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  1. The Irish legislative gender quota: The first election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Mary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 legislative gender quotas were introduced as part of the Fine Gael/Labour coalition government’s political reform agenda. The legislation specifies that payments to political parties ‘shall be reduced by 50 per cent, unless at least 30 per cent of the candidates whose candidatures were authenticated by the qualified party at the preceding general election were women and at least 30 per cent were men’. The 30 per cent gender threshold came into effect at the 2016 general election. Research demonstrates that gender quotas work to increase women’s political descriptive representation, but to do so, political parties must engage with them in ‘goodwill’, be ‘wellintentioned’ or place women in ‘winnable seats’. This article examines if this was the case at the 2016 general election. Using statistics, as well as drawing from interviews with party strategists, the article assesses the impact of gender quotas on women’s candidate selection and election. We conclude that parties did embrace the spirit of the gender quota law but resistance remains.

  2. First in...Last Out: History of the U.S. Army Pathfinder (1942-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Brittany, it would seize the Port of Brest , and cover the south flank, while the First Army began an attack to the northeast toward Paris .63 87 On the......it will provide insights into Pathfinder doctrine, “tactics, techniques and procedures,” strategy, technology and lessons learned from their origin

  3. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    ... who was first elected in 1998. Under Ch vez, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new constitution in place, a new unicameral legislature, and even a new name for the country, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela...

  4. Assessing the Impact of Information Technology (WWW) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    election must be mindful of the identified negative factors and begin early enough (preferably after the first election victory) to create positive public image to enhance and consolidate public legitimacy and influence electoral victory at the polls.

  5. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  6. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  7. Students as First-Time Voters: The Role of Voter Advice Applications in Self-Reflection on Party Choice and Political Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; Solhaug, Trond

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses what characterises first time voters' self-reflections on party choice as they use voter advice applications. Method: This study is based on interviews of 28 Norwegian students (age 18-20) preparing themselves for their first election. Findings: Finding a party to vote for is primarily characterized by a process of…

  8. The Camp David Peace Accords: A Model for Greece and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    PASOK ) and would lose the election. The platform supported by PASOK and Prime Minister Papandreou in October 1981, when he was first elected, was to...several personally embarrassing events that have weakened his support from the Greek populace and from his PASOK Party. The need for peace Is apparent to

  9. Mode of first delivery and severe maternal complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Krebs, Lone; Klungsøyr, Kari

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe obstetric complications increase by the number of previous cesarean deliveries. In the Nordic countries most women have two children. We present the risk of severe obstetric complications at the delivery following a first elective or emergency cesarean and the risk by intende...

  10. Student and Parental Message Effects on Urban Hispanic-American Students' Intention To Enroll in High School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn Bicknell; Crawley, Frank E.

    This research examined the effects of belief-based messages on the intentions of ninth and tenth grade, Hispanic-American students to enroll in their first elective science course at the pre-college level, chemistry. The design of the study was guided by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1989) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of…

  11. Larry Echo Hawk: A Rising Star from Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecarver, Charmaine

    1993-01-01

    Larry Echo Hawk, Idaho attorney general and former state legislator, discusses success factors in college and law school; early experiences as an Indian lawyer; first election campaign; and his views on tribal sovereignty, state-tribal relationship, gambling, and his dual responsibility to the general public and Native American issues. (SV)

  12. Modelos para la investigación con embriones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de la Vieja, M.ª Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Different models to approach research on embryos are relevant in theory and in practice. The Spanish Act of 2007 could exemplify the possibility of regulating research on human pre-embryos and, at the same time, establishing clear requirements to accept projects and practices. On the one hand, the gradualist model usually considers different levels of development and, for this reason, different levels of protection of human life. On the other hand, the nongradualist model rejects research on embryos, since it defends the protection of human life from the very beginning and in general. Disagreements about the topic and different laws only prove that it is still a difficult issue in European and other countries. The article argues that, in plural societies, respect for all perspectives and models requires to regulate biomedical research rather than prohibiting certain practices that are coherent with a specific idea of human life.Los modelos son relevantes para la teoría y para la práctica de la investigación con embriones. La Ley del año 2007, de investigación biomédica, ejemplifica la posibilidad de regular este tipo de investigación y, al mismo tiempo, establecer condiciones para autorizar proyectos y prácticas. Por un lado, el modelo gradualista considera que el desarrollo tiene diferentes etapas y, por lo mismo, ha de tener distintos grados de protección. Por otro, el modelo no gradualista rechaza este tipo de investigación, al defender la protección de la vida humana, desde sus inicios. Los desacuerdos en torno al tema demuestran que se trata de una cuestión que sigue siendo polémica, en la Unión Europea y en otros países. El artículo defiende que, en sociedades pluralistas, el respeto por todos los enfoques y modelos llevará a regular la investigación biomédica, no a prohibir prácticas acordes con una determinada noción de la vida humana.

  13. Identificación de procesos patológicos más frecuentes en fachadas y cubiertas en España a partir del método Delphi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The estimated service life, as well as its components materials, is critical in order to establish realistic building maintenance programs, manageable and economically viable. The methods based on durability factors, proposed in ISO- 15686, are an efficient way of estimating the building’s service life. However, there has been limited information on quantifying the durability values, and their relationship to vulnerability or processes of deterioration which might present a constructive element. Then, this paper describes a method to characterize the most frequent damage mechanisms in the envelope of a building, since it is an element with a high risk of lesions and, accordingly, with a reduced durability. The system used to generate this information was the Delphi method that involves consultation to groups with expert-based approach to generate convergence of views. The results allow the identification and quantification of relevant durability factors that determine the occurrence of damage to an element affecting its service life.Los métodos basados en factores de durabilidad, según ISO-15686, son una forma eficiente de estimar la vida útil los elementos de un edificio. Sin embargo, se ha constatado la escasa información sobre cuantificación de dichos factores y sobre su vinculación con la vulnerabilidad o procesos de deterioro que podría presentar un elemento constructivo. En consecuencia, este artículo describe un procedimiento para caracterizar los mecanismos de daño más frecuentes en la envolvente del edificio, por ser un elemento con un elevado riesgo de presentar lesiones y ver reducida su durabilidad. Para elaborar dicha información se ha utilizado el método Delphi que implica la consulta a grupos de expertos a fin de generar convergencia de opiniones. Los resultados obtenidos permiten la identificación y cuantificación de los factores de durabilidad relevantes que condicionan la aparición de un daño de un elemento y

  14. Tales from the Body Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    English abstract: How can we approach the interaction between body and city as political? This article moves through a sequence of cases in which bodies - groups, crowds, or swarms of people - have affected the public space of Copenhagen around 1900. First, election day is investigated for its co...... in the discussion of public space in cultural history that has for some time been focusing on materiality.......English abstract: How can we approach the interaction between body and city as political? This article moves through a sequence of cases in which bodies - groups, crowds, or swarms of people - have affected the public space of Copenhagen around 1900. First, election day is investigated for its...

