. The aim of this study was to compare the morphological space occupied by fish assemblages in four regions (headwaters, upper, middle, and lower course along the channel of the rio das Velhas. We try to answer the following question: Is there a change in the morphological organization of the fish along the longitudinal gradient of the river? Individuals from 67 species, collected at several sites in the basin from 1999 to 2008, were measured for 11 morphological attributes related to swimming behavior and habitat use. Through the graphs, the first two dimensions of the PCA suggest that the morphological volume occupied by the headwaters region is smaller than the other sections, because of the low richness of the site. However, morphological hypervolumes of the four reaches analyzed by Euclidean distances were not statistically different. The results indicated that only the density of morphological types increases along the rio das Velhas, and there is no difference between the headwaters and upper courses. Therefore, in order to use functional groups related to the morphology of the species as tools to take measures for the conservation and revitalization of the rio das Velhas, it is necessary analyze the density of species within these groups, as well as their composition.

  15. Screening of clonal chromosome aberrations present in A-bomb survivors by FISH method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Mimako; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Ito, Masahiro; Otaki, Kazuo; Nakamura, Nori

    1997-01-01

    Significance of FISH method for detection of clonal chromosome aberration was reviewed. A clonal chromosome aberration is derived from one abnormal cell clone and gives the influence on the frequency of the aberration. As well, the size and frequency of the aberration give an important information concerning lymphocyte kinetics. FISH method is meaningful for detection of the clonal aberration. Fifteen kinds of clonal aberrations were detected in A-bomb survivors, of which 10 were specifically detected by the method, indicating that its detection rate was 2-3 time as high as the ordinary method. The results were those on the DNA probe on no.1, no.2 and no.3 chromosomes, which consisting of about 23% of the genome. (K.H.)

  16. Infection levels and species diversity of ascaridoid nematodes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are correlated with geographic area and fish size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, M.; Bao, M.; MacKenzie, K.

    2018-01-01

    2012-2014.Prevalences for Anisakis in whole fish and in fillets in the different fishing areas varied from 16 to 100% and from 12 to 90% respectively. Abundance was also greatly influenced by the sampling area. Generalized additive model results indicate higher numbers of Anisakis in the North Sea......, C. osculatum and H. aduncum. In addition to high prevalence and abundance values, the cod sampled in this study presented a diversity of ascaridoid nematodes with a majority of fish displaying a co-infection. Out of 295 whole infected fish, 269 were co-infected by at least 2 genera.......Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the most important commercial fish species on the world market. Its infection by ascaridoid nematodes has long been known, Pseudoterranova even being named cod worm. In the present study, 755 individuals were sampled in the Barents, Baltic and North Seas during...

  17. Fish assemblage in a semi-arid Neotropical reservoir: composition, structure and patterns of diversity and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, J L C; Moreira, S I L; Freire, C E C; Sousa, M M O; Costa, R S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the composition, structure and spatial and temporal patterns of diversity and abundance of the ichthyofauna of the Santa Cruz Reservoir in semi-arid Brazil. Data were collected quarterly at eight sampling locations on the reservoir between February 2010 and November 2011 using gillnets from 12- to 70-mm mesh that were left in the water for 12h00min during the night. We evaluated the composition, structure and assemblage descriptors (Shannon-Wiener diversity index and equitability, respectively) and catch per unit effort by the number (CPUEn) and biomass (CPUEb) of the ichthyofauna. The 6,047 individuals (399,211.6 g) captured represented three orders, ten families and 20 species, of which four belonged to introduced species. The family Characidae was the most abundant with a total of 2,772 (45.8%) individuals captured. The species-abundance curve fit the log-normal model. In the spatial analysis of diversity, there were significant differences between sampling sites in the lacustrine and fluvial regions, and the highest values were found in the lacustrine region. In the temporal analysis of diversity, significant differences were also observed between the rainy and dry seasons, and the higher values were found during the dry season. Equitability followed the same spatiotemporal pattern as diversity. The Spearman correlation was significantly negative between diversity and rainfall. A cluster analysis spatially separated the ichthyofauna into two groups: one group formed by sampling sites in the fluvial region and another group formed by the remainder of the points in the lacustrine region. Both the CPUEn and CPUEb values were higher at point 8 (fluvial region) and during the rainy season. A two-way ANOVA showed that the CPUEn and CPUEb values were spatially and temporally significant. We conclude that the spatial and temporal trends of diversity in the Santa Cruz reservoir differ from those of other Brazilian reservoirs but that

  18. Fishing for Nature's Hits: Establishment of the Zebrafish as a Model for Screening Antidiabetic Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nadia; Tai, Hongmei; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide and significantly impacts their quality of life. Moreover, life threatening diseases, such as myocardial infarction, blindness, and renal disorders, increase the morbidity rate associated with diabetes. Various natural products from medicinal plants have shown potential as antidiabetes agents in cell-based screening systems. However, many of these potential "hits" fail in mammalian tests, due to issues such as poor pharmacokinetics and/or toxic side effects. To address this problem, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model has been developed as a "bridge" to provide an experimentally convenient animal-based screening system to identify drug candidates that are active in vivo. In this review, we discuss the application of zebrafish to drug screening technologies for diabetes research. Specifically, the discovery of natural product-based antidiabetes compounds using zebrafish will be described. For example, it has recently been demonstrated that antidiabetic natural compounds can be identified in zebrafish using activity guided fractionation of crude plant extracts. Moreover, the development of fluorescent-tagged glucose bioprobes has allowed the screening of natural product-based modulators of glucose homeostasis in zebrafish. We hope that the discussion of these advances will illustrate the value and simplicity of establishing zebrafish-based assays for antidiabetic compounds in natural products-based laboratories.

  19. Structures of endothiapepsin-fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschmann, Franziska U; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein-ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin-fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity.

  20. Structures of endothiapepsin–fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschmann, Franziska U.; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S.; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein–ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin–fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity. PMID:27139825

  1. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota)

    KAUST Repository

    Tornabene, Luke; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Berumen, Michael L.; Smith, David J.; Jompa, Jamaluddì n; Pezold, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Depth-related trends in morphological and functional diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marc; Tuset, Víctor M.; Cartes, Joan E.; Massutí, Enric; Lombarte, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The morphological and functional traits of fishes are key factors defining the ecological and biological habits of species within ecosystems. However, little is known about how the depth gradient affects these factors. In the present study, several demersal fish assemblages from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea) along a wide depth range (40-2200 m) were morphologically, functionally and ecologically described. The morphological characterization of communities was performed using geometric morphometric methods, while the functional structures were obtained by the functional categorization of species and the application of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). The results revealed that morphospaces presented less richness of body forms as depth increases, although they showed a progressive spreading of species toward the periphery, with a proliferation of more extreme body traits, demonstrating lower morphological redundancy. In addition, a trend toward the elongation of body shape was also observed with depth. Moreover, functional diversity increased with bathymetry up to 1400 m, where it sharply decreased downwards. This decrease was parallel to a progressive fall of H‧ (ecological diversity) up to 2200 m. Functional redundancy progressively decreased until the deepest assemblage (more constantly in the deeper levels), which was almost exclusively dominated by benthopelagic wandering species feeding on suprabenthos. Redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that both morphological and functional spaces showed high variation along the bathymetric range. Mantel test indicated that the majority of species presented similar spatial distribution within the morphospace and functional space, although in the functional space the more abundant species were always located at the periphery. These results demonstrate that the assessment of the morpho-functional variation between marine communities helps to understand the processes that affect the structure and

  3. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  4. IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON NATIVE FISH DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH OF ROADSIDE TRANSITORY WATER BODIES: AN ASSESSMENT IN EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roadside transitory water bodies being manmade depressions have a great ecological and socio-economic importance from years. The effects of agricultural runoffs, jute retting, macro-phytes infestations and inadequate rainfall in changed climate often degrade transitory water bodies’ environment while the biodiversity have impacted severely because of population pressure, over exploitation and indiscriminate use of fine meshed fishing gears as a whole. Physico-chemical and biological analysis with fish species composition, relative abundance, diversity indices like species richness, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index were carried out for pre-, during and post-jute retting season and for year mean as a whole to assess impact of jute retting on the roadside transitory water body’s environmental health and indigenous fish diversity at Sahebnagar village in Nadia District, India. All the physico-chemical parameters barring biochemical oxygen demand and water transparency remained more or less same or marginally got little changed during those three seasons. As much as 19 native fish species with varied relative abundances and dominances were identified. Jute retting impacted lower native fish diversity indices like Shannon-Wiener index values (1.94 to 2.68 clearly indicated poor to moderate pollution status of the transitory water body in that area during monsoon in particular and throughout the year in general. So we opined there should be some control over the intense jute retting in the road side transitory water bodies for sustainable management of these manmade resources.

  5. Diversity of deep-sea fishes of the Easter Island Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Erin E.; Sellanes, Javier; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Morales, Naiti; Gorny, Matthias; Berkenpas, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The Easter Island Ecoregion is in the center of the South Pacific gyre and experiences ultra-oligotrophic conditions that could make it highly susceptible to global change and anthropogenic activities, so it is imperative that these regions are characterized and studied so that conservation and sustainable management strategies can be developed. From the few studies from the region, we know that the coastal areas are relatively depauperate and have relatively high rates of endemism. Here, we present a brief report from the first video observations from this region of the deep-dwelling fishes from ROV exploration of benthic communities from 157 to 281 m and baited drop-camera videos from 150 to 1850 m. We observed a total of 55 fish species from the ROV and Drop-Cam surveys; nine could not be assigned family level or lower, 26 were observed in the ROV surveys, 29 were observed in the Drop-Cam surveys, nine were observed with both survey methods, at least six species are potentially new to science, and nine species were observed at deeper depths than previously reported. These new reports may be indicative of the unique oceanographic conditions in the area and the relative isolation of the communities that have provided opportunity for the evolution of new species and favorable conditions for range expansion. In contrast, these new reports may be indicative of the severe undersampling in the south Pacific at mesopelagic depths. The prevalence of potentially new species suggests that the region likely harbors a wealth of undiscovered biodiversity.

  6. Population Genetic Structure and Genetic Diversity in Twisted-Jaw Fish, Belodontichthys truncatus Kottelat & Ng, 1999 (Siluriformes: Siluridae, from Mekong Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapon Yodsiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mekong River and its tributaries possess the second highest diversity in fish species in the world. However, the fish biodiversity in this river is threatened by several human activities, such as hydropower plant construction. Understanding the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the species is important for natural resource management. Belodontichthys truncatus Kottelat & Ng is endemic to the Mekong River basin and is an important food source for people in this area. In this study, the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history of the twisted-jaw fish, B. truncatus, were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. A total of 124 fish specimens were collected from 10 locations in the Mekong and its tributaries. Relatively high genetic diversity was found in populations of B. truncatus compared to other catfish species in the Mekong River. The genetic structure analysis revealed that a population from the Chi River in Thailand was genetically significantly different from other populations, which is possibly due to the effect of genetic drift. Demographic history analysis indicated that B. truncatus has undergone recent demographic expansion dating back to the end of the Pleistocene glaciation.

  7. Development of an Attitudes Measure for Prenatal Screening in Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, S. F.; Learman, L. A.; Gates, E. A.; Washington, A. E.; Kuppermann, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities is routinely offered to all pregnant women who present for care by their 20th gestational week. Not all women, however, choose to undergo one of these tests, and choice of which test(s) to undergo also vary. The reasons for variation in screening test behavior have not been fully…

  8. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Chin A.; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Kwon, O. Jung; Shin, Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  9. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Chin A. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Health Promotion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O. Jung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  10. Morphological diversity of fish along the rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Tadini Junqueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rio das Velhas, located in central Minas Gerais State (Brazil, is a major tributary of the rio São Francisco. Despite several anthropogenic pressures, this basin supports more than 115 fish species. The aim of this study was to compare the morphological space occupied by fish assemblages in four regions (headwaters, upper, middle, and lower course along the channel of the rio das Velhas. We try to answer the following question: Is there a change in the morphological organization of the fish along the longitudinal gradient of the river? Individuals from 67 species, collected at several sites in the basin from 1999 to 2008, were measured for 11 morphological attributes related to swimming behavior and habitat use. Through the graphs, the first two dimensions of the PCA suggest that the morphological volume occupied by the headwaters region is smaller than the other sections, because of the low richness of the site. However, morphological hypervolumes of the four reaches analyzed by Euclidean distances were not statistically different. The results indicated that only the density of morphological types increases along the rio das Velhas, and there is no difference between the headwaters and upper courses. Therefore, in order to use functional groups related to the morphology of the species as tools to take measures for the conservation and revitalization of the rio das Velhas, it is necessary analyze the density of species within these groups, as well as their composition.O rio das Velhas, localizado na região central do estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, é o mais extenso tributário do rio São Francisco. Apesar dos inúmeros impactos antrópicos que sofre, sua bacia abriga uma rica ictiofauna, com mais de 115 espécies conhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o espaço morfológico ocupado pelas assembleias de peixes em quatro regiões (cabeceira, alto curso, médio curso e baixo curso ao longo da calha do rio das Velhas. Procuramos

  11. Genetic Diversity of the Endangered Neotropical Cichlid Fish (Gymnogeophagus setequedas) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Shibatta, Lenice; Kotelok-Diniz, Thais; Ferreira, Dhiego G.; Shibatta, Oscar A.; Sofia, Silvia H.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; Pini, Suelen F. R.; Makrakis, Sergio; Makrakis, Maristela C.

    2018-01-01

    Gymnogeophagus setequedas is a rare and rheophilic species of tribe Geophagini, considered endangered in Brazilian red lists. Its previously known geographical distribution range was the Paraná River basin, in Paraguay, and a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir in Brazil. Since its description no specimens have been collected in the original known distribution area. However, recent records of G. setequedas in the lower Iguaçu River, in a region considered highly endemic for the ichthyofauna, extended the known geographical distribution and may represent one of the last remnants of the species. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of G. setequedas, using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes, in order to test the hypothesis of low genetic diversity in this restricted population. Muscular tissue samples of 86 specimens were obtained from nine locations in the Lower Iguaçu River basin, between upstream of the Iguaçu Falls and downstream of the Salto Caxias Reservoir. Seven microsatellites loci were examined and a total of 120 different alleles were obtained. The number of alleles per locus (NA) was 17.429, effective alleles (NE) 6.644, expected heterozygosity (HE) 0.675, observed (HO) heterozygosity 0.592, and inbreeding coefficient (FIS) 0.128. Twelve haplotypes in the D-Loop region were revealed, with values of h (0.7642) and π (0.00729), suggesting a large and stable population with a long evolutionary history. Thus, both molecular markers revealed high levels of genetic diversity and indicated the occurrence of a single G. setequedas population distributed along a stretch of approximately 200 km. The pattern of mismatch distribution was multimodal, which is usually ascribed to populations in demographic equilibrium. Nevertheless, the construction of a new hydroelectric power plant, already underway between the Salto Caxias Reservoir and Iguaçu Falls, could fragment this population, causing loss of

  12. Genetic Diversity of the Endangered Neotropical Cichlid Fish (Gymnogeophagus setequedas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Souza-Shibatta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gymnogeophagus setequedas is a rare and rheophilic species of tribe Geophagini, considered endangered in Brazilian red lists. Its previously known geographical distribution range was the Paraná River basin, in Paraguay, and a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir in Brazil. Since its description no specimens have been collected in the original known distribution area. However, recent records of G. setequedas in the lower Iguaçu River, in a region considered highly endemic for the ichthyofauna, extended the known geographical distribution and may represent one of the last remnants of the species. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of G. setequedas, using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes, in order to test the hypothesis of low genetic diversity in this restricted population. Muscular tissue samples of 86 specimens were obtained from nine locations in the Lower Iguaçu River basin, between upstream of the Iguaçu Falls and downstream of the Salto Caxias Reservoir. Seven microsatellites loci were examined and a total of 120 different alleles were obtained. The number of alleles per locus (NA was 17.429, effective alleles (NE 6.644, expected heterozygosity (HE 0.675, observed (HO heterozygosity 0.592, and inbreeding coefficient (FIS 0.128. Twelve haplotypes in the D-Loop region were revealed, with values of h (0.7642 and π (0.00729, suggesting a large and stable population with a long evolutionary history. Thus, both molecular markers revealed high levels of genetic diversity and indicated the occurrence of a single G. setequedas population distributed along a stretch of approximately 200 km. The pattern of mismatch distribution was multimodal, which is usually ascribed to populations in demographic equilibrium. Nevertheless, the construction of a new hydroelectric power plant, already underway between the Salto Caxias Reservoir and Iguaçu Falls, could fragment this population

  13. Genetic Diversity of the Endangered Neotropical Cichlid Fish (Gymnogeophagus setequedas) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Shibatta, Lenice; Kotelok-Diniz, Thais; Ferreira, Dhiego G; Shibatta, Oscar A; Sofia, Silvia H; de Assumpção, Lucileine; Pini, Suelen F R; Makrakis, Sergio; Makrakis, Maristela C

    2018-01-01

    Gymnogeophagus setequedas is a rare and rheophilic species of tribe Geophagini, considered endangered in Brazilian red lists. Its previously known geographical distribution range was the Paraná River basin, in Paraguay, and a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir in Brazil. Since its description no specimens have been collected in the original known distribution area. However, recent records of G. setequedas in the lower Iguaçu River, in a region considered highly endemic for the ichthyofauna, extended the known geographical distribution and may represent one of the last remnants of the species. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of G. setequedas , using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes, in order to test the hypothesis of low genetic diversity in this restricted population. Muscular tissue samples of 86 specimens were obtained from nine locations in the Lower Iguaçu River basin, between upstream of the Iguaçu Falls and downstream of the Salto Caxias Reservoir. Seven microsatellites loci were examined and a total of 120 different alleles were obtained. The number of alleles per locus ( N A ) was 17.429, effective alleles ( N E ) 6.644, expected heterozygosity ( H E ) 0.675, observed ( H O ) heterozygosity 0.592, and inbreeding coefficient ( F IS ) 0.128. Twelve haplotypes in the D-Loop region were revealed, with values of h (0.7642) and π (0.00729), suggesting a large and stable population with a long evolutionary history. Thus, both molecular markers revealed high levels of genetic diversity and indicated the occurrence of a single G. setequedas population distributed along a stretch of approximately 200 km. The pattern of mismatch distribution was multimodal, which is usually ascribed to populations in demographic equilibrium. Nevertheless, the construction of a new hydroelectric power plant, already underway between the Salto Caxias Reservoir and Iguaçu Falls, could fragment this population

  14. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiying Liu

    Full Text Available Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (microbiological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture.

  15. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture. PMID:26317985

  16. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  17. Genetic Diversity and Hybridisation between Native and Introduced Salmonidae Fishes in a Swedish Alpine Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Faulks

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes underlying diversification can aid in formulating appropriate conservation management plans that help maintain the evolutionary potential of taxa, particularly under human-induced activities and climate change. Here we assessed the microsatellite genetic diversity and structure of three salmonid species, two native (Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout, Salmo trutta and one introduced (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, from an alpine lake in sub-arctic Sweden, Lake Ånn. The genetic diversity of the three species was similar and sufficiently high from a conservation genetics perspective: corrected total heterozygosity, H'T = 0.54, 0.66, 0.60 and allelic richness, AR = 4.93, 5.53 and 5.26 for Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr, respectively. There were indications of elevated inbreeding coefficients in brown trout (GIS = 0.144 and brook charr (GIS = 0.129 although sibling relationships were likely a confounding factor, as a high proportion of siblings were observed in all species within and among sampling locations. Overall genetic structure differed between species, Fst = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 in Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr respectively, and there was differentiation at only a few specific locations. There was clear evidence of hybridisation between the native Arctic charr and the introduced brook charr, with 6% of individuals being hybrids, all of which were sampled in tributary streams. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the observed hybridisation are priorities for further research and the conservation of the evolutionary potential of native salmonid species.

  18. Identification of Abiotic Stress Protein Biomarkers by Proteomic Screening of Crop Cultivar Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Modern day agriculture practice is narrowing the genetic diversity in our food supply. This may compromise the ability to obtain high yield under extreme climactic conditions, threatening food security for a rapidly growing world population. To identify genetic diversity, tolerance mechanisms of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives of major crops can be identified and ultimately exploited for yield improvement. Quantitative proteomics allows for the identification of proteins that may cont...

  19. Diverse juvenile life-history behaviours contribute to the spawning stock of an anadromous fish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Timothy E.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat quality often varies substantially across space and time, producing a shifting mosaic of growth and mortality trade-offs across watersheds. Traditional studies of juvenile habitat use have emphasised the evolution of single optimal strategies that maximise recruitment to adulthood and eventual fitness. However, linking the distribution of individual behaviours that contribute to recruitment at the population level has been elusive, particularly for highly fecund aquatic organisms. We examined juvenile habitat use within a population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that spawn in a watershed consisting of two interconnected lakes and a marine lagoon. Otolith microchemical analysis revealed that the productive headwater lake accounted for about half of juvenile growth for those individuals surviving to spawn in a single river in the upper watershed. However, 47% of adults had achieved more than half of their juvenile growth in the downstream less productive lake, and 3% of individuals migrated to the estuarine environment during their first summer and returned to freshwater to overwinter before migrating back to sea. These results describe a diversity of viable habitat-use strategies by juvenile sockeye salmon that may buffer the population against poor conditions in any single rearing environment, reduce density-dependent mortality and have implications for the designation of critical habitat for conservation purposes. A network of accessible alternative habitats providing trade-offs in growth and survival may be important for long-term viability of populations.

