WorldWideScience

Sample records for first aid equipment

  1. 46 CFR 28.210 - First aid equipment and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid equipment and training. 28.210 Section 28.210....210 First aid equipment and training. (a) Each vessel must have on board a complete first aid manual... location. (b) First aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) course certification. Certification in...

  2. 46 CFR 197.314 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.314 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.314 First aid and... consists of— (i) Basic first aid supplies; and (ii) Any additional supplies necessary to treat minor trauma...

  3. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical kits...

  4. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-09

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies.

  5. 30 CFR 77.1707 - First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid equipment; location; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1707 First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements. (a) Each operator of a surface coal mine shall maintain a supply of the first aid equipment set forth...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1713-7 - First-aid equipment; location; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid equipment; location; minimum... § 75.1713-7 First-aid equipment; location; minimum requirements. (a) Each operator of an underground coal mine shall maintain a supply of the first-aid equipment set forth in paragraph (b) of this § 75...

  7. Are parents in the UK equipped to provide adequate burns first aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hamish E; Bache, Sarah E; Muthayya, Preetha; Baker, Julie; Ralston, David R

    2012-05-01

    Simple first aid following a burn injury has been shown to improve outcome. With this in mind, a prospective study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of burns first aid amongst parents in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. This information was used to identify which aspects of burn first aid need to be highlighted in an education campaign and who the target audience should be. A simple mnemonic is suggested to assist parental education on the topic. Parents attending outpatient clinics at Sheffield Children's Hospital were interviewed and asked about the first aid they would provide for a child with a large scald. Removal of hot clothes and jewellery; application of cold water for 10-20 min; obtaining medical advice; and covering the burn with a plastic film or clean cloth were all considered to be ideal responses. Variations in responses in relation to the age and ethnicity of the parent were noted. One hundred and eighty eight parents were included in the questionnaire. Of these, 81% (n=152) were white British and 20% (n=36) were from other ethnic groups. Only 10% (n=18) of all respondent would give all the ideal first aid steps. Less than 40% (n=73) of parents questioned would remove hot clothes and jewellery. There was no significant difference in responses between ethnic groups when assessing knowledge of the need to remove hot soaked clothing. Although 73% (n=137) of parents would run the burn under cool water, only 35% (n=66) would cool the burn for an adequate length of time. White British parents were significantly more likely to run cool water over the burn, and to continue this for the recommended 10-20 min. Whilst 88% (n=165) of parents would seek medical attention, this was significantly less in parents under 20 years old. Finally, 92% (n=173) of parents would protect the wound with appropriate dressings, but of note, 26% (n=9) of parents from minority ethnic groups would potentially impair burn healing by using inappropriate dressings and topical

  8. Improvising a Posterior Nasal Pack with Equipment in a Basic First Aid Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Allison K; Royer, Mark C

    2016-09-01

    Posterior epistaxis is a serious condition that can be difficult to treat in a wilderness setting. The initial standard of care involves packing the affected nostril with a 7 to 9 cm nasal pack to tamponade the bleed. These packs are often unavailable outside of the emergency or operating room. This study set out to determine whether a posterior nasal pack could be constructed from the supplies present in a basic first aid kit in order to control massive nasal hemorrhage in a wilderness setting. A basic first aid kit was utilized to construct a posterior nasal pack that was inserted into an anatomical model and visibly compared with the Rapid Rhino (Posterior, 7.5 cm; Smith & Nephew, Austin, TX) nasal packing. The shape, size, and anatomical areas of compression (ie, into nasopharynx and posterior aspect of inferior turbinate) of this pack was similar to the commercially available posterior nasal pack. Placement in an anatomical model appears to provide similar compression as the commercially available posterior pack. This technique may provide short-term hemorrhage control in cases of serious posterior nasal hemorrhage where standard treatment options are not available. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  10. Chest Pain: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...

  11. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  12. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  13. Snakebites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...

  14. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  15. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  16. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top ... do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for help, and more. ...

  17. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  18. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  19. Shock: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York: Random House; 2009. Accessed July 21, 2017. Piazza GM, et al. First Aid Manual. 3rd ed. London, England; New York, N. ...

  20. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  1. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  2. Puncture Wounds: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-puncture-wounds/basics/ART-20056665 . Mayo ...

  3. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  4. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  5. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  6. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... avoid sunburn . If your child tends to get eczema flare-ups, avoid harsh soaps. Reviewed by: Steven ...

  7. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  8. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  9. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  10. The First Aid Training Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  11. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  12. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine Safety...

  13. First aid on field management in youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutsch, Werner; Voss, Andreas; Gerling, Stephan; Grechenig, Stephan; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Sufficient first aid equipment is essential to treat injuries on football fields. Deficits in first aid on field are still present in youth football. Injury pattern in youth football over one season and first aid equipment in youth football were analyzed, retrospectively. PRICE and ABC procedure served as basic principles in emergency management to assess the need for first aid equipment on field. Considering financial limits and adapted on youth football injuries, sufficient first aid equipment for youth football was configured. 84% of 73 participating youth football teams had their own first aid kit, but the majority of them were insufficiently equipped. Team coaches were in 60% of all youth teams responsible for using first aid equipment. The injury evaluation presented 922 injuries to 1,778 youth players over one season. Frequently presented types of injury were contusions and sprains of the lower extremity. Based on the analyzed injury data in youth football, first aid equipment with 90 € is sufficient for 100% of all occurred youth football injuries. Current first aid equipment in youth football is insufficient. Scientific-based first aid equipment with 90 € is adequate to serve all injuries. Football coaches need education in first aid management.

  14. Psychological First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Forbes, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA. PMID:28228996

  15. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J

    1995-07-01

    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  16. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter. ...

  17. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent contents...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1435 - Medical first aid guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical first aid guide. 154.1435 Section 154.1435 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Equipment § 154.1435 Medical first aid guide. Each vessel must have a copy of the IMO Medical First Aid...

  19. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  20. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”. A...

  1. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  2. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automated external defibrillator ( ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  3. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  4. First Aid in Emergency Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Guy S.

    This book is written for advanced courses in first aid. The content of the book is the combined work of contributing authors including health educators, an emergency medical technician, nurses, physicians, a lawyer, a community organizer, a social worker, and a sociologist. There are five major sections: (1) parameters for administering first aid…

  5. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid to...

  6. First responders and psychological first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekevski, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Emergencies and disasters are common and occur on a daily basis. Although most survivors will not experience any long-term negative mental health effects, some will. First responders tend to have first contact with the survivors and, therefore, are in a position to provide needed mental health assistance to survivors. Psychological first aid (PFA) is an evidence-informed approach to providing support to survivors following a serious crisis event, and it aims to reduce the initial distress of the traumatic event and to promote adaptive functioning and coping. PFA has gained a great deal of attention lately, likely due to the fact that it is easy to provide. This article discusses the potential negative effects of emergencies and disasters on mental health, provides a description of PFA and discusses its application, and provides an overview of the research base of PFA and a discussion on the need for future research.

  7. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries. First...

  8. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual shall...

  9. Foreign Object in the Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye: First aid Foreign object in the eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff If you get a foreign object in your eye Wash your hands ... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random ...

  10. Personal radiotoxicological (first aid) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachalyi, Andras; Gyulai, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the spread of nuclear industrial activities, and the widespread use of radioactive materials and products the possibility of radionuclide contamination of humans and animals has significantly increased. During nuclear tests or reactor accidents, a large amount of radioactive materials may enter the environment which can contaminate the living environment (air, water, vegetation, soil), for a long period. This contamination may enter living organisms by inhalation, intake and ingestion, causing severe biological damage. As an example the Chernobyl reactor accident can be mentioned, where there was no possibility for the decorporation of isotopes, as there were no products available such as the 'RADISTOP'. To achieve appropriate decorporating (and decontaminating) treatment which is effective, it is highly recommendable to use a personal Radiotoxicological First Aid Kit (PRK) within the shortest possible time after internal contamination. This unit provides effective treatment to decorporate the most common incorporated fission products. (author)

  11. Failure diagnosis aiding device for plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhara, Yoshihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention intends to improve the efficiency of trouble shooting for equipments of industrial plants such as nuclear power plants. The device of the present invention comprises an intelligence base and an inference mechanism base. The intelligence base comprises a rule base, an information storing section having a part frame and a working frame and a user's frame. The parts frame contains the failure rate on every parts and data on related operations. The working frame contains the importance and frequency of working. The user's frame contains parameters showing the extent of user's skills. The rule base, the parts frame and the working frame can be selected in accordance with the extent of the user's skill in the inference mechanism. With such a constitution, failures can be checked with the intelligence base in accordance with the knowledges for the failures of the equipments and the extent of user's skill by way of the inference mechanism. (I.S.)

  12. The first equipment for protection from nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Louis-Paul; Bombardier, Pierre; Reinwalt, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    How can we guarantee the containment of ultrafine particles but also implement the ergonomic and handling constraints voiced by researchers? This is the equation that the engineers at FAURE INGENIERIE had to resolve to develop the first barrier protection equipment for nanoparticle research.

  13. The first equipment for protection from nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Louis-Paul; Bombardier, Pierre; Reinwalt, Jean-Marie [FAURE INGENIERIE S.A., Parc Technologique des Fontaines, Chemin des Fontaines, F-38190 Bernin (France)], E-mail: laboratoire@faureingenierie.com

    2009-05-01

    How can we guarantee the containment of ultrafine particles but also implement the ergonomic and handling constraints voiced by researchers? This is the equation that the engineers at FAURE INGENIERIE had to resolve to develop the first barrier protection equipment for nanoparticle research.

  14. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters."

  15. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an appropriate...

  16. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    the training period in order to make volunteer first- aiding more accessible, notably by employing the latest teaching methods. Authorize professional first-aiders to use monitoring equipment, airway clearance techniques, and certain emergency medications. Finally, give first-aid a European dimension, underline the need for prevention, and reinforce and develop the ethical side of first-aiding. First-aid provides access to citizenship and altruism, is the first link in the chain of emergency medical assistance capable of saving lives, and is crucial for civil security As such, it is a national cause and must be strongly supported by the political and administrative authorities.

  17. Equine First Aid Information Flip Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Nay, Karah; Hoopes, Karl

    2017-01-01

    This is a flip chart type booklet with first aid information for horses, including checking vitals, pulse rate, respiration, mucus membrane color and capillary refill, signs of colic, deworming, vaccinations recommended for Utah, hoof care, and dental care.

  18. Awareness, attitudes and practices of first aid among school teachers in Mangalore, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Narayanan, Thanneermalai; Bin Zakaria, Saifuddin; Nair, Abhishek Venugopal; Belayutham, Lavina; Subramanian, Aathiya Mihiraa; Gopakumar, K G

    2015-12-01

    Circumstances requiring medical attention are common at schools. Teachers are often the first individuals to witness and handle situations requiring first aid and medical emergencies. To determine awareness, attitudes and practices of school teachers and the facilities available at schools with respect to administration of first aid. Data were obtained from 146 teachers in nine schools in Mangalore, India, using a self-administered questionnaire. The schools were also inspected for first aid equipment and facilities. Only 69 (47%) teachers had received first aid training previously. Poor and moderate knowledge of first aid was observed among 19 (13%) and 127 (87%) teachers, respectively. Only eight teachers knew the correct procedure for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most teachers 96 (66%) were willing to administer first aid if provided with the required training. A total of 74 teachers reported having practised first aid in response to a situation arising at their school. Wounds (36%) and syncopal attack (23%) were among the commonly encountered situations requiring first aid management at schools. Teachers' confidence level in administering first aid was significantly associated with prior training in first aid (p=0.001). First aid kits were available in only five of the nine schools surveyed. The current competency level among teachers in Mangalore to administer first aid is inadequate. Measures need to be taken at schools to ensure initiation of first aid training followed by periodic training for teachers in first aid.

  19. Guidelines for Bystander First Aid 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jen Heng

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac life support is a form of first aid for cardiac emergencies. However, research and evidence in this field is lacking compared with other forms of first aid. Having identified the common emergencies that are encountered in the hospital, based on the available evidence, we have put together what could be an evidence-based approach to the first aid management of some of these common emergencies, viz. breathlessness, chest pain, allergies, stroke, heat injury, poisoning, unconsciousness, seizures, and trauma situations such as bleeding, wounds, contusions, head injury, burns and fractures. Educating the public is the key to developing a first responder bystander. These guidelines could become the basis for training of the public. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  20. Administration Workers Knowledge on First Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Karolina Kucharska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim Today, more and more emphasis is placed on training, awareness, change. People want to feel safe - this is one of the needs, according to the pyramid Maslow. To achieve this, training, knowledge acquisition and refinement are needed. Knowledge of the principles of first aid is important because it can save human life. Information about the scope of rescue and help we acquire in everyday life and in training, which aims to take care of the employee, the will to help, showing that everyone has the choice and influence on what they do, reaching people's awareness, imaging the threats and How to avoid them. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and estimate the level of knowledge and awareness about first aid among office workers. By showing what are the effective forms of training and how important first-aid skills are, I'm looking for answers as the average worker knows first aid, or should there be even more emphasis on training in the field. Material and Methods The research was conducted in the form of a questionnaire. Respondents who were administrative and office workers working in the city with over 100,000 inhabitants, in the city to 10,000 inhabitants and in the country, answered questions about their first aid knowledge. Results The results are presented in descriptive. After completing the survey, respondents answered specific questions. Conclusions The conclusion of the questionnaire replies is that there is too little first aid training, especially among rural and urban workers below 10 000 000 inhabitants.

  1. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.".  Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/13/2011.

  2. Nurse specific intervention in first aid of serious traumatic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mata Escriche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the serious traumatic injuries is accepted as the first cause of death in the young people of the 15 to 34 years and third in the general population, causing about the 55% of children died between the 5 to 14 years. According to a study performed in 2000, more than 25% of the deaths have been due to inadequate first aid.Recent studies show the initial evaluation and medical attention and transport inprove the survival in these patients. Is accepted the first 30 minutes as the main moment to take decision and in consequence it is necessary multidisciplinary equipment, as well as the emergency plan, in order to assist every patient, mainly in case of multiple victims.The goal of this study is to review the first aid to serious traumatic patient and to approach specifically the nursery assistance as important element in the daily work.

  3. First-Aid Algorithms in Dental Avulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…

  4. Law of health education on first aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pawłowski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Polish law requires all citizens to take action in order to assist in any case, where exist the danger of loss of life and serious bodily injury of victim, even if they can prove to be ineffective. Everyone can become a participant and / or witnessed of the events where human life is endangered. Therefore everyone should have the theoretical knowledge and practical skills in first aid, and know the consequences of inaction in the event of danger to life or health of another human being. The research presents an analysis of legal acts regulating the provision of first aid in Poland. An attempt was made to organize the interpretation presented ideas to the presented material was help and guidance for trainers in first aid. Particular emphasis is placed on the realization, that not helping the man appearing in the position of threatening an imminent danger of death or grievous bodily injury commits a crime by omission. However, first aid in their duties diligently, in accordance with the current guidelines will not conflict with the law.

  5. Computer aided process control equipment at the Karlsruhe reprocessing pilot plant, WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Finsterwalder, L.; Gutzeit, G.; Reif, J.; Stollenwerk, A.H.; Weinbrecht, E.; Weishaupt, M.