  15. India’s Northeast: The Frontier in Ferment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    only the men were asked to exercise their franchise ; women were not considered politically intelligent enough to give their choice on such a...in 1948. Significantly, this was the first election held in any part of the country on the basis of adult franchise . The Manipur Congress adopted a...for the women. In August 2003 the organization clamped a ban on restaurants and cafes having dimly-lit cubicles on the grounds that these encouraged

  16. Electing police and crime commissioners in England and Wales, 2012 as second-order elections

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, R.; Pattie, C.

    2014-01-01

    The first elections to the newly created 41 posts of Police and Crime Commissioner in England and Wales were held in November 2012. The results show all the main characteristics of second-order elections. Turnout was low. The two unpopular coalition parties in the national government lost vote share compared to the outcome of the most recent general election, whereas the main opposition party's share increased substantially-as did that of a minor party (UKIP). Labour, Liberal Democrat and UKI...

  17. Parliamentary privilege--mortality in members of the Houses of Parliament compared with the UK general population: retrospective cohort analysis, 1945-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, John; Crayford, Tim

    2015-12-14

    To examine mortality in members of the two UK Houses of Parliament compared with the general population, 1945-2011. Retrospective cohort analysis of death rates and predictors of mortality in Members of Parliament (MPs) and members of the House of Lords (Lords). UK. 4950 MPs and Lords first joining the UK parliament in 1945-2011. Standardised mortality ratios, comparing all cause death rates of MPs and Lords from first election or appointment with those in the age, sex, and calendar year matched general population. Between 1945 and 2011, mortality was lower in MPs (standardised mortality ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.76) and Lords (0.63, 0.60 to 0.67) than in the general population. Over the same period, death rates among MPs also improved more quickly than in the general population. For every 100 expected deaths, 22 fewer deaths occurred among MPs first elected in 1990-99 compared with MPs first elected in 1945-49. Labour party MPs had 19% higher death rates compared with the general population than did Conservative MPs (relative mortality ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.40). The effect of political party on mortality disappeared when controlling for education level. From 1945 to 2011, MPs and Lords experienced lower mortality than the UK general population, and, at least until 1999, the mortality gap between newly elected MPs and the general population widened. Even among MPs, educational background was an important predictor of mortality, and education possibly explains much of the mortality difference between Labour and Conservative MPs. Social inequalities are alive and well in UK parliamentarians, and at least in terms of mortality, MPs are likely to have never had it so good. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Tales from the Body Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    contradictory spectacle of the public egalitarian crowd and the singular subject of the secret ballot. The analysis then turns to political marches of the period, considering the way participants in these marches produced and appropriated their routes during the intensified political tensions of the 1880s......English abstract: How can we approach the interaction between body and city as political? This article moves through a sequence of cases in which bodies - groups, crowds, or swarms of people - have affected the public space of Copenhagen around 1900. First, election day is investigated for its...... in the discussion of public space in cultural history that has for some time been focusing on materiality....

  19. Ballots and Blue Helmets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt

    This paper provides an answer to the question of why early post-conflict elections have been so frequent in the post-Cold War era, when they are widely believed to be prone to result in renewed violence. I show that their popularity stems from their utility as an exit strategy for peacekeeping...... contributions to UN missions after 1989. The data reveal that UN troops rapidly accumulate before the first election in a mission and then leave just as rapidly afterwards. This pattern is independent of the income and regime type of contributor countries and of the level of violence in the mission country....

  20. Students as First-time Voters: The role of Voter Advice Applications in Self-reflection on Party Choice and Political Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Nørgaard Kristensen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article analyses what characterises first time voters' self-reflections on party choice as they use voter advice applications. Method: This study is based on interviews of 28 Norwegian students (age 18-20preparing themselves for their first election. Findings: Finding a party to vote for is primarily characterized by a process of matching a party to students' political self, which we see as steps toward a political identity. Practical implications: Teaching politics should allow for students' reflections on self and their political preferences.

  1. New variants of finite criss-cross pivot algorithms for linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we generalize the so-called first-in-last-out pivot rule and the most-often-selected-variable pivot rule for the simplex method, as proposed in Zhang \\\\cite{Z91}, to the criss-cross pivot setting where neither the primal nor the dual feasibility is preserved. The finiteness

  2. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  3. Corruption and Local Democratization in Indonesia: The Role of Islamic Parties1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has a tradition of corruption among local officials who harass and collect bribes from firms. This paper examines whether corruption is affected by a change in institutions introducing local democratization and by party composition of local assemblies. Democratization occurred in 1999 and decentralization in 2001. We have firm-level data for 2001 and 2004. The 2001 data benchmark corruption at the time of decentralization, but for a limited sample of districts. We find that corruption declines between 2001 and 2004 overall, but much less [more] so in districts with more secular [Islamic] party representatives in district assemblies. For a larger sample of districts, correspondingly, we find that corruption in 2004 is more in districts which voted more in favor of secular party representatives in the first elections in 1999. We argue that the effects seem to be causal, over above any effects of changing religiosity and economic circumstances across districts. PMID:25083023

  4. Corruption and Local Democratization in Indonesia: The Role of Islamic Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J Vernon; Kuncoro, Ari

    2011-03-01

    Indonesia has a tradition of corruption among local officials who harass and collect bribes from firms. This paper examines whether corruption is affected by a change in institutions introducing local democratization and by party composition of local assemblies. Democratization occurred in 1999 and decentralization in 2001. We have firm-level data for 2001 and 2004. The 2001 data benchmark corruption at the time of decentralization, but for a limited sample of districts. We find that corruption declines between 2001 and 2004 overall, but much less [more] so in districts with more secular [Islamic] party representatives in district assemblies. For a larger sample of districts, correspondingly, we find that corruption in 2004 is more in districts which voted more in favor of secular party representatives in the first elections in 1999. We argue that the effects seem to be causal, over above any effects of changing religiosity and economic circumstances across districts.