  20. Designing a diverse high-quality library for crystallography-based FBDD screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounge, Brett A; Parker, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    A well-chosen set of fragments is able to cover a large chemical space using a small number of compounds. The actual size and makeup of the fragment set is dependent on the screening method since each technique has its own practical limits in terms of the number of compounds that can be screened and requirements for compound solubility. In this chapter, an overview of the general requirements for a fragment library is presented for different screening platforms. In the case of the FBDD work at Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., our main screening technology is X-ray crystallography. Since every soaked protein crystal needs to be diffracted and a protein structure determined to delineate if a fragment binds, the size of our initial screening library cannot be a rate-limiting factor. For this reason, we have chosen 900 as the appropriate primary fragment library size. To choose the best set, we have developed our own mix of simple property ("Rule of 3") and "bad" substructure filtering. While this gets one a long way in terms of limiting the fragment pool, there are still tens of thousands of compounds to choose from after this initial step. Many of the choices left at this stage are not drug-like, so we have developed an FBDD Score to help select a 900-compound set. The details of this score and the filtering are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of coconut and fish oils on ruminal methanogenesis, fermentation, and abundance and diversity of microbial populations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Yu, Z

    2013-03-01

    Coconut (CO) and fish (FO) oils were previously shown to inhibit rumen methanogenesis and biohydrogenation, which mitigates methane emission and helps improve beneficial fatty acids in meat and milk. This study aimed at investigating the comparative effects of CO and FO on the methanogenesis, fermentation, and microbial abundances and diversity in vitro rumen cultures containing different doses (0, 3.1, and 6.2 mL/L) of each oil and 400mg feed substrate using rumen fluid from lactating dairy cows as inocula. Increasing doses of CO and FO quadratically decreased concentrations of methane, but hydrogen concentrations were only increased quadratically by CO. Both oils linearly decreased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility of feeds but did not affect the concentration of total volatile fatty acids. However, CO reduced acetate percentage and acetate to propionate ratio and increased the percentages of propionate and butyrate to a greater extent than FO. Ammonia concentration was greater for CO than FO. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR, FO had greater inhibition to methanogens than CO, but the opposite was true for protozoal, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes. Ruminococcus albus was not affected by either oil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that bacterial and archaeal community composition were changed differently by oil type. Based on Pareto-Lorenz evenness curve analysis of the DGGE profiles, CO noticeably changed the functional organization of archaea compared with FO. In conclusion, although both CO and FO decreased methane concentrations to a similar extent, the mode of reduction and the effect on abundances and diversity of archaeal and bacterial populations differed between the oils. Thus, the use of combination of CO and FO at a low dose may additively lower methanogenesis in the rumen while having little adverse effect on rumen fermentation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy

  2. Screening for ROS1 gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancers using immunohistochemistry with FISH confirmation is an effective method to identify this rare target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Christina I; Li, Bob T; Pavlakis, Nick; Links, Matthew; Gill, Anthony J; Lee, Adrian; Clarke, Stephen; Tran, Thang N; Lum, Trina; Yip, Po Yee; Horvath, Lisa; Yu, Bing; Kohonen-Corish, Maija RJ; O’Toole, Sandra A; Cooper, Wendy A

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the prevalence of ROS1 rearrangements in a retrospective and prospective diagnostic Australian cohort and evaluate the effectiveness of immunohistochemical screening. Methods A retrospective cohort of 278 early stage lung adenocarcinomas and an additional 104 prospective NSCLC cases referred for routine molecular testing were evaluated. ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed (D4D6 clone, Cell Signaling Technology) on all cases as well as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using the ZytoVision and Abbott Molecular ROS1 FISH probes, with ≥15% of cells with split signals considered positive for rearrangement. Results Eighty eight cases (32%) from the retrospective cohort showed staining by ROS1 IHC, and one case (0.4%) showed ROS1 rearrangement by FISH. Nineteen of the prospective diagnostic cases showed ROS1 IHC staining of which 12 (12%) cases were confirmed as ROS1 rearranged by FISH. There were no ROS1 rearranged cases that showed no expression of ROS1 with IHC. The ROS1 rearranged cases in the prospective cohort were all EGFR wildtype and ALK rearrangement negative. The sensitivity of ROS1 IHC in the retrospective cohort was 100% and specificity was 76%. Conclusions ROS1 rearrangements are rare events in lung adenocarcinomas. Selection of cases for ROS1 FISH testing, by excluding EGFR/ALK positive cases and use of IHC to screen for potentially positive cases can be used to enrich for the likelihood of a identifying a ROS1 rearranged lung cancer and prevent the need to undertake expensive and time consuming FISH testing in all cases. PMID:27599111

  3. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Bunt, Christopher M.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Pearson, Micheal P.; Cooperman, Michael S.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    Catostomid fishes are a diverse family of 76+ freshwater species that are distributed across North America in many different habitats. This group of fish is facing a variety of impacts and conservation issues that are somewhat unique relative to more economically valuable and heavily managed fish species. Here, we present a brief series of case studies to highlight the threats such as migration barriers, flow regulation, environmental contamination, habitat degradation, exploitation and impacts from introduced (non-native) species that are facing catostomids in different regions. Collectively, the case studies reveal that individual species usually are not threatened by a single, isolated factor. Instead, species in general face numerous stressors that threaten multiple stages of their life history. Several factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish some species, lack of basic natural history and ecological knowledge of life history, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value. Without a specific constituent group lobbying for conservation of non-game fishes, all such species, including members of the catostomid family, will continue to face serious risks because of neglect, ignorance, and misunderstanding. We suggest that conservation strategies should incorporate research and education/outreach components. Other conservation strategies that would be effective for protecting suckers include freshwater protected areas for critical habitat, restoration of degraded habitat, and design of catostomid-friendly fish bypass facilities. We believe that the plight of the catostomids is representative of the threats facing many other non-game freshwater fishes with diverse life-history strategies globally.

  4. Alternatives to in vivo tests to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fish and amphibians--screening for estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, S; Renner, P; Belanger, S E; Busquet, F; Davi, R; Demeneix, B A; Denny, J S; Léonard, M; McMaster, M E; Villeneuve, D L; Embry, M R

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is considered a highly relevant hazard for environmental risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, biocides and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, screening tests with a focus on interference with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways in fish and amphibians have been developed. However, they use a large number of animals and short-term alternatives to animal tests would be advantageous. Therefore, the status of alternative assays for endocrine disruption in fish and frogs was assessed by a detailed literature analysis. The aim was to (i) determine the strengths and limitations of alternative assays and (ii) present conclusions regarding chemical specificity, sensitivity, and correlation with in vivo data. Data from 1995 to present were collected related to the detection/testing of estrogen-, androgen-, and thyroid-active chemicals in the following test systems: cell lines, primary cells, fish/frog embryos, yeast and cell-free systems. The review shows that the majority of alternative assays measure effects directly mediated by receptor binding or resulting from interference with hormone synthesis. Other mechanisms were rarely analysed. A database was established and used for a quantitative and comparative analysis. For example, a high correlation was observed between cell-free ligand binding and cell-based reporter cell assays, between fish and frog estrogenic data and between fish embryo tests and in vivo reproductive effects. It was concluded that there is a need for a more systematic study of the predictive capacity of alternative tests and ways to reduce inter- and intra-assay variability.

  5. Characterizing the diversity of coral reef habitats and fish communities found in a UNESCO World Heritage Site: the strategy developed for Lagoons of New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, S; Wantiez, L

    2010-01-01

    Since 1972, the UNESCO "World Heritage Convention" offers an international canvas for conservation and management that targets areas of high cultural and environmental significance. To support the designation of areas within the 36.000 km(2) of New Caledonia coral reefs and lagoons as a World Heritage Site, the natural value and diversity of the proposed zones needed to be demonstrated. To exhaustively identify each configuration of shallow habitats, high resolution remote sensing images were used to select the sampling sites. This optimal scheme resulted in the selection of nearly 1300 sampling sites, and was then simplified to render its application realistic. In the final sampling plan, only the most common or the most remarkable coral zones were selected. Following this selection, in situ habitat and fish surveys were conducted in 2006-2008 in five large areas spanning a 600 km-long latitudinal gradient. Habitats were described using line-intercept transects in parallel with underwater visual census of indicator and commercial coral reef fish species. We report here on the results achieved in terms of: (i) the actual diversity of coral habitats captured by the remote sensing based sampling strategy, (ii) the different reef fish communities captured from the different sites, and (iii) how well they represent New Caledonia diversity. We discuss the possible generalization of this scheme to other sites, in the context of World Heritage Site selection and for other large-scale conservation planning activities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coral-macroalgal phase shifts or reef resilience: links with diversity and functional roles of herbivorous fishes on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheal, A. J.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Cripps, E.; Emslie, M. J.; Jonker, M.; Schaffelke, B.; Sweatman, H.

    2010-12-01

    Changes from coral to macroalgal dominance following disturbances to corals symbolize the global degradation of coral reefs. The development of effective conservation measures depends on understanding the causes of such phase shifts. The prevailing view that coral-macroalgal phase shifts commonly occur due to insufficient grazing by fishes is based on correlation with overfishing and inferences from models and small-scale experiments rather than on long-term quantitative field studies of fish communities at affected and resilient sites. Consequently, the specific characteristics of herbivorous fish communities that most promote reef resilience under natural conditions are not known, though this information is critical for identifying vulnerable ecosystems. In this study, 11 years of field surveys recorded the development of the most persistent coral-macroalgal phase shift (>7 years) yet observed on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). This shift followed extensive coral mortality caused by thermal stress (coral bleaching) and damaging storms. Comparisons with two similar reefs that suffered similar disturbances but recovered relatively rapidly demonstrated that the phase shift occurred despite high abundances of one herbivore functional group (scraping/excavating parrotfishes: Labridae). However, the shift was strongly associated with low fish herbivore diversity and low abundances of algal browsers (predominantly Siganidae) and grazers/detritivores (Acanthuridae), suggesting that one or more of these factors underpin reef resilience and so deserve particular protection. Herbivorous fishes are not harvested on the GBR, and the phase shift was not enhanced by unusually high nutrient levels. This shows that unexploited populations of herbivorous fishes cannot ensure reef resilience even under benign conditions and suggests that reefs could lose resilience under relatively low fishing pressure. Predictions of more severe and widespread coral mortality due to global

  7. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistance of culturable microorganisms and metagenomic analysis of total microbial diversity of marine fish sold in retail shops in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Onkar A; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Rath, Devashish; Bandekar, Jayant R; Rath, Archana

    2018-03-01

    Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g -1 . Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Most of these pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, bacitracin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.54-0.77. The fish microflora showed high prevalence of AR genes like bla TEM , Class I integron, tetA, aph(3')-IIIa, ermB, aadA, and sul1. Nineteen of 26 AR isolates harbored Class I integrons showing high co-resistance to trimethoprim, kanamycin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime. Mobile R-plasmids from 6 of the 12 AR pathogens were transferred to recipient E. coli after conjugation. The transconjugants harbored the same R-plasmid carrying bla CTX-M , dfr1, tetA, bla TEM , and cat genes. This study confirms that fish is a potential carrier of AR pathogens which can enter the human gut via food chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian subcontinent reporting a direct evidence of spread of AR pathogens to humans from specific marine fish consumption.

  8. Effect of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 baths on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout and on microbial diversity on fish skin and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, L R; Tiirola, M A; Valtonen, E T

    2005-01-25

    Use of Pseudomonas sp. strain MT5 to prevent and treat Flavobacterium columnare infection was studied in 2 experiments with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In the first experiment, length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments (LH-PCR) was used to assess the effect of antagonistic baths on the microbial diversity of healthy and experimentally infected fish. In the 148 samples studied, no difference was found between bathed and unbathed fish, and 3 fragment lengths were detected most frequently: 500 (in 75.7% of the samples), 523 (62.2%) and 517 bp (40.5%). The species contributing to these fragment sizes were Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp. and F. columnare, respectively. A specific PCR for detection of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 was designed, but none of the tissue samples were found to be positive, most likely indicating poor adhesion of the strain during bathing. LH-PCR was found to be a more powerful tool for detecting F. columnare in fish tissue than traditional culture methods (chi2 = 3.9, df = 1, p < 0.05). Antagonistic baths had no effect on the outbreak of infection or on fish mortality. F. columnare was also detected in healthy fish prior to and after experimental infection, indicating that these fish were carriers of the disease. In the second experiment, intensive Pseudomonas sp. MT5 antagonistic baths were given daily to rainbow trout suffering from a natural columnaris infection. Again, the antagonistic bacteria had no effect on fish mortality, which reached 95 % in both control and antagonist-treated groups in 7 d.

  9. Diversity, molecular characterization and expression of T cell receptor γ in a teleost fish, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Buonocore

    Full Text Available Two lineages of T cells, expressing either the αβ T cell receptor (TR or the γδ TR, exist in Gnathostomes. The latter type of T cells account for 1-10 % of T cells in blood and up to 30 % in the small intestine. They may recognize unconventional antigens (phosphorylated microbial metabolites, lipid antigens without the need of major histocompatibility class I (MH1 or class II (MH2 presentation. In this work we have described cloning and structural characterization of TR -chain (TRG from the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax. Further, by means of quantitative PCR analysis, we analyzed TRG expression levels both in poly I:C stimulated leukocytes in vitro, and following infection with betanodavirus in vivo. Two full length cDNAs relative to TRG, with the highest peptide and nucleotide identity with Japanese flounder, were identified. A multiple alignment analysis showed the conservation of peptides fundamental for TRG biological functions, and of the FGXG motif in the FR4 region, typical of most TR and immunoglobulin light chains. A 3D structure consisting of two domains mainly folded as beta strands with a sandwich architecture for each domain was also reported. TRG CDR3 of 8-18 AA in length and diversity in the TRG rearrangements expressed in thymus and intestine for a given V/C combination were evidenced by junction length spectratyping. TRG mRNA expression levels were high in basal conditions both in thymus and intestine, while in kidney and gut leukocytes they were up-regulated after in vitro stimulation by poly I:C. Finally, in juveniles the TRG expression levels were up-regulated in the head kidney and down-regulated in intestine after in vivo infection with betanodavirus. Overall, in this study the involvement of TRG-bearing T cells during viral stimulation was described for the first time, leading to new insights for the identification of T cell subsets in fish.

  10. Jaw lever analysis of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: a simulation study of morphological diversity and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-08-01

    Differences in feeding behavior and performance among the five native Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes (Sicyopterus stimpsoni, Lentipes concolor, Awaous guamensis, Stenogobius hawaiiensis, and Eleotris sandwicensis) have been proposed based on the skeletal anatomy of their jaws and dietary specialization. However, performance of the feeding apparatus likely depends on the proportions and configurations of the jaw muscles and the arrangement of the jaw skeleton. We used a published mathematical model of muscle function to evaluate potential differences in jaw closing performance and their correlations with morphology among these species. For example, high output force calculated for the adductor mandibulae muscles (A2 and A3) of both A. guamensis and E. sandwicensis matched expectations based on the morphology of these species because these muscles are larger than in the other species. In contrast, Stenogobius hawaiiensis exhibited an alternative morphological strategy for achieving high relative output forces of both A2 and A3, in which the placement and configuration of the muscles conveyed high mechanical advantage despite only moderate cross-sectional areas. These differing anatomical pathways to similar functional performance suggest a pattern of many-to-one mapping of morphology to performance. In addition, a functional differentiation between A2 and A3 was evident for all species, in which A2 was better suited for producing forceful jaw closing and A3 for rapid jaw closing. Thus, the diversity of feeding performance of Hawaiian stream gobies seems to reflect a maintenance of functional breadth through the retention of some primitive traits in combination with novel functional capacities in several species. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Complimentary analysis of metacommunity nestedness and diversity partitioning highlights the need for a holistic conservation strategy for highland lake fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metacommunity nestedness can be affected by both idiosyncratic species and species turnover, and diversity partitioning allows one to separate turnover and nested components within β-diversity. Thus, complimentary analysis of metacommunity nestedness and diversity partitioning allows for the identification of the underlying changes at both local and regional scales. We examined changes of fish assemblages in metacommunity nestedness and α-, β-, and γ-diversities resulting from the intense loss of native species and the invasion of nonnative species in Chinese highland lakes over the past 60 years. We found metacommunity nestedness rose markedly over time, following the loss of both β- and γ-diversity resulting from the loss of native species, and the increase of α diversity by the addition of nonnative species. This pattern is contradictory to the selective extinction leading to larger nestedness in natural ecosystems and indicates the human-induced negative effects on the metacommunity. However, β-diversity partitioning showed that the turnover component due to species replacement among lakes still contributes more than the nested component, suggesting the importance of avoiding setting conservation priorities based exclusively on metacommunity nestedness theory, but taking a more holistic metacommunity-approach to conservation instead.

  12. Mangrove study examining seasonal and spatial variation in fish taxonomic composition and diversity in North Atlantic Ocean from 1998-08-17 to 2016-08-20 (NCEI Accession 0159580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains seasonal and spatial variation in fish taxonomic composition and diversity as well as variation in the frequency of occurrence, density and size...

  13. Revisions of the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) for its application in warmer climatic zones, with particular reference to peninsular Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Larry L; Hill, Jeffrey E; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Hardin, Scott; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The initial version (v1) of the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) was adapted from the Weed Risk Assessment of Pheloung, Williams, and Halloy to assess the potential invasiveness of nonnative freshwater fishes in the United Kingdom. Published applications of FISK v1 have been primarily in temperate-zone countries (Belgium, Belarus, and Japan), so the specificity of this screening tool to that climatic zone was not noted until attempts were made to apply it in peninsular Florida. To remedy this shortcoming, the questions and guidance notes of FISK v1 were reviewed and revised to improve clarity and extend its applicability to broader climatic regions, resulting in changes to 36 of the 49 questions. In addition, upgrades were made to the software architecture of FISK to improve overall computational speed as well as graphical user interface flexibility and friendliness. We demonstrate the process of screening a fish species using FISK v2 in a realistic management scenario by assessing the Barcoo grunter Scortum barcoo (Terapontidae), a species whose management concerns are related to its potential use for aquaponics in Florida. The FISK v2 screening of Barcoo grunter placed the species into the lower range of medium risk (score = 5), suggesting it is a permissible species for use in Florida under current nonnative species regulations. Screening of the Barcoo grunter illustrates the usefulness of FISK v2 as a proactive tool serving to inform risk management decisions, but the low level of confidence associated with the assessment highlighted a dearth of critical information on this species. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Geological differentiation explains diversity and composition of fish communities in upland streams in the southern Amazon of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbeláez, F.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Maldonado-Ocampo, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Fish biomass, species richness and composition were compared between upland streams draining two contrasting geological units (Pebas and Tsa) in Colombian Amazonia. Because Pebas sediments reportedly show higher levels of base concentrations than Tsa sediments, we expected that the fish communities

  15. Identification of Abiotic Stress Protein Biomarkers by Proteomic Screening of Crop Cultivar Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2016-09-08

    Modern day agriculture practice is narrowing the genetic diversity in our food supply. This may compromise the ability to obtain high yield under extreme climactic conditions, threatening food security for a rapidly growing world population. To identify genetic diversity, tolerance mechanisms of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives of major crops can be identified and ultimately exploited for yield improvement. Quantitative proteomics allows for the identification of proteins that may contribute to tolerance mechanisms by directly comparing protein abundance under stress conditions between genotypes differing in their stress responses. In this review, a summary is provided of the data accumulated from quantitative proteomic comparisons of crop genotypes/cultivars which present different stress tolerance responses when exposed to various abiotic stress conditions, including drought, salinity, high/low temperature, nutrient deficiency and UV-B irradiation. This field of research aims to identify molecular features that can be developed as biomarkers for crop improvement, however without accurate phenotyping, careful experimental design, statistical robustness and appropriate biomarker validation and verification it will be challenging to deliver what is promised.

  16. Identification of Abiotic Stress Protein Biomarkers by Proteomic Screening of Crop Cultivar Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn J. Barkla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern day agriculture practice is narrowing the genetic diversity in our food supply. This may compromise the ability to obtain high yield under extreme climactic conditions, threatening food security for a rapidly growing world population. To identify genetic diversity, tolerance mechanisms of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives of major crops can be identified and ultimately exploited for yield improvement. Quantitative proteomics allows for the identification of proteins that may contribute to tolerance mechanisms by directly comparing protein abundance under stress conditions between genotypes differing in their stress responses. In this review, a summary is provided of the data accumulated from quantitative proteomic comparisons of crop genotypes/cultivars which present different stress tolerance responses when exposed to various abiotic stress conditions, including drought, salinity, high/low temperature, nutrient deficiency and UV-B irradiation. This field of research aims to identify molecular features that can be developed as biomarkers for crop improvement, however without accurate phenotyping, careful experimental design, statistical robustness and appropriate biomarker validation and verification it will be challenging to deliver what is promised.

  17. Applications of self-organizing neural networks in virtual screening and diversity selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Paul; Ertl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks provide a powerful technique for the analysis and modeling of nonlinear relationships between molecular structures and pharmacological activity. Many network types, including Kohonen and counterpropagation, also provide an intuitive method for the visual assessment of correspondence between the input and output data. This work shows how a combination of neural networks and radial distribution function molecular descriptors can be applied in various areas of industrial pharmaceutical research. These applications include the prediction of biological activity, the selection of screening candidates (cherry picking), and the extraction of representative subsets from large compound collections such as combinatorial libraries. The methods described have also been implemented as an easy-to-use Web tool, allowing chemists to perform interactive neural network experiments on the Novartis intranet.

  18. Effectiveness of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, to perform risk identification assessments in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David; Ribeiro, Filipe; Leunda, Pedro M; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    Risk assessments are crucial for identifying and mitigating impacts from biological invasions. The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is a risk identification (screening) tool for freshwater fishes consisting of two subject areas: biogeography/history and biology/ecology. According to the outcomes, species can be classified under particular risk categories. The aim of this study was to apply FISK to the Iberian Peninsula, a Mediterranean climate region highly important for freshwater fish conservation due to a high level of endemism. In total, 89 fish species were assessed by three independent assessors. Results from receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that FISK can discriminate reliably between noninvasive and invasive fishes for Iberia, with a threshold of 20.25, similar to those obtained in several regions around the world. Based on mean scores, no species was categorized as "low risk," 50 species as "medium risk," 17 as "moderately high risk," 11 as "high risk," and 11 as "very high risk." The highest scoring species was goldfish Carassius auratus. Mean certainty in response was above the category "mostly certain," ranging from tinfoil barb Barbonymus schwanenfeldii with the lowest certainty to eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki with the highest level. Pair-wise comparison showed significant differences between one assessor and the other two on mean certainty, with these two assessors showing a high coincidence rate for the species categorization. Overall, the results suggest that FISK is a useful and viable tool for assessing risks posed by non-native fish in the Iberian Peninsula and contributes to a "watch list" in this region. © 2013 Crown copyright This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  19. Characterization of diverse internal binding specificities of PDZ domains by yeast two-hybrid screening of a special peptide library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yi; Cai, Pengfei; Hu, Siqi; Ma, Sucan; Gao, Youhe

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential events to play important roles in a series of biological processes. There are probably more ways of PPIs than we currently realized. Structural and functional investigations of weak PPIs have lagged behind those of strong PPIs due to technical difficulties. Weak PPIs are often short-lived, which may result in more dynamic signals with important biological roles within and/or between cells. For example, the characteristics of PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain binding to internal sequences, which are primarily weak interactions, have not yet been systematically explored. In the present study, we constructed a nearly random octapeptide yeast two-hybrid library. A total of 24 PDZ domains were used as baits for screening the library. Fourteen of these domains were able to bind internal PDZ-domain binding motifs (PBMs), and PBMs screened for nine PDZ domains exhibited strong preferences. Among 11 PDZ domains that have not been reported their internal PBM binding ability, six were confirmed to bind internal PBMs. The first PDZ domain of LNX2, which has not been reported to bind C-terminal PBMs, was found to bind internal PBMs. These results suggest that the internal PBMs binding ability of PDZ domains may have been underestimated. The data provided diverse internal binding properties for several PDZ domains that may help identify their novel binding partners.

  20. A High-Content Live-Cell Viability Assay and Its Validation on a Diverse 12K Compound Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Glickman, J Fraser

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a new high-content cytotoxicity assay using live cells, called "ImageTOX." We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscope system, image segmentation software, and the combination of Hoechst 33342 and SYTO 17 to simultaneously score the relative size and the intensity of the nuclei, the nuclear membrane permeability, and the cell number in a 384-well microplate format. We then performed a screen of 12,668 diverse compounds and compared the results to a standard cytotoxicity assay. The ImageTOX assay identified similar sets of compounds to the standard cytotoxicity assay, while identifying more compounds having adverse effects on cell structure, earlier in treatment time. The ImageTOX assay uses inexpensive commercially available reagents and facilitates the use of live cells in toxicity screens. Furthermore, we show that we can measure the kinetic profile of compound toxicity in a high-content, high-throughput format, following the same set of cells over an extended period of time.

  1. Meso- and bathy-pelagic fish parasites at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR): Low host specificity and restricted parasite diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Busch, Markus Wilhelm; Sutton, Tracey; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2010-04-01

    Seven meso- and bathy-pelagic fish species from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) were firstly studied for fish parasites and feeding ecology. With a total of seven parasite species, the 247 meso- and bathy-pelagic deep-sea fish specimens belonging to the families Melamphaidae (3 spp.), Myctophidae (3 spp.) and Stomiidae (1 sp.) revealed low parasite diversity. The genetically identified nematodes Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii from the body cavity, liver and muscles of Myctophum punctatum were the most abundant parasites, reaching a prevalence of 91.4% and mean intensity of 3.1 (1-14). Anisakis sp. (unidentified) infected Chauliodus sloani and Poromitra crassiceps. Bothriocephalidean and tetraphyllidean cestode larvae infected Benthosema glaciale, the latter also occurring in C. sloani and Scopelogadus beanii, at low prevalences. Adult parasites at low infection rates included the digenean Lethadena sp. (2.9%), and the two copepod species Sarcotretes scopeli (5.7%) and Tautochondria dolichoura (5.3-11.4%). The myctophid Lampanyctus macdonaldi and the melamphaid Scopelogadus mizolepis mizolepis were free of parasites. Analyses of the stomach contents revealed crustaceans, especially copepods and euphausiids for the myctophids and also amphipods for the melamphaids as predominant prey items. While all stomachs showing distinct content comprising often unidentified 'tissue' (possibly gelatinous zooplankton), only C. sloani preyed upon fish. Though this feeding habit would enable transfer of a variety of crustacean-transmitted parasites into the fish, the parasite fauna in the meso- and bathy-pelagic fish was species poor. All observed parasites showed low host specificity, demonstrating no distinct pattern of host-parasite co-evolution. The MAR is no barrier for the parasite distribution in the North Atlantic meso- and bathy-pelagial.