    1991-01-01

    A computer aided process control system has been installed at the Karlsruhe Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant, WAK. All necessary process control data of the first extraction cycle is collected via a data collection system and is displayed in suitable ways on a screen for the operator in charge of the unit. To aid verification of displayed data, various measurements are associated to each other using balance type process modeling. Thus, deviation of flowsheet conditions and malfunctioning of measuring equipment are easily detected. (orig.) [de

  6. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained in...

  7. In situ simulation training in First Aid. Pilot study. First aid in a dangerous workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Witkowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the newly develop course prepared for the employees working in the forest and mountain environment Methodology 31 people participated in the course. They were employees of Roztocze National Park and the Forestry Commission Lutowiska. A diagnostic survey was implemented in a form of a questionnaire. The respondents were provided with two original questionnaires and a telephone survey. Surveys were anonymous and voluntary. Findings The average assessment of First Aid knowledge before the workshop was 2.48 and majority of participants assesed First Aid as difficult. After the workshop, the respondents assessed the knowledge on average as 3.87 and as much as 58% declared that definitely would provide First Aid to a stranger; 81% to a close person. Over 80% of respondents noticed the need of  regular training in First Aid. Research implication The analysis showed that regular improvement of First Aid skills is required by the participants. The training should be adjusted to the group’s needs in terms of the program, teaching techniques and the place of training. There is a need to implement such training on a wider scale among forestry and mountain workers. Originality Uncovering the gaps in First Aid training in mountain and forest workers in their professional training.

  8. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid measures...

  9. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masse Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days.

  10. First lady meets AIDS patients in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, during her tour of Thailand: 1) joined a panel discussion at New Life Center, a missionary shelter and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) hospice that houses and educates 151 girls from remote hill tribes who were rescued from being, or from becoming, brothel prostitutes or "restaurant hostesses"; 2) inspected a U.S. supported program in Chiang Rai province that provides scholarships, vocational training, and jobs to 1200 girls as income alternatives to their sale; and 3) toured a school that extends the education of girls beyond the mandatory age of 12, the age at which many are sold to Bangkok brothel middlemen. There are 500,000-700,000 prostitutes in Thailand; many die of AIDS. Girls can be sold for $1000 and send money home later; instead of poverty, the family has a new home, a motorcycle, and status. Mrs. Clinton emphasized the lifetime benefit available to a family when a girl is educated.

  11. Natural Disasters: Planning for Psychological First Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Stephanie T

    Natural disasters leave survivors suffering physically, psychologically, and spiritually. An EF4 tornado on April 27, 2011, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, known as April's Fury, raised the question of how mental health practitioners (MHPs) might respond to address psychological needs, rather than being exclusively assigned to offer physical support immediately following a disaster. This article proposes planning ahead for MHPs to provide psychological first aid (PFA) in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophe. Combating psychological issues early will hopefully help reduce the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in survivors.

  12. What do I need in my first aid kit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals ... SprainsCast Care Home Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy First Aid and Injury Prevention What do I need in ...

  13. Original Research First aid practices, beliefs, and sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric burn injury first aid practices, beliefs, information sources 151. © 2017 The ... The first aid measures used by the majority of caregivers were either incomplete or inadequate. Although some ..... Journal of emergency Nursing. 2010 ...

  14. NGFATOS : national guidelines for first aid training in occupational settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    NGFATOS is a course development guideline containing the essential elements of what can be considered safe, helpful and effective first aid training in occupational settings. This guide is intended for use by first aid program developers, institution...

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in First Aid Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in First Aid Management of Epistaxis by ... A vast majority of these patients settle with simple standard first aid measures. ... The principal researcher administered a questionnaire to the clinical staffs who were ...

  16. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  17. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall be...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.26 - First aid and lifesaving facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. 1917.26 Section 1917..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.26 First aid and..., to the employer. (b) A first aid kit shall be available at the terminal, and at least one person...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.151 - Medical services and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical services and first aid. 1910.151 Section 1910.151..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Medical and First Aid § 1910.151 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall ensure the ready availability of medical personnel for...

  20. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and maintained...-type water extinguisher. (g) First aid facilities shall be provided and readily accessible for use at...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.50 - Medical services and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical services and first aid. 1926.50 Section 1926.50... Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the availability... employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the...

  2. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers...

  3. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall be...

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of first aid and factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, there are small proportions of drivers with first aid skills and even those trained do not practice it well. In Africa, the proportions of drivers with first aid skills were found to be much smaller. Evidences show that widespread first-aid training is important for successful pre-hospital care when accident ...

  5. First aid in the dental practice: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevon, P

    2016-06-24

    First aid encompasses a wide range of scenarios ranging from simple reassurance following a minor mishap to dealing with a life-threatening emergency. Dentists may need to provide first aid in their dental practice to a patient, relative or member of staff. This article provides an overview to first aid in the dental practice, including priorities, responsibilities when providing first aid, assessment of the environment and the casualty (primary survey &secondary survey). The new A3 'First Aid in the Workplace' poster is now available and is included as an insert in this issue (BDJ Vol. 220, Issue 12).

  6. How much do parents know about first aid for burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M; Maguire, S; Okolie, C; Watkins, W; Kemp, A M

    2013-09-01

    Prompt first aid reduces burn morbidity. With an estimated 19,000 children attending emergency departments (ED) with a burn or scald every year in the UK, a parent's knowledge of first aid is particularly important. This study evaluates the extent and source of this knowledge. Parents attending the emergency and antenatal departments of a University Hospital answered a structured questionnaire detailing demographics, knowledge of burns first aid and its source. Knowledge was stratified into 4 categories: contraindicated, poor, inadequate and adequate. Individual chi-squared tests and ordered logistic regressions were performed to relate knowledge to demographic features. The 106 respondents (44% men) reflected a wide range of socio-economic (SE) grouping and educational level. Overall 32% had an adequate knowledge of burns first aid while 43% had poor or no knowledge. There was no significant correlation between gender, educational status or age and knowledge; however those from higher SE groups (pfirst aid training (pfirst aid training, 74% had adequate knowledge. The logistic regression accounting for all significant variables showed that previous first aid training was the most influential factor in knowledge of first aid (pfirst-aid knowledge. Overall, the knowledge of burns first aid among parents is inadequate and correlates with lower SE groups. There was a significant association between knowledge and previous first aid training. Results suggest that targeting burns first aid training to all new parents, particularly those in low income households, would be of value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. The sanitary officer: first aid coordinator on EDF nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The internal organisation for first aid to the injured in case of an accident on E.D.F. nuclear power plant calls for the immediate assistance of a first aid team, consisting of five workers, under the direction of a principal first aid officer; one of the first aid workers, the sanitary officer who instructs the first aid workers intervention awaiting the arrival of an external medical. When the 'Sanitary on-site Emergency Plan' was up' dated, twenty medical doctors and seventy members of staff from five different sites were questioned as to the function of the sanitary officer. The conclusions revealed a notable difference of training amongst the different sites, and concerning first aid organisation, difference of priority of actions, extent of their participation once the medical team arrives and their participation in case of decontamination treatment. The medical doctors and staff lay a particular stress on importance of defining on a national scale the limits of role and responsibilities of the sanitary officer and establish a more specific training in this field, consequently motivating commitment and professionalism involvement. There is a great difference between the training and coaching of the first aid assistance and fire protection teams. To conclude, we propose that the first aid officer be known as first aid coordinator and the qualification of 'Certificat de Formation aux Premiers Secours en Equipe' in compliance with the current legislation together with a specific nuclear module and they should undergo regular on-site drills. (author)

  8. Danish first aid books compliance with the new evidence-based non-resuscitative first aid guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Viereck, Søren

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) released new guidelines on resuscitation in 2015. For the first time, the guidelines included a separate chapter on first aid for laypersons. We analysed the current major Danish national first aid books to identify potential inconsistencies...... between the current books and the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. METHODS: We identified first aid books from all the first aid courses offered by major Danish suppliers. Based on the new ERC first aid guidelines, we developed a checklist of 26 items within 16 different categories to assess...... the content; this checklist was adapted following the principle of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive questioning. To assess the agreement between four raters, Fleiss' kappa test was used. Items that did not reach an acceptable kappa score were excluded. RESULTS: We evaluated 10 first aid books...

  9. First-aid training in school: amount, content and hindrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, H K; Bakke, H K; Schwebs, R

    2017-11-01

    To increase knowledge and competence about first aid in the population, first-aid instruction is included in primary and secondary school curricula. This study aimed to establish how much time is spent on first-aid training, which first-aid measures are taught, and which factors prevent teachers from providing the quantity and quality of first-aid training that they wish to give. A questionnaire was distributed to teachers in physical education in primary and secondary schools and to teachers in vocational subjects in higher secondary schools. The teachers taught a median of two lessons in first aid per year. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was taught by 64% of teachers, free airway and recovery position by 69% and stopping severe bleeding by 51%. Recognising heart attack and stroke was taught by 25% and 23%, respectively. The main factors that the teachers perceived as limiting the amount and quality of first-aid training were insufficient learning objective specifications in the curriculum, too many other competence aims, lack of CPR mannequins and lack of training as first-aid instructors. Norwegian teachers provide an appreciable amount of first-aid training to their students. However, several potential life-saving measures are poorly covered. The curriculum needs to contain first aid but also should specify what first-aid measures to be taught. First-aid training of teachers should adequately prepare them to be first-aid instructors. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  10. Danish first aid books compliance with the new evidence-based non-resuscitative first aid guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Viereck, Søren; Roland, Jens; Pedersen, Thomas Egesborg; Lippert, Freddy K

    2018-01-10

    The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) released new guidelines on resuscitation in 2015. For the first time, the guidelines included a separate chapter on first aid for laypersons. We analysed the current major Danish national first aid books to identify potential inconsistencies between the current books and the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. We identified first aid books from all the first aid courses offered by major Danish suppliers. Based on the new ERC first aid guidelines, we developed a checklist of 26 items within 16 different categories to assess the content; this checklist was adapted following the principle of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive questioning. To assess the agreement between four raters, Fleiss' kappa test was used. Items that did not reach an acceptable kappa score were excluded. We evaluated 10 first aid books used for first aid courses and published between 2009 and 2015. The content of the books complied with the new in 38% of the answers. In 12 of the 26 items, there was less than 50% consistency. These items include proximal pressure points and elevation of extremities for the control of bleeding, use of cervical collars, treatment for an open chest wound, burn dressing, dental avulsion, passive leg raising, administration of bronchodilators, adrenaline, and aspirin. Danish course material showed significant inconsistencies with the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. The new knowledge from the evidence-based guidelines should be incorporated into revised and updated first aid course material.

  11. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing an Engaging and Informative Application About First Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Nicolai; Hansen, Hans; Tewes, Mikkel Skovsmose

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at developing an engaging and informative application within first aid and CPR for people who are already certified in first aid. The paper outlines discussions within definitions of serious games, humor, gamification and engagement. Further we suggest specific elements...

  13. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Method: Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available…

  14. Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brymer, Melissa; Layne, Christopher; Jacobs, Anne; Pynoos, Robert; Ruzek, Josef; Steinberg, Alan; Vernberg, Eric; Watson, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Psychological First Aid is an evidence-informed modular approach to help children, adolescents, adults, and families in the immediate aftermath of disaster and terrorism. Psychological First Aid is designed to reduce the initial distress caused by traumatic events and to foster short- and long-term adaptive functioning and coping. Principles and…

  15. Roofing: Workbook and Tests. First-Aid Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This workbook on first aid is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers 12 topics: introduction to first-aid practices; burns; skeletal injuries; spinal injuries; wounds, bleeding, and bruises; emergencies of the heart and blood circulation system; breathing and…

  16. First aid training in pre-registration nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phillippa

    This article aims to increase awareness of the lack of first aid skills among nurses and midwives. It is intended to appeal to and challenge students and registered practitioners to assess their first aid skills in practice and to seek the necessary training to improve and update their skills.

  17. Supporting mandatory first aid training in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Susan

    In the UK, voluntary organisations such as the British Red Cross and St John Ambulance have been advocating the compulsory inclusion of first aid education in the school curricula as a way of improving the outcomes for casualties following accidents or emergencies occurring in non-hospital settings. This article focuses on the rationale for teaching first aid to children, including potential benefits of and barriers to providing such education. Commencing first aid training in primary school children and updating skills regularly throughout life may give individuals the confidence to respond to emergency situations.

  18. When Do First Letters Mnemonics Aid Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. E.; Cook, N.

    1978-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of the first letter mnemonic technique is confused. There are at least three studies showing no effect, and one where an improvement in recall occurred. Reports two experiments which attempted to locate the conditions under which the first letter mnemonic is effective. (Author/RK)

  19. NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF POWER EQUIPMENT WITH THE AID OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of possible variants of reconstruction of the power equipment is fulfilled and the conclusion concerning the prospects of such work with the use of composite materials is reached. The data on the technical characteristics of composite repair materials for various purposes are presented, the results of repairs of power equipment, in particular the technology for the recovery of the boarding surfaces of the diffuser rings and protection of the pumps D1250 casings are provided. The technology of the recovery pneumatic cylinder, hydraulic cylinder rod, as well as the unique technology of restoration of working surfaces of the impeller vanes of transfer pump, that had been destroyed by corrosion in conjunction with the cavitation processes and were considered as not restorable is described. The restored impeller was in operation during a year and only thereafter it was removed for restoration. Another composite material discussed in the article – diagum – makes it possible to perform a series of repairs associated with restoration of the rubber-covered surfaces of pump casings as well as with restoration of various surfaces of the conveyor belts. Taking the excellent adhesive properties of this composite into account, restoration of worn stainless steel sieve screens to remove abrasive material was fulfilled with the aid of it. The restoration was accomplished via the use of the conveyor belt which application time had expired, that was glued to a metal sieve with diagum. The use of the composites is economically justified, because the application of them in repairs reduces, firstly, terms of restoration work and, secondly, the price of repairs. Third, equipment that was damaged beyond repair is being commissioned by the use of the mentioned composites. 

  20. The need for first aid education for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sharif, Nur Amirah; Che Hasan, Muhammad Kamil; Che Jamaludin, Farrah Ilyani; Zul Hasymi Firdaus, Mohd Khairul

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the need for basic first aid knowledge and skills among adolescents. A cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted among 375 secondary school students in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. The survey was adapted from a Hong Kong Red Cross survey. A back to back translation of this instrument was carried out by two bilingual medical experts with Cronbach's alpha 0.8. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) in terms of descriptive analysis, and an independent t-test and chi-square test were carried out. There were 149 respondents from the lower form (grade level) and 226 respondents from the upper form. The majority of respondents (81.6%) were Malay. An independent t-test revealed a significant association between knowledge and attitude, as students who scored higher on first aid questions showed a more positive attitude towards first aid (1.475%). There were also significant associations between race and experience learning first aid. Adolescents receive minimal first aid education. Thus, there is an urgent need to educate adolescents more in first aid to promote a safer community and to prevent any further injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.