  5. Media and the 2013 Kenyan election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In March 2013, Kenya held its first election after the post-election violence (PEV) in 2008, which media were blamed for contributing to by partisan reporting and hate speech. Prior to the 2013 election, several organizations worked to raise awareness of the negative consequences of hate speech...... and the need of responsible journalism. This article sheds light on how Kenyan journalists perceived their role and evaluated their own reporting of the 2013 election and whether they were influenced by the experience of the PEV. The article shows how the experience of the PEV became a reference point when...... discussing the election reporting and the role of journalists. Several journalists admitted that important issues were avoided due to fear of steering up emotions....

  6. The Connection Between the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and the Prohibition Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Chamberlain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long been interested in the complementary relationships forged by membership groups and political parties. The post-bellum period presents an opportunity to consider these connections using a case study of two groups concerned with the ills of alcohol, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU and the Prohibition Party. Our analysis of presidential elections from 1876 to 1900 reveals that—although women were disenfranchised at the time—the WCTU’s organization and infrastructure was essential to early Prohibition Party success. In 1884, the first election after the two created a formal alliance in 1882, the strength of the WCTU helped the party grow its voter base. However, the two slowly diverged over how to achieve prohibition, and this relationship dissipated; there is little evidence of any significant connection between the groups after 1884. This supports the proposition that a shared means of accomplishing goals is an essential element of an effective group–party partnership.

  7. Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's background notes on the Caribbean island nation of Jamaica discusses geography, people, history, government, defense and foreign relations, with lengthier sections on politics and economy. Jamaica, lying south of Cuba, has 10,991 sq. km., 2.3 million people of African and African-European origin primarily, a growth rate of 1.1%, infant mortality rate of 28/1000 and life expectancy of 71 years. The island has diverse climatic regions, mountainous structure, rich resources in bauxite, and agriculture. It was settled in the 1500s by Spain, occupied since 1670 Britain, and became independent in 1962. The first election in 1945 established the roots of the government, modeled after the British system. The 2 major parties, derived from preceding labor unions, are the Jamaican Labour Party, centrist but favoring private business and agriculture, and the People's National Party, more populist and socialist. The economy has suffered in recent years from recession, unemployment, high interest rates, international trade deficit and government spending deficits, as well as a brief alignment with Cuba that discouraged both tourism and foreign investment. Initiatives from U.S. investors have begun to reverse the trend, concentrating on establishment of light industry such as garment making and data entry. Jamaica's wealth in her stable government, literate population, natural resources, fertile soil, and good relations with other nations and institutions suggest that she will rise above her economic troubles.

  8. Politics and the Church. A segregational marriage that affects national integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Mionel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989 Revolution, Romania has gone through many rounds of presidential elections. However, none of these has ever divided the country map according to preferences before. On November the 2nd 2014, the last presidential election, Romania’s map was divided into three categories, two of wich (left wing voters and right wing voters were clearly accentuated. The Romanian electoral geography portrayed Transylvania as being almost completely affiliated to the right wing candidate, while the extra-Carpathian provinces wich voted the left wing candidate. Having a competitive candidate who belongs to a different denomination and is part of an etnic minority, together with the religious political attacks that were meant to affect the active orthodox, have segregated the Romanian population. The map wich was dispalyed after the first voting tour coincides with Samuel Huntington’s view on the clash of civilizations. Romania is at the border between the Western and Orthodox civilizations, and this implies tensions and conflict, according to Huntington’s view. The two map – the first election tour map as well as Huntington’s map – highlight a segregating state of affairs between Transylvania and the rest of Romania, wich can affect the national integrity due to irrational political messages that call on religion and etnic identity.

  9. Design of nuclear fuel cells by means of a statistical analysis and a sensibility study; Diseno de celdas de combustible nuclear mediante un analisis estadistico y un estudio de sensibilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui C, V. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R., E-mail: alejandro.castillo@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This work contains the results of the statistical analysis realized to study the nuclear fuel cells performance, considering the frequencies for the election of fuel bars used in the design of the same ones. The election of the bars used for the cells design are of 3 types, the first election shows that to the plotting the respective frequency is similar to a normal distribution, in the second case the frequencies graph is of type inverted square X{sup 2} and the last election is when the bars are chosen in aleatory form. The heuristic techniques used for the cells design were the neural networks, the ant colonies and a hybrid between the dispersed search and the trajectories re-linkage. To carry out the statistical analysis in the cells design were considered the local power peak factor and the neutron infinite multiplication factor (k∞) of this. On the other hand, the performance of the designed cells was analyzed when verifying the position of the bars containing gadolinium. The results show that is possible to design cells of nuclear fuel with a good performance, when considering the frequency of the bars used in their design. (Author)

  10. Design of nuclear fuel cells by means of a statistical analysis and a sensibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregui C, V.; Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R.

    2013-10-01

    This work contains the results of the statistical analysis realized to study the nuclear fuel cells performance, considering the frequencies for the election of fuel bars used in the design of the same ones. The election of the bars used for the cells design are of 3 types, the first election shows that to the plotting the respective frequency is similar to a normal distribution, in the second case the frequencies graph is of type inverted square X 2 and the last election is when the bars are chosen in aleatory form. The heuristic techniques used for the cells design were the neural networks, the ant colonies and a hybrid between the dispersed search and the trajectories re-linkage. To carry out the statistical analysis in the cells design were considered the local power peak factor and the neutron infinite multiplication factor (k∞) of this. On the other hand, the performance of the designed cells was analyzed when verifying the position of the bars containing gadolinium. The results show that is possible to design cells of nuclear fuel with a good performance, when considering the frequency of the bars used in their design. (Author)

  11. Sultan II. Mahmud Döneminde Safranbolu’da Muhtarlık Teşkilatının Kurulması / Establishing of Mukhtar Organization in Safranbolu in the Period of Sultan Mahmud II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Turhan Sarıköse

    2017-06-01

    Sultan Mahmud II period is known as the period of reforms in Ottoman history. In spite of the important political problems inside and outside that have taken place, important arrangements have been made in the structure of the state in this period. The central organization, army, education and provincial administration have been reorganized. As the tımar administration was abolished in the provincial administration in this period. The change of the provincial system towards the provincial system and the establishment of the mukhtar administration became effective. With the removal of the province organization, mukhtars were assigned instead of the imams who were unable to fulfill their obligatory mandate to increase the immigration to Istanbul. After the establishment of the mukhtar organization in the province first in Kastamonu province. Safranbolu is one of the first residential areas where the mukhtar organization was established. Safranbolu was located within the borders of Kastamonu province during this period. In this study, the establishment of the mukhtar organization in the center of Safranbolu and it’s surroundings the first elected mukhtars were evaluated within the archive documents.