  2. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  3. Mercury concentrations of fish in Southern Indian Lake and Issett Lake, Manitoba 1975-88: The effect of lake impoundment and Churchill River diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, N.E.; Bodaly, R.A.; Fudge, R.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Southern Indian and Issett Lakes in northern Manitoba were flooded in 1976 as part of Manitoba Hydro's Churchill River diversion project. Fish were collected from 1975 to 1988 from five regional sites on the lakes to examine the effects of impoundment and river diversion on muscle mercury concentrations. Raw data for individual fish caught in 1987 and 1988 are presented, along with means and analyses calculated over the entire 1975-1988 study period. Mercury concentrations in whitefish, pike, and walleye increased significantly after impoundment. Whitefish mercury levels peaked in 1978 and have since declined to near pre-flooding levels. Northern pike and walleye mercury levels were much higher than for whitefish. Pike mercury concentrations showed no indication of declining after 12 years of impoundment, but walleye mercury levels at 2 of the 5 Southern Indian Lake sites declined from maximum recorded levels. Significant variability in fish mercury concentrations was noted both from year to year and among the sites. It is suggested that site-to-site variations are due to varying conditions in the reservoir which stimulate mercury methylation. Since there appears to be an ongoing long-term source of mercury and organic material from the eroding shorelines, pike and walleye mercury concentrations are expected to remain high for many years. 25 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  4. Elucidating the diversity of aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma species and their activity against the fish pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, J.M.; De Bruijn, I.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security.

  5. Elucidating the diversity of aquatic microdochium and trichoderma species and their activity against the fish pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, De Irene

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food

  6. Species composition and diversity of fish larvae in the Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Sargasso Sea from morphology and DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala, Daniel Jiro; Munk, Peter; Riemann, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    . In order to evaluate spatial variability of larval fish in the region, we examined species diversity, composition and abundances at eight stations in the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) using morphological identification and DNA barcoding. From a total of approximately 3500 specimens collected...... of the strong environmental gradients. Common eel species were concentrated between the fronts whereas common myctophids were of highest abundance at the outer edges of the fronts. The abundances of most species were generally enhanced in the vicinity of the fronts. The use of combined morphological and DNA-barcoding...

  7. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  8. Depression recognition and capacity for self-report among ethnically diverse nursing homes residents: Evidence of disparities in screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Audrey; Reinhardt, Joann P; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie M; Silver, Stephanie; Burack, Orah; Eimicke, Joseph P; Cimarolli, Verena; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2017-12-01

    To examine agreement between Minimum Data Set clinician ratings and researcher assessments of depression among ethnically diverse nursing home residents using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Although depression is common among nursing homes residents, its recognition remains a challenge. Observational baseline data from a longitudinal intervention study. Sample of 155 residents from 12 long-term care units in one US facility; 50 were interviewed in Spanish. Convergence between clinician and researcher ratings was examined for (i) self-report capacity, (ii) suicidal ideation, (iii) at least moderate depression, (iv) Patient Health Questionnaire severity scores. Experiences by clinical raters using the depression assessment were analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine concordance and Cohen's kappa to examine agreement between clinicians and researchers. Moderate agreement (κ = 0.52) was observed in determination of capacity and poor to fair agreement in reporting suicidal ideation (κ = 0.10-0.37) across time intervals. Poor agreement was observed in classification of at least moderate depression (κ = -0.02 to 0.24), lower than the maximum kappa obtainable (0.58-0.85). Eight assessors indicated problems assessing Spanish-speaking residents. Among Spanish speakers, researchers identified 16% with Patient Health Questionnaire scores of 10 or greater, and 14% with thoughts of self-harm whilst clinicians identified 6% and 0%, respectively. This study advances the field of depression recognition in long-term care by identification of possible challenges in assessing Spanish speakers. Use of the Patient Health Questionnaire requires further investigation, particularly among non-English speakers. Depression screening for ethnically diverse nursing home residents is required, as underreporting of depression and suicidal ideation among Spanish speakers may result in lack of depression recognition and referral for evaluation and

  9. Life-history diversity and its importance to population stability and persistence of a migratory fish: steelhead in two large North American watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan W; Yeakel, Justin D; Peard, Dean; Lough, Jeff; Beere, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Life-history strategies can buffer individuals and populations from environmental variability. For instance, it is possible that asynchronous dynamics among different life histories can stabilize populations through portfolio effects. Here, we examine life-history diversity and its importance to stability for an iconic migratory fish species. In particular, we examined steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an anadromous and iteroparous salmonid, in two large, relatively pristine, watersheds, the Skeena and Nass, in north-western British Columbia, Canada. We synthesized life-history information derived from scales collected from adult steelhead (N = 7227) in these watersheds across a decade. These migratory fishes expressed 36 different manifestations of the anadromous life-history strategy, with 16 different combinations of freshwater and marine ages, 7·6% of fish performing multiple spawning migrations, and up to a maximum of four spawning migrations per lifetime. Furthermore, in the Nass watershed, various life histories were differently prevalent through time - three different life histories were the most prevalent in a given year, and no life history ever represented more than 45% of the population. These asynchronous dynamics among life histories decreased the variability of numerical abundance and biomass of the aggregated population so that it was > 20% more stable than the stability of the weighted average of specific life histories: evidence of a substantial portfolio effect. Year of ocean entry was a key driver of dynamics; the median correlation coefficient of abundance of life histories that entered the ocean the same year was 2·5 times higher than the median pairwise coefficient of life histories that entered the ocean at different times. Simulations illustrated how different elements of life-history diversity contribute to stability and persistence of populations. This study provides evidence that life-history diversity can dampen fluctuations in

  10. Cryptic diversity in Indo-Pacific coral-reef fishes revealed by DNA-barcoding provides new support to the centre-of-overlap hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available Diversity in coral reef fishes is not evenly distributed and tends to accumulate in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA. The comprehension of the mechanisms that initiated this pattern is in its infancy despite its importance for the conservation of coral reefs. Considering the IMPA either as an area of overlap or a cradle of marine biodiversity, the hypotheses proposed to account for this pattern rely on extant knowledge about taxonomy and species range distribution. The recent large-scale use of standard molecular data (DNA barcoding, however, has revealed the importance of taking into account cryptic diversity when assessing tropical biodiversity. We DNA barcoded 2276 specimens belonging to 668 coral reef fish species through a collaborative effort conducted concomitantly in both Indian and Pacific oceans to appraise the importance of cryptic diversity in species with an Indo-Pacific distribution range. Of the 141 species sampled on each side of the IMPA, 62 presented no spatial structure whereas 67 exhibited divergent lineages on each side of the IMPA with K2P distances ranging between 1% and 12%, and 12 presented several lineages with K2P distances ranging between 3% and 22%. Thus, from this initial pool of 141 nominal species with Indo-Pacific distribution, 79 dissolved into 165 biological units among which 162 were found in a single ocean. This result is consistent with the view that the IMPA accumulates diversity as a consequence of its geological history, its location on the junction between the two main tropical oceans and the presence of a land bridge during glacial times in the IMPA that fostered allopatric divergence and secondary contacts between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

  11. Cryptic diversity in Indo-Pacific coral-reef fishes revealed by DNA-barcoding provides new support to the centre-of-overlap hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Nicolas; Meyer, Christopher P; Bruggemann, Henrich J; Guérin, Fabien; Komeno, Roberto J L; Espiau, Benoit; Causse, Romain; Williams, Jeffrey T; Planes, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Diversity in coral reef fishes is not evenly distributed and tends to accumulate in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA). The comprehension of the mechanisms that initiated this pattern is in its infancy despite its importance for the conservation of coral reefs. Considering the IMPA either as an area of overlap or a cradle of marine biodiversity, the hypotheses proposed to account for this pattern rely on extant knowledge about taxonomy and species range distribution. The recent large-scale use of standard molecular data (DNA barcoding), however, has revealed the importance of taking into account cryptic diversity when assessing tropical biodiversity. We DNA barcoded 2276 specimens belonging to 668 coral reef fish species through a collaborative effort conducted concomitantly in both Indian and Pacific oceans to appraise the importance of cryptic diversity in species with an Indo-Pacific distribution range. Of the 141 species sampled on each side of the IMPA, 62 presented no spatial structure whereas 67 exhibited divergent lineages on each side of the IMPA with K2P distances ranging between 1% and 12%, and 12 presented several lineages with K2P distances ranging between 3% and 22%. Thus, from this initial pool of 141 nominal species with Indo-Pacific distribution, 79 dissolved into 165 biological units among which 162 were found in a single ocean. This result is consistent with the view that the IMPA accumulates diversity as a consequence of its geological history, its location on the junction between the two main tropical oceans and the presence of a land bridge during glacial times in the IMPA that fostered allopatric divergence and secondary contacts between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

  12. Wide-Scope Screening Method for Multiclass Veterinary Drug Residues in Fish, Shrimp, and Eel Using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Lohne, Jack J; Andersen, Wendy C; Burger, Robert; Johnson, Aaron S; Madson, Mark R

    2017-08-30

    A screening method for veterinary drug residues in fish, shrimp, and eel using LC with a high-resolution MS instrument has been developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 70 test compounds representing a variety of veterinary drug classes. Tissues were extracted by vortex mixing with acetonitrile acidified with 2% acetic acid and 0.2% p-toluenesulfonic acid. A centrifuged portion of the extract was passed through a novel solid phase extraction cartridge designed to remove interfering matrix components from tissue extracts. The eluent was then evaporated and reconstituted for analysis. Data were collected with a quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer using both nontargeted and targeted acquisition methods. Residues were detected on the basis of the exact mass of the precursor and a product ion along with isotope pattern and retention time matching. Semiquantitative data analysis compared MS 1 signal to a one-point extracted matrix standard at a target testing level. The test compounds were detected and identified in salmon, tilapia, catfish, shrimp, and eel extracts fortified at the target testing levels. Fish dosed with selected analytes and aquaculture samples previously found to contain residues were also analyzed. The screening method can be expanded to monitor for an additional >260 veterinary drugs on the basis of exact mass measurements and retention times.

  13. A Pilot Program Integrating Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Screening into an Outpatient Endoscopy Unit Improves HBV Screening Among an Ethnically Diverse Safety-Net Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan; Lopez, Aristeo; Liu, Benny; Bhuket, Taft; Wong, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Safety-net hospitals are enriched in ethnic minorities and provide opportunities for high-impact hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening. We aim to evaluate the impact of a pilot program integrating HBV screening into outpatient endoscopy among urban safety-net populations. From July 2015 to May 2017, consecutive adults undergoing outpatient endoscopy were prospectively assessed for HBV screening eligibility using US Preventative Services Task Force guidelines. Rates of prior HBV screening were assessed, and those eligible but not screened were offered HBV testing. Multivariate logistic regression models evaluated predictors of test acceptance among eligible patients. Among 1557 patients (47.1% male, 69.4% foreign born), 65.1% were eligible for HBV screening, among which 24.5% received prior screening. In our pilot screening program in the endoscopy unit, 91.4% (n = 855) of eligible patients accepted HBV testing. However, only 55.3% (n = 415) of those that accepted actually completed HBV testing. While there was a trend toward higher rates of test acceptance among African-Americans compared to non-Hispanic whites (OR 3.31, 95% CI 0.96-11.38, p = 0.06), no other sex-specific or race/ethnicity-specific disparities in HBV test acceptance were observed. Among those who completed HBV testing, we identified 10 new patients with chronic HBV (2.4% prevalence). Only 24.5% of eligible patients received prior HBV screening among our cohort. Our pilot program integrating HBV screening into outpatient endoscopy successfully tested an additional 415 patients, improving overall HBV screening from 24.5 to 75.6%. Integrating HBV testing into non-traditional settings has potential to bridge the gap in HBV screening among safety-net systems.

  14. High throughput screening and profiling of high-value carotenoids from a wide diversity of bacteria in surface seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Dalal

    2018-09-30

    Carotenoids are valuable natural colorants that exhibit numerous health promoting properties, and thus are widely used in food, feeds, pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals industries. In this study, we isolated and identified novel microbial sources that produced high-value carotenoids using high throughput screening (HTS). A total of 701 pigmented microbial strains library including marine bacteria and red yeast was constructed. Carotenoids profiling using HPLC-DAD-MS methods showed 88 marine bacterial strains with potential for the production of high-value carotenoids including astaxanthin (28 strains), zeaxanthin (21 strains), lutein (1 strains) and canthaxanthin (2 strains). A comprehensive 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains can be classified into 30 species belonging to five bacterial classes (Flavobacteriia, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacilli). Importantly, we discovered novel producers of zeaxanthin and lutein, and a high diversity in both carotenoids and producing microbial strains, which are promising and highly selective biotechnological sources for high-value carotenoids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the Genetic Diversity of the Ornamental Fish Badis badis (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 in the Terai Region of Sub-Himalayan West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf chameleon fish or Badis badis, a lesser known ornamental freshwater fish, has recently been included in the Indian threatened category of fish list. There are insufficient studies with regard to the assessment of genetic background of this ichthyofauna, especially in the western sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal, India, popularly known as the Terai. The present study is the first attempt to investigate the present status of the genetic background of this species in the Mahananda and Balason rivers, major streams of this region. Twenty-one selective RAPD primers generated 53 and 60 polymorphic fragments in the Mahananda and Balason populations, respectively. The proportion of polymorphic loci, Nei’s genetic diversity (H, and Shannon’s index (H′ were 0.4416, 0.1654±0.2023, and 0.2450±0.2907, respectively, in Mahananda river population and were 0.5041, 0.1983±0.2126, and 0.2901±0.3037, respectively, in Balason river population. Inbreeding coefficient and degree of gene differentiation were also calculated. The H and H′ were found to be 0.1601±0.1944 and 0.2363±0.2782, respectively, in overall Mahananda-Balason river system. Our study revealed considerable lack of genetic variation among the individuals of Badis badis. The genetic data obtained from the present study lend support to the view that there is a scope of stock improvement for this ichthyofauna.

  16. Seasonal abundance, biomass, diversity, and trophic structure of fish in a salt-marsh tidal creek affected by a coastal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.

    1976-01-01

    Monthly measurements were made of the seasonal abundance, biomass, species diversity, and trophic composition of fish inhabiting the tidal creeks of salt marshes receiving thermal discharge near Crystal River, Fla. In the warm months (May through September 1974), mean abundance in the creek receiving thermal discharge was 0.46 individuals/m 2 and mean biomass was 2.2 g (preserved weight)/m 2 . In a control area, creek values in the warm months were 6.77 individuals/m 2 and 9.1 g (preserved weight)/m 2 , respectively. During the cold months (October 1974 through February 1975) there were 0.48 individuals/m 2 and 8.3 g (preserved weight)/m 2 in the discharge area and 0.58 individuals/m 2 and 7.4 g preserved weight/m 2 in the control area. In all months except May 1974 and February 1975, species diversity as species per 1000 individuals was higher in the control creek than in the discharge creek. No apparent differences in fish trophic structure were observed

  17. Addressing species diversity in biotransformation: Variability in expressed transcripts of Phase I and II hepatic enzymes among fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of an organism to metabolize a pollutant is critical to understanding the risk the chemical poses to the organism. In the environment, fish are uniquely exposed to pollutants found in agricultural runoff and discharges from industry and wastewater treatment plants. M...

  18. Persistent organic pollutants and related biological responses measured in coastal fish using chemical and biological screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Bossi, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution, levels of dioxin-like compounds (DLC), and biological responses in two fish species. The viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was collected from various locations in the Baltic Sea and in fjords of Kattegat and Skagerrak, while ...

  19. A new signal development process and sound system for diverting fish from water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinet, D.A.; Loeffelman, P.H.; van Hassel, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American Electric Power Service Corporation has explored the feasibility of using a patented signal development process and underwater sound system to divert fish away from water intake areas. The effect of water intakes on fish is being closely scrutinized as hydropower projects are re-licensed. The overall goal of this four-year research project was to develop an underwater guidance system which is biologically effective, reliable and cost-effective compared to other proposed methods of diversion, such as physical screens. Because different fish species have various listening ranges, it was essential to the success of this experiment that the sound system have a great amount of flexibility. Assuming a fish's sounds are heard by the same kind of fish, it was necessary to develop a procedure and acquire instrumentation to properly analyze the sounds that the target fish species create to communicate and any artificial signals being generated for diversion

  20. Dual-target screening of bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines by hollow fiber-based ligand fishing combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2017-09-05

    A novel strategy was developed for dual-target screening of bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). This strategy was based on the use of low-cost microporous hollow fibers filled with target enzymes as baits to "fish out" the ligands in TCM extracts, followed by identification of the ligands dissociated from the target-ligand complexes by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ganjiang Huangqin Huanglian Renshen Decoction (GHHRD), a classical TCM prescription for diabetes treatment, was chosen as a model sample to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed strategy. Three bioactive components were successfully screened out from GHHRD. Coptisine was identified as the ligand of α-glucosidase and baicalin as the ligand of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Berberine was found to be a dual inhibitor of α-glucosidase and ACE. The results were further verified by enzyme inhibitory assay and molecular docking simulation. The study suggested that our developed strategy would be a powerful tool for screening bioactive components from multi-component and multi-target TCMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in fishes from the River Danube using mitochondrial DNA barcodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, Olena; Oros, M.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Georgieva, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 2 December (2017), č. článku 592. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14198S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum * Diplostomidae * Metacercariae * Freshwater fishes * Barcodes * cox1 * nad3 * River Danube * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  2. Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: diplostomidae) in Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skirnisson, K.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2014), s. 703-715 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Integrative taxonomy * Fish pathogens * Diplostomum * coxl * ITS * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.872, year: 2014

  3. Hydrologic connectivity affects fish assemblage structure, diversity, and ecological traits in the unregulated Gambia River, West Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    White, Seth M.; Ondračková, Markéta; Reichard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2012), s. 521-530 ISSN 0006-3606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fish assemblage * functional morphology * large tropical river s * lateral migration * multivariate analysis * pre-impoundment * reference condition * trophic position Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.351, year: 2012

  4. Ecology of Exercise in Wild Fish: Integrating Concepts of Individual Physiological Capacity, Behavior, and Fitness Through Diverse Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Algera, Dirk A; Hanson, Kyle C; Eliason, Erika J; Burnett, Nicholas J; Danylchuk, Andy J; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Wild animals maximize fitness through certain behaviors (e.g., foraging, mating, predator avoidance) that incur metabolic costs and often require high levels of locomotor activity. Consequently, the ability of animals to achieve high fitness often relies on their physiological capacity for exercise (aerobic scope) and/or their ability to acquire and utilize energy judiciously. Here, we explore how environmental factors and physiological limitations influence exercise and metabolism in fish while foraging, migrating to spawning grounds, and providing parental care. We do so with three case studies that use a number of approaches to studying exercise in wild fish using biologging and biotelemetry platforms. Bonefish (Albula vulpes) selectively use shallow water tropical marine environments to forage when temperatures are near optimal for aerobic scope and exercise capacity. Bonefish energy expenditure at upper thermal extremes is maximal while activity levels diminish, likely caused by reduced aerobic scope. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) reproductive migrations frequently involve passage through hydraulically challenging areas, and their ability to successfully pass these regions is constrained by their physiological capacity for exercise. Aerobic scope and swim performance are correlated with migration difficulty among sockeye salmon (O. nerka) populations; however, depletion of endogenous energy stores can also limit migration success. In another example, male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) allocate a significant amount of energy to nest-guarding behaviors to protect their developing brood. Smallmouth bass body size, endogenous energy reserves, and physiological state influence nest-guarding behaviors and reproductive success. We suggest that in some scenarios (e.g., bonefish foraging, Pacific salmon dam passage) metabolic capacity for exercise may be the strongest determinant of biological fitness, while in others (e.g., long distance salmon migration

  5. A novel screen-printed mast cell-based electrochemical sensor for detecting spoilage bacterial quorum signaling molecules (N-acyl-homoserine-lactones) in freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Donglei; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Hui; Rao, Shengqi; Fang, Wu; Wu, Mangang; Yuan, Limin; Fang, Weiming

    2018-04-15

    A novel screen-printed cell-based electrochemical sensor was developed to assess bacterial quorum signaling molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), which possesses excellent properties such as low-cost, disposable and energy-efficient, was modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to improve electrochemical signals and enhance the sensitivity. Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells encapsulated in alginate/graphene oxide (NaAgl/GO) hydrogel were immobilized on the MWNTs/SPCE to serve as recognition element. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to record the cell impedance signal as-influenced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule, N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC 12 -HSL). Experimental results show that 3OC 12 -HSL caused a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose dependent manner. The EIS value decreased with concentrations of 3OC 12 -HSL in the range of 0.1-1μM, and the detection limit for 3OC 12 -HSL was calculated to be 0.094μM. These results were confirmed via cell viability, SEM, TEM analysis. Next, the sensor was successfully applied to monitoring the production of AHLs by spoilage bacteria in three different freshwater fish juice samples which efficiently proved the practicability of this cell based method. Therefore, the proposed cell sensor may serve as an innovative and effective approach to the measurement of quorum signaling molecule and thus provides a new avenue for real-time monitoring the spoilage bacteria in freshwater fish production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry for identification of organic contaminants in fish fillet: screening and quantification assessment using two scan modes for data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; May, Marília M; Saibt, Nathália; Zanella, Renato

    2016-07-22

    This study proposed a strategy to identify and quantify 182 organic contaminants from different chemical classes, as for instance pesticides, veterinary drug and personal care products, in fish fillet using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS). For this purpose, two different scan methods (full scan and all ions MS/MS) were evaluated to assess the best option for screening analysis in spiked fish fillet samples. In general, full scan acquisition was found to be more reliable (84%) in the automatic identification and quantification when compared to all ions MS/MS with 72% of the compounds detected. Additionally, a qualitative automatic search showed a mass accuracy error below 5ppm for 77% of the compounds in full scan mode compared to only 52% in all ions MS/MS scan. However, all ions MS/MS provides fragmentation information of the target compounds. Undoubtedly, structural information of a wide number of compounds can be obtained using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), but it is necessary thoroughly assess it, in order to choose the best scan mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2016-01-21

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture.

  8. Screening Natural Content of Water-Soluble B Vitamins in Fish: Enzymatic Extraction, HILIC Separation, and Tandem Mass Spectrometric Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Kumar, K Ashok; Ajeeshkumar, K K; Kumari, K R Remya; Vishnu, K V; Anandan, Rangasamy; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) in improving sensitivity and selectivity, analytical methods are scarce for the determination of protein-bound and phosphorylated forms of B vitamins in food. This prompted us to develop a method for LC-MS/MS determination of naturally occurring nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin in fish. Baseline separation of the vitamins was achieved in a hydrophilic interaction LC condition. An ultrasonication-assisted enzymatic extraction protocol for sample preparation was optimized and validated. The time required for extraction was significantly reduced (to 4 h), while maintaining good extraction efficiency. Acetonitrile content (80%, v/v) in the prepared sample was found to be optimum for excellent peak shape and sensitivity. The dynamic linear range of the vitamins ranged from 2.5 to 500 ng/g, and the regression coefficient values were greater than 0.99. LOQ values ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng/g for the different vitamins. The spike recovery values at 50 and 100 ng/g ranged from 87.5 to 97.5%. The intra- and interday precision values were satisfactory. Accuracy of the developed method was determined by analysis of a Certified Reference Material. The method could also be used for unambiguous determination of the natural content of the target vitamins in fish.