  2. School-Based First Aid Training Programs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  3. Effect of First Aid Education on First Aid Knowledge and Skills of Commercial Drivers in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola O; Asuzu, Michael C; Kale, Oladele O

    2015-12-01

    Prompt prehospital care is essential for improving outcomes of road crash victims; however, this service is sub-optimal in developing countries because Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are not readily available. Training of lay responders in first aid has been suggested as a means of filling this gap in settings with inadequate EMS. This study was conducted to determine the effect of first aid training on the first aid knowledge and skills of commercial drivers. A before-and-after study was conducted among 128 commercial drivers (62 intervention and 66 controls) selected by multi-stage sampling. Drivers' first aid knowledge and skills were assessed at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. The intervention involved a 2-day training session in first aid. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in respondents' pre- and post-intervention scores over the three assessment points. Mean first aid knowledge scores for intervention drivers were 48.9% (SD=12.0), 57.8% (SD=11.2), and 59.2% (SD=9.0) at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. Corresponding scores for the controls were 48.3% (SD=12.8), 39.2% (SD=15.3), and 46.8% (SD=15.3). Mean first aid skill scores for intervention drivers were 17.5% (SD=3.8), 80.7% (SD=8.3), and 72.3% (SD=16.8). Scores for control drivers were 16.5% (SD=4.5), 16.3% (SD=4.7), and 20.4% (SD=9.1), respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences in first aid knowledge and skills scores over the three phases. Independent t-test revealed significant differences in scores between the intervention and control groups post-intervention. The training led to significant improvement in first aid knowledge and skills of intervention drivers. This confirms that lay responders can be trained in provision of first aid. The slight drop in skills scores, which occurred three months post-intervention, highlights the need for periodic refresher trainings to be conducted for the drivers in

  4. Undergraduate mental health nursing education in Australia: More than Mental Health First Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.

  5. Development and evaluation of first responder equipment for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kuroki, Kenro; Schwantes, Jon M.; Pierson, Richard; Piper, Roman K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics are the technical means by which nuclear and other radioactive materials used in illegal activities are characterized as to physical and chemical condition, provenance, and history. Sampling for traditional forensics evidence (e.g. fingerprints, DNA, hair, fibers, and digital evidence) contaminated by radionuclides, and categorization of nuclear and other radioactive materials by on-sight measurement are required for first responders. Portable radiological equipment and radiation protection for first responders to achieve emergency tasks safely at the incident sites have been developed and evaluated in National Research Institute of Police Science. In this report, we introduce wireless network dosimetry system and neutron protection shield with water under sampling and categorization. Described next in this report are evaluation tests of active personal dosimeters using neutron irradiation field in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We evaluated them under fast and thermal neutron field. We confirmed the large fluctuation of the response for each dosimeter caused by the energy dependence of the detectors. (author)

  6. A nationwide survey of first aid training and encounters in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Steinvik, Tine; Angell, Johan; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-02-23

    Bystander first aid can improve survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or trauma. Thus, providing first aid education to laypersons may lead to better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of first aid training in the populace, how often first aid skills are needed, and self-reported helping behaviour. We conducted a telephone survey of 1000 respondents who were representative of the Norwegian population. Respondents were asked where and when they had first aid training, if they had ever encountered situations where first aid was necessary, and stratified by occupation. First aid included cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and basic life support (BLS). To test theoretical first aid knowledge, respondents were subjected to two hypothetical first aid scenarios. Among the respondents, 90% had received first aid training, and 54% had undergone first aid training within the last 5 years. The workplace was the most common source of first aid training. Of the 43% who had been in a situation requiring first aid, 89% had provided first aid in that situation. There were considerable variations among different occupations in first aid training, and exposure to situations requiring first aid. Theoretical first aid knowledge was not as good as expected in light of the high share who had first aid training. In the presented scenarios 42% of respondent would initiate CPR in an unconscious patient not breathing normally, and 46% would provide an open airway to an unconscious road traffic victim. First aid training was correlated with better theoretical knowledge, but time since first aid training was not. A high proportion of the Norwegian population had first aid training, and interviewees reported high willingness to provide first aid. Theoretical first aid knowledge was worse than expected. While first aid is part of national school curriculum, few have listed school as the source for their first aid training.

  7. Childhood unintentional injuries: Supervision and first aid provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Jonkheijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The aim of this study was to investigate the circumstances surrounding unintentional injuries of children and the appropriateness of the first aid provided by caregivers. Materials and Methods : This prospective study included children with aged range 0-12 years, who presented with an unintentional injury at the Trauma Unit of a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 3 month period. Caregivers were interviewed about the circumstances of the injury and the first aid provided. Experts classified the first aid as appropriate, appropriate but incomplete, or inappropriate. Results: A total of 313 children were included with a median age of 3.75 years. The most common causes of injury were falls (39.6%, n = 124, burns (23.9%, n = 75 and motor vehicle crashes (10.5%, n = 33. More than a quarter of the children (27.2%, n = 81 had been left under the supervision of another child below the age of 12. When the injury occurred, 7.1% (n = 22 of the children were unattended. First aid was provided in 43.1% (n = 134 of the cases. More than half of these interventions (53%, n = 72 were inappropriate or appropriate but incomplete. Conclusions: Especially young children are at risk for unintentional injuries. Lack of appropriate supervision increases this risk. Prevention education of parents and children may help to protect children from injuries. First-aid training should also be more accessible to civilians as both the providing of as well as the quality of first-aid provided lacked in the majority of cases.

  8. Job Aids for Using Preventive Radiological/Nuclear Detection Equipment for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys [US Department of Homeland Security National Urban

    2017-10-02

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection equipment (PRND) to provide state and local agencies with guidance on how to best use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation.

  9. Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid training in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla B.; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge...

  10. The Perceived Helpfulness of Rendering Emotional First Aid via Email

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilat, Itzhak; Reshef, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the perceived helpfulness of an increasingly widespread mode of psychological assistance, namely, emotional first aid via email. The sample comprised 62 naturally occurring email interactions between distressful clients and trained volunteers operating within the framework of the Israeli Association for Emotional…

  11. The First AIDS Drugs | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faced with the burgeoning HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, NCI’s intramural program developed the first therapies to effectively treat the disease. These discoveries helped transform a fatal diagnosis to the manageable condition it is for many today.

  12. First aid provision in nightclubs and other entertainment venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, R; Mulligan, J

    This article discusses the role and responsibilities of the registered nurse in providing first aid in challenging environments, such as crowded nightclubs. Basic assistance for common emergencies, including substance misuse, wounds, choking and anaphylaxis, are discussed. This article emphasises the importance of risk assessment and reminds readers of the need to maintain personal safety.

  13. First aid and subsequent measures after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    An organisation schedule and first aid measures after accidents involving ionizing radiation are presented, both in accordance with the current practice of the responsible professional associations. Optimum care also of persons with radiation injuries will be assured by cooperation between voluntary lay helpers, physicians, and regional centres in which failure symptons of the haematopoietic system can be treated. (DG) [de

  14. First aid practices, beliefs, and sources of information among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: While burns take seconds to occur, injuries incurred result in pain and undesirable long term effects that might take a lifetime to overcome. The study was carried out to determine the measures of first aid delivered by caregivers after a burn injury and sources of the information. Methods: A cross- sectional study ...

  15. First Aid Knowledge of University Students in Poisoning Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, Sonay; Yildirim, Gulay; Kose, Selmin; Yildirim, Senay; Ozhan, Fatma; Senturan, Leman

    2014-12-01

    Poisoning is a crucial public health problem which needs serious approach and response to treatment. In case of poisoning, proper first aid is lifesaving and application should be applied in every condition. This research was conducted in order to evaluate first aid knowledge of university students for poisoning. The research was conducted between the dates of May 2013-June 2013 with the permission gained from the University Rectorship. The cohort of the research contained 4,560 students who received education in Istanbul. The sample of the study included 936 students who accepted to participate in the research and attended the school during the research. The data were collected by using a questionnaire form, which had 21 questions prepared by researchers. Analysis of the data was carried out with a percentage evaluation method and chi square tests in a computer environment. In our study, 92.6% of students (n=867) knew the phone number of the ambulance in case of emergency. In addition, 57.3% of students (n=536) knew the phone number of the poison hotline, and it was seen that they answered correctly the questions regarding the relation between body system and indications of poisoning. It was determined that the students who received education in medical departments answered the questions correctly more than the students who had education in other departments. (p≤0.001, p≤0.01). It was observed that the university students in medical departments had more first aid knowledge on poisoning cases compared to the students in other departments who did not have sufficient information regarding these issues. It is thought that first aid education in all departments of universities, both poisoning and other first aid issues, should be conveyed to all students.

  16. [Educational and training issues in occupational first aid: the requisites for the teachers of the workers responsible for first aid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, A; Ciavarella, M; Trevisan, A; Monteforte, Gabriella; De Santis, A

    2005-01-01

    The inter-ministerial decree (D.I.) 388/03 (the Italian law on first aid in the workplace) attaches particular importance to the organization of first aid and to the content of the teaching and training of designated workers, specifying teaching objectives, programme and duration of courses. However it provides less details on the requirements and qualifications of the teachers and trainers. To discuss this topic in the light of the guidelines contained in the literature and the existing legislation. We used the specific references of literature and legislation concerning first aid training of designated workers. The objectives and the content of the training courses call for a high level of professional competence and approach. Therefore, training of designated workers should be planned and carried out in accordance with the training standards used for the teaching and training of the so-called "lay rescuers". The need to achieve high training standards for workers responsible for first aid at the workplace is to a large extent justified by the difficulty of the role of employees. This need follows the current tendency in regulations to guarantee adequate and up-dated training also for other agents operating within the system of workplace prevention. In this context the occupational physician plays a significant role in the training programmes for designated workers.

  17. The evaluation of first aid and basic life support training for the first year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintaş, Kerim Hakan; Aslan, Dilek; Yildiz, Ali Naci; Subaşi, Nüket; Elçin, Melih; Odabaşi, Orhan; Bilir, Nazmi; Sayek, Iskender

    2005-02-01

    In Turkey, the first aiders are few in quantity and yet they are required in many settings, such as earthquakes. It was thought that training first year university students in first aid and basic life support (FA-BLS) techniques would serve to increase the number of first aiders. It was also thought that another problem, the lack of first aid trainers, might be addressed by training medical students to perform this function. A project aimed at training first year university students in FA-BLS was conducted at Hacettepe University. In the first phase, medical student first aid trainers (MeSFAT) were trained in FA-BLS training techniques by academic trainers and in the second phase, first year university students were trained in FA-BLS techniques by these peer trainers under the academic trainers' supervision. The purpose of this study was to assess the participants' evaluation of this project and to propose a new program to increase the number of first aiders in the country. In total, 31 medical students were certified as MeSFATs and 12 of these trained 40 first year university students in FA-BLS. Various questionnaires were applied to the participants to determine their evaluation of the training program. Most of the participants and the authors considered the program to be successful and effective. This method may be used to increase the number of first aid trainers and first aiders in the community.

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.6 - Medical services and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... first aid. 50-204.6 Section 50-204.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.6 Medical services and first aid. (a) The... trained to render first aid. First aid supplies approved by the consulting physician shall be readily...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1713-3 - First-Aid training; supervisory employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-Aid training; supervisory employees. 75... First-Aid training; supervisory employees. The mine operator shall conduct first-aid training courses... employee and date on which the employee satisfactorily completed the first-aid training course. The...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at or...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1713 - Emergency medical assistance; first-aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. 75... Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. [Statutory Provisions] Each operator shall make arrangements in... trained in first-aid and first-aid training shall be made available to all miners. Each coal mine shall...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1713-6 - First-aid training program; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; minimum... § 75.1713-6 First-aid training program; minimum requirements. (a) All first-aid training programs... course of instruction similar to that outlined in “First Aid, A Bureau of Mines Instruction Manual.” (b...

  3. Teaching Basic First-Aid Skills against Home Accidents to Children with Autism through Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    It is known that children with DD can learn first-aid skills and use whenever needed. Applying first-aid skills was taught to three inclusion students with autism through "first-aid skills training package". In the study multiple probe design with probe trials across behaviors was used. The findings indicated that first-aid skills…

  4. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification packaging...

  5. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states...

  6. [Helicopters and medical first aid units. Role of Medical First Aid Unit 94].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenard, P; Hanote, P; Metrot, J

    1975-10-01

    For the transport of injured and sick patients, the helicopter (even the mono-turbine type) offers greater advantages when compared to land vehicles: - more comfort (less vibrations, accelerations and decelerations); - a greater speed, that is to say a 61 p. 100 gain of time upon the distance and a gain from 29 up to 44 p. 100 upon the total amount of time taken up by each transport. This gain in time enables valuable specialised medical teams to be more available: - more precise time-tables than by land which namely makes it easier to receive the patients. The drawbacks are linked with the risks which are not nonexistent but rather less serious than by land. The drawbacks also depend upon the weather-conditions (although this factor does not matter much in our area), upon nuisances such as the noise (which is more important but far more transitory than by ambulance) and chiefly upon the cost of air-transport. In fact, the mean cost of a medical land transport amounts roughly to one thousand Francs, a quarter of which only does represent the actual cost of medical aid. For a similar transport, the helicopter comes to a 47 mns flight. There are several ways of making good use of a helicopter. Practical problems have been solved. The "SAMU 94" experience goes back to 1973 and includes over 500 transports by helicopter essentially with the help of the teams and the helicopters belonging to the Paris Base (Civil Protection and the Fire-Brigade). For flights over urban areas, it is to be desired in the future that only twin-turbine helicopters should be used.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of first aid and factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ''tens of millions of lives are saved each year by first aid techniques applied by ... among the residents is very low, majority depends on bus and taxis. ... percent margin of error and a design effect of 2. A proportion of .... Applying ice-packs to reduce swelling and pain. 63 (8). Force it or try twist back in to the ;lace. 23 (2.9).

  8. Mental Health First Aid: A Useful Tool for School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Joy

    2017-11-01

    School nurses address mental health issues of youth on a daily basis. These mental health issues include substance abuse, anxiety, depression, and even suicidal ideation. Mental health first aid is a process that seeks to help medical professionals and laypeople recognize and address someone that is having a mental health or substance abuse crisis. This article will describe an experience with a student having suicidal ideations and how the mental health action plan was used.

  9. Development of a new first-aid biochemical detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingfei; Liao, Haiyang; Su, Shilin; Ding, Hao; Liu, Suquan

    2016-10-01

    The traditional biochemical detector exhibits poor adaptability, inconvenient carrying and slow detection, which can't meet the needs of first-aid under field condition like natural or man-made disasters etc. Therefore a scheme of first-aid biochemical detector based on MOMES Micro Spectrometer, UV LED and Photodiode was proposed. An optical detection structure combined continuous spectrum sweep with fixed wavelength measurement was designed, which adopted mobile detection optical path consisting of Micro Spectrometer and Halogen Lamp to detect Chloride (Cl-), Creatinine (Cre), Glucose (Glu), Hemoglobin (Hb). The UV LED and Photodiode were designed to detect Potassium (K-), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Sodium (Na+). According to the field diagnosis and treatment requirements, we designed the embedded control hardware circuit and software system, the prototype of first-aid biochemical detector was developed and the clinical trials were conducted. Experimental results show that the sample's absorbance repeatability is less than 2%, the max coefficient of variation (CV) in the batch repeatability test of all 7 biochemical parameters in blood samples is 4.68%, less than the clinical requirements 10%, the correlation coefficient (R2) in the clinical contrast test with AU5800 is almost greater than 0.97. To sum up, the prototype meets the requirements of clinical application.