  12. The origins of Cenobitic Monasticism on Mount Pochayiv and the First Donations to the Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mount Pochayiv became famous in Russia after the miraculous apparition of the Mother of God, which took place there. Presumably, already in 1240, monks from Kiev found refuge in nearby caves when fleeing the Tartar hordes. In 1559, the owner of these lands Anna Hojska provided funds for building an Orthodox monastery for the monks living in the caves and gave them a miraculous icon of the Mother of God. The most prominent abbot of the Pochayiv monastery was Job Zalizo. He was first elected exclusively by the monks as the new superior of the monastery, the fourth superior since the cenobitic rule was introduced in the monastery. The second prominent founder of the Pochayiv monastery were the Domaszewska family. Their efforts in the construction of the stone church, financial, land support and earth intended for the beautification and maintenance of the monastery, was to compensate for losses and damages applied by the magnate Firlej and the Cossack uprising. They wanted to prevent the total collapse and cessation of monastic life on Mount Pochayiv. For this reason, their names are so strongly emphasized in the history of the main spiritual center of Volyn.

  13. [Renal hematomas after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Navarro, Héctor; Carrión López, Pedro; Martínez Ruiz, Jesús; Pastor Guzmán, José Ma; Martínez Martín, Mariano; Virseda Rodríguez, Julio A

    2009-03-01

    The use of fragmentation due to shock- waves as a treatment of urinary stone was one of the most important therapeutics findings in the history of urology. It's the first election treatment for most of the calculus at renal and urethral location due to the fact that it is a low invasive treatment and it has a few number of complications, but this method also has a few negative side effects, it can caused a more or less important traumatic lesion at the organs which crosses the shock-waves, including the kidney where it can caused a small contusion or renal hematoma with different resolution and treatment. We reviewed 4815 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy that we performed in our department in which we found six cases with subcapsular and perirenal hematoma which we followed up and treated. After the urological complications (pain, obstruction and infection) the renal and perirenal hematic collections are the most frequent adverse effects of shock-waves used in lithotripsy, these are related to the power of energy used and patient age. Between the years 1992-2007 we performed 4.815 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy finding seven cases of severe hematoma, less then 1%. Treatment of these complications is usually not aggressive though sometimes it is necessary to perform surgical drainage and even nephrectomy.

  14. Reformasi Sistem Kebudayaan di Arab Saudi Masa Pemerintahan Raja Abdullah (2005- 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cammelianne Typhano Rachmadie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study described the reform of cultural system that occurred in Saudi Arabia during the reign of King Abdullah in 2005-2015. This study used qualitative method which was presented descriptively. The method used  in the discussion was historical method. The technique of collecting data was literature research. The reference books used were related to King Abdullah's cultural reform and government. The data collected was not only from books but also journals, theses, and articles. The writer conducted data selection from all data obtained, then analyzed and  took conclusion. The finding oh the study was the reform of the cultural system carried out by King Abdullah which covered the fields of politics, economics and education. The three areas were included in the main elements of culture. The cultural system reformations that occured in the political field were the appointment of women to become a minister, the first election for women and Arab government relations with foreign policy. The cultural system reformations that occured in the economic field were the formation of Arab common market, the accession process of Saudi Arabia WTO membership, and the involvement of Saudi women in the business world. The cultural system reformations in the field of education were the Saudi Arabian female students scholarship program and the Saudi Arabia Technology and Science University development by King Abdullah.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging with quantitative evaluation and fiber tractography of lumbar nerve roots in sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yin; Zong, Min; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zou, Yuefen; Feng, Yang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Dehang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •In the present study, we first elected ROIs corresponding to the proximal, medial, and distal levels of the lumbar foraminal zone. •The ROC analysis for FA values of distal nerves indicated a high level of reliability in the diagnosis of sciatica. •The declining trend of FA values from proximal to distal along the nerve tract may correlate with the disparity of axonal regeneration at different levels. •DTI is able to quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots and has a higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing sciatica than conventional MR imaging. •DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and probable localization of nerve compression. -- Abstract: Objective: To quantitatively evaluate nerve roots by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) values in healthy volunteers and sciatica patients, visualize nerve roots by tractography, and compare the diagnostic efficacy between conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. Materials and methods: Seventy-five sciatica patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging using DTI. FA values for L5–S1 lumbar nerve roots were calculated at three levels from DTI images. Tractography was performed on L3–S1 nerve roots. ROC analysis was performed for FA values. Results: The lumbar nerve roots were visualized and FA values were calculated in all subjects. FA values decreased in compressed nerve roots and declined from proximal to distal along the compressed nerve tracts. Mean FA values were more sensitive and specific than MR imaging for differentiating compressed nerve roots, especially in the far lateral zone at distal nerves. Conclusions: DTI can quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots, and DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and localization of probable nerve compression. DTI has great potential utility for evaluating lumbar nerve compression in sciatica