  9. Water-level fluctuations and metapopulation dynamics as drivers of genetic diversity in populations of three Tanganyikan cichlid fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevado, B; Mautner, S; Sturmbauer, C; Verheyen, E

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how genetic variation is generated and maintained in natural populations, and how this process unfolds in a changing environment, remains a central issue in biological research. In this work, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity from several populations of three cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika in parallel, using the mitochondrial DNA control region. We sampled populations inhabiting the littoral rocky habitats in both very deep and very shallow areas of the lake. We hypothesized that the former would constitute relatively older, more stable and genetically more diverse populations, because they should have been less severely affected by the well-documented episodes of dramatic water-level fluctuations. In agreement with our predictions, populations of all three species sampled in very shallow shorelines showed traces of stronger population growth than populations of the same species inhabiting deep shorelines. However, contrary to our working hypothesis, we found a significant trend towards increased genetic diversity in the younger, demographically less stable populations inhabiting shallow areas, in comparison with the older and more stable populations inhabiting the deep shorelines. We interpret this finding as the result of the establishment of metapopulation dynamics in the former shorelines, by the frequent perturbation and reshuffling of individuals between populations due to the lake-level fluctuations. The repeated succession of periods of allopatric separation and secondary contact is likely to have further increased the rapid pace of speciation in lacustrine cichlids. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA Approach to Seasonal and Zooplankton Diversity Relationships in Fishing Grounds of Mannar Gulf, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvin J. PITCHAIKANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA is a technique used to emphasize variation and bring out strong patterns in a dataset. It is often used to make data easy to explore and visualize. The primary objective of the present study was to record information of zooplankton diversity in a systematic way and to study the variability and relationships among seasons prevailed in Gulf of Mannar. The PCA for the zooplankton seasonal diversity was investigated using the four seasonal datasets to understand the statistical significance among the four seasons. Two different principal components (PC were segregated in all the seasons homogeneously. PCA analyses revealed that Temora turbinata is an opportunistic species and zooplankton diversity was significantly different from season to season and principally, the zooplankton abundance and its dynamics in Gulf of Mannar is structured by seasonal current patterns. The factor loadings of zooplankton for different seasons in Tiruchendur coastal water (GOM is different compared with the Southwest coast of India; particularly, routine and opportunistic species were found within the positive and negative factors. The copepods Acrocalanus gracilis and Acartia erythrea were dominant in summer and Southwest monsoon due to the rainfall and freshwater discharge during the summer season; however, these species were replaced by Temora turbinata during Northeast monsoon season.

  11. Diversity of phytoplankton in some domestic wastewater-fed urban fish pond ecosystems of the Chota Nagpur Plateau in Bankura, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debjyoti; Pathak, Arabinda; Pal, Sudin

    2018-06-01

    The present limnological investigation is conducted to study the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and five important physicochemical factors in urban wastewater-fed seven fish ponds of Chota Nagpur Plateau area. A total number of 43 phytoplankton taxa representing four classes, namely Cyanophyceae (7), Chlorophyceae (29), Bacillariophyceae (5) and Euglenophyceae (2), are thriving in these ponds which may suggest that different nutrient-rich wastewater supports the diversity and abundance of the phytoplankton. Different values of diversity indices, results of post hoc analysis and rarefaction curve are depicted spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance and physicochemical factors. From the Principal Component Analysis, out of 43 phytoplankton species, 23 important species are extracted. The canonical correspondence analysis presents that most of the phytoplankton species densities are associated with higher values of the physicochemical variables in these ponds. Correspondingly, in the present study, Algal Genus Pollution Index (AGPI) is employed to study the water quality of seven sites. From the AGPI score, it is revealed that Site 4 has probable high organic pollution and Site 2 and Site 3 have moderate organic pollution. Therefore, long-term intensive studies and proper management are necessary to protect these ponds toward eutrophication and degradation, because these ponds not only act as a safeguard of livelihoods but also contribute significantly at local level food and water security and economic prosperity.

  12. Is screening for depression in the perinatal period enough? The co-occurrence of depression, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence in culturally diverse pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Cynthia D; Hazen, Andrea L; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-10-01

    The perinatal period provides unique opportunities to identify and intervene with the co-occurrence of perinatal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and substance use problems. Psychosocial screening recommended for women seen in maternal child health settings tends to target single rather than multiple risk factors; there is limited research examining the co-occurrence of these issues especially in racially and ethnically diverse women across the perinatal period. These analyses explore the relationships of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics in a large, diverse sample of women. Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino (odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues.

  13. Universal power-law diet partitioning by marine fish and squid with surprising stability–diversity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossberg, Axel G.; Farnsworth, Keith D.; Satoh, Keisuke; Pinnegar, John K.

    2011-01-01

    A central question in community ecology is how the number of trophic links relates to community species richness. For simple dynamical food-web models, link density (the ratio of links to species) is bounded from above as the number of species increases; but empirical data suggest that it increases without bounds. We found a new empirical upper bound on link density in large marine communities with emphasis on fish and squid, using novel methods that avoid known sources of bias in traditional approaches. Bounds are expressed in terms of the diet-partitioning function (DPF): the average number of resources contributing more than a fraction f to a consumer's diet, as a function of f. All observed DPF follow a functional form closely related to a power law, with power-law exponents independent of species richness at the measurement accuracy. Results imply universal upper bounds on link density across the oceans. However, the inherently scale-free nature of power-law diet partitioning suggests that the DPF itself is a better defined characterization of network structure than link density. PMID:21068048

  14. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  15. Screening of aflatoxin B1 and mycobiota related to raw materials and finished feed destined for fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvina María Carvalho Gonçalves-Nunes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine fungal genera, Aspergillus, Pénicillium and Fusarium species and aflatoxin B1 contamination from raw materials and finished feed intended for fish farm localized in Piaui, Brazil. Aspergillusflavus and P. citrinum were isolated with a high relative density from all samples. In general, a high percent of samples exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (CFU g-1 according to Good Manufacture Practice. Aflatoxin B1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All raw materials and finished feed showed aflatoxin B1 levels. Although in this study AFB1 levels below recommended limits (20 μg kg-1 were found, it is important to emphasize the feed intake with toxin in low concentrations along time, since it produce chronic deleterious effects in animal production. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of chronic aflatoxicosis in aquaculture, to reduce the economic losses and to minimize hazards to animal health.

  16. Practice Patterns in Screening for Metabolic Disease in Women with PCOS of Diverse Race-Ethnic Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Melanie M; Kitos, Nicole R; Coviello, Andrea D

    2014-09-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk for metabolic disorders, which prompted the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) to publish a 2005 position statement recommending screening for metabolic disease.The purposes of the present study were to 1) to examine changes in screening rates for obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS), hyperlipidemia (HL), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hypertension (HTN) in women with PCOS after publication of the 2005 AACE position statement and 2) to determine if screening rates and metabolic disorders vary by race-ethnicity. PCOS cases in 2006 (n = 547) and 2011 (n = 1,159) and metabolic disorders were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD9) code. Screening rates for metabolic disorders were determined by the presence of blood tests (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], lipid profile, alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase [ALT/AST]). In 2006, ≤25% of PCOS patients underwent recommended screening tests: HbA1c 18%; lipid profile 11, only HbA1c testing had increased (18% to 21%). Obesity increased from 35% to 40%, while other metabolic disorders remained stable. Black women had the highest rates of obesity and HTN in 2011 (Obesity: Black 48%, Hispanic 44%, White 33%, Other 31%, P1; HTN: Black 18%, Hispanic 9%, White 10%, Other 7%, P1). Blacks and Hispanics were screened more often with ALT/AST testing (Black 27/27%, Hispanic 28/27%, White 23/22%, Other 17/18%, P = .02/.03). Screening rates were higher in the endocrine clinic for all metabolic disorders than in other clinics (P11.

  17. Developing a DNA barcode library for perciform fishes in the South China Sea: Species identification, accuracy and cryptic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gang; Chen, Wei-Tao; Lu, Huo-Sheng; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Song-Guang

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcodes were studied for 1,353 specimens representing 272 morphological species belonging to 149 genera and 55 families of Perciformes from the South China Sea (SCS). The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances within species, genera and families were 0.31%, 8.71% and 14.52%, respectively. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) trees and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) revealed 260, 253 and 259 single-species-representing clusters, respectively. Barcoding gap analysis (BGA) demonstrated that barcode gaps were present for 178 of 187 species analysed with multiple specimens (95.2%), with the minimum interspecific distance to the nearest neighbour larger than the maximum intraspecific distance. A group of three Thunnus species (T. albacares, T. obesus and T. tonggol), a pair of Gerres species (G. oyena and G. japonicus), a pair of Istiblennius species (I. edentulous and I. lineatus) and a pair of Uranoscopus species (U. oligolepis and U. kaianus) were observed with low interspecific distances and overlaps between intra- and interspecific genetic distances. Three species (Apogon ellioti, Naucrates ductor and Psenopsis anomala) showed deep intraspecific divergences and generated two lineages each, suggesting the possibility of cryptic species. Our results demonstrated that DNA barcodes are highly reliable for delineating species of Perciformes in the SCS. The DNA barcode library established in this study will shed light on further research on the diversity of Perciformes in the SCS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the fossil fish-specific diversity in a chadian continental assemblage: Exploration of morphological continuous variation in Synodontis (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Le Fur, Soizic; Otero, Olga

    2016-11-01

    In the fossil record, the quantification of continuous morphological variation has become a central issue when dealing with species identification and speciation. In this context, fossil taxa with living representatives hold great promise, because of the potential to characterise patterns of intraspecific morphological variation in extant species prior to any interpretation in the fossil record. The vast majority of catfish families fulfil this prerequisite, as most of them are represented by extant genera. However, although they constitute a major fish group in terms of distribution, and ecological and taxonomic diversity, the quantitative study of their past morphological variation has been neglected, as fossil specimens are generally identified based on the scarcest remains, that is, complete neurocrania that bear discrete characters. Consequently, a part of freshwater catfish history is unprospected and unknown. In this study, we explored the morphological continuous variation of the humeral plate shape in Synodontis catfishes using Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA), and compared extant members and fossil counterparts. We analysed 153 extant specimens of 11 Synodontis species present in the Chad basin, in addition to 23 fossil specimens from the Chadian fossiliferous area of Toros Menalla which is dated around 7 Ma. This highly speciose genus, which is one of the most diversified in Africa, exhibits a rich fossil record with several hundred remains mostly identified as Synodontis sp. The analysis of the outline of the humeral plate reveals that some living morphological types were already represented in the Chad Basin 7 My ago, and allows for the discovery of extinct species. Beside illuminating the complex Neogene evolutionary history of Synodontis, these results underline the interest in the ability of isolated remains to reconstruct a past dynamic history and to validate the relevance of EFA as a tool to explore specific diversity through time. J. Morphol. 277

  19. Variation in fish community structure, richness and diversity of 56 Danish lakes with contrasting depth and trophic state: Does the method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menezes, Rosemberg

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the variables that determine the structure and composition of fish communities is crucial for developing fish monitoring programs for lakes. Although electrofishing has long been recognized as an efficient method for quantitative investigations of fish populations, it has typ...... are not well caught in the gill nets such as eel, common carp (Carassius carassius) and stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)....

  20. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Fish Allergy Fish Allergy Learn about fish allergy, how to read ... that you must avoid both. Allergic Reactions to Fish Finned fish can cause severe and potentially life- ...

  1. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Discovery and characterization of natural products that act as pheromones in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J; Li, Weiming

    2018-06-20

    Covering: up to 2018 Fish use a diverse collection of molecules to communicate with conspecifics. Since Karlson and Lüscher termed these molecules 'pheromones', chemists and biologists have joined efforts to characterize their structures and functions. In particular, the understanding of insect pheromones developed at a rapid pace, set, in part, by the use of bioassay-guided fractionation and natural product chemistry. Research on vertebrate pheromones, however, has progressed more slowly. Initially, biologists characterized fish pheromones by screening commercially available compounds suspected to act as pheromones based upon their physiological function. Such biology-driven screening has proven a productive approach to studying pheromones in fish. However, the many functions of fish pheromones and diverse metabolites that fish release make predicting pheromone identity difficult and necessitate approaches led by chemistry. Indeed, the few cases in which pheromone identification was led by natural product chemistry indicated novel or otherwise unpredicted compounds act as pheromones. Here, we provide a brief review of the approaches to identifying pheromones, placing particular emphasis on the promise of using natural product chemistry together with assays of biological activity. Several case studies illustrate bioassay-guided fractionation as an approach to pheromone identification in fish and the unexpected diversity of pheromone structures discovered by natural product chemistry. With recent advances in natural product chemistry, bioassay-guided fractionation is likely to unveil an even broader collection of pheromone structures and enable research that spans across disciplines.

  3. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sousa-Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary

  4. High-Throughput Genetic Screens Identify a Large and Diverse Collection of New Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeske, Alexander J; Rodrigues, Christopher D A; Brady, Jacqueline; Lim, Hoong Chuin; Bernhardt, Thomas G; Rudner, David Z

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis into a dormant spore is among the most well-characterized developmental pathways in biology. Classical genetic screens performed over the past half century identified scores of factors involved in every step of this morphological process. More recently, transcriptional profiling uncovered additional sporulation-induced genes required for successful spore development. Here, we used transposon-sequencing (Tn-seq) to assess whether there were any sporulation genes left to be discovered. Our screen identified 133 out of the 148 genes with known sporulation defects. Surprisingly, we discovered 24 additional genes that had not been previously implicated in spore formation. To investigate their functions, we used fluorescence microscopy to survey early, middle, and late stages of differentiation of null mutants from the B. subtilis ordered knockout collection. This analysis identified mutants that are delayed in the initiation of sporulation, defective in membrane remodeling, and impaired in spore maturation. Several mutants had novel sporulation phenotypes. We performed in-depth characterization of two new factors that participate in cell-cell signaling pathways during sporulation. One (SpoIIT) functions in the activation of σE in the mother cell; the other (SpoIIIL) is required for σG activity in the forespore. Our analysis also revealed that as many as 36 sporulation-induced genes with no previously reported mutant phenotypes are required for timely spore maturation. Finally, we discovered a large set of transposon insertions that trigger premature initiation of sporulation. Our results highlight the power of Tn-seq for the discovery of new genes and novel pathways in sporulation and, combined with the recently completed null mutant collection, open the door for similar screens in other, less well-characterized processes.

  5. High-Throughput Genetic Screens Identify a Large and Diverse Collection of New Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jacqueline; Lim, Hoong Chuin; Bernhardt, Thomas G.; Rudner, David Z.

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis into a dormant spore is among the most well-characterized developmental pathways in biology. Classical genetic screens performed over the past half century identified scores of factors involved in every step of this morphological process. More recently, transcriptional profiling uncovered additional sporulation-induced genes required for successful spore development. Here, we used transposon-sequencing (Tn-seq) to assess whether there were any sporulation genes left to be discovered. Our screen identified 133 out of the 148 genes with known sporulation defects. Surprisingly, we discovered 24 additional genes that had not been previously implicated in spore formation. To investigate their functions, we used fluorescence microscopy to survey early, middle, and late stages of differentiation of null mutants from the B. subtilis ordered knockout collection. This analysis identified mutants that are delayed in the initiation of sporulation, defective in membrane remodeling, and impaired in spore maturation. Several mutants had novel sporulation phenotypes. We performed in-depth characterization of two new factors that participate in cell–cell signaling pathways during sporulation. One (SpoIIT) functions in the activation of σE in the mother cell; the other (SpoIIIL) is required for σG activity in the forespore. Our analysis also revealed that as many as 36 sporulation-induced genes with no previously reported mutant phenotypes are required for timely spore maturation. Finally, we discovered a large set of transposon insertions that trigger premature initiation of sporulation. Our results highlight the power of Tn-seq for the discovery of new genes and novel pathways in sporulation and, combined with the recently completed null mutant collection, open the door for similar screens in other, less well-characterized processes. PMID:26735940

  6. Standardized screening facilitates timely diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in a diverse sample of low-risk toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Lauren E; Brooks, Bianca; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Barton, Marianne L; Fein, Deborah; Chen, Chi-Ming; Robins, Diana L

    2014-01-01

    Routine, standardized screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been hypothesized to reduce known racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in age of first diagnosis. This study explored demographic differences in toddlers' age and performance on developmental measures at the time of ASD assessment. Toddlers (16-39 months at evaluation) who screened at-risk for developmental delay on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) or M-CHAT-Revised (M-CHAT-R) and follow-up interview participated in a diagnostic assessment. Of these, 44.7% were racial/ethnic minorities and 53.5% were non-minorities. Child race/ethnicity, years of maternal education (MEd), and household yearly income (YI) were parent-reported. Small but significant correlations were observed between MEd or YI and evaluation age and adaptive communication, socialization, and motor scores. Controlling for MEd and YI, minority racial/ethnic group did not predict child's performance on most measures and did not predict likelihood of ASD diagnosis. Differences in age at evaluation and receptive language skills were small effects. Significant but small effects emerged for SES and minority status on toddlers' age at evaluation and parent-reported adaptive skills, but these did not predict ASD diagnosis. The small magnitude of these effects suggests that routine, standardized screening for ASD in toddlers and timely access to diagnostic evaluation can reduce disparities in age at diagnosis and possibly reduce racial/ethnic disparities in access to services for ASD and other developmental delays.

  7. Fishing effects in northeast Atlantic shelf seas : patterns in fishing effort, diversity and community structure. III. International trawling effort in the North Sea : an analysis of spatial and temporal trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, S.; Alsväg, J.; Cotter, A.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    of beam trawling effort increases from north to south. Plots of annual fishing effort by ICES statistical rectangle (211 boxes of 0.5 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude) indicate that the majority of fishing effort in the North Sea are concentrated in a very few rectangles. Thus mean annual total...

  8. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Svalbard: Chemical Diversity of Microcystins Detected Using a Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Precursor Ion Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kleinteich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria synthesize a large variety of secondary metabolites including toxins. Microcystins (MCs with hepato- and neurotoxic potential are well studied in bloom-forming planktonic species of temperate and tropical regions. Cyanobacterial biofilms thriving in the polar regions have recently emerged as a rich source for cyanobacterial secondary metabolites including previously undescribed congeners of microcystin. However, detection and detailed identification of these compounds is difficult due to unusual sample matrices and structural congeners produced. We here report a time-efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS precursor ion screening method that facilitates microcystin detection and identification. We applied this method to detect six different MC congeners in 8 out of 26 microbial mat samples of the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic. The congeners, of which [Asp3, ADMAdda5, Dhb7] MC-LR was most abundant, were similar to those reported in other polar habitats. Microcystins were also determined using an Adda-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Adda-ELISA. Nostoc sp. was identified as a putative toxin producer using molecular methods that targeted 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in microcystin production. The mcy genes detected showed highest similarities to other Arctic or Antarctic sequences. The LC-MS precursor ion screening method could be useful for microcystin detection in unusual matrices such as benthic biofilms or lichen.

  9. A direct pre-screen for marine bacteria producing compounds inhibiting quorum sensing reveals diverse planktonic bacteria that are bioactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorne, Jamie S; Chang, Barbara J; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sutton, David C

    2015-02-01

    A promising new strategy in antibacterial research is inhibition of the bacterial communication system termed quorum sensing. In this study, a novel and rapid pre-screening method was developed to detect the production of chemical inhibitors of this system (quorum-quenching compounds) by bacteria isolated from marine and estuarine waters. This method involves direct screening of mixed populations on an agar plate, facilitating specific isolation of bioactive colonies. The assay showed that between 4 and 46 % of culturable bacteria from various samples were bioactive, and of the 95 selectively isolated bacteria, 93.7 % inhibited Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence without inhibiting growth, indicating potential production of quorum-quenching compounds. Of the active isolates, 21 % showed further activity against quorum-sensing-regulated pigment production by Serratia marcescens. The majority of bioactive isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplification and sequencing as belonging to the genera Vibrio and Pseudoalteromonas. Extracts of two strongly bioactive Pseudoalteromonas isolates (K1 and B2) were quantitatively assessed for inhibition of growth and quorum-sensing-regulated processes in V. harveyi, S. marcescens and Chromobacterium violaceum. Extracts of the isolates reduced V. harveyi bioluminescence by as much as 98 % and C. violaceum pigment production by 36 % at concentrations which had no adverse effect on growth. The activity found in the extracts indicated that the isolates may produce quorum-quenching compounds. This study further supports the suggestion that quorum quenching may be a common attribute among culturable planktonic marine and estuarine bacteria.

  10. Metapopulations in temporary streams - the role of drought-flood cycles in promoting high genetic diversity in a critically endangered freshwater fish and its consequences for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana I; Francisco, Sara M; Carrapato, Carlos; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    Genetic factors have direct and indirect impacts in the viability of endangered species. Assessing their genetic diversity levels and population structure is thus fundamental for conservation and management. In this paper we use mitochondrial and nuclear markers to address phylogeographic and demographic data on the critically endangered Anaecypris hispanica, using a broad sampling set which covered its known distribution area in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results showed that the populations of A. hispanica are strongly differentiated (high and significant ФST and FST values, corroborated by the results from AMOVA and SAMOVA) and genetically diversified. We suggest that the restricted gene flow between populations may have been potentiated by ecological, hydrological and anthropogenic causes. Bayesian skyline plots revealed a signal for expansion for all populations (tMRCA between 68kya and 1.33Mya) and a genetic diversity latitudinal gradient was detected between the populations from the Upper (more diversified) and the Lower (less diversified) Guadiana river basin. We postulate a Pleistocenic westwards colonization route for A. hispanica in the Guadiana river basin, which is in agreement with the tempo and mode of paleoevolution of this drainage. The colonization of River Guadalquivir around 60kya with migrants from the Upper Guadiana, most likely by stream capture, is also suggested. This study highlights the view that critically endangered species facing range retreats (about 47% of its known populations have disappeared in the last 15years) are not necessarily small and genetically depleted. However, the extinction risk is not negligible since A. hispanica faces the combined effect of several deterministic and stochastic negative factors and, moreover, recolonization events after localized extinctions are very unlikely to occur due to the strong isolation of populations and to the patchily ecologically-conditioned distribution of fish. The inferred species

  11. Local and regional variability in fish community structure, richness and diversity of 56 Danish lakes with contrasting depth and trophic state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menezes, Rosemberg; Borchsenius, Finn; Svenning, J.-C.

    Habitat distribution of fish might be influenced by food availability, competition, predation,composition of aquatic plants and water clarity. It has been found that a shift from a turbid to a clear water state in a lake lead to higher proportion of piscivorous fish and a habitat shift of prey fish...... oligotrophic lakes due to high turbidity leading to loss of submerged macrophytes and thus habitat variability. Also the influence of piscivorous birds on the fish distribution in the littoral zone may differ between lake types leading to a more homogeneous distribution along the littoral area in eutrophic...

  12. Mycobacterium avium restriction fragment lenght polymorphism-IS IS1245 and the simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction typing method to screen genetic diversity in Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple double repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (MaDRE-PCR and Pvu II-IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing methods were used to type 41 Mycobacterium avium isolates obtained from 14 Aids inpatients and 10 environment and animals specimens identified among 53 mycobacteria isolated from 237 food, chicken, and pig. All environmental and animals strains showed orphan patterns by both methods. By MaDRE-PCR four patients, with multiple isolates, showed different patterns, suggesting polyclonal infection that was confirmed by RFLP in two of them. This first evaluation of MaDRE-PCR on Brazilian M. avium strains demonstrated that the method seems to be useful as simple and less expensive typing method for screening genetic diversity in M. avium strains on selected epidemiological studies, although with limitation on analysis identical patterns except for one band.