  10. Development and validation of an asthma first aid knowledge questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckie, Kate; Pang, Tsz Chun; Kritikos, Vicky; Saini, Bandana; Moles, Rebekah Jane

    2018-05-01

    There is no gold standard outcome assessment for asthma first-aid knowledge. We therefore aimed to develop and validate an asthma first-aid knowledge questionnaire (AFAKQ) to be used before and after educational interventions. The AFAKQ was developed based on a content analysis of existing asthma knowledge questionnaires and current asthma management guidelines. Content and face validity was performed by a review panel consisting of expert respiratory physicians, researchers and parents of school aged children. A 21 item questionnaire was then pilot tested among a sample of caregivers, health professionals and pharmacy students. Exploratory Factor analysis was performed to determine internal consistency. The initial 46 item version of the AFAKQ, was reduced to 21 items after revision by the expert panel. This was then pilot tested amongst 161 participants and further reduced to 14 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed a parsimonious one factor solution with a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.77 with the 14 item AFAKQ. The AFAKQ is a valid tool ready for application in evaluating the impact of educational interventions on asthma first-aid knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Organization of workplace first aid in health care facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, M; Sacco, A; Bosco, Maria Giuseppina; Chinni, V; De Santis, A; Pagnanelli, A

    2007-01-01

    Laws D.Lgs. 626/94 and D.I. 388/03 attach particular importance to the organization of first aid in the workplace. Like every other enterprise, also hospitals and health care facilities have the obligation, as foreseen by the relevant legislation, to organize and manage first aid in the workplace. To discuss the topic in the light of the guidelines contained in the literature. We used the references contained in the relevant literature and in the regulations concerning organization of first aid in health care facilities. The regulations require the general manager of health care facilities to organize the primary intervention in case of emergencies in all health care facilities (health care or administrative, territorial and hospitals). In health care facilities the particular occupational risks, the general access of the public and the presence of patients who are already assumed to have altered states of health, should be the reason for particular care in guaranteeing the best possible management of a health emergency in the shortest time possible.

  12. The critical role of community-based micro-grants for disability aids and equipment: results from a needs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchberger, Heidi; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Parekh, Sanjoti; Crozier, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of philanthropic micro-grants (maximum of $10,000) in the provision of aids and equipment for adults (aged 18-65 years of age) with complex disabilities and examine key trends in aids and equipment requests. This study examined, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, aids and equipment requests (n = 371 individual applications as represented by 136 service organisations in three Australian states) received by a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation across five consecutive years of an innovative micro-grants scheme. Findings highlight that living situation (living with family or living independently) significantly influences the nature of requests for respite, aids, equipment and home modifications. Specifically, people with complex disabilities living with their families require greater combined service provision (higher equipment need, respite support, home modifications) than those living independently (equipment need only). Type of disability did not influence request type. Qualitative data further indicated the "last resort" nature of respite requests, particularly for younger applicants (under 45 years of age) indicating critical unmet needs in the community. Results demonstrate the vital role of NFP organisations and philanthropic funds in supporting daily lifestyle aids and equipment (including respite) that might otherwise not be funded for people with complex disabilities. Although preliminary in its scope and prior to implementation of a National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) in Australia, findings suggest both opportunity and risk to the uptake of community-based micro-grant funding: opportunity for users through the provision of essential aids and lifestyle supports, and risk through over-subscription and devolving of responsibility for critical support resources from public sector. The aids and equipment needs of adults under the age of 65 appear to have been underestimated, poorly defined and under

  13. Oral plasmablastic lymphoma as the first manifestation of AIDS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Daniela Assis; Rogado, Carolina Martelli; de Carvalho, Danielle Lima Corrêa; Trierveiler, Marilia; Ortega, Karem López

    2017-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by its plasmacytic differentiation and predilection for the oral cavity. It is among the lymphomas most commonly associated with AIDS. This report details a case of a HIV-positive patient with a 1-month history of an exophytic mass in the gingival area of the upper left quadrant. The diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma was made based on its histopathological and immunophenotypical features. She was treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite complete resolution of the lesion, the patient died of cardiorespiratory arrest. This case illustrates plasmablastic lymphoma as the first clinical manifestation of AIDS, highlighting the importance of differentiating between a potentially malignant lesion and other pathologic processes. PMID:29267464

  14. Burns first aid treatment in remote Northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, David J; Tan, Swee Chin; Ward, Linda; McDermott, Kathleen

    2018-03-01

    It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). Inclusion criterion was all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital for the period 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Variables collected and analysed include: demographics, burn mechanism, burn wound depth and adequacy of and circumstances around first aid. Overall 310 cases were analysed. Most injuries involved adults (68%), 19% Indigenous persons and 70% of all patients had their burn injury occur in the urban region. Adequate BFAT occurred in 41% of cases. Adults, contact burns and those where the burn injury occurred in the remote regions were less likely to receive adequate BFAT. Indigenous persons were less likely to attempt any BFAT at all and when they did receive BFAT it was more likely applied by an emergency responder or health professional. Overall adequacy of BFAT is low in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Remote dwellers and Indigenous persons are at increased risk of not applying or receiving adequate BFAT. The poor level of adequate BFAT demonstrated in this study suggests that the Top End community particularly remote and Indigenous persons would benefit from targeted BFAT education programs that are delivered in a culturally and linguistically appropriate fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical emergency and first aid for radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki-Yasumoto, Masashi

    1980-01-01

    The thinkings concerning the injuries to human beings in nuclear accidents differ somewhat between Japan and the U.S.A. and other European countries. In accordance with the historical evolution of nuclear power and the characteristics of medical system in respective countries, there are more or less modified measures in the scheme of three phases; i.e. first aid stations on the sites of nuclear facilities, support hospitals, and radiation injury centers, in order. So far, easy reliance on such as the National Institute of Radiological Sciences was large, but with the Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident as the turning point, the emergency and first aid systems are being studied intensively both in the Government and private nuclear power enterprises. The following matters are described: the differences in thinkings between Japan and other countries; fundamentals in the medical emergency scheme in radiation accidents; the systems in U.S.A., U.K., France and West Germany; and the problems and measures in the scheme of Japan. (J.P.N.)

  16. Experimental studies on decontamination in first aid for contaminated wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ogaki, Kazushi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the decontamination procedures in first aid for wounds contaminated with radionuclides. Abrasion of mouse skin was contaminated with 58 CoCl 2 . Irrigation by decontamination fluids began at 2 min after administration of the radionuclide and continued for 14 min. Tap water, 0.5% Hyamine solution or 10% Ca-DTPA solution were used as the decontamination fluids. Radioactivities of whole body, wounded skin surface and washed solution were measured with an animal counter with 5 cm NaI(Tl) and a well-type auto-gamma-counter. Decontamination effectiveness were expressed as follows: (1) absorption rate of radionuclide through the wound and (2) residual rate of radionuclide on the wound. More than 20% of the radionuclide applied on the wounded skin was absorbed in 15 min after contamination. The absorption rate decreased to 2% by the decontamination procedures. The Ca-DTPA solution reduced the residual rate of radionuclide on the wounds. The results suggested that the decontamination for the contaminated wounds should begin as soon as possible. Irrigation with 0.5% Hyamine solution has been advocated for the decontamination in the first aid. (author)

  17. Important considerations when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees in Australia: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Santalucia, Yvonne; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2016-01-01

    Refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups in Australian society, presenting high levels of exposure to traumatic events and consequently high levels of severe psychological distress. While there is a need for professional help, only a small percentage will receive appropriate care for their mental health concerns. This study aimed to determine cultural considerations required when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises. Using a Delphi method, 16 experts were presented with statements about possible culturally-appropriate first aid actions via questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the questionnaire content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥90 % of panellists as 'Essential' or 'Important'. From a total of 65 statements, 38 were endorsed (17 for cultural awareness, 12 for cross-cultural communication, 7 for stigma associated with mental health problems, and 2 for barriers to seeking professional help). Experts were able to reach consensus about how to provide culturally-appropriate first aid for mental health problems to Iraqi refugees, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology in developing cultural considerations guidelines. This specific refugee study provided potentially valuable cultural knowledge required to better equip members of the Australian public on how to respond to and assist Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises.

  18. First aid kits for recreational dive boats, what should they contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Jacqueline; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2010-09-01

    Well-equipped first-aid kits are necessary but not always provided on recreational dive boats. We aimed to review the types of illness and injury likely to be encountered on such boats and inform a content list for such kits. We conducted a 3-round Delphi study by email using a volunteer panel of 18 experts drawn from diving, dive medicine and nursing. In round 1, panellists shared examples of illnesses and injuries they had come across personally. These scenarios were circulated along with findings from a literature review, including existing recommendations. In rounds 2 and 3, the list of kit for dive boats in different settings was iteratively refined through online discussion and feedback. Passengers and crew on recreational dive boats may encounter a range of medical problems from minor injuries to serious accidents and non-dive-related illnesses. Recommended kit varied depending on context and setting (e.g. distance from land, qualifications and experience of crew). Consensus was quickly reached on key first-aid items but experts' views on emergency medicines differed. The study highlights the diversity of medical problems encountered on recreational dive boats. We offer preliminary guidance on the content of suitable first-aid kits and suggest areas for further research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. First impressions last… A survey of knowledge of first aid in burn-related injuries amongst hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Poi Hoon; Pinder, Richard; Coulson, Samuel; Rawlins, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    The administration of first aid in burns has been shown to have a significant influence on the ultimate severity of the burn. We wanted to assess in-hospital healthcare (HCW), and non-healthcare workers' (nHCW) knowledge of first aid in burns. A purpose-designed questionnaire, including information about previous attendance at a first aid course and four clinical scenarios of burns, was distributed to HCWs in the local hospitals and non-medical students in the Universities of Leeds and Sheffield. 697 questionnaires were completed - 397 (57%) from HCW and 300 (43%) from nHCW. 59% of HCW had attended a first aid course, 68% of these courses included teaching on first aid in burns. HCW who had completed a first aid course generally did better than those who had not. Only 16% of HCW achieved correct answers in all questions compared to 30% nHCW. We show that the knowledge of first aid in burns is relatively poor amongst HCW and that attendance at a burns first aid course improves knowledge (although perhaps not as much as one might hope). We recommend that the burns content of first aid courses be reviewed, and that there is a requirement for ALL hospital healthcare workers to undertake a first aid course, which includes appropriate burns first aid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Bystander first aid in trauma - prevalence and quality: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, H K; Steinvik, T; Eidissen, S-I; Gilbert, M; Wisborg, T

    2015-10-01

    Bystander first aid and basic life support can likely improve victim survival in trauma. In contrast to bystander first aid and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, little is known about the role of bystanders in trauma response. Our aim was to determine how frequently first aid is given to trauma victims by bystanders, the quality of this aid, the professional background of first-aid providers, and whether previous first-aid training affects aid quality. We conducted a prospective 18-month study in two mixed urban-rural Norwegian counties. The personnel on the first ambulance responding to trauma calls assessed and documented first aid performed by bystanders using a standard form. A total of 330 trauma calls were included, with bystanders present in 97% of cases. Securing an open airway was correctly performed for 76% of the 43 patients in need of this first-aid measure. Bleeding control was provided correctly for 81% of 63 patients for whom this measure was indicated, and prevention of hypothermia for 62% of 204 patients. Among the first-aid providers studied, 35% had some training in first aid. Bystanders with documented first-aid training gave better first aid than those where first-aid training status was unknown. A majority of the trauma patients studied received correct pre-hospital first aid, but still there is need for considerable improvement, particularly hypothermia prevention. Previous first-aid training seems to improve the quality of first aid provided. The effect on patient survival needs to be investigated. © 2015 The Authors. The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology,. Kasturba ... schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The .... Definition of first aid.

  2. A nationwide survey of first aid training and encounters in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Steinvik, Tine; Angell, Johan; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Background Bystander first aid can improve survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or trauma. Thus, providing first aid education to laypersons may lead to better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of first aid training in the populace, how often first aid skills are needed, and self-reported helping behaviour. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 1000 respondents who were representative of the Norwegian population. Respondents were ...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1704 - First aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; availability of... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1704 First aid training program; availability... shall make available to all miners employed in the mine a course of instruction in first aid conducted...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1706 - First aid training program; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1706 First aid training program; minimum requirements. (a) All first aid training programs required under the provisions of §§ 77.1703 and 77.1704 shall...

  5. Comparison of Two Modes of Delivery of First Aid Training Including Basic Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, John; Livingston, Patricia; Craike, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Flexible-learning first aid courses are increasingly common due to reduced classroom contact time. This study compared retention of first aid knowledge and basic life support (BLS) skills three months after a two-day, classroom-based first aid course (STD) to one utilizing on-line theory learning at home followed by one day of classroom…

  6. 30 CFR 77.1703 - First-Aid training; supervisory employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-Aid training; supervisory employees. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1703 First-Aid training; supervisory employees. The mine operator shall conduct first-aid training courses for selected supervisory employees at the mine. Within 60 days...

  7. 30 CFR 50.20-3 - Criteria-Differences between medical treatment and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and first aid. 50.20-3 Section 50.20-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... first aid. (a) Medical treatment includes, but is not limited to, the suturing of any wound, treatment... treatment. Tetanus and flu shots are considered preventative in nature. First aid includes any one-time...

  8. Psychological First Aid: Rapid proliferation and the search for evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Forbes, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA.

  9. A Feasibility Trial of Mental Health First Aid First Nations: Acceptability, Cultural Adaptation, and Preliminary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Lapp, Andrea; Auger, Monique; van der Woerd, Kim; Snowshoe, Angela; Rogers, Billie Jo; Tsuruda, Samantha; Caron, Cassidy

    2018-03-25

    The Mental Health First Aid First Nations course was adapted from Mental Health First Aid Basic to create a community-based, culturally safe and relevant approach to promoting mental health literacy in First Nations contexts. Over 2.5 days, the course aims to build community capacity by teaching individuals to recognize and respond to mental health crises. This feasibility trial utilized mixed methods to evaluate the acceptability, cultural adaptation, and preliminary effectiveness of MHFAFN. Our approach was grounded in community-based participatory research principles, emphasizing relationship-driven procedures to collecting data and choice for how participants shared their voices. Data included participant interviews (n = 89), and surveys (n = 91) from 10 groups in four provinces. Surveys contained open-ended questions, retrospective pre-post ratings, and a scenario. We utilized data from nine facilitator interviews and 24 facilitator implementation surveys. The different lines of evidence converged to highlight strong acceptability, mixed reactions to the cultural adaptation, and gains in participants' knowledge, mental health first aid skill application, awareness, and self-efficacy, and reductions in stigma beliefs. Beyond promoting individual gains, the course served as a community-wide prevention approach by situating mental health in a colonial context and highlighting local resources and cultural strengths for promoting mental well-being. © 2018 The Authors American Journal of Community Psychology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Community Research and Action.

  10. First aid to Cultural Heritage. Training initiatives on rapid documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Tandon, A.; Eppich, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.

  11. Practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a southern district of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the 'fear of legal complications' (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons.