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging with quantitative evaluation and fiber tractography of lumbar nerve roots in sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yin; Zong, Min; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zou, Yuefen; Feng, Yang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Dehang, E-mail: njmu_wangdehang@126.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •In the present study, we first elected ROIs corresponding to the proximal, medial, and distal levels of the lumbar foraminal zone. •The ROC analysis for FA values of distal nerves indicated a high level of reliability in the diagnosis of sciatica. •The declining trend of FA values from proximal to distal along the nerve tract may correlate with the disparity of axonal regeneration at different levels. •DTI is able to quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots and has a higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing sciatica than conventional MR imaging. •DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and probable localization of nerve compression. -- Abstract: Objective: To quantitatively evaluate nerve roots by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) values in healthy volunteers and sciatica patients, visualize nerve roots by tractography, and compare the diagnostic efficacy between conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. Materials and methods: Seventy-five sciatica patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging using DTI. FA values for L5–S1 lumbar nerve roots were calculated at three levels from DTI images. Tractography was performed on L3–S1 nerve roots. ROC analysis was performed for FA values. Results: The lumbar nerve roots were visualized and FA values were calculated in all subjects. FA values decreased in compressed nerve roots and declined from proximal to distal along the compressed nerve tracts. Mean FA values were more sensitive and specific than MR imaging for differentiating compressed nerve roots, especially in the far lateral zone at distal nerves. Conclusions: DTI can quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots, and DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and localization of probable nerve compression. DTI has great potential utility for evaluating lumbar nerve compression in sciatica.

  17. “Trickster” and “Republican”: Robert Harley’s Political Career in the 1690s

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    Kiselev Aleksandr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Robert Harley is known as Tory politician, he began his career as a Whig politician. His grandfather and father were Presbyterians, and Robert Harley himself was a Presbyterian during his entire life. Harley’s family supported the Glorious Revolution of 1688. In 1689 Robert Harley was first elected to the House of Commons as a representative of the Whig party. Thanks to his wife’s Foley family, Robert Harley was elected as a commissioner of public accounts in the House of Commons. In 1689 Britain entered the “war of King William” which was a burden for many gentry (Whigs or Tories. Robert Harley became famous in the parliament as a critic of the war and corruption in the army. In 1693 the Whig leaders headed the ministry and continued the war. Their policy divided the Whigs party in two factions: “Court Whigs” and “Country Whigs”. Robert Harley and his supporters became “Country Whigs”, and they criticized the “Court Whigs”. By 1700 Robert Harley joined the Tory party. The article also describes the evolution of historiography of Harley‘s policy. Victorian historians have called the Prime Minister a “stupid person”. The same opinion was repeated by Russian historians of the 19th century. But in the 20th century the assessment of Robert Harley’s activity was changed by the works of K. Feiling, G. Holmes, B.W. Hill and other historians. Soviet historians (for example M.A. Barg also called R.Harley a “mediocre politician”, but modern Russian historians (L.I. Ivonina, T.L. Labutina and others consider him a “clever statesman” and a “master of political intrigues and parliamentary diplomacy”.

  18. Comparison of Morphine Suppository and Diclofenac Suppository for Pain Management After Elective Caesarean Section

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    Atossa Mahdavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated efficacy and side effects of Morphine suppository for pain management after the first elective caesarean delivery in comparison to Diclofenac suppository. One hundred women aged 18-40 with term pregnancies undergoing elective caesarean section for the first time participated in this prospective project. Exclusion criteria included drug sensitivity, fetal malformations or defects, and complications during the cesarean operation. After same spinal anesthesia and same surgical techniques and in the recovery room patients consecutively received 100 mg diclofenac suppository or 10 mg morphine suppository. The pain severity was rated by “Numerical Rating Scale.” There was not the difference between two groups in terms of basal information. Pain score was significantly different between two groups in the first 12 hours (5.66 ±1.36 in morphine group and 3.63±0.96 in diclofenac group but not in the second 12 hour period. Considering pain scores every two hours in first 12 hours and every 4 hours in second 12 hours, morphine group had higher scores in comparison to diclofenac group. Also, the morphine group required pethidine injection sooner than the other group. The time giving first pethidine injection was 3.28±2.16 hours after operation in morphine group and 5.24±4.07 hours after operation (P<0.05. This study demonstrated that diclofenac suppository in comparison to morphine suppository decreased subjective pain scores in the first twenty-four hours after elective caesarean section which reached statistical significance in the first twelve hours. Although in diclofenac group, pethidine injection was prescribed significantly later.

  19. PERAN PUBLIK PEREMPUAN DALAM PARLEMEN (STUDI ANALISIS REPRESENTASI WAKIL RAKYAT PEREMPUAN DALAM LINTAS SEJARAH INDONESIA

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    Fatimatuz Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Keterwakilan perempuan dalam parlemen menjadi sebuah kebutuhan tak terelakkan, sebab berbagai problematika mengenai perempuan harus dan bisa diatasi oleh perempuan itu sendiri. Pada pemilu pertamadalam sejarah Indonesia 1955, perempuan bukanhanya punya hak pilih dan memilih, tetapi bahkan ada partai perempuan yang turut bertarung, yakni Partai Wanita Indonesia/Partai Wanita Rakjat. Dalam pemiluitu, ada 19 perempuan yang terpilih sebagai anggotaparlemen (DPR. Kebijakan kuota 30% perempuan yang diberlakukan mulai tahun 2004 justru banyak sekalianggota legislatif perempuan yang berperan sebagai“ganjal kursi” supaya partai tersebut lolos affirmative account. Artikel ini mengkaji analisis representasi wakilrakyat perempuan dalam persentase vokalitas serta peran aktif wakil rakyat perempuan tersebut dalam menyelesaikan berbagai persoalan bangsa menyangkut perempuan. Kata kunci: Keterwakilan, perempuan, analisis representasi   The representation of women in parliament becomes an inevitable requirement, since various problems concerning women should and could be overcome by women themselves. History has proven in the 1955general election, the first election in the history of Indonesia, women not only have the right to vote andchoose, but even there the women who participatedfight party, namely the Indonesian Women Party / PartyWomen People. In the election, 19 women were electedto parliament (DPR. Since 2004, formally enacted Actrequirement for any political party that put forward legislative candidates who will compete in the elections,mandatory composition is 30% female and 70% male.This is precisely, makes the boomerang at a later date,with this requirement actually a lot of women legislatorswho serve as «padding seat» in order to qualify foraffirmative account of the party. And later on, whenthey were elected precisely is not based on an intentionto fight for women in various domains. Starting payattention to these problems, the authors moved