  13. Fish production and diversity in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum—Increased production but no novel faunas during a "Future Earth" analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczik, D. W.; Norris, R. D.; Gaskell, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    A partial analog for future global change is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum—a transient episode of warming, acidification, and biogeographic change at ~55.5 Ma. The PETM is known to have triggered extinction in some deep sea biotas, extensive biogeographic range shifts, and the common occurrence of 'excursion biotas'—non-analog occurrences of species that are typically rare in the open ocean before or after the PETM. Here we report on the impact of the PETM on fish production and biodiversity. Our data include the mass accumulation rate of fish teeth and denticles as well as an analysis of tooth morphotypes for three PETM sites: ODP 1220 and 1209 in the Pacific, and ODP 1260 in the equatorial Atlantic. Tooth morphotypes hardly change through the PETM and consist of abundant midwater species (angler fish and flashlight fish) in addition to sharks and epipelagic fish. There is no evidence for a non-analog 'excursion biota' during the PETM, suggesting that fish experienced fewer geographic range shifts than the calcareous and organic-walled plankton where excursion biotas are commonplace. Fish mass accumulation rates are also relatively stable before and after the PETM although all sites show a transient rise in fish production at the onset of the PETM or within the later part of the "PETM Core". These results broadly match published estimates of PETM export production from biogenic barium fluxes. Our findings run counter to "Future Earth" models that use climate forecasts for the next century to predict the impact of global change on fish stocks. These models suggest that future warming and ocean stratification will decrease most tropical and subtropical ocean fish production, accentuate fish production in the boundary currents and generally shift production toward higher latitudes. A resolution of "Future Earth" models and PETM data may reflect the different timescales of observation and stages of ecological response to severe global change.

  14. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  15. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Bridges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin. Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans.

  16. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristina M.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Wang, Zhiwen; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Sullivan, Debra K.; Umar, Shahid; Buckles, Daniel C.; Greiner, K. Allen; Hester, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans. PMID:29495356

  17. Breast Density Awareness and Knowledge, and Intentions for Breast Cancer Screening in a Diverse Sample of Women Age Eligible for Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Benjamin, Shayna; Andrews, Janna Z; Jandorf, Lina

    2017-08-14

    The objectives of this study were to assess breast density knowledge and breast density awareness, and to identify information associated with intention to complete routine and supplemental screening for breast cancer in a diverse sample of women age eligible for mammography. We quantitatively (self-report) assessed breast density awareness and knowledge (N = 264) in black (47.7%), Latina (35.2%), and white (17%) women recruited online and in the community. Most participants reported having heard about breast density (69.2%); less than one third knew their own breast density status (30.4%). Knowing their own breast density, believing that women should be notified of their breast density in their mammogram report, and feeling informed if being provided this information are associated with likelihood of completing mammogram. Intending mammogram completion and knowledge regarding the impact of breast density on mammogram accuracy are associated with likelihood of completing supplemental ultrasound tests of the breast. These findings help inform practitioners and policy makers about information and communication factors that influence breast cancer screening concerns and decisions. Knowing this information should prepare practitioners to better identify women who may have not been exposed to breast density messages.

  18. Diversity of reductive dehalogenase genes from environmental samples and enrichment cultures identified with degenerate primer PCR screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Audrey Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently accounted for: one-third of the translated proteins have less than 70% pairwise amino acid identity to database sequences. Approximately 60% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenase genes were broadly distributed, being identified in four or more samples, and often in previously sequenced genomes as well. In contrast, 17% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenases were unique, present in only a single sample and bearing less than 90% pairwise amino acid identity to any previously identified proteins. Many of the broadly distributed reductive dehalogenases are uncharacterized in terms of their substrate specificity, making these intriguing targets for further biochemical experimentation. Finally, comparison of samples from a contaminated site and an enrichment culture derived from the same site eight years prior allowed examination of the effect of the enrichment process.

  19. Keragaman Spesies Ikan Tuna di Pasar Ikan Kedonganan Bali dengan Analisis Sekuen Kontrol Daerah Mitokondria DNA (SPECIES DIVERSITY OF TUNA FISH USING MITOCHONDRIAL DNA CONTROL REGION SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AT KEDONGANAN FISH MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Steven Triyomi Hariyanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is an export commodity which has very high economic value. However, some tuna speciesare threatened with extinction. The purpose of this study was to identify the tuna species that aresold in Kedonganan Fish Market. The research method was polymerase chain reaction technique(PCR using the marker sequence mitochondrial DNA control region. Samples were obtained fromthe Fish Market tuna Kedonganan, Kuta, Badung, Bali. The total number of samples are 28specimens. Sequence from each sample was obtained through sequencing techniques. Sequencesobtained were run in BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool and subsequently analyzed withMEGA 5 for species confirmation. Three species of tuna that are identified in the Kedonganan FishMarket is: Thunnus albacares, T. obesus, and Katsuwonus pelamis. All three species have highgenetic variation HD = 1. This study needed to be continued with more number of samples todetermine the species of tuna sold in Kedonganan Fish Market.

  20. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.

  1. Analysis of a diverse assemblage of diazotrophic bacteria from Spartina alterniflora using DGGE and clone library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Charles R; Decker, Peter V; Bagwell, Christopher E; Thompson, Shelly; Matsui, George Y

    2008-05-01

    Methods to assess the diversity of the diazotroph assemblage in the rhizosphere of the salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora were examined. The effectiveness of nifH PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was compared to that of nifH clone library analysis. Seventeen DGGE gel bands were sequenced and yielded 58 nonidentical nifH sequences from a total of 67 sequences determined. A clone library constructed using the GC-clamp nifH primers that were employed in the PCR-DGGE (designated the GC-Library) yielded 83 nonidentical sequences from a total of 257 nifH sequences. A second library constructed using an alternate set of nifH primers (N-Library) yielded 83 nonidentical sequences from a total of 138 nifH sequences. Rarefaction curves for the libraries did not reach saturation, although the GC-Library curve was substantially dampened and appeared to be closer to saturation than the N-Library curve. Phylogenetic analyses showed that DGGE gel band sequencing recovered nifH sequences that were frequently sampled in the GC-Library, as well as sequences that were infrequently sampled, and provided a species composition assessment that was robust, efficient, and relatively inexpensive to obtain. Further, the DGGE method permits a large number of samples to be examined for differences in banding patterns, after which bands of interest can be sampled for sequence determination.

  2. Chromosomal studies of five species of the marine fishes from the Paranaguá Bay and the karyotypic diversity in the marine teleostei of the Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Raupp Cipriano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five species of marine fishes from the Paranaguá Bay in the Brazilian coast were evaluated. Eucinostomus argenteus and Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae presented 48 chromosomes, all of which more acrocentric (FN = 48; Strongylura timucu and S. marina (Belonidae also presented 48 chromosomes, but with a higher karyotypic complexity than the Gerreidae, 10M+2SM+36A (FN = 60 and 4M+44A (FN = 52, respectively. The fifth species, Mugil curema (Mugilidae, different than the others, presented only 28 chromosomes 20M+4ST+4A (FN = 48. The species presented diversity in the karyotypic macro-structure, which should be relevant for the cytotaxonomy and the evolution of this group of the vertebrate.Nas últimas décadas tem ocorrido no Brasil um incremento de estudos cariotípicos em peixes marinhos. Atualmente são conhecidos os cariótipos de 118 espécies, distribuídas em 43 famílias e 80 gêneros. Foram estudadas cinco espécies de peixes marinhos do complexo estuarino da Baía de Paranaguá na costa brasileira. Eucinostomus argenteus e Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae, apresentaram 48 cromossomos todos acrocêntricos (NF = 48; Strongylura timucu e S. marina (Belonidae apresentaram 48 cromossomos, porém com complexidade cariotípica maior do que apresentada pelos gerreídeos, 10M+2SM+36A (NF = 60 e 4M+44A (NF = 52, respectivamente. A quinta espécie, Mugil curema (Mugilidae, ao contrário das outras quatro espécies aqui analisadas, apresentou apenas 28 cromossomos 20M+4ST+4A (NF = 48. Apesar da tendência em se verificar um cariótipo constituído por 48 cromossomos em teleósteos marinhos, as espécies aqui analisadas apresentam uma diversidade para a macroestrutura cariotípica a ser considerada para a citotaxonomia e evolução desse grupo de vertebrados.

  3. Diversidad morfológica del sistema de conductos excretores de los peces teleósteos Morphological diversity of the excretory duct system of teleostean fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Kobelkowsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis anatómico de 70 especies de teleósteos, pertenecientes a 62 géneros, 39 familias y 20 órdenes, se reconoce la diversidad morfológica de los conductos excretores y de la vejiga urinaria. Se define como un patrón morfológico general de los teleósteos la fusión de ambos conductos arquinéfricos en el conducto urinario común y, en los machos, la unión del conducto urinario común con el conducto espermático común, formándose el conducto urogenital. Se reconoce una relación inversa de la longitud de los conductos arquinéfricos y la longitud de los riñones. Se describe la diversidad de situaciones morfológicas del trayecto y fusiones de los conductos excretores. Se reconoce la diversidad de formas de vejiga urinaria. Resalta la “inversión” de la posición de los conductos urinarios y urogenitales en los Pleuronectiformes. Se sugiere el origen de la vejiga urinaria a partir del conducto urinario común. Se manifiesta en algunas especies el dimorfismo sexual en la forma de las papilas urinaria y urogenital.By means of an anatomical analysis from 70 species of teleostean fishes, belonging to 62 genera, and 39 families, and 20 orders, the morphological diversity of the urinary Duch system is described. A general morphological teleostean pattern is defined as the fusion of both archinephric ducts in the common urinay duct, and the fusion in malesof the common urinary duct with the common spermatic duct in the urogenital duct. A relation between the length of thekidney and of the archinephric ducts is recongnized. The trajectory of the urinary ducts is described, with the “reversal”of the orientation of the urinary and urogenital ducts in Pleuronectiformes being noteworthy. The origin of the urinary bladder from the common urinary duct is suggested.

  4. Genome-wide screens for in vivo Tinman binding sites identify cardiac enhancers with diverse functional architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin

    Full Text Available The NK homeodomain factor Tinman is a crucial regulator of early mesoderm patterning and, together with the GATA factor Pannier and the Dorsocross T-box factors, serves as one of the key cardiogenic factors during specification and differentiation of heart cells. Although the basic framework of regulatory interactions driving heart development has been worked out, only about a dozen genes involved in heart development have been designated as direct Tinman target genes to date, and detailed information about the functional architectures of their cardiac enhancers is lacking. We have used immunoprecipitation of chromatin (ChIP from embryos at two different stages of early cardiogenesis to obtain a global overview of the sequences bound by Tinman in vivo and their linked genes. Our data from the analysis of ~50 sequences with high Tinman occupancy show that the majority of such sequences act as enhancers in various mesodermal tissues in which Tinman is active. All of the dorsal mesodermal and cardiac enhancers, but not some of the others, require tinman function. The cardiac enhancers feature diverse arrangements of binding motifs for Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross. By employing these cardiac and non-cardiac enhancers in machine learning approaches, we identify a novel motif, termed CEE, as a classifier for cardiac enhancers. In vivo assays for the requirement of the binding motifs of Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross, as well as the CEE motifs in a set of cardiac enhancers, show that the Tinman sites are essential in all but one of the tested enhancers; although on occasion they can be functionally redundant with Dorsocross sites. The enhancers differ widely with respect to their requirement for Pannier, Dorsocross, and CEE sites, which we ascribe to their different position in the regulatory circuitry, their distinct temporal and spatial activities during cardiogenesis, and functional redundancies among different factor binding sites.

  5. Development of suspect and non-target screening methods for detection of organic contaminants in highway runoff and fish tissue with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bowen; Lofton, Jonathan M; Peter, Katherine T; Gipe, Alexander D; James, C Andrew; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Baker, Joel E; Kolodziej, Edward P

    2017-09-20

    Untreated urban stormwater runoff contributes to poor water quality in receiving waters. The ability to identify toxicants and other bioactive molecules responsible for observed adverse effects in a complex mixture of contaminants is critical to effective protection of ecosystem and human health, yet this is a challenging analytical task. The objective of this study was to develop analytical methods using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) to detect organic contaminants in highway runoff and in runoff-exposed fish (adult coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch). Processing of paired water and tissue samples facilitated contaminant prioritization and aided investigation of chemical bioavailability and uptake processes. Simple, minimal processing effort solid phase extraction (SPE) and elution procedures were optimized for water samples, and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) procedures were optimized for fish tissues. Extraction methods were compared by detection of non-target features and target compounds (e.g., quantity and peak area), while minimizing matrix interferences. Suspect screening techniques utilized in-house and commercial databases to prioritize high-risk detections for subsequent MS/MS characterization and identification efforts. Presumptive annotations were also screened with an in-house linear regression (log K ow vs. retention time) to exclude isobaric compounds. Examples of confirmed identifications (via reference standard comparison) in highway runoff include ethoprophos, prometon, DEET, caffeine, cotinine, 4(or 5)-methyl-1H-methylbenzotriazole, and acetanilide. Acetanilide was also detected in runoff-exposed fish gill and liver samples. Further characterization of highway runoff and fish tissues (14 and 19 compounds, respectively with tentative identification by MS/MS data) suggests that many novel or poorly characterized organic contaminants exist in urban

  6. Fluorescent ligand fishing combination with in-situ imaging and characterizing to screen Hsp 90 inhibitors from Curcuma longa L. based on InP/ZnS quantum dots embedded mesoporous nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Fu, Anchen; Miao, Zhaoyi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Tianlin; Kang, An; Shan, Jinjun; Zhu, Dong; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Although ligand fishing has been shown to be an efficient technique for the identification of bioactive components from complex mixtures such as natural products, it cannot be applied to biomedical image processing. Herein, a specific fluorescent ligand fishing combined with in situ imaging approach is presented for the identification of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp 90) inhibitors from complex matrixes, Curcuma longa L., using N-terminus immobilized Hsp 90α functionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots embedded mesoporous nanoparticles (i.e. Hsp 90α (NT)-FQDNs) as extraction sorbents and fluorescent tracer. The fished ligands were identified by liquid chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, in situ imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied for evaluating the effect of fished-ligands on bioactivity-induced apoptosis morphologically in HeLa cells. MTT assay verified the bioactivity of the ligands and molecular docking results further provided convincing information to verify the feasible binding mode between ligands and protein. Twelve ligands as potential Hsp 90 inhibitors were ultimately fished and identified from Curcuma longa L. crude extracts. The proposed approach based on Hsp 90α functionalized nanocomposites is superior in the combination of highly specific screening efficiency and concurrent visual in situ imaging, which could have great promise for the development of other plant-derived Hsp 90 inhibitors, and providing a rapid and reliable platform for discovering biologically active molecules in natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  8. Perspectives on fish impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Data on fish impingement and related parameters are being gathered at a large number of power stations throughout the country at substantial monetary and manpower costs. A national survey of fish impingement at power plants was conducted and much of the information compiled in a standardized format--an effort that we think will aid in planning improvements in the design, siting, and operation of the cooling-water intakes. This paper examines the objectives of the fish impingement studies, monitoring programs, variables affecting fish impingement, siting and design criteria, state-of-the-art of screening systems, and suggestions for meeting 316(b) requirements. It also discusses where the emphasis should be placed in future fish-impingement related activities

  9. Prediction of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB 2005-WHO-TEQ content based on the contribution of six congeners: Toward a new screening approach for fish samples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Marchand, Philippe; Venisseau, Anais; Brosseaud, Aline; Bertrand, Dominique; Qannari, El Mostafa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Current European Union regulation regarding polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in food and feed is based on Toxic Equivalent Quotient (TEQ) concept. For confirmatory purpose, the isotope-dilution method associated to a measurement by gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry is usually the method of choice for precisely measuring the 29 target congeners in three separated fractions. Time and cost related to these analyses are very significant. Various kinds of screening concepts can be considered. In the present study, we elaborated and validated a prediction model for the 2005 World Health Organization TEQ in fish, based on the measurement of 4 PCDD/F and 2 non-ortho dl-PCB congeners, potentially analyzable in a single extracted fraction by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Large independent datasets have been used for model elaboration (n = 108) and validation (n = 363, n = 357 and n = 6). - This study describes a statistical regression model approach for screening PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fish.

  10. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  12. Sequence and Expression Analysis of Interferon Regulatory Factor 10 (IRF10 in Three Diverse Teleost Fish Reveals Its Role in Antiviral Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqing Xu

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor (IRF 10 was first found in birds and is present in the genome of other tetrapods (but not humans and mice, as well as in teleost fish. The functional role of IRF10 in vertebrate immunity is relatively unknown compared to IRF1-9. The target of this research was to clone and characterize the IRF10 genes in three economically important fish species that will facilitate future evaluation of this molecule in fish innate and adaptive immunity.In the present study, a single IRF10 gene was cloned in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, and two, named IRF10a and IRF10b, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The fish IRF10 molecules share highest identities to other vertebrate IRF10s, and have a well conserved DNA binding domain, IRF-associated domain, and an 8 exon/7 intron structure with conserved intron phase. The presence of an upstream ATG or open reading frame (ORF in the 5'-untranslated region of different fish IRF10 cDNA sequences suggests potential regulation at the translational level, and this has been verified by in vitro transcription/translation experiments of the trout IRF10a cDNA, but would still need to be validated in fish cells.Both trout IRF10 paralogues are highly expressed in thymus, blood and spleen but are relatively low in head kidney and caudal kidney. Trout IRF10b expression is significantly higher than IRF10a in integumentary tissues i.e. gills, scales, skin, intestine, adipose fin and tail fins, suggesting that IRF10b may be more important in mucosal immunity. The expression of both trout IRF10 paralogues is up-regulated by recombinant IFN-γ. The expression of the IRF10 genes is highly induced by Poly I:C in vitro and in vivo, and by viral infection, but is less responsive to peptidoglycan and bacterial infection, suggesting an important role of fish IRF10 in antiviral defense.

  13. In vivo screening of modified siRNAs for non-specific antiviral effect in a small fish model: number and localization in the strands are important

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Pakula, Malgorzata Maria

    2012-01-01

    but often only examining the expression of specific immunologically relevant genes in selected cell populations typically blood cells from treated animals or humans. Assays using a relevant physiological state in biological models as read-out are not common. Here we use a fish model where the innate...

  14. Pine Bluff Arsenal Fish Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    Arkansas has a diverse ichthyofauna of over 215 species of fishes distributed in sixty-three genera and twenty-seven families which occupy a myriad of different aquatic habitats within its poltical boundaries...

  15. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Ardura

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific. Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  16. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  17. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fish Allergy KidsHealth / For Parents / Fish Allergy What's in this ... Print en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the same ...

  18. Bacterial Diversity in the Digestive Tracts of Four Indian Air-Breathing Fish Species Investigated by PCR Based Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxu He

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An investigation was conducted to identify the allochthonous microbiota (entire intestine and the autochthonous microbiota in proximal intestine (PI and distal intestine (DI of four species of Indian air-breathing fish (climbing perch; Anabas testudineus, murrel; Channa punctatus, walking catfish; Clarias batrachus and stinging catfish; Heteropneustes fossilis by PCR based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. High similarities of the allochthonous microbiota were observed between climbing perch and murrel, walking catfish and stinging catfish, indicating similar food behavior. The autochthonous microbiota of PI and DI from climbing perch and murrel revealed more similarity, than the result obtained from walking catfish and stinging catfish. The autochthonous microbiota of climbing perch and murrel were similar with regard to the allochthonous microbiota, but no such similarity was observed in case of walking catfish and stinging catfish. The fish genotype and intestinal bacteria are well matched and show co-evolutionary relationship. Three fish species has its unique bacteria; autochthonous Enterobacter cloacae, Edwardsiella tarda and Sphingobium sp. in DI of climbing perch, Pseudomonas sp.; allochthonous and autochthonous in PI of walking catfish and uncultured bacterium (EU697160.1, uncultured bacterium (JF018065.1 and uncultured bacterium (EU697160.1 for stinging catfish. In murrel, no unique bacteria were detected.

  19. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    M Bassompierre; A Kjar; Ewen McLean

    1997-01-01

    A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro tec...

  20. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  1. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  2. Non-chromatographic screening procedure for arsenic speciation analysis in fish-based baby foods by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Briceno, Marisol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel, E-mail: hcordoba@um.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Arsenic in fish-based food samples can be determined without the need of a dissolution stage. {yields} Speciation of the main forms of arsenic in fish-based baby foods does not require chromatography. {yields} The behavior of arsenic compounds in ETAAS strongly depends on the chemical modifier used. - Abstract: A procedure for the speciation analysis of arsenic in fish-based baby foods is presented. Inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AB) were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using suspensions prepared in a 0.01 mol L{sup -1} tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution. Speciation is based on the use of three different chemically modified ETAAS atomizers to obtain the analytical signals. Using a palladium salt as the chemical modifier, the signal corresponding to the total arsenic concentration is obtained. When palladium is replaced by Ce(IV), the signal is solely due to inorganic arsenic (III and V) + MA. If no signal is obtained in this latter case, it is possible to distinguish between DMA and AB using a zirconium coated atomizer. The signal obtained in this way is due solely to DMA, and the concentration of AB can be obtained by the difference with the total arsenic content. Determinations by ETAAS require the use of the standard additions method. The limits of detection for the determination of AB, DMA and inorganic arsenic (+MA) are 15, 25 and 50 ng g{sup -1} expressed as arsenic, respectively. These detection limits are good enough for the procedure to be appropriate for the rapid determination of these compounds, avoiding extraction processes and/or chromatographic separations. Data for commercial samples, as well as for four standard reference materials, are given.

  3. Non-chromatographic screening procedure for arsenic speciation analysis in fish-based baby foods by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Briceno, Marisol; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Arsenic in fish-based food samples can be determined without the need of a dissolution stage. → Speciation of the main forms of arsenic in fish-based baby foods does not require chromatography. → The behavior of arsenic compounds in ETAAS strongly depends on the chemical modifier used. - Abstract: A procedure for the speciation analysis of arsenic in fish-based baby foods is presented. Inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AB) were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using suspensions prepared in a 0.01 mol L -1 tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution. Speciation is based on the use of three different chemically modified ETAAS atomizers to obtain the analytical signals. Using a palladium salt as the chemical modifier, the signal corresponding to the total arsenic concentration is obtained. When palladium is replaced by Ce(IV), the signal is solely due to inorganic arsenic (III and V) + MA. If no signal is obtained in this latter case, it is possible to distinguish between DMA and AB using a zirconium coated atomizer. The signal obtained in this way is due solely to DMA, and the concentration of AB can be obtained by the difference with the total arsenic content. Determinations by ETAAS require the use of the standard additions method. The limits of detection for the determination of AB, DMA and inorganic arsenic (+MA) are 15, 25 and 50 ng g -1 expressed as arsenic, respectively. These detection limits are good enough for the procedure to be appropriate for the rapid determination of these compounds, avoiding extraction processes and/or chromatographic separations. Data for commercial samples, as well as for four standard reference materials, are given.

  4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH screening for the 22q11.2 deletion in patients with clinical features of velocardiofacial syndrome but without cardiac anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sandrin-Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, a condition associated with 22q11.2 deletions, is characterized by a typical facies, palatal anomalies, learning disabilities, behavioral disturbances and cardiac defects. We investigated the frequency of these chromosomal deletions in 16 individuals with VCFS features who presented no cardiac anomalies, one of the main characteristics of VCFS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with the N25 (D22S75; 22q11.2 probe revealed deletions in ten individuals (62%. Therefore, even in the absence of cardiac anomalies testing for the 22q11.2 microdeletions in individuals showing other clinical features of this syndrome is recommended.

  5. Repatriation of an old fish host as an opportunity for myxozoan parasite diversity: The example of the allis shad, Alosa alosa (Clupeidae), in the Rhine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünnemann, H.; Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Eskens, U.; Lierz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2016), s. 505 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA MŠk LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : host reintroduction * Alosa alosa * parasite population structure * Hoferellus alosae n. sp. * Myxozoa * diversity * SNPs Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  6. Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a wetland of international importance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. ... A total of 87 893 fish comprising 16 species were caught. In addition to confirming the ... Key words: freshwater fish, invasive alien fishes, estuary, RAMSAR site, diversity.