  12. [Investigation on level and influencing factors of first aid knowledge among dentists in Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Tian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Ge; Kong, Jing-Jun; Pan, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The study aims to investigate the cognition degree and influencing factors of first aid knowledge among dentists in Sichuan province, and to provide suggestions for the training of oral clinician. A questionnaire was designed for this study. It included the basic situation of population, first aid knowledge level, emergency situation often encountered in stomatology clinic, first aid training situation, learning approach and attitude of first aid knowledge, etc. This questionnaire was used to investigate the dentists of medical institutions in various cities in Sichuan province. The survey results was statistical analyzed. There were 245 valid questionnaires. 1) The level of first aid knowledge of dentists was generally lower in Sichuan province. Work department and other departments work experience were the influencing factors of knowledge level of first aid knowledge among dentists. 2) 87.3% of dentists believed that it was very necessary to master the knowledge of first aid, but in the event of an emergency situation, 73.5% of dentists only can find other doctors to guide themselves to help. 3) The most common way to learn first aid knowledge was through work experience and medical school's first aid course. Dentists should strengthen the learning and training to improve the first aid skill.

  13. First aid facilities in the school settings: Are schools able to manage adequately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farhan Muhammad; Khalid, Nadia; Nigah-E-Mumtaz, Seema; Assad, Tahira; Noreen, Khola

    2018-01-01

    Children spend most of their time in schools and are vulnerable to injuries and mild ailments, hence requiring first-aid care. School teacher can provide immediate first-aid care in the absence of any health professional. This study assesses first-aid facilities within school premises and assessment of teachers on first aid training. A cross sectional study was conducted from July-December 2017, participants were full time school teachers of both public and private sectors at both primary and secondary levels, having a minimum of one year experience. Questionnaire was filled on one to one basis by taking oral interview. Out of 209 teachers, 72.7% were from private sector. Stomachache was the most common medical incident (82.29%) requiring first-aid care in schools. First aid box was available in all schools but its contents were not satisfactory. Sick bay was not found in any school. 68.42% of teachers were not trained in first-aid management because of lack of opportunity, however 56% were willing to enroll in any first aid training and majority (91.38%) considered it essential for their professional life. First aid facilities at various schools of Karachi and availability of trained teachers who can provide first aid care is unsatisfactory.

  14. Health care personnel's critique on the Philippines' first movie on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldivar, S B

    1995-01-01

    The "Dolzura Cortez Story" was the Philippines' first movie on AIDS that provided 'a name and a face' among the 50 recorded lives that were lost to AIDS in 1992. This movie was utilized as a focus of discussion by some health care personnel to express their thoughts, opinions and recommendations regarding the use of cinema as a powerful tool for AIDS information dissemination.

  15. Community senior first aid training in Western Australia: its extent and effect on knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Dania M; Gennat, Hanni C; Celenza, Tony; Jacobs, Ian G; O'Brien, Debra; Jelinek, George A

    2006-04-01

    To define the extent of Senior First Aid training in a sample of the Western Australian community, and to evaluate the effect of previous training on first aid knowledge and skills. A telephone survey of a random sample from suburban Perth and rural Western Australia; and practical assessment of first aid skills in a subsample of those surveyed. 30.4% of respondents had completed a Senior First Aid certificate. Trained individuals performed consistently better in theoretical tests (p=0.0001) and practical management of snakebite (p=0.021) than untrained. However, many volunteers, both trained and untrained, demonstrated poor skills in applying pressure immobilisation bandaging and splinting the limb adequately despite electing to do so in theory. Overall knowledge and performance of first aid skills by the community are poor, but are improved by first aid training courses.

  16. Community-based first aid: a program report on the intersection of community-based participatory research and first aid education in a remote Canadian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBurgh, D; Jamieson, R; Beardy, J; Ritchie, S D; Orkin, A

    2014-01-01

    Community-based first aid training is the collaborative development of locally relevant emergency response training. The Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative was developed, delivered, and evaluated through two intensive 5-day first aid courses. Sachigo Lake First Nation is a remote Aboriginal community of 450 people in northern Ontario, Canada, with no local paramedical services. These courses were developed in collaboration with the community, with a goal of building community capacity to respond to medical emergencies. Most first aid training programs rely on standardized curriculum developed for urban and rural contexts with established emergency response systems. Delivering effective community-based first aid training in a remote Aboriginal community required specific adaptations to conventional first aid educational content and pedagogy. Three key lessons emerged during this program that used collaborative principles to adapt conventional first aid concepts and curriculum: (1) standardized approaches may not be relevant nor appropriate; (2) relationships between course participants and the people they help are relevant and important; (3) curriculum must be attentive to existing informal and formal emergency response systems. These lessons may be instructive for the development of other programs in similar settings.

  17. Response to: Practice of first aid in burn related injuries in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Khor, Wee Sim; Khwaja, Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Traditional remedies for burns first aid are rarely compliant with current best practice. Greater Manchester is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the UK. Our burns centre has noted the prevalent use of traditional remedies over recognised first aid prior to presentation. We review traditional burns remedies and highlight the importance of burns first aid education that is accessible to migrant communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Financial Aid and First-Year Collegiate GPA: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curs, Bradley R.; Harper, Casandra E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a regression discontinuity design, we investigate whether a merit-based financial aid program has a causal effect on the first-year grade point average of first-time out-of-state freshmen at the University of Oregon. Our results indicate that merit-based financial aid has a positive and significant effect on first-year collegiate grade point…

  19. Evaluating first-aid knowledge and attitudes of a sample of Turkish primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başer, Mürüvvet; Coban, Sibel; Taşci, Sultan; Sungur, Gönül; Bayat, Meral

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge of first aid, which constitutes life-saving treatments for injuries or unexpected illnesses, is important for every individual at every age. First aid and basic life support are so important that teaching basic first aid should be compulsory in all schools. The goal of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of a sample of Turkish teachers regarding the administration of first aid. Three hundred twelve teachers took part in this study to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of teachers in primary schools about first aid. Data were obtained using a questionnaire. It included 30 questions that help identify the teachers and determine their knowledge and attitudes about first aid. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. In this study, it was determined that most of the teachers do not have correct knowledge and attitudes about first aid. For example, 65.1% of teachers gave incorrect answers regarding epistaxis, 63.5% for bee stings, and 88.5% for abrasion. It was found out that as the age of the teachers increases, appropriate first-aid practice becomes more and more unlikely. The results of this study showed that teachers did not have enough knowledge about first aid.

  20. [First aid system for trauma: development and status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D K; Lin, W C; Zhang, P; Kuang, S J; Huang, W; Wang, T B

    2017-04-18

    With the great progress of the economy, the level of industrialization has been increasing year by year, which leads to an increase in accidental trauma accidents. Chinese annual death of trauma is already more than 400 000, which makes trauma the fifth most common cause of death, following malignant tumor, heart, brain and respiratory diseases. Trauma is the leading cause of the death of young adults. At the same time, trauma has become a serious social problem in peace time. Trauma throws great treats on human health and life. As an important part in the medical and social security system, the emergency of trauma system occupies a very important position in the emergency medical service system. In European countries as well as the United States and also many other developed countries, trauma service system had a long history, and progressed to an advanced stage. However, Chinese trauma service system started late and is still developing. It has not turned into a complete and standardized system yet. This review summarizes the histories and current situations of the development of traumatic first aid system separately in European countries, the United States and our country. Special attentions are paid to the effects of the pre- and in-hospital emergency care. We also further try to explore the Chinese trauma emergency model that adapts to the situations of China and characteristics of different regions of China. Our review also introduces the trauma service system that suits the situations of China proposed by Professor Jiang Baoguo's team in details, taking Chinese conditions into account, they conducted a thematic study and made an expert consensus on pre-hospital emergency treatment of severe trauma, providing a basic routine and guidance of severe trauma treatment for those pre-hospital emergency physicians. They also advised to establish independent trauma disciplines and trauma specialist training systems, and to build the regional trauma care system as

  1. Practice of first aid in burn related injuries in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyibi, Idowu Olusegun; Ibrahim, Nasiru Akanmu; Mustafa, Ibrahim Akinwunmi; Ugburo, Andrew Omotayo; Adejumo, Adedeji Olusola; Buari, Adedayo

    2015-09-01

    First aid with cool running water reduces the severity of burn. Low level of knowledge of first aid in burns was shown in previous studies with few patients receiving first aid by water lavage. A study investigating the use of water lavage as first aid in patients presenting to hospital with burn in Lagos, Nigeria was carried out. Patients admitted to a University Teaching Hospital for treatment of burns were recruited for this prospective study. Data detailing demographics, scene and aetiology of burns, material used for first aid, who administered first aid, level of education and relationship of first-aider with patients, length of hospital stay, complications and outcome of treatment were collected and statistical analysis performed. 168 patients; 73 (43.4%) children and 95 (56.6%) adults were seen. Burns were sustained at home in 95 (74.2%) cases and outside in 33 (25.8%). Water lavage was used in 49 (29.2%) cases, raw eggs in 21 (12.5%), pap in 16 (9.5%) and other materials in 48.8%. 40 (23.8%) patients had not received any form of first aid at presentation. Patients that received no water first aid had higher complication rate (35.3% versus 18.4%) compared with those that had water first aid. The use of water first aid in burns was shown to reduce complication rate in this study. People should be educated on the efficacy of water first aid in pre-hospital care of burns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  3. [The organization and management of First Aid in the workplace: critical issues and innovations to be introduced].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Bruno; Cangiano, Giovanna; Calicchia, Sara; Marcellini, Laura; Colagiacomo, Chiara; Pera, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Develop an effective First Aid's system in workplaces is significantly important to the outcomes of accidents at work, thus contributing positively to create healthy and safe environments, improving responsible attitude and risk perception by workers. The italian regulation (D. Lgs. 81/08; DM 388/03) gives an important role to First Aid within the system for managing health and safety in workplaces and requires the employers to designate and train workers and organize facilities in the workplace. However, to ensure that First Aid's system actually contributes to increasing health and safety in workplaces, it's necessary to verify its effectiveness, beyond the law compliance. The article stands to evaluate the critical issues and related innovations to be introduced in this context, by analyzing data from literature and field experiences involving actors in the prevention system. The goal is to provide suggestions and action proposals to improve first aid's system in workplaces, paying particular attention to the aiders training (selection, motivation, teaching methods, retraining), as well as introduce to innovations to allow an immediate and timely emergency response (company equipments, other useful devices). On this last aspect, it has given particular emphasis to the introduction of semi-automatic defibrillator (AED), which is essential in case of sudden cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation, and special aiders training by means of BLSD (Basic Life Support and Defibrillation) courses based on international guidelines.

  4. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Georg; Myklebust, Anne G; Østringen, Kristin

    2011-02-28

    Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten. © 2011 Bollig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. First aid and basic life support of junior doctors: A prospective study in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Severien, I.; Metz, J.C.; Berden, H.J.J.M.; Biert, J.

    2006-01-01

    According to the Dutch medical education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to perform first aid and basic life support. A prospective study was undertaken to assess the level of first aid and basic life support (BLS) competence of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen

  6. [The level of first aid and basic life support for the next generation of physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severien, I.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Metz, J.C.; Biert, J.; Berden, H.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    According to Dutch medical-education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to carry out first aid and basic life support. We determined the level of first aid and basic life support of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Of the 300 junior

  7. First aid and basic life support: a questionnaire survey of medical schools in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An

  8. [Peculiarities and aims of first aid training in the road haulage sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Bruno, Santina; Feola, M; Zanelli, R; Corino, P

    2008-01-01

    Four years after the law concerning first aid in the workplace was passed in Italy (inter-ministerial decree 388/2003), which is a useful tool in improving safety at work, it is necessary to organize first aid courses specifically for those working in the road haulage sector which would also be effective in case of traffic accidents. In view of the characteristics of the working environment in this sector (the road) and of the working conditions (generally workers are isolated and far from the company's headquarters), it would be necessary to organize ad hoc first aid courses at the workplace for the category of professional drivers. The aim of this article is to discuss some possible organizational aspects of first aid in the road haulage sector, such as: number of workers responsible for first aid, how to train workers for specific risks of traffic accidents, the requirements for teachers responsible for first aid and course targets that must be achieved. A good level of training, achieved during the first aid course at the workplace, might therefore be useful to improve road safety and increase the quality of basic and advanced first aid in road traffic injuries.

  9. Standard First Aid Training Course. Naval Education and Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Washington, DC.

    This first aid manual is designed to serve as basic first aid instructional materials for all nonmedical naval personnel. Chapters are included on the following topics: basic life support, hemorrhage, shock, wounds, injuries, drug abuse, poisoning, common medical emergencies, NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agent casualties, and rescue and…

  10. First aid and basic life support training for first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintaş, Kerim Hakan; Yildiz, Ali Naci; Aslan, Dilek; Ozvariş, Sevkat Bahar; Bilir, Nazmi

    2009-12-01

    We developed 24 and 12-h programs for first aid and basic life support (FA-BLS) training for first-year medical students and evaluated the opinions of both the trainers and trainees on the effectiveness of the programs. The trainees were the first-year students of academic years 2000-2001 (316 students) and 2001-2002 (366 students). The evaluations of the participants were collected from short questionnaires created specifically for the study. For the 24-h training program, most of the students stated that FA-BLS sessions met their expectations (85.9%) and they were satisfied with the training (91.1%). Of the participants, 75.6% stated that they could apply FA confidently in real situations simulating the topics they learned in the FA-BLS sessions. For the 12-h training program, 84.4% of the students felt themselves competent in FA-BLS applications. The trainers considered both of the programs as effective.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers attending pediatric emergency medicine departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomar, Mohammed; Rouqi, Faisal Al; Eldali, Abdelmoneim

    2016-06-01

    Emergency departments witness many cases of burns that can be prevented with various first-aid measures. Immediate and effective burn first aid reduces morbidity and determines the outcome. Thus, it is imperative that measures of primary burn prevention and first-aid knowledge be improved. This descriptive study determines the current level of knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers. Caregivers attending four pediatric emergency departments answered a structured questionnaire for demographic information, knowledge, and the burn first aid they provide including two case scenarios. Applying cold water for 15-20min, smothering burning clothes, and covering the pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth were considered appropriate responses. The main outcome measure was the proportion of caregivers who were aware of burn first aid and did not use inappropriate remedies. Additional questions regarding the best means of educating the public on burn first aid were included. Individual chi-squared tests and univariate logistic regressions were performed to correlate knowledge with demographic features, history of burns, and first-aid training. The 408 interviewed caregivers (55% women) reflected a wide range of age, occupation, and educational level. Sixty percent (60%) of respondents had a large family, with 52% reporting a history of burns. Overall, 41% treated burns with cool or cold water, although 97% had inappropriate or no knowledge of the duration. Further, 32% treated burns with nonscientific remedies alone or in combination, including honey, egg white, toothpaste, white flour, tomato paste, yogurt, tea, sliced potato, butter, or ice. Only 15% had first-aid training. While 65% of caregivers covered a pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth, only 24% reported smothering burning clothes. Participants preferred learning more of first aid for burns via social media (41%), hospital visits (30%), and television (TV) (16%). No significant

  12. Current knowledge of burn injury first aid practices and applied traditional remedies: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Abdullah E; AlShomer, Feras; Alhujayri, Abdulaziz K; Addar, Abdullah; Aljerian, Albaraa

    2016-01-01

    Burn first aid awareness has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a report on the knowledge and practices of the Saudi population with regard to burn first aid and the application of traditional remedies. An internet-based survey was conducted to assess the public's knowledge on first aid practices and home remedies applied for burn injuries among Saudi adults. A total of 2758 individuals responded to the survey. There were 1178 (42.7 %) respondents who had previously received burn first aid information. One thousand five hundred fifty respondents had a history of burn exposure in which burn injury first aid was applied as follows: 1118 (72.1 %) removed clothing and accessories from the injured area; water was applied by 990 (63.9 %); among those who applied water, 877 (88.6 %) applied cold water; and only 57 (5.8 %) did so for more than 15 min. Wrapping the burn area was performed by 526 (33.9 %), and 985 (63.5 %) sought medical assistance. When it comes to traditional remedies, 2134 (77.4 %) knew of and/or implemented these remedies as first aid or to treat burns. Honey and toothpaste were the commonest among these remedies with 1491 (69.9 %) and 1147 (53.7 %), respectively. This was associated with female gender ( r  = 0.87, P  first aid. Proper burn first aid is a simple, cheap, and accessible means of managing burns initially. Although the majority of the respondents were university graduates (51.1 %), knowledge and implementation of burn first aid was very poor. Major healthcare agencies should review and promote a consistent guideline for burn first aid in an effort to tackle and minimize the effect of this grave injury.