  20. The History of Hiatal Hernia Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Rattner, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This review addresses the historical evolution of hiatal hernia (HH) repair and reports in a chronological fashion the major milestones in HH surgery before the laparoscopic era. Methods: The medical literature and the collections of the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine were searched. Secondary references from all sources were studied. The senior author's experience and personal communications are also reported. Results: The first report of HH was published in 1853 by Bowditch. Rokitansky in 1855 demonstrated that esophagitis was due to gastroesophageal reflux, and Hirsch in 1900 diagnosed an HH using x-rays. Eppinger diagnosed an HH in a live patient, and Friedenwald and Feldman related the symptoms to the presence of an HH. In 1926, Akerlund proposed the term hiatus hernia and classified HH into the 3 types that we use today. The first elective surgical repair was reported in 1919 by Soresi. The physiologic link between HH and gastroesophageal reflux was made at the second half of the 20th century by Allison and Barrett. In the midst of a physiologic revolution, Nissen and Belsey developed their famous operations. In 1957, Collis published his innovative operation. Thal described his technique in 1965, and in 1967, Hill published his procedure. Many modifications of these procedures were published by Pearson and Henderson, Orringer and Sloan, Rossetti, Dor, and Toupet. Donahue and Demeester significantly improved Nissen's operation, and they were the first to truly understand its physiologic mechanism. Conclusion: Hiatal hernia surgery has evolved from anatomic repair to physiological restoration. PMID:15622007

  1. Manifestaciones iniciales de la representación en el Río de la Plata: la revolución en la laboriosa búsqueda de la autonomía del individuo (1810-1812

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    Garavaglia, Juan Carlos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the track of a number of studies on the early forms of representation in Iberian America, we will show how a detailed anaylisis of the first elections in the Rio de la Plata may contribute to widen our knowledge of «political representation» and «citizenship» during the two first revolutionary years. Setting off from the vacatio regis, it will be analysed in which way the Buenos Aires elites made efforts to keep the independent process under control. While this aim was achieved, the price paid for it would entangle serious consequences for the later evolution of the Rio de la Plata area.

    Siguiendo el camino trazado por una serie de estudios sobre historia de las formas primigenias de representación en América ibérica, trataremos de mostrar de qué forma un análisis pormenorizado de primeras elecciones rioplatenses puede contribuir a enriquecer nuestro acercamiento al tema de la «representación política» y de la «ciudadanía» durante los dos años iniciales post revolucionarios. Partiendo evidentemente de la «vacatio regis», tratamos de ver en este trabajo de qué modo las elites de Buenos Aires, que estaban conduciendo el único proceso que se mantuvo en forma independiente durante ese periodo, hicieron todo lo posible para que éste no escapara a su control. Efectivamente, lo consiguieron pero, a un precio que acarrearía graves consecuencias en la evolución posterior del área rioplatense.

  2. A doctor's duty is to heal the unhealthy: the story of Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, H T

    2005-07-01

    Mahathir Mohamad was born in 1925 in Alor Star, Kedah. He entered the King Edward VII College of Medicine in Singapore in 1947 and graduated in 1953. His years in the medical school equipped young Mahathir with the training necessary to assess and diagnose a problem, before dispensing the appropriate treatment. Throughout his later years in the political limelight, Dr Mahathir recognised the very important role the medical college had in laying the strong foundation for his successful career. He joined UMNO in 1945, already interested in politics at the tender age of 20; he was first elected into Parliament in 1964. The vigorous expression of his candid views did not go down well during the troubled days following the 13 May 1969 racial riots and he was expelled from UMNO, his writings were banned, and he was considered a racial extremist. Nevertheless, his intellectual and political influence could not be ignored for long; he returned to Parliament in 1974, and became the fourth, and longest serving, Prime Minister of Malaysia in 1981. Dr Mahathir has found fame as a Malay statesman, and an important Asian leader of the twentieth century with much written, locally and internationally, debating his policies. This article, using Dr Mahathir's own writings, starts with his description of his early life, proceeds to look at his medical career, then touches on his diagnosis of the problems plaguing the Malays, before concluding with his views on the need to stand up to the prejudices and pressures of the Western world. Throughout his life, Dr Mahathir behaved as the ever-diligent medical doctor, constantly studying the symptoms to diagnose the cause of the ills in his community and country, before proceeding to prescribe the correct treatment to restore good health. It is a measure of his integrity and intellectual capability that he did not seek to hide his failures, or cite unfinished work in an attempt to cling to political power.

  3. Avaliação de regras de sequenciamento da produção em ambientes Job shop e Flow shop por meio de simulação computacional

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    Edna Barbosa da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the computational simulation is employed to study the effects of production sequencing rules in the performance of Job shop and Flow shop manufacturing environments. Eight sequencing rules were considered: SIPT (Shortest Imminent Processing Time, EDD (Earliest Due Date, DLS (Dynamic Least Slack, LWQ (Least Work in next Queue, FIFO (First In First Out, LIFO (Last In Last Out, CR (Critical Ratio and LS (Least Slack. These different sequencing rules were evaluated in relation to the makespan, total tardiness and number of tardy jobs, considering an experimental scenario which includes two configurations with eight machines (processes and ten different types of orders. A simulation model was developed with Arena software, incorporating randomness of order arrivals and the production times in such environments. The results show that the EDD and SIPT rules presented the best performances in the Job shop and in the Flow shop environments, respectively.

  4. A novel technique to extract events from access control system and locate persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, M.; Vaidyanathan, Mythili; Patidar, Suresh Chandra; Prabhakara Rao, G.