  7. ScreenCube: A 3D Printed System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Chemical Screening in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstad-Rios, Adrian T; Watson, Claire J; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2018-02-01

    Phenotype-based small molecule screens in zebrafish embryos and larvae have been successful in accelerating pathway and therapeutic discovery for diverse biological processes. Yet, the application of chemical screens to adult physiologies has been relatively limited due to additional demands on cost, space, and labor associated with screens in adult animals. In this study, we present a 3D printed system and methods for intermittent drug dosing that enable rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish. Using prefilled screening plates, the system enables dosing of 96 fish in ∼3 min, with a 10-fold reduction in drug quantity compared to that used in previous chemical screens in adult zebrafish. We characterize water quality kinetics during immersion in the system and use these kinetics to rationally design intermittent dosing regimens that result in 100% fish survival. As a demonstration of system fidelity, we show the potential to identify two known chemical inhibitors of adult tail fin regeneration, cyclopamine and dorsomorphin. By developing methods for rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish, this study expands the potential for small molecule discovery in postembryonic models of development, disease, and regeneration.

  8. Implementing a court diversion and liaison scheme in a remand prison by systematic screening of new receptions: a 6 year participatory action research study of 20,084 consecutive male remands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A mental health needs assessment in the Irish prison population confirmed findings from other jurisdictions showing high prevalence of severe mental illness, including psychosis amongst those newly committed. We implemented a participatory action research approach in order to provide an integrated mental health prison in-reach and court liaison service for this population. Results Following extensive consultation, a two stage screening process was developed which was supplemented by an inter-agency referral management system. During the six years 2006–2011, all 20,084 new remands to the main remand prison serving 58% of the national population were screened. Following the first stage screen, 3,195 received a comprehensive psychiatric assessment. Of these 561 (2.8%) had symptoms of psychosis – corresponding to the prior research finding – and 572 were diverted from the criminal justice system to mental health services (89 to a secure forensic hospital, 164 to community mental health hospitals and 319 to other community mental health services). Conclusions We have shown that it is possible to match research findings in clinical practice by systematic screening, to sustain this over a long period and to achieve consistent levels of diversion from the criminal justice system to appropriate mental health services. The sustained and consistent performance of the model used is likely to reflect the use of participatory action research both to find the most effective model and to achieve wide ownership and cooperation with the model of care. PMID:23800103

  9. Engineering aspects of Passavant screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddle, K.R.; Sharma, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Passavant screen was developed in Europe almost 30 years ago. The Passavant screen is a vertical traveling screen; however, the basic difference between the conventional vertical traveling screen and the Passavant screen is that in the conventional screen water passes through the front screen belt and then the back screen belt, whereas in the Passavant screen the water enters in between the two belts and passes laterally through either of the belts. Thus, theoretically, the screening surface of the Passavant screen is doubled as compared to the same size conventional vertical traveling screen. Various design and operational modifications of the Passavant screen are possible to yield optimum design and performance characteristics which make it amenable to installation at power plants for safe removal of not only fish but also smaller organisms such as fish eggs and larvae. In this paper, details of the screen design and operational characteristics are discussed with notes on how these features can be modified to suit site- and organism-specific requirements

  10. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E

    2018-04-01

    Considerable empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing-gear restrictions on nonselective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, few researchers have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. We tested for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass at the community and family level. We conducted 1,396 underwater surveys at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions that represented 5 realms. We compared total biomass across local fish assemblages and among 20 families of reef fishes inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook-and-line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, and sites open to all fishing gears. We included a further category representing remote sites, where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, (i.e., no-take zones) most benefited community- and family-level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. Although biomass responses to fishery closures were highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae and Lutjanidae) responded positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line were not permitted). Remoteness also positively affected the response of community-level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass and indicate important interactions among fishing-gear types that affect biomass of a diverse set of reef fish families. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Cowlitz Falls fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system

  12. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  13. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib M. Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO, an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users.

  14. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  15. Early Childhood Psychosocial Screening in Culturally Diverse Populations: A Survey of Clinical Experience With the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, D. Russell; Njoroge, Wanjiku F. M.; Willis, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a qualitative study to seek the feedback of service providers with regard to the usefulness of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional as a screening tool for multicultural populations. They addressed provider satisfaction with the tool by surveying a multidisciplinary sample of practitioners who provide a range…

  16. ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GALICIAN CARP POPULATION ON THE BASE OF FISH FARM "VELYKYY LYUBIN´” WITH USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yarova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the genetic structure of the Galician carp population using microsatellite DNA markers. Methodology. Blood samples taken from the caudal vein of the specimens of the Galician carp farm "Velykyy Lyubin", Lviv region. (N = 15 persons. When landing, they were labeled with electronic chips of the brand Aqua Pump and A-CHIP. The total DNA was isolated using the standard method, using the Gene JET Whole Blood Genomik DNA Purification Mini Kit (USA. The concentration and quality of DNA were determined on an Eppendorf Bio Photometr biophotometer. To study the genetic structure of the Galician carp population, four microsatellite markers were used: MFW 06, MFW 15, MFW 23, MFW 31. Findings. Blood samples taken from the tail vein of fish (n = 15 oz. Were used as research material. In the course of work, optimal conditions for SSR-PCR analysis have been selected. The conducted studies allowed to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the amplification efficiency, namely: the concentration of the DNA preparation, the concentration of the primer in the reaction mixture and the number of amplification cycles. In the study group, for all 4 microsatellite loci, only 18 alleles with a molecular weight of 130-343 ng were detected. The number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 6. The most polymorphous was the locus MFW 23 (6 alleles were detected, and the least polymorphic was the locus MFW 31 (3 alleles were detected. The effective number of alleles in the sample of genotypes studied varied from 2.14 (MFW 31 to 5.23 (MFW 23. According to calculations of allelic frequencies, the main indicators of genetic variability are determined. The maximum level of available heterozygosity is fixed for the MFW 23 locus, the lowest for the MFW locus 31. Originality. For the first time in 65 years the genetic structure of the Galician carp population has been investigated. Practical value. The results will be used in further studies of

  17. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  18. Advancing Toxicology Research Using In Vivo High Throughput Toxicology with Small Fish Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchart, Antonio; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Allen, David; Ceger, Patricia; Casey, Warren; Hinton, David; Kanungo, Jyotshna; Kullman, Seth W.; Tal, Tamara; Bondesson, Maria; Burgess, Shawn M.; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie; Reif, David M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Hamm, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Summary Small freshwater fish models, especially zebrafish, offer advantages over traditional rodent models, including low maintenance and husbandry costs, high fecundity, genetic diversity, physiology similar to that of traditional biomedical models, and reduced animal welfare concerns. The Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology was held at North Carolina State University on May 5-6, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Participants discussed the ways in which small fish are being used as models to screen toxicants and understand mechanisms of toxicity. Workshop participants agreed that the lack of standardized protocols is an impediment to broader acceptance of these models, whereas development of standardized protocols, validation, and subsequent regulatory acceptance would facilitate greater usage. Given the advantages and increasing application of small fish models, there was widespread interest in follow-up workshops to review and discuss developments in their use. In this article, we summarize the recommendations formulated by workshop participants to enhance the utility of small fish species in toxicology studies, as well as many of the advances in the field of toxicology that resulted from using small fish species, including advances in developmental toxicology, cardiovascular toxicology, neurotoxicology, and immunotoxicology. We also review many emerging issues that will benefit from using small fish species, especially zebrafish, and new technologies that will enable using these organisms to yield results unprecedented in their information content to better understand how toxicants affect development and health. PMID:27328013

  19. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill; Loffink, Ken

    2008-12-30

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. Migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage and trapping facility design, operation, and criteria. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. Beginning in March of 2007, two work elements from the Walla Walla Fish Passage Operations Project were transferred to other projects. The work element Enumeration of Adult Migration at Nursery Bridge Dam is now conducted under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project and the work element Provide Transportation Assistance is conducted under the Umatilla Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance Project. Details of these activities can be found in those project's respective annual reports.

  20. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    fish meal pelletizing machine utilized 4kg of ingredients to produce 3.77kg pellets at an effi- ciency of .... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 53 ... horsepower for effective torque application on .... two edges were tacked with a spot weld to hold ... then welded on to the shaft making sure that the.

  1. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  2. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  3. Variabilidad espacial y temporal de la abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces en la costa de Campeche, México Spatial and temporal variability of fish community abundance and diversity off the coast of Campeche, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Amado Ayala-Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad de peces en el sur del golfo de México es abundante y diversa y sus componentes se encuentran afectados por la captura incidental de la pesquería del camarón siete barbas. El presente trabajo describe y analiza los patrones de variación espacial y temporal de la abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces, identificando las especies con dominio ecológico. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente entre febrero 2006 y enero 2007 en 37 sitios localizados desde la desembocadura del sistema Grijalva-Usumacinta hasta la desembocadura del sistema Chumpam-Balchacah al interior de la Laguna de Términos, en el estado de Campeche al sur del golfo de México. Se realizaron 444 arrastres experimentales con una red de prueba camaronera y se capturaron 26.386 peces con un peso conjunto de 407,1 kg. Se identificaron 94 especies agrupadas en 65 géneros y 38 familias. La abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de peces se analizó en escalas espacial y temporal en términos de densidad (ind m-2, biomasa (g m-2, peso promedio (g ind-1, índice de diversidad (H'n, riqueza de especies (DMg e índice de equidad (J'. En cuanto a abundancia se distinguieron los altos valores registrados en agosto y septiembre, en sitios cercanos a las desembocaduras de los sistemas Grijalva-Usumacinta y Palizada-Del Este. La especie más importante en términos de abundancia fue el bagre Cathorops melanopus. Los intervalos de variación de los índices de diversidad en escala espacial fueron: H'n = 0,5-2,8 bits; Dmg = 2,6-5,3 sp. ind-1 y J'= 0,1-0,8 bits. En escala temporal los intervalos fueron H'n = 1,8-2,6 bits; Dmg = 5,1-6,7 sp. ind-1 y J'= 0,4-0,6 bits. Se identificaron nueve especies dominantes con 16.840 individuos y un peso conjunto de 278,5 kg, equivalente al 63,8% de la captura total.The fish community of the southern Gulf of Mexico is abundant and diverse, and its components are affected by the bycatch of the seabob shrimp fishery. The spatial and

  4. Fishes and humankind III. Editorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.

  5. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  6. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J

    1993-01-01

    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  7. Fish benefits from offshore wind farm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2013-01-01

    The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could be that the ...

  8. Evaluation of Fish Passage Sites in the Walla Walla River Basin, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Mickie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-08-29

    In 2008, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the Hofer Dam fish screen and provided technical assistance at two other fish passage sites as requested by the Bonneville Power Administration, the Walla Walla Watershed Council, or the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Evaluation of new sites such as Hofer Dam focuses on their design, construction, operation, and maintenance to determine if they effectively provide juvenile salmonids with safe passage through irrigation diversions. There were two requests for technical assistance in 2008. In the first, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation requested an evaluation of the Nursery Bridge fish screens associated with the fish ladder on the east side of the Walla Walla River. One set of brushes that clean the screens was broken for an extended period. Underwater videography and water velocity measurements were used to determine there were no potential adverse effects on juvenile salmonids when the west set of screens was clean enough to pass water normally. A second request, received from the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Walla Walla Watershed Council, asked for evaluation of water velocities through relatively new head gates above and adjacent to the Eastside Ditch fish screens on the Walla Walla River. Water moving through the head gates and not taken for irrigation is diverted to provide water for the Nursery Bridge fish ladder on the east side of the river. Elevations used in the design of the head gates were incorrect, causing excessive flow through the head gates that closely approached or exceeded the maximum swimming burst speed of juvenile salmonids. Hofer Dam was evaluated in June 2008. PNNL researchers found that conditions at Hofer Dam will not cause impingement or entrainment of juvenile salmonids but may provide habitat for predators and lack strong sweeping flows to encourage juvenile salmonid passage downstream. Further evaluation of

  9. Fish habitat mitigation measures for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, G.D.; MacMillan, D.B.; Katopodis, C.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the identification and mitigation of environmental impacts of hydrotechnical projects, particularly on fish and fish habitats, have become a major component of project planning and design. Potential impacts to fish and fish habitat may include increased fish mortality, decreased species diversity, and loss or decreases in fish production due to loss of habitat or alteration of its suitability. These impacts arise from flooding of riverine habitat, alteration of flow quantity and distribution, changes in morphology, and alteration of water quality, including suspended sediments, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and mercury. The results of a study for the Canadian Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans Central and Arctic Region, examining fish habitat mitigation techniques for their applicability to hydrotechnical projects in Canada are summarized. The requirements for achievement and verification of the no net loss policy for a project are discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  11. Ecological assessment of fish biodiversity in relation to hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research analysed the fish species diversity; ecological distribution and abundance in relation to hydrological variables of Ogun coastal water. Fish species were collected with the use of graded gillnet bimonthly for six-months. Correlation analysis between fish species richness with the hydrological attributes showed ...

  12. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  17. Ecomorphology as a predictor of fish diet: a case study on the North Sea benthic fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, W.P.

    2006-01-01

    A methodological approach based on fish ecomorphology was chosen to predict potential fish diet. This study tests a method used in earlier research on a marine ecosystem containing phylogenetically diverse organisms: the North Sea. Fish feeding morphology imposes constraints on feeding options. A

  18. Dam crossing by migrating fish. State of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travade, F.; Larinier, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, the present state of design of fish ways is reviewed, focusing on the interest and the limits of each type of fish facility. The second part deals with downstream migration problems at hydroelectric power plants: fish damage in spillways and hydraulic turbines and design of fish screening and other diversionary techniques used to prevent entry of downstream migrant into intakes. 14 refs., 13 figs

  19. "Gone fishing": modeling diversity in work ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freyberg-Inan, A.; Koçer, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    In his "Anecdote Concerning the Lowering of Productivity", written in 1963, the West-German writer Heinrich Böll humorously contrasts the mindset of an enterprising capitalist, bent on the maximization of profit, with that of a person we might call a profit "satisficer," a maximizer of leisure or

  20. The remarkable reproductive diversity of teleost fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Wootton, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2016), s. 1208-1215 ISSN 1467-2960 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hermaphroditism * mating system * self-fertilization * sex determination * unisexuality * viviparity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 9.013, year: 2016

  1. Sub-indicator: Prey fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Dunlop, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Prey fish communities across the Great Lakes continue to change, although the direction and magnitude of those changes are not consistent across the lakes. The metrics used to categorize prey fish status in this and previous periods are based on elements that are common among each of the lake’s Fish Community Objectives and include diversity and the relative role of native species in the prey fish communities. The diversity index categorized three of lakes as ‘fair’, while Superior and Erie were ‘good’ (Table 1). The short term trend, from the previous period (2008-2010) to the current period (2011-2014) found diversity in Erie and Superior to be unchanging, but the other three lakes to be ‘deteriorating’, resulting in an overall trend categorization of ‘undetermined’ (Table 1). The long term diversity trend suggested Lakes Superior and Erie have the most diverse prey communities although the index for those prey fish have been quite variable over time (Figure 1). In Lake Huron, where non-native alewife have substantially declined, the diversity index has also declined. The continued dominance of alewife in Lake Ontario (96% of the prey fish biomass) resulted in the lowest diversity index value (Figure 1). The proportion of native species within the community was judged as ‘good’ in Lakes Superior and Huron, ‘fair’ in Michigan and Erie and ‘poor’ in Ontario (Table 2). The short term trend was improving in in all lakes except Michigan (‘deteriorating’) and Ontario (‘unchanging’), resulting in an overall short term trend of ‘undetermined’ (Table 2). Over the current period, Lake Superior consistently had the highest proportion native prey fish (87%) while Lake Ontario had the lowest (1%) (Figure 2). Lake Michigan’s percent native has declined as round goby increase and comprises a greater proportion of the community. Native prey fish make up 51% of Lake Erie, although basin-specific values differed (Figure 2). Most notably

  2. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  3. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  4. Fish extinctions alter nutrient recycling in tropical freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Peter B.; Jones, Laura E.; Flecker, Alexander S.; Vanni, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that species extinctions jeopardize the functioning of ecosystems. Overfishing and other human influences are reducing the diversity and abundance of fish worldwide, but the ecosystem-level consequences of these changes have not been assessed quantitatively. Recycling of nutrients is one important ecosystem process that is directly influenced by fish. Fish species vary widely in the rates at which they excrete nitrogen and phosphorus; thus, altering fish communiti...

  5. Genomics and fish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied fish species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

  6. Screening of diverse local germplasm of guar (cyamposis tetragonoloba (l.) taub.) for salt tolerance: A possible approach to utilize salt - affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, M. J. Z.; Ahmad, K.; Qurainy, F. A.; Khan, S.; Athar, H. U. R.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of good quality water and soil salinity reduces crop productivity world-over. The development of salt stress tolerant cultivars/lines by screening and selection is of considerable value to enhance crop growth and yield. Though a number of breeding programs are underway to develop salt tolerant cultivars in wheat, barley, maize, and even grasses, a low amount of work done for improving salt tolerance in a potential leguminous forage crop guar widely grown in subcontinent due to rapid increase in its demand for its commercial use. Thus, the present study was focused on efforts to develop salt tolerant cultivars of guar. The growth responses of 31 accessions/lines/cultivars of a potential leguminous crop (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) to salt stress were assessed at the vegetative growth stage. A considerable variation in salinity tolerance was found in a set of lines/cultivars of guar using agronomic traits. Under saline conditions, Khanewal Local2, Chiniot White, 27340, 24323, BWP-5589 produced the lowest shoot fresh and dry biomass in relative terms, while genotypes/lines 5597, 24288, Br 99, Khushab white, Sillanwali white and Mardan white had greater fresh and dry biomass. Klorkot white and 24323 had maximum plant height under non-saline conditions, whereas genotypes/line 5597 and 24288 was maximal in plant height under salt stress conditions. Moreover, genotypes/lines Khanewal Local2 followed by Chiniot White and 27340 were the lowest in plant height. Growth attributes and relative salt tolerance of guar genotypes were used to group genotypes/lines as salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and salt sensitive using Hierarchical Cluster method following squared Euclidean distance. It was found that genotypes/lines 41671, Khaushab White, 5597, 24320, 24288, Sillanwali White, 24321, Mardan White were the most salt tolerant, while Chiniot White, BWP-5589, Kalorkot White, Khanewal Local 2, 24323 were the most salt sensitive. The availability of considerable amount of

  7. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  8. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  9. Salmonids surveys, number of juvenile fish, fork length, and species diversity conducted in the Little Campbell Creek watershed, Alaska from 2010-11-01 to 2011-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0148761)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past few years biologists and other researchers have encountered noticeable fish die-offs, mostly of young salmonid, in various stretches of Little Campbell...

  10. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  11. Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, M-J; Benoît, E

    2012-01-22

    Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity and have wider amplitude when fishing is selective (removes a narrow size range) and/or when large fish are targeted, than when fishing is more balanced (catching a larger size range) or when small fish are targeted. A novel index of size diversity is developed, and is shown to be sensitive to both fishing intensity and selectivity. To avoid unstable food web dynamics with potential harmful consequences for fisheries, limiting both fishing intensity and selectivity might be an appropriate exploitation strategy.

  12. Impingement of juvenile and adult fishes during cooling water withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Juvenile and adult fishes are impinged upon trash removal screens as Savannah River water is withdrawn for use on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Thirty-six species of fish, representing half of all riverine species known from the area, were impinged on the screens at three SRP pumping stations during 1977. Based on the average of 11.2 fish impinged per day, annual impingement is estimated to be 4088 fish. SRP thus ranks third lowest for impingement recently reported for 33 electric power plants

  13. Fish impingement at Montecello Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotbeck, L.M.; Bechthold, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    To properly evaluate total impact of power generation facilities on aquatic systems, it is necessary to perform site specific fish impingement studies. Intake and screen approach velocities should not be averaged when considering potential screen impingement problems because of wide vertical and horizontal variation in velocity which tend to trap fish. It was estimated that 2,952 fish were impinged during 4 months of sampling with 90.9% of these comprised of black bullheads (Ictalurus melas) and black crappies (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Distinct relationships can be found between number of impinging fish and river flow, percentage river diverted through the plant, water temperature, and the time of year. For the months of June, July, August, and September, approx 55% of all impingement occurs in June

  14. Biodiversity enhances reef fish biomass and resistance to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Navarrete, Sergio A; Edgar, Graham J

    2016-05-31

    Fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates, play key functional roles in aquatic ecosystems, and provide protein for a billion people, especially in the developing world. Those functions are compromised by mounting pressures on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Because of its economic and food value, fish biomass production provides an unusually direct link from biodiversity to critical ecosystem services. We used the Reef Life Survey's global database of 4,556 standardized fish surveys to test the importance of biodiversity to fish production relative to 25 environmental drivers. Temperature, biodiversity, and human influence together explained 47% of the global variation in reef fish biomass among sites. Fish species richness and functional diversity were among the strongest predictors of fish biomass, particularly for the large-bodied species and carnivores preferred by fishers, and these biodiversity effects were robust to potentially confounding influences of sample abundance, scale, and environmental correlations. Warmer temperatures increased biomass directly, presumably by raising metabolism, and indirectly by increasing diversity, whereas temperature variability reduced biomass. Importantly, diversity and climate interact, with biomass of diverse communities less affected by rising and variable temperatures than species-poor communities. Biodiversity thus buffers global fish biomass from climate change, and conservation of marine biodiversity can stabilize fish production in a changing ocean.

  15. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  17. Fish cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum

    2017-01-01

    The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...

  18. Fish hemoglobins

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  19. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  20. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  1. Diversity management

    OpenAIRE

    Knákalová, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The key topic of the work is diversity management, i.e. management of em-ployees" diversity within organization. Opening part of the work identifies the position of diversity within society and related phenomena such as stereotypes, biases and various forms of discrimination. Then the work discusses the role of diversity management in organizations, its principles and basic areas of focus. Attention is paid to certain social groups that the diversity management concept should especially deal ...

  2. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G.F.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Lee, D.W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population

  3. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  4. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  5. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Alexander L; Santiago, Daniel N; Forli, Stefano; Martins, Diogo Santos; Olson, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  6. Virtual screening with AutoDock Vina and the common pharmacophore engine of a low diversity library of fragments and hits against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase: participation in the SAMPL4 protein-ligand binding challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Alexander L.; Santiago, Daniel N.; Forli, Stefano; Santos-Martins, Diogo; Olson, Arthur J.

    2014-04-01

    To rigorously assess the tools and protocols that can be used to understand and predict macromolecular recognition, and to gain more structural insight into three newly discovered allosteric binding sites on a critical drug target involved in the treatment of HIV infections, the Olson and Levy labs collaborated on the SAMPL4 challenge. This computational blind challenge involved predicting protein-ligand binding against the three allosteric sites of HIV integrase (IN), a viral enzyme for which two drugs (that target the active site) have been approved by the FDA. Positive control cross-docking experiments were utilized to select 13 receptor models out of an initial ensemble of 41 different crystal structures of HIV IN. These 13 models of the targets were selected using our new "Rank Difference Ratio" metric. The first stage of SAMPL4 involved using virtual screens to identify 62 active, allosteric IN inhibitors out of a set of 321 compounds. The second stage involved predicting the binding site(s) and crystallographic binding mode(s) for 57 of these inhibitors. Our team submitted four entries for the first stage that utilized: (1) AutoDock Vina (AD Vina) plus visual inspection; (2) a new common pharmacophore engine; (3) BEDAM replica exchange free energy simulations, and a Consensus approach that combined the predictions of all three strategies. Even with the SAMPL4's very challenging compound library that displayed a significantly lower amount of structural diversity than most libraries that are conventionally employed in prospective virtual screens, these approaches produced hit rates of 24, 25, 34, and 27 %, respectively, on a set with 19 % declared binders. Our only entry for the second stage challenge was based on the results of AD Vina plus visual inspection, and it ranked third place overall according to several different metrics provided by the SAMPL4 organizers. The successful results displayed by these approaches highlight the utility of the computational

  7. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003578.htm Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  8. The Gut Microbiota of Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Sian; Culloty, Sarah; Whooley, Jason; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2018-01-01

    The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking. We review here the factors shaping marine fish gut microbiota and highlight gaps in the research. PMID:29780377

  9. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Roberts, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in extinction and colonization is expected to influence community composition over time. In stream fish communities, local species richness (alpha diversity) and species turnover (beta diversity) are thought to be regulated by high extinction rates in headwater streams and high colonization rates in downstream areas. We evaluated the spatiotemporal structure of fish communities in streams originally surveyed by Burton and Odum 1945 (Ecology 26: 182-194) in Virginia, USA and explored the effects of species traits on extinction and colonization dynamics. We documented dramatic changes in fish community structure at both the site and stream scales. Of the 34 fish species observed, 20 (59%) were present in both time periods, but 11 (32%) colonized the study area and three (9%) were extirpated over time. Within streams, alpha diversity increased in two of three streams but beta diversity decreased dramatically in all streams due to fish community homogenization caused by colonization of common species and extirpation of rare species. Among streams, however, fish communities differentiated over time. Regression trees indicated that reproductive life-history traits such as spawning mound construction, associations with mound-building species, and high fecundity were important predictors of species persistence or colonization. Conversely, native fishes not associated with mound-building exhibited the highest rates of extirpation from streams. Our results demonstrate that stream fish colonization and extinction dynamics exhibit hierarchical spatial structure and suggest that mound-building fishes serve as keystone species for colonization of headwater streams.