  13. Effectiveness of nonresuscitative first aid training in laypersons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Stijn; Heselmans, Annemie; Roex, Ann; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2009-09-01

    This study reviewed evidence on the effects of nonresuscitative first aid training on competence and helping behavior in laypersons. We identified randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and interrupted time series on nonresuscitative first aid training for laypersons by using 12 databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), hand searching, reference checking, and author communication. Two reviewers independently evaluated selected studies with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group quality criteria. One reviewer extracted data with a standard form and another checked them. In anticipation of substantial heterogeneity across studies, we elected a descriptive summary of the included studies. We included 4 studies, 3 of which were randomized trials. We excluded 11 studies on quality issues. Two studies revealed that participants trained in first aid demonstrated higher written test scores than controls (poisoning first aid: relative risk 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64 to 2.72; various first aid cases: mean difference 4.75, 95% CI 3.02 to 6.48). Two studies evaluated helping responses during unannounced simulations. First aid training improved the quality of help for a bleeding emergency (relative risk 25.94; 95% CI 3.60 to 186.93), not the rate of helping (relative risk 1.13; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.45). Training in first aid and helping behavior increased the helping rates in a chest pain emergency compared with training in first aid only (relative risk 2.80; 95% CI 1.05 to 7.50) or controls (relative risk 3.81; 95% CI 0.98 to 14.89). Participants trained in first aid only did not help more than controls (relative risk 1.36; 95% CI 0.28 to 6.61). First aid programs that also train participants to overcome inhibitors of emergency helping behavior could lead to better help and higher helping rates.

  14. An elective seminar to teach first-year students the social and medical aspects of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, J D

    1987-07-01

    First-year students at a midwestern medical school are introduced to a comprehensive approach to the biological, psychological, and social aspects of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In a seven-week elective seminar (approximately 12 hours in length), the students view a television movie and a documentary film about persons with AIDS and their families and friends, and they participate in roundtable discussions with AIDS patients, volunteers who coordinate support and advocacy for persons with AIDS, and health care professionals involved in the care of AIDS patients. They receive reading materials and lectures on the pathology, epidemiology, and history of AIDS, and they monitor and discuss radio and television reporting on AIDS. In wrap-up sessions and evaluation questionnaires, the students have reported the seminar to be valuable in helping them overcome their fear of the disease, develop empathy for patients with catastrophic diseases, and understand a comprehensive approach to a complex disease.

  15. First aid: level of knowledge of relatives and bystanders in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomruk, Onder; Soysal, Suna; Gunay, Turkan; Cimrin, Arif H

    2007-01-01

    Bystanders who are able to provide immediate first aid to patients who require emergency care can make a big difference in the outcome. Thus, first-aid training should be made available to as many people as possible. The aims of this study were to assess the level of first-aid knowledge among bystanders in emergency situations and to identify factors that affected this level of knowledge. At Dokuz Eylul University Emergency Service between February 1 and February 15, 2002, 318 bystanders were given a questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire was concerned with demographic characteristics and factors that would affect first-aid knowledge level. The second part consisted of 16 multiple choice questions about first aid. Bystanders answered an average of 7.16+/-3.14 questions correctly. Bystanders who had graduated from a university, were health care personnel, had taken a first-aid course, had a first-aid certificate, or had a driver's license were considered to be more successful.

  16. Pediatric first aid knowledge and attitudes among staff in the preschools of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Xingming; Qiu, Yulan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2012-08-14

    Unintentional injury remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. The aims of this study were to assess a baseline level of first aid knowledge and overall attitudes regarding first aid among staff members in Shanghai preschools. A cross-sectional study was carried out among the staff members at selected preschools. A stratified random sampling method was first used to identify suitable subjects. Data were obtained using a multiple-choice questionnaire. A standardized collection of demographics was performed and participants were given the aforementioned questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and attitudes toward first aid. 1067 subjects completed the questionnaire. None of the surveyed employees answered all questions correctly; only 39 individuals (3.7%) achieved passing scores. The relative number of correct answers to specific questions ranged from 16.5% to 90.2%. In particular, subjects lacked knowledge regarding first aid for convulsive seizures (only 16.5% answered correctly), chemical injuries to the eye (23%), inhaled poison (27.6%), and choking and coughing (30.1%). A multiple linear regression analysis showed scores were significantly higher among staff members with more education, those who had received first aid training before or were already healthcare providers, younger employees, and staff members from rural districts. Most employees agreed that giving first aid was helpful; the vast majority felt that it was important and useful for them to learn pediatric first aid. The level of first-aid knowledge among preschool staffs in Shanghai was low. There is an urgent need to educate staff members regarding first aid practices and the various risk factors relating to specific injuries.

  17. Experience with first aid in radiation sources accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1979-01-01

    More than 20 years of experience at the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the Prague Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology with prevention of accidents involving sources of radiation and the Centre's participation in providing medical aid in such accidents are described. A list is given of major types of accidents over the past decade. Prevalent were accidents involving sealed gamma sources, resulting in excessive local irradiation with serious skin damage or injury to some of the deeper structures of the hands, requiring plastic operation. Chromosomal picture investigation allows the estimation of the equivalent body dose which only reached higher values in a single case recorded (1.5 Gy = 150 rad). Organisational measures are described for emergencies and the task is shown by radiation hygiene departments attached to regional hygiene stations. The present system is capable of providing adequate, prompt and effective assistance. (author)

  18. Specific features of organizng the computer-aided design of radio-electronic equipment for electrophysical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozin, I.V.; Vasil'ev, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems of developing systems for computer-aided design (CAD) of radioelectronic equipment for large electrophysical facilities such as charged particle accelerators of new generation are discussed. The PLATA subsystem representing a part of CAD and used for printed circuit design is described. The subsystem PLATA is utilized to design, on the average, up to 150 types of circuits a year, 100-120 of which belong to circuits of increased complexity. In this case labour productivity of a designer at documentation increases almost two times

  19. Nursing research on a first aid model of double personnel for major burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Shi, Kai; Jin, Zhenghua; Liu, Shuang; Cai, Duo; Zhao, Jingchun; Chi, Cheng; Yu, Jiaao

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the effect of a first aid model employing two nurses on the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. A two-nurse model of first aid was designed for major burn patients. The model includes a division of labor between the first aid nurses and the re-organization of emergency carts. The clinical effectiveness of the process was examined in a retrospective chart review of 156 cases of major burn patients, experiencing shock and low blood volume, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of the department of burn surgery between November 2009 and June 2013. Of the 156 major burn cases, 87 patients who received first aid using the double personnel model were assigned to the test group and the 69 patients who received first aid using the standard first aid model were assigned to the control group. The efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for the patients were compared between the two groups. Student's t tests were used to the compare the mean difference between the groups. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were found on both measures (P's first aid model based on scientifically validated procedures and a reasonable division of labor can shorten the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. Given these findings, the model appears to be worthy of clinical application.

  20. Resident assistant training program for increasing alcohol, other drug, and mental health first-aid efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L; Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Osborn, Cynthia J; Rossheim, Matthew E; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2015-05-01

    In college and university residence halls, resident assistants (RAs) are expected to serve as first-aid providers to students who may have alcohol, other drug, mental health, and academic problems. Despite this responsibility, evidence-based, first-aid programs have not been developed and tested for the RA workforce. The current study examined effects of an investigational first-aid program designed specifically for RAs. The online Peer Hero Training program is a novel approach to RA training in its use of interactive video dramatizations of incidents involving substance-using or distressed residents. A 9-month randomized trial conducted on eight US campuses compared RAs who participated in the Peer Hero Training program to RAs who received training-as-usual. Participation in the Peer Hero Training program significantly increased RA first-aid efforts for residential students who may have had alcohol, other drug, mental health, or academic problems 6 months after baseline. Compared with those in the training-as-usual condition, RAs in the Peer Hero Training program made more than 10 times as many first-aid efforts for possible alcohol problems, almost 14 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible drug use, almost 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible mental health problems, and 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for academic problems. There was no evidence that measured RA attitudes mediated the effects of the intervention. Results of this preliminary evaluation trial suggest that online training using interactive video dramatizations is a viable approach to strengthening RAs' ability to provide alcohol, other drugs, and mental health first-aid to undergraduates.

  1. A systematic literature review on first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannvik, T D; Bakke, H K; Wisborg, T

    2012-11-01

    Death from trauma is a significant and international problem. Outcome for patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrests is significantly improved by early cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The usefulness of first aid given by laypeople in trauma is less well established. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims and to establish how often first aid is provided, if it is performed correctly, and its impact on outcome. A systematic review was carried out, according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, of all studies involving first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims. Cochrane, Embase, Medline, Pubmed, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched. Ten eligible articles were identified involving a total of 5836 victims. Eight studies were related to patient outcome, while two studies were simulation based. The proportion of patients who received first aid ranged from 10.7% to 65%. Incorrect first aid was given in up to 83.7% of cases. Airway handling and haemorrhage control were particular areas of concern. One study from Iraq investigated survival and reported a 5.8% reduction in mortality. Two retrospective autopsy-based studies estimated that correct first aid could have reduced mortality by 1.8-4.5%. There is limited evidence regarding first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims. Due to great heterogeneity in the studies, firm conclusions can not be drawn. However, the results show a potential mortality reduction if first aid is administered to trauma victims. Further research is necessary to establish this. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  2. [The ability of drivers to give first aid--testing by questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, M

    1998-01-01

    Road accidents have become a serious social problem. The scale and complexity of this problem shows clearly that there is a necessity to improve citizens' ability to give first aid which is especially essential in the case of drivers. Thus special training how to give first aid at the accident place seems to be of the primary importance. The objective of this paper is to: 1) identify to what extent the drivers of motor vehicles are prepared to provide first aid for casualties of the road accidents, 2) evaluate the training system of teaching motorists how to give first aid before professional help arrives, 3) identify drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents. The questionnaire was given to 560 employees of local government institutions in the city of Lublin either professional or non-professional drivers. The direct method and anonymous questionnaire were used. The results of the questionnaire revealed clearly that very few drivers are well-prepared to give proper first aid at the accident site. No matter what sex, education or driving experience, the drivers have not got enough skills to give first aid and the effect is enhanced by various psychological barriers. The questioned drivers shared the opinion that first aid training is badly run. The drivers stressed bad quality of the training and the fact that it is impossible to acquire practical skills that may be required in the case of emergency. Drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents included, among others, the following propositions: in addition to the driving licence exam first aid exam should be compulsory severe enforcement and execution of the law which regulates the mandatory first aid giving.

  3. L-038: EPR-First Responders: Forces / safety equipment. Action Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is about the actions carry out by the forces and the safety equipment in a radiological emergency. The security area, the victims, the hospitals, the police vehicles area, the safety cordon, the evacuation, the contamination level and the risk of life are important aspects to be considered by the first responders.

  4. First test of a CMS DT chamber equipped with full electronics in a muon beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    A CMS DT chamber of MB3 type, equipped with the final version of a minicrate (containing all on-chamber trigger and readout electronics), was tested in a muon beam for the first time. The beam was bunched in 25 ns spills, allowing an LHC-like response of the chamber trigger. This test confirmed the excellent performance of the trigger design.

  5. Medical Aid for Russian Soldiers During the First World War (on the Materials of Tsaritsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepkova Elena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available he article discusses the activity of medical institutions in Tsaritsyn, Saratov province, on assisting the wounded during the First World War. The author emphasizes that the problem of evacuating the wounded on the territory of the Saratov province were primarily associated with the irrational distribution of medical beds between the rear and front hospitals. The additional complications arose due to the lack of transport for evacuation and insufficient length of railways. The considerable distance from the front contributed to quite successful organization of medical aid to the wounded, despite the lack of qualified medical staff and the necessary medical equipment. The article contains the data on the number of medical institutions in the city and on the organization of hospitals and infirmaries functioning in Tsaritsyn during the war. The care quality in Tsaritsyn infirmaries was at a high level, as evidenced by a significant percentage of recovery of the wounded and sick. Emerging issues were often dealt with by means of different charitable organizations, primarily the Tsaritsyn Red Cross Society. Its initial task was to provide medical equipment for the hospitals. However, the activity of the Tsaritsyn Red Cross Society is not limited thereto, and the city was provided with modern medical equipment, including X-ray room. In the future, it gave a great impetus to the development of the health system in Tsaritsyn. The author emphasizes the special role of the big industrialists, merchants and patrons of Tsaritsyn, who made large donations to the Ladies’ Committee and the Committee of the Red Cross, thus contributing to the support of charitable organizations of the city during the war. The author concludes that in the provincial cities, including Tsaritsyn, the conditions for the rehabilitation of a large number of wounded and sick soldiers were created in a short time period. The charitable organizations and individuals established

  6. Experiences of instructors delivering the Mental Health First Aid training programme: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J

    2010-09-01

    Mental health literacy among the public is often poor, and although people frequently encounter others experiencing mental distress in their workplace, families and communities, they may be ill-equipped to provide appropriate support. 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA), a 12-h mental health promotion programme seeks to address this, training people in the knowledge and skills needed to engage with someone experiencing mental health problems. Research relating to the MHFA programme has centred on course attendees, with a paucity of research surrounding the delivery of basic mental health training programmes. Understanding experiences of instructors delivering such programmes is key to the success of future delivery. This study sought to identify the views and experiences of instructors delivering the MHFA programme in Wales. Fourteen MHFA instructors participated in semi-structured audio-recorded interviews, with the transcripts analysed to identify key themes. This paper explores two of the identified themes namely prerequisite skills and support required by instructors. The study highlighted that because of the ensuing emotional labour experienced by instructors, universal mental health training programmes must put in place a clear infrastructure to train, support and monitor those delivering them, for programme roll-out to be effective.

  7. PRN 2001-1: First Aid Statements on Pesticide Product Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR notice is intended to provide guidance for what the Agency believes is the most updated appropriate first aid language for pesticide product labels to ensure that they continue to adequately protect the public.

  8. The efficacy of a first aid training course for drivers: an experience from northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Mohjervatan, Ali; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Hosini, Nazanin Sadat; Alizad, Farideh; Arasteh, Peyman; Moghasemi, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a first aid training course for a group of drivers. This study comprised 500 drivers, randomly selected from the road transport companies. They underwent a course of first aid training and the results were evaluated at 0-3 and 4-6 months after training. Both quantitative and qualitative improvements were observed in the drivers'efficacy in giving first aid. Also the rate of correct interventions was higher at 4-6 months than at 0-3 months. The exception was airway management which was not favorably improved after training. The first aid training course for drivers is beneficial and helpful for prehospital care system in road traffic accidents.