    2011-01-01

    Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research houses many laboratories which handle radioactive materials and classified materials. Protection and accounting of men and material and critical facilities are important aspect of nuclear security. Access Control System (ACS) is used to enhance the protective measures against elevated threat environment. Access control system hardware consists of hand geometry readers, RFID readers, Controllers, Electromagnetic door locks, Turnstiles, fiber cable laying and termination etc. Access Control System controls and monitors the people accessing the secured facilities. Access Control System generates events on: 1. Showing of RFID card, 2. Rotation of turnstile, 3. Download of valid card numbers, 4. Generation of alarms etc. Access control system turnstiles are located in main entrance of a facility, entrance of inside laboratory and door locks are fixed on secured facilities. Events are stored in SQL server database. From the events stored in database a novel technique is developed to extract events and list the persons in a particular facility, list all entry/exit events on one day, list the first in and last out entries. This paper discusses the complex multi level group by queries and software developed to extract events from database, locate persons and generate reports. Software is developed as a web application in ASP.Net and query is written in SQL. User can select the doors, type of events and generate reports. Reports are generated using the master data stored about employees RFID cards and events data stored in tables. Four types of reports are generated 1. Plant Emergency Report, 2. Locate User Report, 3. Entry - Exit Report, 4. First in Last out Report. To generate plant emergency report for whole plant only events generated in outer gates have to be considered. To generate plant emergency report for inside laboratory, events generated in entrance gates have to be ignored. (author)

  5. [Bertha Röntgen or the transparency of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, J D

    1996-01-01

    It is to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, the first elected "radiologist" of our Academy and the first Nobel Prize winner in physics, that we owe the transparency of the hand. We celebrate today the centenary of the great scientific discovery which was to revolutionize the diagnosis, and thereby the treatment, of a large number of illnesses the discovery of X-rays. It would be unjust not to link the name of this scientist with that of his wife, Bertha, who, ignorant of the dangers of all "novel medical inventions" volunteered her own hand for his research experiments: the hand which was to bring to the world tangible proof of this remarkable discovery. To a lesser degree, but nonetheless essential, we acknowledge, albeit not in exhaustive detail, all the progress made by the work of pioneers using this new investigative technique. So let us now return to the hand:--a body part which it was easy to immobilize, remembering that in those days a single radiographic exposure took up to an hour to obtain,--we will consider the immortalised hand of Bertha Röntgen,---to whom this address is dedicated,---and its radiographic exposures which allow us to appreciate the advances and to perceive the limitations of this technique. They also enable us better to envisage future investigative approaches whereby a deeper knowledge of the human body may be acquired. We note that compared with the histopathological sciences, imaging is not specific. Numerous microscopic structures, in particular neurological and vascular ones, are still insufficiently well visualised and the transmission pathways between the hand and the central nervous system deserve better characterisation. Current, research programmes are attempting to overcome these limitation of modern imaging. All the experience gained in studying the transparency of the hand, as we have discussed, is applicable to every part of the human anatomy. To credit: Röntgen's discovery with all its originality, we could say that the hand was

  6. Authentic interpretations of Return of the Lands Act (1839

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    Stanković Uroš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on three interpretations of Return of the Lands Act, introduced in 1839 and entitling landowners whose land was usurped by prince Miloš Obrenović (1815-1839, 1858-1860 and distinguished people's headmen to claim retrial of litigations over land adjudicated unjustly and return of their lawlessly disposed property. Two main questions arose in relation with interpretive rules - what were legislative power's goals when interpreting the Act and to what they were due. The author seeked the answer to the first dilemma by scrutinizing texts of interpretations, in order to determine their semantic meaning. In an attempt to provide the explanation for the second problem, he explored social context preceeding introduction of interpretive rules (namely, number of litigations before courts and political ambiance in Serbia. The first interpretation, dating back to March, 2nd 1843, is inclined towards previous owners of the land. Such solution was caused mainly by the political situation - Russia contested Aleksandar Karađorđević's first election for prince of Serbia in 1842 and the assembly foreseen to elect ruler anew was to be summoned in June 1843 In the meantime, new regime embodied in so-called constitution-defenders (the group of distinguished political leaders opposed to Obrenović dynasty struggled to ensure enthronement of its candidate and therefore issued a demagogic interpretation. On the contrary, two remaining interpretations, from the years 1844 and 1845, were aimed to retain status quo regarding land property by diminishing possibilities for new trial. The legislators opted for restrictions having learned that number of litigations had increased greatly. Besides, political climate was to the most extent convenient for taking such measures, as several lesser rebellions incited by the followers of Obrenović dynasty had been quelled easily, after which the opponents of the regime remained passive for a longer period

  7. Treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms with a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Caroline A; Carlson, Alan N; Korb, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is understood to be a highly prevalent, chronic progressive disease and the leading cause of dry eye. All available published peer-reviewed results of the novel vectored thermal pulsation therapy for patients with MGD are investigated. The PubMed and meeting abstract search revealed a total of 31 peer-reviewed reports on vectored thermal pulsation therapy at the time of the search (eight manuscripts and 23 meeting abstracts). All manuscripts evidence a significant increase in meibomian gland function (∼3×) and symptom improvement post a single 12-min treatment. Additional reported objective measures such as osmolarity, tear break-up time, or lipid layer thickness also increased as a result of the therapy; however, not all findings were statistically significant. The randomized controlled studies evidence sustained gland function and symptom relief lasting out to 12 months. The uncontrolled case series evidence significantly longer duration of effect. A single 12 minute vectored thermal pulsation treatment allows for reducing dry eye symptoms, improving meibomian gland function and other correlates of the ocular surface health.

  8. Substance Use among Muslim Students in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Mariana Harahap

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illicit substance use is a serious social problem faced by adolescents worldwide, including adolescents in Aceh and has many negative consequences. In addition, illicit substance use does not fit with the values of Islamic teaching, and is strictly prohibited in Islam. Purpose: The aims of this paper are to determine the prevalence of illicit substance use, the stages of substance use, and types of substance used among Muslim students in senior high schools in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: Four hundred and twenty six students who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from four senior high schools in Banda Aceh by using simple random sampling, and of these, 290 returned a completed questionnaire. A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Result: The mean age of the subjects was 15.9 years old and the majority of them were female (68.6%. The study found that the prevalence of substance use was 2.4%with a higher number of females than males who had used illicit substances. The common substances that were used by the students were marijuana and dextromethorphon, as well as intentionally inhaled substances. Lastly, out of the students who had used illegal substances the majority was in the regular use stage (1.4%. Conclusion: This study found that substance use among Muslim students in Aceh exists, although prevalence was low. Thus, several preventive programs may be needed in Aceh not only for Muslims students who have used substances but also for students who have not use illegal substances. Keywords: Adolescents, Substance use, Muslim students, Indonesia.