  10. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-02-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2004-2005 project year, there were 590 adult summer steelhead, 31 summer steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 70 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 80 adult and 1 jack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 13, 2004, and June 16, 2005. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by ODFW in order to enumerate fish passage. Of the total, 143 adult summer steelhead and 15 summer steelhead kelts were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the video efforts between February 4 and May 23, 2005. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River

  11. DNA barcoding for species assignment: the case of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Landi

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity.A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1 a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2 the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS and 72% (GenBank of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%-18.74%, most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species.We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of disparate quality and origin has major utility in several

  12. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  13. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  14. DETERMINATION OF HISTAMINE IN FISH USING ELISA TECHNIQUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUGER, C; SEWING, U; STENGEL, G; KEMA, [No Value; WESTERMANN, J; MANZ, B

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of histamine in fish and fish products via competitive ELISA is described. The advantages of this method are easy sample preparation and handling, screening capabilities, and low costs. Automation enables the performance of the assay with higher series of samples. The Histamine-ELISA is

  15. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  16. Managing Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1990-01-01

    Demographic trends imply that organizations must learn to manage a diverse work force. Ways to change organizational systems, structures, and practices to eliminate subtle barriers are awareness training, attitude change, and valuing diversity. (SK)

  17. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  18. Rethinking Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

  19. Fish fauna in the Krueng Geumpang River, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M.; Munira, M.; Muchlisin, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the diversity and distribution of fishes in the Krueng Geumpang River.The survey was conducted from 1st to 22nd August 2015 with six sampling locations. Fish samples were caught using gillnets and fish traps. Data analyses performed in this study were the frequency of incidence (FOI), diveristy index (H’), and dominance index (C). A total of 88 individual fishes belong to 12 species and six familia. Tor soro is the dominant species in this river. There are two species of fish that widely distributed i.e. Tor soro (FOI = 66.7 %) and Neolissochilus thienemanni (FOI = 50.0 %). The Shannon-Wienner diversity index ranged from 0.00 to 2.05. The low value of the diversity index (H’) can be caused by factors such as river morphology, poisoning, mining, and overfishing.

  20. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  1. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  2. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  3. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  4. Influence of habitat degradation on fish replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M. I.; Moore, J. A. Y.; Munday, P. L.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature-induced coral bleaching is a major threat to the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. While reductions in species diversity and abundance of fish communities have been documented following coral bleaching, the mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of coral bleaching on the early life-history processes of coral reef fishes. Daily monitoring of fish settlement patterns found that ten times as many fish settled to healthy coral than sub-lethally bleached coral. Species diversity of settling fishes was least on bleached coral and greatest on dead coral, with healthy coral having intermediate levels of diversity. Laboratory experiments using light-trap caught juveniles showed that different damselfish species chose among healthy, bleached and dead coral habitats using different combinations of visual and olfactory cues. The live coral specialist, Pomacentrus moluccensis, preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral, using mostly visual cues to inform their habitat choice. The habitat generalist, Pomacentrus amboinensis, also preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral but selected these habitats using both visual and olfactory cues. Trials with another habitat generalist, Dischistodus sp., suggested that vision played a significant role. A 20 days field experiment that manipulated densities of P. moluccensis on healthy and bleached coral heads found an influence of fish density on juvenile weight and growth, but no significant influence of habitat quality. These results suggests that coral bleaching will affect settlement patterns and species distributions by influencing the visual and olfactory cues that reef fish larvae use to make settlement choices. Furthermore, increased fish density within the remaining healthy coral habitats could play an important role in influencing population dynamics.

  5. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos; Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: → Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. → Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. → The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  6. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: carsanz@um.es [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  7. Seagrass Parameter Affect the Fish Assemblages in Karimunjawa Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Susilo, Endang; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Munasik; Nirwani; Adhi Suryono, Chrisna

    2018-02-01

    Seagrass beds promote high species diversity, abundance and biomass, and become important habitats for some economically important fishes. Plants of seagrasses result in structurally highly complex habitats and offering feeding grounds, shelter from predation as well as nursery areas for diverse fish assemblages. However, research on fish communities in Southeast Asian seagrass bed is rarely conducted. In the present study fish assemblages in seagrass beds with different parameters (cover, diversity and similarity indices, domination) was investigated in the Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia. The purpose of this study were to assess whether fish assemblages differ concerning on the abundance and the species number. This study was conducted on the seagrass bed on Karimunjawa Islands in Java Sea, particularly in the water of Menjangan Besar and Menjangan Kecil Island. Line-quadrant transect was used to assess seagrass data, while the occurrence and individual number of fish harboured in the selected seagrass bed was counted by using underwater visual census in the stationary point count transects. Seagrass cover in Menjangan Kecil Island (41%) with various canopy included both upper and lower canopy was considerable higher than those in Menjangan Besar Island (5%). Fish diversity, species composition and abundance are considerably different between the two study sites. This study revealed that seagrass density or cover and canopy structure affected the fish abundance and species number harboured.

  8. Microscopic recognition and identification of fish meal in compound feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Prins, Theo; Rhee, van de N.; Vliege, J.J.M.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Fish meal is an accepted ingredient in compound feed. Unauthorised application is primarily enforced by visual inspection, i.e., microscopy. In order to document the visually available diversity, fragments of bones and scales of 17 teleost fish species belonging to seven different orders were

  9. Status of Coral Reef Fish Communities within the Mombasa Marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance, trophic composition and diversity of fish were investigated in the Mombasa Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the Kenya coast over a period of four years (2004-2007) sixteen years after its establishment to determine its effectiveness. Fish monitoring data collected using belt transects revealed significant ...

  10. Fish impingement at estuarine power stations and its significance to commercial fishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The abstraction of cooling water (CW) at power stations sited on tidal waters inevitably leads to mortalities of some fish which are drawn in with the CW supply and become impinged on the intake screens. These fish are predominantly 0- or 1-group juveniles which, owing to their small size, are unable to resist intake currents. Commercial fishermen often object to the fact that juvenile fish are killed in this way. Their concern stems from the fact that in order to protect stocks, commercial fishing is restricted to fish which are above a statutory minimum landing size, whereas the majority of fish killed by impingement are below this size. This Report considers the significance of impingement mortalities at four estuarine sites in Britain for six commercially important species. Life tables are used to establish expected survival trajectories for each species and to compute reproductive potential. Each fish killed on intake screens is then considered in terms of the fraction of the reproductive potential of a single adult at maturity, and is ascribed an 'adult equivalent' value. Total catches of mixed juveniles and adults are then presented as 'adult equivalent' values. (author)

  11. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  12. Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise; Villeseche, Florence

    2016-01-01

    – The work can encourage policy makers, diversity and HR managers to question their own practices and assumptions leading to more theoretical informed diversity management practices. Originality/value – The theoretical connections between identity and diversity literature have so far not been reviewed......The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the identity and diversity literatures and discuss how a better understanding of the theoretical connections between the two informs both diversity research and diversity management practices. Design/methodology/approach – Literature...... and limitations – is crucial for successful diversity management research and practice. Research limitations/implications – The authors argue for a better understanding of differences, overlaps and limits of different identity perspectives, and for a stronger engagement with practice. Practical implications...

  13. Meet the surrogate fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bob; Neitzel, Duane; Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    This article gives details of the US Department of Energy's innovative research into the development of a sensor system that will work as a surrogate fish to provide information to aid the design of fish-friendly turbines for hydroelectric power plants. The selection of the dams for the testing of sensor fish, the release and recovery of the sensor fish, the recording of the physical forces exerted on fish as they pass through the turbines, and use of the information gathered to build more sensor fish are discussed. Fish investigations conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are briefly described. (UK)

  14. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  15. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  16. Fishing territoriality and diversity between the ethnic populations Ashaninka and Kaxinawá ,Breu river, Brazil/Peru Diversidade e territorialidade pesqueira entre as populações étnicas Ashaninka e Kaxinawá, rio Breu, Alto Juruá, Brasil/Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Domingues do Amaral

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the diversity and the subsistence fishing territoriality of traditional populations of a village Ashaninka and two Kaxinawá living at the margins of Breu River (Brasil/Peru. In general, samplings in the dwellings were carried out late in the afternoon, as the fishermen arrived in the village. The data were analysed in an exploratory way through the index of pondered dominance (ID%, by analysis of variance and by a correspondence analysis in order to determine the associations of the fish species and the fishing spots between the villages of the Indigenous Reserve. The results of the analysis of variance demonstrated that differences exist between the fish diversities of the catches. However, post-hoc tests only detected differences in diversities between the hand fishhook and the other fishing gears (bow and arrow, castnets and rotenone tingui. Although the use of bow and arrow resulted in a low capture (Kg, this fishing strategy is associated with a high fishing diversity, in terms of number of species. These results demonstrate that there is no overlap in the frequency of the visits to the fishing spots between the Ashaninka and Kaxinawá populations. This pattern is the same found for the correspondence analysis for the fish species, which describes the relationship between the deep pools environments exploited by the fishermen Ashaninka and Kaxinawá of Mourão. These ethnic populations still continue to maintain a strong cultural and cosmological tradition, with their territories defined in an informal way of the upper Juruá area.Este estudo tem o objetivo de descrever a diversidade e a territorialidade pesqueira de subsistência das populações tradicionais de uma aldeia Ashaninka e duas Kaxinawá vivendo à beira do rio Breu. Elas se situam no alto rio Juruá acima de Marechal Taumaturgo (AC, Brasil/Peru num complexo de unidades de conservação e territórios de diversas populações étnicas. As casas dos

  17. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Why are freshwater fish so threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closs, Gerard P.; Angermeier, Paul; Darwall, William R.T.; Balcombe, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The huge diversity of freshwater fishes is concentrated into an area of habitat that covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, and much of this limited area has already been extensively impacted and intensively managed to meet human needs (Dudgeon et al., 2006). As outlined in Chapter 1, the number and proportions of threatened species tend to rise wherever fish diversity coincides with dense human populations, intensive resource use and development pressure. Of particular concern is the substantial proportion of the global diversity of freshwater fishes concentrated within the Mekong and Amazon Basins and west-central Africa (Berra, 2001; Abell et al., 2008; Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1) with extensive exploitation of water resources planned to accelerate in future years (Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1). If current trends continue, and the social, political and economic models that have been used to develop industrialised regions of the world over the past two centuries prevail, then the future of a significant proportion of global diversity of freshwater fish species is clearly uncertain.

  19. The decline of North American freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Jelks, Howard L.; Burkhead, Noel M.

    2009-01-01

    North America has a broad array of freshwater ecosystems because of the continent's complex geography and geological history. Within a multitude of habitats—that include streams, large rivers, natural lakes, springs, and wetlands—rich assemblages of fishes reside, representing diverse taxonomic groups with unique ecological requirements. They face an unprecedented conservation crisis.1 In the last few decades, the proportion of inland fishes of North America, which are considered imperiled or extinct, increased from 20 to 40%.2 Although extinctions have occurred, many species and populations are declining in range size and abundance. The fish biota of the continent as a whole remains diverse; however, we can take action to stem any further declines.

  20. Screening of Modified RNA duplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Kjems, Jørgen

    protection against a fish pathogenic virus. This protection corresponded with an interferon response in the fish. Here we use this fish model to screen siRNAs containing various chemical modifications of the RNA backbone for their antiviral activity, the overall aim being identification of an siRNA form......Because of sequence specific gene targeting activity siRNAs are regarded as promising active compounds in gene medicine. But one serious problem with delivering siRNAs as treatment is the now well-established non-specific activities of some RNA duplexes. Cellular reactions towards double stranded...... RNAs include the 2´-5´ oligoadenylate synthetase system, the protein kinase R, RIG-I and Toll-like receptor activated pathways all resulting in antiviral defence mechanism. We have previously shown that antiviral innate immune reactions against double stranded RNAs could be detected in vivo as partial...

  1. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Analysis of genetic diversity and construction of core collection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-03

    Jun 3, 2011 ... Genetic diversity of 73 local mulberry varieties from Shanxi Province were screened using ISSR ... number effective of alleles, Nei's genetic diversity index and Shannon's ...... resources conservation program of the Agriculture.

  3. Zoogeography of the fishes from Indochinese Inland waters with an annotated check-list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottelat, Maurice

    1989-01-01

    According to an unpublished bibliography of Indochinese freshwater fishes that I completed, 930 native fish species are known to occur in the inland waters of the Indochinese Peninsula, certainly making it one of the areas with the most diverse ichthyofauna. The study of this rich fish fauna is

  4. A preliminary survey of the cichlid fishes of rocky habitats in Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    given on some of the other rocky shore fishes particularly in the genus Cyrtocara. ... biology, numerical abundance and distribution. Indeed, ... some species have very limited distributions. Exporters of ..... Fishelson (1974) to describe the diversity of fishes at par- ..... zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthic Invertebrata, fish fry.

  5. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-02-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow measures, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2000-2001 project year, there were 624 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 24 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and 47 spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) counted at the Nursery Bridge Dam adult trap between December 27, 2000 and June 7, 2001. The Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap was not operated this year. The project transported 1600 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility and outplanted 1156 for natural spawning in the basin. The project also provided equipment for transportation of juveniles captured during the construction fish salvage at Nursery Bridge Dam.

  6. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-03-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2002-2003 project year, there were 545 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 29 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 1 adult and 1 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway adult trap between January 1 and June 23, 2003. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. Operation of the Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap for trap and haul purposes was not necessary this year. The project transported 21 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery and 281 from Threemile Dam to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility. Of these, 290 were outplanted in August for natural spawning in the basin.

  7. Dose-response curves for fish MFO induction: How do we interpret different maxima and slopes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Induction of hepatic mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity has been useful for screening effluents from pulp mills and oil refineries. Effluents and pure compounds can be assessed by direct fish exposure or by concentration with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by measuring MFO in fish liver cell lines exposed to SPMD extracts. In these experiments, both fish and fish cells showed differences in slopes of dose-response curves, and in the maximal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. For example, TCDD elicits an EROD maxima of over 500 pmol/mg/min in PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), while pulp mill and oil refinery effluent extracts showed maxima of 40 to 200 pmol/mg/min. Substituted phenanthrenes caused induction maxima of 100 pmol/mg/min. Similarly, in rainbow trout in vivo, TCDD and other chlorinated dioxins and furans induced up to 500 pmol/mg/min, whereas pulp mill and refinery effluents and substituted phenanthrenes produced EROD maxima of up to 100 pmol/mg/min. Differences in the slopes of dose-response curves were also common. In the current assessment of potencies, these diverse response curves are boiled-down to one number, the EC50 or other threshold-type of concentration. Comparisons of EC50s cannot express these differences and instead, ignore them. However, the authors realize there must be a better approach that takes into account these large differences in dose-response curve shape, slope and maxima. Interaction and discussions with modelers in the session will allow them to discuss various approaches to expressing the potencies of MFO inducers in fish

  8. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  9. Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of diversity management which, in the context of organizations, consists in the strategic process of harnessing the potential of all employees to create an inclusive environment and, at the same time, contribute to meeting organizational goals. The entry first...... describes the complex construct of diversity that has been variously conceptualized in the literature, embracing multiple social and informational diversity dimensions such as gender, age, culture, values, and workstyle. This is followed by illustration of the historical development of diversity-management...... discourse and practice, and possible overarching approaches guiding organizations. It goes on to elucidate elements linked to the implementation of diversity management: positive and negative outcomes, most spread practices including communication, and contingency factors shaping the understanding...

  10. Fish assemblages on fringing reefs in the southern Caribbean: biodiversity, biomass and feeding types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahson B. Alemu I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reef fish assemblages in the Caribbean are under increasing pressure from human activities. Inadequate enforcement of legislation coupled with unreliable and data-poor landings in Tobago have led to the unregulated exploitation of reef fish for decades. This study addresses the lack of data on major reefs. Visual observations of fish fauna were conducted from November 2011-May 2013 at open access reef sites (Speyside, Charlotteville, Culloden, Arnos Vale, Mt. Irvine, La Guira, Kilgwyn, Plymouth and Black Rock and one protected area (Buccoo Reef Marine Park. Belt transects surveys were used to determine fish density, species diversity and abundance at the 10-15m depth contour. Fish sizes were converted to biomass using the length-weight relationship of fish W=aLb. Most fish assemblages were dominated by small herbivores (40cm e.g. Serranidae, were noted, which is indicative of fishing pressure. MDS ordination identified three fish assemblages: i northeastern, ii southwestern and iii intermediate. The northwestern cluster (Speyside and Charlotteville were most representative of reef fish assemblages across the entire island, and exhibited the highest species richness, diversity and biomass. However, the southwestern cluster the highest numerical abundance. The marine protected area contained higher fish biomass, abundance, diversity and richness, but it was only representative of reef fish assemblages on the southwest of the island and not the entire Tobago. Research on the reef fishery, particularly spear fishing, is recommended to determine impact.

  11. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  12. ENERGETIC EXTREMES IN REEF FISH OCCUPYING HARSH HABITATS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2009-01-01

    document how relatively small changes in fin morphology has afforded some coral reef fish taxa with exceptional locomotor performance and energetic efficiency, and how this key attribute may have played a key role in the evolution and ecology of several diverse Indo-Pacific reef fish families. Using......-finned counterparts. We discuss how such differences in locomotor efficiency are pivotal to the habitat-use of these fishes, and how eco-energetic models may be used to provide new insights into spatial variations in fish demography and ecology among coral reef habitat zones....

  13. Screen dealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The screen dealing system provides a facility whereby buyers and sellers of spot thermal coal can make bids and offers via the medium of the Reuters screen. A sale results when a market participant notifies his acceptance of a price to a central dealing desk. Use of the system is available to all genuine participants in the coal trade. This paper reports that it provides a focus for information and for the visible making of coal prices. For years screen trading has been used successfully to trade other commodities. At last coal is being traded electronically. It makes sense. It works. Users like it

  14. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Airport Screening Fact Sheet Adopted: May 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan ... a safe level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum ...

  15. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  16. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  17. Species Diversity Enhances Predator Growth Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.H.; Jacobs, R.P.; O'Donnell, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    Predators can be important top-down regulators of community structure and are known to have both positive and negative effects on species diversity. However, little is known about the reciprocal effects of species diversity on predators. Across a set of 80 lakes in Connecticut, USA, we found a strong positive correlation between prey species diversity (using the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index) and growth rates of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). This correlation was strongest for small predators and decreased with body size. Although the underlying mechanisms are not known, the correlation is not driven by total fish abundance, predator abundance, or productivity.

  18. Long-term changes in the fish assemblage of a neotropical hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, M L; Britton, J R

    2014-06-01

    The changes in the fish assemblage of the Capivara Reservoir, Brazil, were assessed over a 20 year period. Of 50 native fishes present in the initial samples, 27 were no longer present in the final samples, but there had been an addition of 11 invasive fishes, suggesting the occurrence of substantial shifts in fish diversity and abundance. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Ricardo S; Menezes, Naércio A

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are...

  20. Reverse screening methods to search for the protein targets of chemopreventive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongbin; Zhang, Guigui; Zhou, Yuquan; Lin, Chenru; Chen, Suling; Lin, Yutong; Mai, Shangkang; Huang, Zunnan

    2018-05-01

    This article is a systematic review of reverse screening methods used to search for the protein targets of chemopreventive compounds or drugs. Typical chemopreventive compounds include components of traditional Chinese medicine, natural compounds and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Such compounds are somewhat selective but are predisposed to bind multiple protein targets distributed throughout diverse signaling pathways in human cells. In contrast to conventional virtual screening, which identifies the ligands of a targeted protein from a compound database, reverse screening is used to identify the potential targets or unintended targets of a given compound from a large number of receptors by examining their known ligands or crystal structures. This method, also known as in silico or computational target fishing, is highly valuable for discovering the target receptors of query molecules from terrestrial or marine natural products, exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive compounds, finding alternative indications of existing drugs by drug repositioning, and detecting adverse drug reactions and drug toxicity. Reverse screening can be divided into three major groups: shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking. Several large software packages, such as Schrödinger and Discovery Studio; typical software/network services such as ChemMapper, PharmMapper, idTarget and INVDOCK; and practical databases of known target ligands and receptor crystal structures, such as ChEMBL, BindingDB and the Protein Data Bank (PDB), are available for use in these computational methods. Different programs, online services and databases have different applications and constraints. Here, we conducted a systematic analysis and multilevel classification of the computational programs, online services and compound libraries available for shape screening, pharmacophore screening and reverse docking to enable non-specialist users to quickly learn and

  1. Understanding Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDaan van Knippenberg is Professor of Organizational Behavior at RSM Erasmus University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. His research interests include work group performance, especially work group diversity and group decision making, leadership, in particular the roles of

  2. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for August 1986 to Decemeber 1988. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and is...

  3. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  4. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  5. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  6. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  7. Fish population dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulland, J. A

    1977-01-01

    This book describes how the dynamics of fish populations can be analysed in terms of the factors affecting their rates of growth, mortality and reproduction, with particular emphasis on the effects of fishing...

  8. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of fish Novirhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    The genus Novirhabdoviridae contains several of the important rhabdoviruses that infect fish hosts. There are four established virus species: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), Hirame rhabdovirus(HIRRV), and Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV). Viruses of these species vary in host and geographic range, and they have all been studied at the molecular and genomic level. As globally significant pathogens of cultured fish, IHNV and VHSV have been particularly well studied in terms of molecular epidemiology and evolution. Phylogenic analyses of hundreds of field isolates have defined five major genogroups of IHNV and four major genotypes of VHSV worldwide. These phylogenies are informed by the known histories of IHNV and VHSV, each involving a series of viral emergence events that are sometimes associated with host switches, most often into cultured rainbow trout. In general, IHNV has relatively low genetic diversity and a narrow host range, and has been spread from its endemic source in North American to Europe and Asia due to aquaculture activities. In contrast, VHSV has broad host range and high genetic diversity, and the source of emergence events is virus in widespread marine fish reservoirs in the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Common mechanisms of emergence and host switch events include use of raw feed, proximity to wild fish reservoirs of virus, and geographic translocations of virus or naive fish hosts associated with aquaculture.

  9. RAPD analysis for genetic diversity of two populations of Mystus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... and other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes. ... is a property at the population level while the functional diversity concept ... warm water fish species, which are distributed all over the world. ..... Phylogenetic.

  10. Similar levels of diversity and population Structure in superflock and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    superflock cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, Africa. ... Tropical Freshwater Biology ... We use DNA microsatellite loci to estimate neutral genetic diversity and the level of gene flow among populations of two cichlid species from southern Lake Victoria, ...

  11. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabd...