  9. Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.

  10. Evidence-based educational pathway for the integration of first aid training in school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buck, Emmy; Van Remoortel, Hans; Dieltjens, Tessa; Verstraeten, Hans; Clarysse, Matthieu; Moens, Olaf; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    "Calling for help, performing first aid and providing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)" is part of the educational goals in secondary schools in Belgium (Flanders). However, for teachers it is not always clear at what age children can be taught which aspects of first aid. In addition, it is not clear what constitutes "performing first aid" and we strongly advocate that the first aid curriculum is broader than CPR training alone. To develop an evidence-based educational pathway to enable the integration of first aid into the school curriculum by defining the goals to be achieved for knowledge, skills and attitudes, for different age groups. Studies were identified through electronic databases research (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase). We included studies on first aid education for children and adolescents up to 18 years old. A multidisciplinary expert panel formulated their practice experience and expert opinion and discussed the available evidence. We identified 5822 references and finally retained 30 studies (13 experimental and 17 observational studies), including studies concerning emergency call (7 studies), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (18 studies), AED (Automated External Defibrillator) use (6 studies), recovery position (5 studies), choking (2 studies), injuries (5 studies), and poisoning (2 studies). Recommendations (educational goals) were derived after carefully discussing the currently available evidence in the literature and balancing the skills and attitudes of children of different ages. An evidence-based educational pathway with educational goals concerning learning first aid for each age group was developed. This educational pathway can be used for the integration of first aid training in school curricula. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Management of the new first aid service at enterprises and construction sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, E; Cantoni, S; Mosconi, G

    2006-01-01

    First aid at work organization and management represents a complex and critical aspect of the manifold problems of hygiene and security at work; nevertheless, even in relatively well organized productions, these themes are often neglected, if not completely ignored. In this work the authors analize the laws which regulate the correct first aid at work organization and management and an approach to the problem based on the preliminary risk assessment is suggested.

  12. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  13. Mental health first aid training by e-learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Fischer, Julie-Anne; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is a course for the public that teaches how to give initial help to a person developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis. The present study evaluated the effects of Mental Health First Aid training delivered by e-learning on knowledge about mental disorders, stigmatizing attitudes and helping behaviour. A randomized controlled trial was carried out with 262 members of the Australian public. Participants were randomly assigned to complete an e-learning CD, read a Mental Health First Aid manual or be in a waiting list control group. The effects of the interventions were evaluated using online questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6-months follow up. The questionnaires covered mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, actions taken to implement mental health first aid and participant mental health. Both e-learning and the printed manual increased aspects of knowledge, reduced stigma and increased confidence compared to waiting list. E-learning also improved first aid actions taken more than waiting list, and was superior to the printed manual in reducing stigma and disability due to mental ill health. Mental Health First Aid information received by either e-learning or printed manual had positive effects, but e-learning was better at reducing stigma.

  14. Non-resuscitative first-aid training for children and laypeople: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhimin; Wynn, Persephone; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Relatively little is currently known about the effectiveness of first-aid training for children and laypeople. We have undertaken a systematic review to synthesise the evidence and inform policy and practice in this area. A range of bibliographic databases were searched. Studies were eligible if they used experimental designs, provided first-aid training to laypeople or children and reported first-aid knowledge, skills behaviours or confidence. Studies were selected for inclusion, data extracted and risk of bias assessed by two independent reviewers. Findings were synthesised narratively. 23 studies (14 randomised controlled trials and 9 non-randomised studies) were included, 12 of which recruited children or young people (≤19 years old). Most studies reported significant effects favouring the intervention group; 11 out of 16 studies reported significant increases in first-aid knowledge; 11 out of 13 studies reported significant increases in first-aid skills; 2 out of 5 studies reported significant improvements in helping behaviour; and 2 out of 3 studies reported significant increases in confidence in undertaking first aid. Only one study undertook an economic evaluation; finding an intensive instructor-led course was more effective, but had significantly higher costs than either a less-intensive instructor-led course or a video-delivered course. Most studies were at risk of bias, particularly selection, performance or detection bias. There is some evidence to support provision of first-aid training, particularly for children or young people, but many studies were judged to be at risk of bias. Conclusions cannot be drawn about which first-aid training courses or programmes are most effective or the age at which training can be most effectively provided. Few studies evaluated training in adult laypeople. High-quality studies are required assessing effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of standardised first-aid training to inform policy development and provision

  15. 30 CFR 75.1713-4 - First-aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; availability of... Miscellaneous § 75.1713-4 First-aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners. On or before... the mine a course of instruction in first-aid conducted by the operator or under the auspices of the...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1713-5 - First-aid training program; retraining of supervisory employees; availability to all miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; retraining of...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-5 First-aid training program; retraining of supervisory... shall conduct refresher first-aid training courses each calendar year for all selected supervisory...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1705 - First aid training program; retraining of supervisory employees; availability to all miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; retraining of..., SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1705 First aid..., 1972, each operator of a surface coal mine shall conduct refresher first aid training programs each...

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and first-aid measures about epilepsy among primary school teachers in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, A-A; Ghorbanpur-Valukolaei, M; Abbasi-Kangevari, M; Farsar, A-R

    2018-07-01

    To assess knowledge, attitudes, and first-aid measures about epilepsy among primary school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted with participation of 342 primary school teachers during September 2016 to January 2017 in cities of Babol and Qaem-Shahr in Mazandaran Province in northern Iran. Primary schools were selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire. The knowledge section included general knowledge, causes, symptoms, seizure triggers, first-aid measures, and recommended treatments. The Likert scale was used for the attitudes section. Answers about first-aid measures were categorized as helpful or harmful. The level of total knowledge score of 25 (7.7%) teachers was very high, 140 (43.3%) high, 141 (43.8%) moderate, and 17 (5.2%) low. The mean score about general knowledge was as follows: 6.1 (1.9), range = 0-9; causes 6.3 (1.9), range = 0-10; symptoms of seizures 8.5 (2.5), range = 0-12; and first-aid measures 6.8 (2.0), range = 0-11. Some 83% knew not taking anticonvulsants regularly could trigger seizures, and all teachers said a person with epilepsy should go see a physician. Attitudes were generally positive except for marriage and having children. The level of first-aid measures score of 8 (7.2) teachers was very high, 79 (70.5) high, 25 (22.3) low. Teachers with teaching experience at special schools took more helpful measures CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge of teachers about epilepsy was insufficient, attitudes toward people with epilepsy were generally positive, and first-aid measures at the last witnessed seizure were fairly helpful. Having teaching experience in special schools had a positive influence over knowledge and taking appropriate first-aid measure at time of the last witnessed seizure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mental health first aid for eating disorders: pilot evaluation of a training program for the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J

    2012-08-02

    Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating

  20. First aid training in driving schools - uselessness or relevant measure with considerable potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zámečník

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite various traffic safety measures traffic accidents still happen. In the Czech Republic, 57 serious accidents happen every day. In situation of accident, immediate help of the bystanders can save lives and reduce damage. Providers of the first aid can also significantly shorten the time before the professional medical assistance arrives by performing the correct procedure of calling emergency line. Czech Red Cross estimates that approximately 10% of the traffic accidents victims should be saved if the bystanders were more able or willing to give them a first aid. In the Czech Republic the system of dispatcher-assisted resuscitation is very well elaborated. After calling the emergency numbers operators are ready to provide the help and advice. Therefore there are no high requirements to the medical knowledge of the first aid providers. That is why the mandatory first aid courses in driving school are only four hours long, what is from expert point of view very unsufficient. Therefore aim of this research was to carry out screening study of effectiveness of the first aid courses in driving schools. In frame of this study was done questionnaire survey among trainees in driving schools focused on willingness and ability to provide first aid and subjective evaluation of these competences. We used adapted Adelborg's first aid questionnaire (Sp?rgeskema om f?rdselsrelateret f?rstehj?lp og genoplivning. The questionnaire was consisted of four parts. The first part affects the socio-demographic data, the second part affects the subjective evaluation of their own competencies, the third part focuses on the evaluation of the course itself and the fourth part takes the form of a test of actual knowledge of first aid. In the fourth part were respondents asked four most important questions in line with the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation and with International first aid and resuscitation guidelines of International Federation

  1. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  2. 'teen Mental Health First Aid': a description of the program and an initial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Mason, Robert J; Kelly, Claire M; Cvetkovski, Stefan; Jorm, Anthony F

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents have poor mental health literacy, stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental illness, and lack skills in providing optimal Mental Health First Aid to peers. These could be improved with training to facilitate better social support and increase appropriate help-seeking among adolescents with emerging mental health problems. teen Mental Health First Aid (teen MHFA), a new initiative of Mental Health First Aid International, is a 3 × 75 min classroom based training program for students aged 15-18 years. An uncontrolled pilot of the teen MHFA course was undertaken to examine the feasibility of providing the program in Australian secondary schools, to test relevant measures of student knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, and to provide initial evidence of program effects. Across four schools, 988 students received the teen MHFA program. 520 students with a mean age of 16 years completed the baseline questionnaire, 345 completed the post-test and 241 completed the three-month follow-up. Statistically significant improvements were found in mental health literacy, confidence in providing Mental Health First Aid to a peer, help-seeking intentions and student mental health, while stigmatising attitudes significantly reduced. teen MHFA appears to be an effective and feasible program for training high school students in Mental Health First Aid techniques. Further research is required with a randomized controlled design to elucidate the causal role of the program in the changes observed.

  3. Effects of pediatric first aid training on preschool teachers: a longitudinal cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Jinsong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-08-24

    Unintentional injuries are a major cause of death among children. Data suggest that the retention of knowledge and skills about first aid declined over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of pediatric first aid training among teachers. A stratified random sampling method was used to select 1,067 teachers. The selected trainees received pediatric first aid training. Follow-up assessments were conducted 6 months, 9 months and 4 years following the training. A standardized collection of demographics was performed, and participants were given a questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and emotions about first aid. In the pretest, 1067 people responded with a mean of 21.0 correct answers to 37 questions, whereas in the post-test period, the mean score increased to 32.2 correct answers of 37 questions (P 70%) had administered correct first aid for injuries. This study demonstrated that the acquisition of knowledge, both short and long term, significantly improves. Despite appreciable decreases in knowledge long term, knowledge retention was modest but stable.

  4. Evidence-based first aid advice for paediatric burns in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Alice; Sarginson, Julia; Young, Amber

    2016-05-01

    Burn and scald injuries are common in children. First aid advice for paediatric burns is offered by a range of health organisations and charities in the UK. Despite this, children still present to emergency departments and burn services having received little or inadequate first aid. A survey was undertaken regarding the content and consistency of the advice given by a cross-section of UK health organisations involved in first aid prevention and education. The advice was subsequently examined to determine if it was evidence-based. Our study has demonstrated inconsistencies in the content of the first aid advice provided by the 21 organisations included in the study. Seventy-one percent of the information was only available online. The temperature, method and duration of cooling varied substantially, as did the advice recommended for the removal of clothing and jewellery and methods for covering the burn immediately after injury. Results from the literature review concluded the following based on available evidence; cool the burn with running tap water for 20min, remove clothing and jewellery and cover the burn with cling film or a clean non-adhesive dressing. This study highlights the lack of consistency between first aid guidance provided by health organisations and charities in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. [Hospital-based psychological first aid provided to patients injured in the Lushan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Li, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jing; Huang, Xue-Hua; Tao, Qing-Lan; Luo, Xi

    2015-04-01

    In the aftermath of the 7.0 earthquake that struck Lushan in China's Sichuan Province on April 20, 2013, a psychological crisis intervention working group was established in a hospital that was treating earthquake victims. Patients at this hospital received psychological first aid that was delivered in accordance with scientific, systematic, and standardized principles. This first aid employed a "rooting mode" methodology and was designed as a supportive psychological intervention. Mental assessment results showed that the general mental health, acute stress reactions, and anxiety and depression status of all of the 131 injured who received the psychological intervention had significantly improved (p first aid, the approach used to organize the working groups, the main contents of the intervention, specific methods used, and intervention outcomes. This information is provided as a reference for providing localized psychological assistance in the aftermath of a disaster incident.

  6. Knowledge of childhood burn risks and burn first aid: Cool Runnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jacqueline D; Watt, Kerrianne A; Kimble, Roy M; Cameron, Cate M

    2018-01-31

    The high incidence of hot beverage scalds among young children has not changed in the past 15 years, but preventive campaigns have been scarce. A novel approach was used to engage mothers of young children in an app-based hot beverage scald prevention campaign 'Cool Runnings'. This paper provides baseline data for this randomised controlled trial (RCT). Queensland-based mothers aged 18+ years with at least one child aged 5-12 months were recruited via social media to Cool Runnings, which is a two-group, parallel, single-blinded RCT. In total, 498 participants from across Queensland completed the baseline questionnaire. The most common source of burn first aid information was the internet (79%). One-third (33%) correctly identified hot beverage scalds as the leading cause of childhood burns, 43% knew the age group most at risk. While 94% reported they would cool a burn with water, only 10% reported the recommended 20min duration. After adjusting for all relevant variables, there were two independent predictors of adequate burn first aid knowledge: first aid training in the past year (OR=3.32; 95% CI 1.8 to 6.1) and smoking status (OR=0.17; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.7). In this study, mothers of young children were largely unaware how frequently hot beverage scalds occur and the age group most susceptible to them. Inadequate burn first aid knowledge is prevalent across mothers of young children; there is an urgent and compelling need to improve burn first aid knowledge in this group. Given the high incidence of hot beverages scalds in children aged 6-24 months, it is important to target future burn prevention/first aid campaigns at parents of young children. ACTRN12616000019404; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. First aid knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganfure, Gemechu; Ameya, Gemechu; Tamirat, Ababe; Lencha, Bikila; Bikila, Dereje

    2018-01-01

    Injuries are very common and can occur at any point of time in a day. Unintended injuries in kindergarten children are the most common and need immediate life saving care which is known as first aid. This study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude, practice, and associated factors of first aid among kindergarten teachers of Lideta sub-city Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among kindergarten teachers. Data was collected using pretested, structured and self-administered questionnaire S1 File. The collected data was entered in to Epi Data version 3.1 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify association between kindergarten teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards first aid and different variables. Odds ratios with 95% CI and pfirst aid. Eighty percent of teachers encountered with children in need of first aid. Kindergarten teachers older than 35 years [AOR = 4.2, 95%CI: (1.02, 16.9)], five years' experience [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.6)], having previous first aid training [AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: (1.2, 7.7)], source of first aid information and teachers serving in private kindergarten are associated with having knowledge of first aid. Long time experience, type of kindergarten, previous training, and exposure to children in need of first aid were positive association with attitude towards first aid. Low first aid knowledge and high positive attitude among kindergarten teachers. Having long time experience, being older age, previous first aid training, and serving in private kindergarten were positively associated with first aid knowledge and positive attitude. Creating awareness and including first aid courses in the kindergarten teachers' curriculum need to be considered.