  9. How Did We Get to the Deficit Spectrum of the Economic Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bodislav

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The economies of developed countries of the 21st century benefit from the unseen-till-now prosperity; life standard that suffered a hard landing starting with 2007 and that seems to evolve in a chain-saw model for the crisis development. The forecast is based on the “first in, last out” principle; first in – the US, last out – the emergent countries that are under the contagion process and under inefficient governance and which started as a subprime crisis and continues as a deficit crisis. These nations produced one of the highest life standards in history. How was this possible? It is believed that the origin of this prosperity (before and after the crisis is in the development of an economic system that embraces the free enterprise, capitalism and competition because prosperity represents is the crossroad between the self interests of many.This research paper tries to underline the factors that led to the actual development of the crisis; from the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers to the unstable and not well directed actions of governments around the world and to these first tier layers there are added the second tier layers that include the political vantage point that influences the paths that are followed for limiting the negative aspects of the economic crisis and to improve new opportunities that appear as a result of openness and collaboration. The muddling through principle was adopted by the Obama Administration and this fact is one of the main factors that ease the deployment of near future economic improvement for the United States, but for the long run this isn’t a solution to develop a healthy economy and create sustainable economic growth.

  10. [Contribution of echogradient magnetic resonance imaging in the study of subacromial diseases. Surgical and arthrographic correlations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzard, R C; Pigeau, I; Doursounian, L; Maigne, J Y; Vadrot, D

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers and 300 patients with suspected lesions of the rotator cuff were examined with T2*- and proton density-weighted gradient echo (T2*-Rho-GEI) MRI sequences (500-700 ms/30 ms/30 degrees) with a 0.5 T (GE-CGR) system and an adapted surface coil. For the patients, the findings were compared with those of arthrography in 130 cases and of surgery in 42 cases. For the operated patients, T2*-Rho-GEI and arthrography allowed correctly diagnosing 31 complete ruptures (CR). However, surgical exploration of the ruptures showed that T2*-Rho-GEI showed the actual extent of the rupture and the degree of tendon retraction better than arthrography. T2*-Rho-GEI also provides information about the thickness and trophicity of the remaining cuff and on local muscle trophicity. T2*-Rho-GEI allows directly evaluating the tendon of the long head of the biceps both in its extra-articular and its intra-articular parts. In 3 cases of complete cuff rupture, MRI allowed detecting 3 associated lesions of the anterior labrum, which had not been suspected on the clinical examination and had not been demonstrated by conventional arthrography. Lastly, out of 12 cases of deep incomplete rupture (n = 12) correctly diagnosed with MRI, 5 had been undetected on arthrography. Similarly, 8 cases of inflammatory alterations suspected with T2*-Rho-GEI and confirmed by surgery had not been recognized with arthrography. For the non-operated patients, T2*-Rho-GEI and arthrography had corresponding results for the diagnosis of CR (8 cases), of DIR (6 cases) and of intact cuff (6 cases).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Factors influencing decision of general practitioners and managers to train and employ a nurse practitioner or physician assistant in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Biezen, Mieke; Derckx, Emmy; Wensing, Michel; Laurant, Miranda

    2017-02-07

    Due to the increasing demand on primary care, it is not only debated whether there are enough general practitioners (GPs) to comply with these demands but also whether specific tasks can be performed by other care providers. Although changing the workforce skill mix care by employing Physician Assistants (PAs) and Nurse Practitioners (NPs) has proven to be both effective and safe, the implementation of those professionals differs widely between and within countries. To support policy making regarding PAs/NPs in primary care, the aim of this study is to provide insight into factors influencing the decision of GPs and managers to train and employ a PA/NP within their organisation. A qualitative study was conducted in 2014 in which 7 managers of out-of-hours primary care services and 32 GPs who owned a general practice were interviewed. Three main topic areas were covered in the interviews: the decision-making process in the organisation, considerations and arguments to train and employ a PA/NP, and the tasks and responsibilities of a PA/NP. Employment of PAs/NPs in out-of-hours services was intended to substitute care for minor ailments in order to decrease GPs' caseload or to increase service capacity. Mangers formulated long-term planning and role definitions when changing workforce skill mix. Lastly, out-of-hours services experienced difficulties with creating team support among their members regarding the employment of PAs/NPs. In general practices during office hours, GPs indented both substitution and supplementation for minor ailments and/or target populations through changing the skill mix. Supplementation was aimed at improving quality of care and extending the range of services to patients. The decision-making in general practices was accompanied with little planning and role definition. The willingness to employ PAs/NPs was highly influenced by an employees' motivation to start the master's programme and GPs' prior experience with PAs/NPs. Knowledge about

  12. Speed and path control for conflict-free flight in high air traffic demand in terminal airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ali

    To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new

  13. Obituary: Martha Locke Hazen, 1931-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne

    2007-12-01

    role in the field for several years, helping to organize the first Space for Women conference in 1975. Martha's long term support for the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) was a natural consequence of her earlier work as an observational astronomer as well as curator of the plate stacks. She joined AAVSO in 1975, and was first elected to the Council in 1984, became a vice president, and eventually became president in 1992. When long-term AAVSO secretary Clinton Banker Ford (obituary, BAAS, 26, p. 1602-1603, 1994) passed away in February 1993, Martha was elected secretary to replace Ford, and served in that capacity for over ten years. Her services to AAVSO went well beyond those years in elective offices, however, and cannot be fully understood only in those terms. Martha also served a vital role as a friend and mentor for Janet Akyüz Mattei ((obituary, BAAS, 36, p. 1681-1682, 2004) throughout the latter's tenure as the director of AAVSO. The proximity of the plate stacks and AAVSO offices made it convenient for them to spend frequent lunch hours together, almost invariably discussing problems in administering the AAVSO. Both the authors of this obituary can testify, as former AAVSO presidents, to the importance of Martha's support and advice for Janet, and to the importance of her role behind the scenes in AAVSO activities for many years. AAVSO honored Martha for this service by presenting her their 37th Merit Award. After her first marriage ended in divorce in 1982, Martha married Bruce McHenry, a retired career professional from the National Park Service, in 1991. That their relationship was a happy and fulfilling one is attested by the many friends Bruce made among Martha's astronomical associates. Their extensive travel together frequently involved Bruce's continuing professional interest in natural-history interpretation, but also touched many astronomical bases. Their travels also took the happy couple to the sites of many old canals, an