  12. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  13. Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this book on screen media, space, and mobility I compare synchronically, as well as diachronically, diverse and variegated screen media - their technologies and practices – as sites for virtual mobility and navigation. Mobility as a central trope can be found on the multiple levels that are

  14. Phylogenetic perspectives on reef fish functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, Sergio R; Bender, Mariana G; Siqueira, Alexandre C; Cowman, Peter F

    2018-02-01

    Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes on coral reefs. When examining reconstructed patterns for diet and feeding mode, we found examples of independent transitions to planktivory across different reef fish families. Such transitions and associated morphological alterations may represent cases in which ecological opportunity for the exploitation of different resources drives speciation and adaptation. In terms of body size, reconstructions showed that both large and small sizes appear multiple times within clades of mid-sized fishes and that extreme body sizes have arisen mostly in the last 10 million years (Myr). The reconstruction of range size revealed many cases of disparate range sizes among sister species. Such range size disparity highlights potential vicariant processes through isolation in peripheral locations. When accounting for peripheral speciation processes in sister pairs, we found a significant relationship between labrid range size and lineage age. The diversity and evolution of traits within lineages is influenced by trait-environment interactions as well as by species and trait-trait interactions, where the presence of a given trait may trigger the development of related traits or behaviours. Our effort to assess the evolution of functional diversity across reef fish clades adds to the burgeoning research focusing on the evolutionary and ecological roles of functional traits. We argue that the combination of a

  15. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  16. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  17. Phytochemical screening for antibacterial activity of potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants have been identified for their valuable properties for traditional medicine since thousands of years ago. The huge diversity of the Malaysian flora that has chemical diversity is one of the vital factors that make natural products outstanding candidates for any screening practice. In this study, the leaves of five local plants ...

  18. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  19. The Use of DNA Barcoding in Identification of Genetic Diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, for the first time, the use of DNA barcoding was used in identification of the genetic diversity of fish in Ugwu-omu Nike River, Enugu State, Nigeria. The fish were collected and placed in an aquarium and later transported to the Biotechnology laboratory of Godfrey Okoye University. The fish collection was ...

  20. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  1. Preimplantation genetic screening: back to the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    All agree that in hindsight the rapid adoption of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) using cleavage stage biopsy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in routine clinical practice without proper evaluation of (cost-)effectiveness basically resulted in couples paying more money for a

  2. The neuroendocrine regulation of food intake in fish: a review of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Volkoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish are the most diversified group of vertebrates and, although progress has been made in the past years, only relatively few fish species have been examined to date, with regards to the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish. In fish, as in mammals, feeding behavior is ultimately regulated by central effectors within feeding centers of the brain, which receive and process information from endocrine signals from both brain and peripheral tissues. Although basic endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding appear to be conserved among vertebrates, major physiological differences between fish and mammals and the diversity of fish, in particular in regard to feeding habits, digestive tract anatomy and physiology, suggest the existence of fish- and species-specific regulating mechanisms. This review provides an overview of hormones known to regulate food intake in fish, emphasizing on major hormones and the main fish groups studied to date.

  3. Fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders: a global pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nyffeler

    Full Text Available More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders--observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens--are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2-6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil. Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae, in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae, and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae. The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences. There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the 'swimming' huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae] predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders' body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders. Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance.

  4. Fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders: a global pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Pusey, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders--observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens--are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2-6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil). Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae), in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae), and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae). The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences). There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the 'swimming' huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae]) predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders' body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders). Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance.

  5. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  6. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  7. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  8. Immobilization thresholds of electrofishing relative to fish size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C.R.; Miranda, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    Fish size and electrical waveforms have frequently been associated with variation in electrofishing effectiveness. Under controlled laboratory conditions, we measured the electrical power required by five electrical waveforms to immobilize eight fish species of diverse sizes and shapes. Fish size was indexed by total body length, surface area, volume, and weight; shape was indexed by the ratio of body length to body depth. Our objectives were to identify immobilization thresholds, elucidate the descriptors of fish size that were best associated with those immobilization thresholds, and determine whether the vulnerability of a species relative to other species remained constant across electrical treatments. The results confirmed that fish size is a key variable controlling the immobilization threshold and further suggested that the size descriptor best related to immobilization is fish volume. The peak power needed to immobilize fish decreased rapidly with increasing fish volume in small fish but decreased slowly for fish larger than 75-100 cm 3. Furthermore, when we controlled for size and shape, different waveforms did not favor particular species, possibly because of the overwhelming effect of body size. Many of the immobilization inconsistencies previously attributed to species might simply represent the effect of disparities in body size.

  9. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  10. Fishes in a changing world: learning from the past to promote sustainability of fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T A C; Harding, H R; Clever, F K; Davidson, I K; Davison, W; Montgomery, D W; Weatherhead, R C; Windsor, F M; Armstrong, J D; Bardonnet, A; Bergman, E; Britton, J R; Côté, I M; D'agostino, D; Greenberg, L A; Harborne, A R; Kahilainen, K K; Metcalfe, N B; Mills, S C; Milner, N J; Mittermayer, F H; Montorio, L; Nedelec, S L; Prokkola, J M; Rutterford, L A; Salvanes, A G V; Simpson, S D; Vainikka, A; Pinnegar, J K; Santos, E M

    2018-03-01

    Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  12. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  13. A review of the influence of biogeography, riverine linkages, and marine connectivity on fish assemblages in evolving lagoons and lakes of coastal southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whitfield, AK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available lakes), elements of the marine fish assemblage have persisted, especially the presence of facultative catadromous species. Freshwater fish diversity in coastal lakes and lagoons is a function of historical and present biogeography and salinity. From a...

  14. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  15. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  16. Western Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  17. Health effects of fish and fish oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    1989-01-01

    .... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...

  18. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  19. Fish-T1K (Transcriptomes of 1,000 Fishes) Project: large-scale transcriptome data for fish evolution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Yu; Li, Xiaofeng; Baldwin, Carole C; Zhou, Zhuocheng; Yan, Zhixiang; Crandall, Keith A; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Min; Wong, Alex; Fang, Chao; Zhang, Xinhui; Huang, Hai; Lopez, Jose V; Kilfoyle, Kirk; Zhang, Yong; Ortí, Guillermo; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) represent more than 50 % of extant vertebrates and are of great evolutionary, ecologic and economic significance, but they are relatively underrepresented in 'omics studies. Increased availability of transcriptome data for these species will allow researchers to better understand changes in gene expression, and to carry out functional analyses. An international project known as the "Transcriptomes of 1,000 Fishes" (Fish-T1K) project has been established to generate RNA-seq transcriptome sequences for 1,000 diverse species of ray-finned fishes. The first phase of this project has produced transcriptomes from more than 180 ray-finned fishes, representing 142 species and covering 51 orders and 109 families. Here we provide an overview of the goals of this project and the work done so far.

  20. Screening and Identification of Anti-Vibrio harveyi Lactic Acid Bacteria Derived from Marine Fish Intestine%海水鱼肠道源性抗哈维氏弧菌乳酸菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欢欢; 吕欣然; 林洋; 白凤翎; 励建荣

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a main pathogenic bacterium that can induce vibriosis of shrimp and fish in the marine environment,causing huge economic losses in aquaculture.In this paper,49 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the marine fish intestine by the use of 1.0% CaCO3 MRS agar,including seabass,coilia ectenes,Paralichthys lethostigma and turbot.strain YP4-5 isolated from the intestine of Paralichthys lethostigma had strong antagonistic activity against V.harveyi using the method of Oxford cup agar diffusion,showing an inhibitory zone diameter of 18.26 mm.Antimicrobial substances of the cell-free supernatant (CFS) produced by strain YP4-5 were sensitive to protease,heat stable and effective within the pH range of 2.5-4.5,and they were preliminary determined as bacteriocins.The growth curve indicated that 74.74% of V.harveyi was inhibited by treatment with the CFS at a concentration of 0.4 MIC.Furthermore,cell integrity damage,cell membrane dissolution and intracellular component leakage were observed by scanning electron microscope.Strain YP4-5 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei according to physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis.This research can provide a good source of probiotics to prevent and control V.harveyi infection in aquaculture.%哈维氏弧菌是引起对虾和鱼弧菌病的主要病原菌,给海产养殖业造成重大的经济损失.利用1.0% CaCO3MRS琼脂从鲈鱼、刀鱼、牙鲆和大菱鲆等海水鱼肠道中分离到49株乳酸菌,采用牛津杯琼脂扩散法从中筛选出对哈维氏弧菌具有较强拮抗作用的菌株YP4-5,抑菌直径为18.26 mm.通过蛋白酶、pH值和温度等因素对菌株YP4-5的无细胞上清液(cell free supematant,CFS)抑菌物质进行初步分析,表明抑菌活性物质对蛋白酶敏感,pH2.5~4.5时对哈维氏弧菌具有抑制作用,具有良好的热稳定性,初步判断YP4-5 CFS中抑菌活性物质为细菌素类.0.4

  1. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...

  2. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  3. PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  4. Photo screening around the world: Lions Club International Foundation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Sean P; Lorenz, Sylvia; Johnson, Tammy

    2008-01-01

    To describe the use of photoscreening for preschool vision screening in several diverse locations throughout the world. The MTI photo screener was used to screen pre-verbal children; photographs were interpreted using standard criteria. The Tennessee vision screening program remains successful, screening over 200,000 children during the past 8 years. Similar programs modeled across the United States have screened an additional 500,000 children. A pilot demonstration project in Hong Kong, Beijing, and Brazil screened over 5000 additional children with good success and appropriately low referral rates. Photoscreening can be an appropriate technique for widespread vision screening of preschool children throughout the world.

  5. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truebe, J.; Drooker, M.S.

    1984-02-14

    A means and method are disclosed for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprise a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water. 6 figs.

  6. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  7. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in fish swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufiero, Christopher E.; Whitlow, Katrina R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish have a remarkable amount of variation in their swimming performance, from within species differences to diversity among major taxonomic groups. Fish swimming is a complex, integrative phenotype and has the ability to plastically respond to a myriad of environmental changes. The plasticity of fish swimming has been observed on whole-organismal traits such as burst speed or critical swimming speed, as well as underlying phenotypes such as muscle fiber types, kinematics, cardiovascular system, and neuronal processes. Whether the plastic responses of fish swimming are beneficial seems to depend on the environmental variable that is changing. For example, because of the effects of temperature on biochemical processes, alterations of fish swimming in response to temperature do not seem to be beneficial. In contrast, changes in fish swimming in response to variation in flow may benefit the fish to maintain position in the water column. In this paper, we examine how this plasticity in fish swimming might evolve, focusing on environmental variables that have received the most attention: temperature, habitat, dissolved oxygen, and carbon dioxide variation. Using examples from previous research, we highlight many of the ways fish swimming can plastically respond to environmental variation and discuss potential avenues of future research aimed at understanding how plasticity of fish swimming might evolve. We consider the direct and indirect effects of environmental variation on swimming performance, including changes in swimming kinematics and suborganismal traits thought to predict swimming performance. We also discuss the role of the evolution of plasticity in shaping macroevolutionary patterns of diversity in fish swimming. PMID:29491937

  8. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  9. Genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans models for neurodegenerative diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarenga Fernandes Sin, Olga; Michels, Helen; Nollen, Ellen A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans comprises unique features that make it an attractive model organism in diverse fields of biology. Genetic screens are powerful to identify genes and C. elegans can be customized to forward or reverse genetic screens and to establish gene function. These genetic screens can be

  10. Adoption Of Improved Fish Technologies Among Fish Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shortfall exists between fish supply and fish demand in the country despite the introduction of improved technology to fish farmers. This led to huge wage bill on the importation of fish to meet the protein need of the ever increasing population. This prompted this study with focus on adoption of improved fish technologies ...

  11. Mudskipper fishing in the coast of Bhavnagar, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Kanejiya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas of Bhavnagar district harbors wide range of ichthyofaunal diversity and diverse fisheries resources. The fishermen in this area use wide range of fishing methods and gears, which evolved traditionally and being adept extensively in Bhavnagar coastline. Livelihood of these fishermen is almost entirely depends on mudskipper fishing and they employ three types of fishing methods to catch them i.e. direct catch through digging the burrow, stick traps around mudskipper holes, and by nylon net. Fishing by using nylon net is the most commonly used method compared to others.

  12. Oral vaccination of fish: Lessons from humans and veterinary species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Carmen W E; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-11-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines for mass vaccination of farmed fish species. Furthermore, using various examples from the human and veterinary vaccine development, we propose additional approaches to fish vaccine design also considering recent advances in fish mucosal immunology and novel molecular tools. Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of using the zebrafish as a pre-screening animal model to potentially speed up vaccine design and testing for aquaculture fish species. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  14. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  15. Freshwater fishes of Patagonia: conservation and fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussac, V E; Habit, E; Ciancio, J; Battini, M A; Riva Rossi, C; Barriga, J P; Baigún, C; Crichigno, S

    2016-07-01

    The absence of much literature on the Patagonian fish fauna in comparison with that of the neotropics, has previously been blamed on its poor species diversity. Knowledge of the fishes of Patagonia, however, rose sharply at the beginning of the present century, allowing for an understanding of the complex biogeographical history that has led to the present diversity and distribution patterns. There are several new and potential threats to biodiversity and conservation of Patagonian fishes, such as the introduction of exotic species, damming, climate change and changes geared to safeguard economic interests, often acting synergistically. A great amount of new information is now available and the aim of the present review is to articulate this knowledge in a comprehensive way in order to aid in the development of tools to face the increasing challenges posed by environmental change and human activity. Knowledge about fishes of Patagonia has grown at the same time as human actions, and presence. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  17. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  18. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species

  19. Fish and hydroelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpette, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems that hydroelectric plants have regarding fish populations. The utilities that operate these plants are finding that accommodating migrating fish presents unique engineering challenges, not the least of which involves designing and building systems to protect fish species whose migratory behavior remains something of a mystery. Where such systems cannot be built, the status of hydroelectric dams may be in doubt, as is now the case with several dams in the United States. A further twist in some regions in the possibility that certain migratory fish will be declared threatened or endangered-a development that could wreak havoc on the hydroelectric energy supply in those regions

  20. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  1. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  2. Local fish extinction in a small tropical lake in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo dos Santos Pompeu

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa is a shallow permanent lake, located in Belo Horizonte metropolitan region, Brazil. In this study, the loss in fish diversity of the lake over the past 150 years is evaluated. Local extinction of almost 70% of the original fish fauna is described. Probably, the main causes of this richness loss were: obstruction of natural communication with rio das Velhas, non-native species introduction, change in the water level, organic pollution, and elimination of littoral and submerged vegetation.

  3. What fish and how many there are in Danube Delta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂVODARU Ion

    2011-09-01

    1972 and starting from 1972 until 2010, gibel carp become the dominant commercial species, followed by roach + rudd and bream + white bream. Since, fish estimation based on sampling gives valuable data on actual status of fish structure, catch statistics describe fish evolution and changes in time due to environmental pressure, both analyses are valuable tools in sustainable management of fish resources and for promoting conservation of fish diversity inDanube delta.

  4. GENOTYPING OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM FRESH WATER FISH AND FISH PICKLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Jain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the genotypes of Clostridium perfringens in fish and fish based products from Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. A total of 301 samples consisting intestinal contents of freshwater fish (234 from various dams, freshwater lakes, ponds, retail shops and markets and fish pickles (67 obtained from randomly selected retail shops and supermarkets were investigated. Bacterial isolations, identifications and phenotypic characterization of virulence factors were carried out as per standard microbiological procedures. Genotyping of the C. perfringens isolates were done by amplifying four major lethal toxin genes namely- alpha toxin gene (cpa, beta toxin gene (cpb, epsilon toxin gene (etx, iota toxin gene (iA in a Thermal Cycler. Isolates were also screened for the presence of enterotoxin gene (cpe and beta2 toxin gene (cpb2 by single step PCR. Biochemical tests and phenotypic determination of virulence factors tentatively identified 82 (27.24% isolates of C. perfringens. In PCR assay, all 82 (100% isolates harbored cpa toxin genes of C. perfringens, however, 65 (79.26% isolates also carried additional cpb2 toxin genes. None of the isolates were found positive for beta, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes. Genotyping of the 82 isolates by PCR revealed that all the isolated bacteria were belonged to C. perfringens type A and both cpa and cpb2 toxin genes were prevalent among the isolates of C. perfringens type A, impending the risk of pathogenicity to human via freshwater fish and fish pickles.

  5. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  6. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  7. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  8. Experimental investigation of fish downstream passage and turbine related fish mortality at an innovative hydro power setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Franz; Cuchet, Mathilde; Rutschmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fish downstream passage of small fish at the innovative TUM hydro shaft power plant concept was investigated experimentally. The behavior of 1974 inserted individuals of brown trout, grayling, barbel, minnow and bullhead of 45 mm to 220 mm body length was observed in a fully functional test setup which included a 35 kW Kaplan turbine and a horizontal screen with 20 mm bar clearance. The 24 h tests were conducted under nature like conditions whereas the laboratory environment also enabled targeted hydraulic situations and modifications of the bypass during the test series. A recapture rate of the fish of 99% and a subsequent 96 h observation period yielded detailed information about the migration behavior and instant as well as long term mortality. The results reveal the actual passage distribution of small fish between bypass and turbine and the turbine related injury and mortality rates in dependency of fish species, fish length, turbine discharge and bypass arrangement. General trends as well as species specific particularities could be deduced. The work confirms the suitability of the employed experimental approach and the ecological potential of the investigated hydro power plant concept. The behavioral barrier effect of the screen on small fish and the necessary of appropriate downstream migration corridor were proved and quantified. (authors)

  9. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Antifungal potential of marine sponge extract against plant and fish pathogenic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ravichandran, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Ciavatta, M.L.

    scope for rediscovering compounds with antimicrobial activity. This study screens extracts (Diethyl Ether and Butanol) of a marine red-Sea sponge Negombata magnifica for invitro fungicidal activity against 10 plant and 3 fish pathogens. Fungicidal...

  11. Repeated and Widespread Evolution of Bioluminescence in Marine Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Davis

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence is primarily a marine phenomenon with 80% of metazoan bioluminescent genera occurring in the world's oceans. Here we show that bioluminescence has evolved repeatedly and is phylogenetically widespread across ray-finned fishes. We recover 27 independent evolutionary events of bioluminescence, all among marine fish lineages. This finding indicates that bioluminescence has evolved many more times than previously hypothesized across fishes and the tree of life. Our exploration of the macroevolutionary patterns of bioluminescent lineages indicates that the present day diversity of some inshore and deep-sea bioluminescent fish lineages that use bioluminescence for communication, feeding, and reproduction exhibit exceptional species richness given clade age. We show that exceptional species richness occurs particularly in deep-sea fishes with intrinsic bioluminescent systems and both shallow water and deep-sea lineages with luminescent systems used for communication.

  12. Local phylogenetic divergence and global evolutionary convergence of skull function in reef fishes of the family Labridae

    OpenAIRE

    Westneat, Mark W; Alfaro, Michael E; Wainwright, Peter C; Bellwood, David R; Grubich, Justin R; Fessler, Jennifer L; Clements, Kendall D; Smith, Lydia L

    2005-01-01

    The Labridae is one of the most structurally and functionally diversified fish families on coral and rocky reefs around the world, providing a compelling system for examination of evolutionary patterns of functional change. Labrid fishes have evolved a diverse array of skull forms for feeding on prey ranging from molluscs, crustaceans, plankton, detritus, algae, coral and other fishes. The species richness and diversity of feeding ecology in the Labridae make this group a marine analogue to t...

  13. Long-term temporal and spatial changes in the richness and relative abundance of the inshore fish community of the British North Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in temporal and spatial composition of the British inshore North Sea fish community are reviewed. Sampling from the cooling water filter screens of power stations bordering the North Sea commenced in the early 1960s. To date, a total of 112 marine fish species have been recorded, a high proportion of the total inshore fish species complement of shallow North Sea British waters. The unrecorded top predators, such as large sharks, swordfish and tuna are not regularly observed in waters fish diversity and abundance in large industrialised estuaries such as the Thames and the Firth of Forth. Linked to spawning and nursery habitat gain, smelt, Osmerus eperlangus, and bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, have greatly increased in abundance. There is no evidence for a decline in species richness since the 1970s. However, elasmobranch species number has declined while two species Raja clavata and Scyliorhinus canicula have remained abundant and one, Mustelus asterias, has increased in abundance. It is argued that overexploitation and habitat destruction remain, as they have been for the last 300 years, the most serious threats to the health of North Sea inshore fish communities. There are no clear signs that climate change is causing species loss, although it may be influencing relative species abundance as species at the southern edge of their range such as the viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparous, have declined in the southern British North Sea. Power station water temperature records do not show a warming trend, in some estuarine locations temperature has declined with reduced thermal pollution; the temperature record cannot explain the observed major changes in fish relative abundance observed since the 1970s.

  14. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  15. Genetic evidence for multiple sources of the non-native fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther; Mayan Cichlids in southern Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Harrison

    Full Text Available The number and diversity of source populations may influence the genetic diversity of newly introduced populations and affect the likelihood of their establishment and spread. We used the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene and nuclear microsatellite loci to identify the sources of a successful invader in southern Florida, USA, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Mayan cichlid. Our cytochrome b data supported an introduction from Guatemala, while our microsatellite data suggested movement of Mayan Cichlids from the upper Yucatán Peninsula to Guatemala and introductions from Guatemala and Belize to Florida. The mismatch between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes suggests admixture of a female lineage from Guatemala, where all individuals were fixed for the mitochondrial haplotype found in the introduced population, and a more diverse but also relatively small number of individuals from Belize. The Florida cytochrome b haplotype appears to be absent from Belize (0 out of 136 fish screened from Belize had this haplotype. Genetic structure within the Florida population was minimal, indicating a panmictic population, while Mexican and Central American samples displayed more genetic subdivision. Individuals from the Upper Yucatán Peninsula and the Petén region of Guatemala were more genetically similar to each other than to fish from nearby sites and movement of Mayan Cichlids between these regions occurred thousands of generations ago, suggestive of pre-Columbian human transportation of Mayan Cichlids through this region. Mayan Cichlids present a rare example of cytonuclear disequilibrium and reduced genetic diversity in the introduced population that persists more than 30 years (at least 7-8 generations after introduction. We suggest that hybridization occurred in ornamental fish farms in Florida and may contribute their establishment in the novel habitat. Hybridization prior to release may contribute to other successful invasions.

  16. Genetic evidence for multiple sources of the non-native fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther; Mayan Cichlids) in southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Trexler, Joel C; Collins, Timothy M; Vazquez-Domínguez, Ella; Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Barrientos, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The number and diversity of source populations may influence the genetic diversity of newly introduced populations and affect the likelihood of their establishment and spread. We used the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene and nuclear microsatellite loci to identify the sources of a successful invader in southern Florida, USA, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Mayan cichlid). Our cytochrome b data supported an introduction from Guatemala, while our microsatellite data suggested movement of Mayan Cichlids from the upper Yucatán Peninsula to Guatemala and introductions from Guatemala and Belize to Florida. The mismatch between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes suggests admixture of a female lineage from Guatemala, where all individuals were fixed for the mitochondrial haplotype found in the introduced population, and a more diverse but also relatively small number of individuals from Belize. The Florida cytochrome b haplotype appears to be absent from Belize (0 out of 136 fish screened from Belize had this haplotype). Genetic structure within the Florida population was minimal, indicating a panmictic population, while Mexican and Central American samples displayed more genetic subdivision. Individuals from the Upper Yucatán Peninsula and the Petén region of Guatemala were more genetically similar to each other than to fish from nearby sites and movement of Mayan Cichlids between these regions occurred thousands of generations ago, suggestive of pre-Columbian human transportation of Mayan Cichlids through this region. Mayan Cichlids present a rare example of cytonuclear disequilibrium and reduced genetic diversity in the introduced population that persists more than 30 years (at least 7-8 generations) after introduction. We suggest that hybridization occurred in ornamental fish farms in Florida and may contribute their establishment in the novel habitat. Hybridization prior to release may contribute to other successful invasions.