  8. Time expenditure in computer aided time studies implemented for highly mechanized forest equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Camelia Mușat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Time studies represent important tools that are used in forest operations research to produce empirical models or to comparatively assess the performance of two or more operational alternatives with the general aim to predict the performance of operational behavior, choose the most adequate equipment or eliminate the useless time. There is a long tradition in collecting the needed data in a traditional fashion, but this approach has its limitations, and it is likely that in the future the use of professional software would be extended is such preoccupations as this kind of tools have been already implemented. However, little to no information is available in what concerns the performance of data analyzing tasks when using purpose-built professional time studying software in such research preoccupations, while the resources needed to conduct time studies, including here the time may be quite intensive. Our study aimed to model the relations between the variation of time needed to analyze the video-recorded time study data and the variation of some measured independent variables for a complex organization of a work cycle. The results of our study indicate that the number of work elements which were separated within a work cycle as well as the delay-free cycle time and the software functionalities that were used during data analysis, significantly affected the time expenditure needed to analyze the data (α=0.01, p<0.01. Under the conditions of this study, where the average duration of a work cycle was of about 48 seconds and the number of separated work elements was of about 14, the speed that was usedto replay the video files significantly affected the mean time expenditure which averaged about 273 seconds for half of the real speed and about 192 seconds for an analyzing speed that equaled the real speed. We argue that different study designs as well as the parameters used within the software are likely to produce

  9. Providing mental health first aid in the workplace: a Delphi consensus study

    OpenAIRE

    Bovopoulos, Nataly; Jorm, Anthony F.; Bond, Kathy S.; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Reavley, Nicola J.; Kelly, Claire M.; Kitchener, Betty A.; Martin, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are common in the workplace, but workers affected by such problems are not always well supported by managers and co-workers. Guidelines exist for the public on how to provide mental health first aid, but not specifically on how to tailor one?s approach if the person of concern is a co-worker or employee. A Delphi consensus study was carried out to develop guidelines on additional considerations required when offering mental health first aid in a workplace con...

  10. Development of a multimedia educational programme for first-time hearing aid users: a participatory design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Leighton, Paul; Brandreth, Marian; Wharrad, Heather

    2018-05-02

    To develop content for a series of interactive video tutorials (or reusable learning objects, RLOs) for first-time adult hearing aid users, to enhance knowledge of hearing aids and communication. RLO content was based on an electronically-delivered Delphi review, workshops, and iterative peer-review and feedback using a mixed-methods participatory approach. An expert panel of 33 hearing healthcare professionals, and workshops involving 32 hearing aid users and 11 audiologists. This ensured that social, emotional and practical experiences of the end-user alongside clinical validity were captured. Content for evidence-based, self-contained RLOs based on pedagogical principles was developed for delivery via DVD for television, PC or internet. Content was developed based on Delphi review statements about essential information that reached consensus (≥90%), visual representations of relevant concepts relating to hearing aids and communication, and iterative peer-review and feedback of content. This participatory approach recognises and involves key stakeholders in the design process to create content for a user-friendly multimedia educational intervention, to supplement the clinical management of first-time hearing aid users. We propose participatory methodologies are used in the development of content for e-learning interventions in hearing-related research and clinical practice.

  11. Motivational engagement in first-time hearing aid users: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Maidment, David; Russell, Naomi; Gregory, Melanie; Nicholson, Richard

    2016-07-01

    To assess (1) the feasibility of incorporating the Ida Institute's Motivation Tools into a UK audiology service, (2) the potential benefits of motivational engagement in first-time hearing aid users, and (3) predictors of hearing aid and general health outcome measures. A feasibility study using a single-centre, prospective, quasi-randomized controlled design with two arms. The Ida Institute's Motivation Tools formed the basis for motivational engagement. First-time hearing aid users were recruited at the initial hearing assessment appointment. The intervention arm underwent motivational engagement (M+, n = 32), and a control arm (M-, n = 36) received standard care only. The M+ group showed greater self-efficacy, reduced anxiety, and greater engagement with the audiologist at assessment and fitting appointments. However, there were no significant between-group differences 10-weeks post-fitting. Hearing-related communication scores predicted anxiety, and social isolation scores predicted depression for the M+ group. Readiness to address hearing difficulties predicted hearing aid outcomes for the M- group. Hearing sensitivity was not a predictor of outcomes. There were some positive results from motivational engagement early in the patient journey. Future research should consider using qualitative methods to explore whether there are longer-term benefits of motivational engagement in hearing aid users.

  12. Pediatric First Aid Practices in Ghana: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyedu, Adam; Mock, Charles; Nakua, Emmanuel; Otupiri, Easmon; Donkor, Peter; Ebel, Beth E

    2015-08-01

    Children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) often receive care outside the formal medical sector. Improving pre-hospital first aid has proven to be highly cost-effective in lowering trauma mortality. Few studies in LMIC have examined home first aid practices for injured children. We conducted a representative population-based survey of 200 caregivers of children under 18 years of age, representing 6520 households. Caregivers were interviewed about their first aid practices and care-seeking behaviors when a child sustained an injury at home. Injuries of interest included burns, lacerations, fractures and choking. Reported practices were characterized as recommended, low-risk, and potentially harmful. For common injuries, 75-96% of caregivers reported employing a recommended practice (e.g., running cool water over a burn injury). However, for these same injuries, 13-61% of caregivers also identified potentially harmful management strategies (e.g., applying sand to a laceration). Choking had the highest proportion (96%) of recommended first aid practice: (e.g., hitting the child's back) and the lowest percent (13%) of potentially harmful practices (e.g., attempting manual removal). Fractures had the lowest percent (75%) of recommended practices (e.g., immediately bringing the child to a health facility). Burns had the highest percent (61%) of potentially harmful practices (e.g., applying kerosene). While most caregivers were aware of helpful first aid practices to administer for a child injury, many parents also described potentially harmful practices or delays in seeking medical attention. As parents are the de facto first responders to childhood injury, there are opportunities to strengthen pre-hospital care for children in LMICs.

  13. Performance Outcomes of an Online First Aid and CPR Course for Laypersons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolyn L.; Stiller, Janeth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study evaluated the effectiveness of an online first aid course by comparing it with the traditional instructor-led course. An effective online course increases course accessibility and mitigates the major deterrent to widespread layperson training. Design: A comparison group design evaluated performances among 25 laypersons…

  14. Reported fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in 16 American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Hudson R; Jones, Vanya C; Gielen, Andrea

    2018-05-07

    Airbnb helps hosts rent all or part of their home to guests as an alternative to traditional hospitality settings. Airbnb venues are not uniformly regulated across the USA. This study quantified the reported prevalence of fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in the USA. The sample includes 120 691 venues in 16 US cities. Proportions of host-reported smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) detectors, fire extinguishers and first-aid kits were calculated. The proportion of venues that reportedly contained amenities are as follows: smoke detectors 80% (n=96 087), CO detectors 57.5% (n=69 346), fire extinguishers 42% (n=50 884) and first-aid kits 36% (n=43 497). Among this sample of Airbnb venues, safety deficiencies were noted. While most venues had smoke alarms, approximately 1/2 had CO alarms and less than 1/2 reported having a fire extinguishers or first-aid kits. Local and state governments or Airbnb must implement regulations compliant with current National Fire Protection Association fire safety standards. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Game-Based Learning as a Vehicle to Teach First Aid Content: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Nathalie; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of first aid (FA), which constitutes lifesaving treatments for injuries or illnesses, is important for every individual. In this study, we have set up a group-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a board game for learning FA. Methods: Four class groups (120 students) were randomly assigned to 2…

  16. Wilderness First Aid Training as a Tool for Improving Basic Medical Knowledge in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Lindsay B; Douglas, William S; Lena, Sean R; Ratner, Kyle G; Crothers, Daniel; Zondervan, Robert L; Radis, Charles D

    2015-12-01

    The challenges presented by traumatic injuries in low-resource communities are especially relevant in South Sudan. This study was conducted to assess whether a 3-day wilderness first aid (WFA) training course taught in South Sudan improved first aid knowledge. Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) Schools designed the course to teach people with limited medical knowledge to use materials from their environment to provide life-saving care in the event of an emergency. A pre-test/post-test study design was used to assess first aid knowledge of 46 community members in Kit, South Sudan, according to a protocol approved by the University of New England Institutional Review Board. The course and assessments were administered in English and translated in real-time to Acholi and Arabic, the two primary languages spoken in the Kit region. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analyses were conducted. Results included a statistically significant improvement in first aid knowledge after the 3-day training course: t(38)=3.94; Pfirst of its kind in South Sudan, provides evidence that a WFA training course in South Sudan is efficacious. These findings suggest that similar training opportunities could be used in other parts of the world to improve basic medical knowledge in communities with limited access to medical resources and varying levels of education and professional experiences.

  17. Attitudes on first aid for paediatric burns: Pilot survey of a developed city state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua Phek Hui, Jade; Allen, John Carson; Mok, Wan Loong James

    2016-06-01

    Burn-related injuries are prevalent worldwide. Caregiver first aid can mitigate the devastating effects of paediatric burn injuries. Our aim was to assess knowledge of paediatric burns first aid among caregivers and determine whether knowledge levels can be raised following a short educational intervention. Over a 13-week period we surveyed 274 caregivers at the children's emergency department of KK Women's and Children's Hospital. The questionnaire assessed caregiver demographics and knowledge of burn first aid pre-intervention. There was an educational interlude during which the moderator educated the caregiver using a simple pictorial guide. The survey resumed thereafter and the post-intervention questions were completed. Of the 274 surveys conducted, 272 complete responses were obtained. We found a substantial and statistically significant increase in knowledge of caregivers immediately following the intervention. Two statistically significant predictors of adequate post-interventional scores were the caregivers' highest educational level and their total score in the pre-interventional assessment. Caregivers who scored well in the post-intervention questionnaire relied on school (p=0.013) and the Internet (p=0.130) as sources of information on burns first aid. Caregivers without prior personal experience with burns tended to fare better in the post-interventional survey. Our study shows it is possible to correct knowledge gaps in the immediate period through a simple pictorial guide. Our study also identified a structure for a focused national educational campaign. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, P.A. de; Biersteker, H.A.; Biert, J.; Goor, H. van; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in

  19. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchener Betty A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental disorders is so high that members of the public will commonly have contact with someone affected. How they respond to that person (the mental health first aid response may affect outcomes. However, there is no information on what members of the public might do in such circumstances. Methods In a national survey of 3998 Australian adults, respondents were presented with one of four case vignettes and asked what they would do if that person was someone they had known for a long time and cared about. There were four types of vignette: depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, and chronic schizophrenia. Verbatim responses to the open-ended question were coded into categories. Results The most common responses to all vignettes were to encourage professional help-seeking and to listen to and support the person. However, a significant minority did not give these responses. Much less common responses were to assess the problem or risk of harm, to give or seek information, to encourage self-help, or to support the family. Few respondents mentioned contacting a professional on the person's behalf or accompanying them to a professional. First aid responses were generally more appropriate in women, those with less stigmatizing attitudes, and those who correctly identified the disorder in the vignette. Conclusions There is room for improving the range of mental health first aid responses in the community. Lack of knowledge of mental disorders and stigmatizing attitudes are important barriers to effective first aid.

  20. Principles and practical procedures for acute psychological first aid training for personnel without mental health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.

  1. First aid in the case of increased exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Describes first aid measures for persons who have been exposed to increased radiation, especially certain steps to be taken in the case of external exposure of the whole and/or the partial body, in the case of contamination and incorporation. The pamphlet not only includes definition of terms but also a list of regional radiation protection centres. (RW) [de

  2. Impact of first aid training in management of snake bite victims in Madi valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, D P; Thapa, C L; Hamal, P K

    2010-04-01

    Tropical lowland on Nepal is at full of risk to snake bite. The snake bite mortality is due to lack of awareness about proper management of victims. The study aims to assess the change in the pattern of management of snake bite victims after first aid training. A retrospective study was done from October 2007 to October 2008 among 43 snake bite victims in rural Madi valley comprising of 4 village development committees where first aid training was conducted one year before. Only 26% of the snake bite victims approached traditional healer before arriving at the heath facility. The case fatality rate dropped to 22% after venomous snake bite. Pressure Immobilization bandaging and local compression pad immobilization technique was used by 56% who went to the health facility. Mean duration for reaching health facility was 61.51±33.55 minutes. Common places of bite were field 16 (37.2%), Indoor 6 (14%), while sleeping 6 (14%), and yard 6 (14%). Lower extremity bites were 32 (74.4%), upper extremity 8 (18.6%) and head 3 (7%). Bicycle was the commonest mode of transport 22 (51%) followed by ambulance 9(27.9%) and Motorcycle 6 (11%). First aid training changes the attitude of the people in management of snake bite victims and is one of the effective ways in decreasing mortality. Nationwide campaigning should be done especially at snake bite prone area about the proper first aid technique to improve the awareness level of the general population.

  3. Effects of First Aid Training Using Small Group Instruction with Young Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Tamara C.; Sainato, Diane M.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 9 children (ages 41-69 months) examined the effects of a first aid training procedure on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of seeking adult assistance in response to simulated injuries. All participants were successful in acquiring the response and obtaining adult assistance as well as responding quickly.…

  4. 'The year of first aid': effectiveness of a 3-day first aid programme for 7-14-year-old primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfai, Balint; Pek, Emese; Pandur, Attila; Csonka, Henrietta; Betlehem, Jozsef

    2017-08-01

    Bystanders can play an important role in the event of sudden injury or illness. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of a 3-day first aid course for all primary school age groups (7-14 years old). 582 school children were involved in the study. Training consisted of three sessions with transfer of theoretical knowledge and practical skills about first aid. The following most urgent situations were addressed in our study: adult basic life support (BLS), using an automated external defibrillator (AED), handling an unconscious patient, managing bleeding and calling the ambulance. Data collection was made with a questionnaire developed for the study and observation. Students were tested before, immediately after and 4 months after training. Results were considered significant in case of pfirst aid training was associated with knowledge of the correct ambulance number (p=0.015) and management of bleeding (p=0.041). Prior to training, age was associated with pre-test knowledge and skills of all topics (p<0.01); after training, it was only associated with AED use (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the depth of chest compression and children's age, weight, height and body mass index (p<0.001). Ventilation depended on the same factors (p<0.001). Children aged 7-14 years are able to perform basic life-saving skills. Knowledge retention after 4 months is good for skills, but thinking in algorithms is difficult for these children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Awareness, attitudes toward epilepsy, and first aid knowledge of seizures of hospital staff in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Gao, Yajuan; Zhu, Xuerui; Wang, Na; Chen, Yanan; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Guinv; Feng, Yan; Xu, Jun; Han, Xiong; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness of, attitudes toward, and first aid knowledge of seizures of hospital staff in Henan, China. Two hundred nineteen hospital staff, including doctors, nurses, medical technicians, logisticians, and executives working at tertiary hospitals in Henan, China, completed the survey from March to September in 2016. The data comprised the demographic data section, awareness of epilepsy section, attitude toward epilepsy section, and first aid knowledge of seizure attack section. The participants obtained a mean score of 7.48±1.705 on the awareness of epilepsy section, and a mean score of 5.32±1.165 on the first aid knowledge of seizure attacks section. There were significant correlations between educational level (r=0.187, P=0.006), occupation (r=-0.244, P=0.000), and attitudes toward patients with epilepsy (r=0.351, P=0.000) with the awareness of epilepsy. There were significant correlations between age (r=0.170, P=0.014), educational status (r=0.139, P=0.040), and professional titles (r=0.197, P=0.004) with the first aid knowledge of seizures. The study showed that hospital staff had a moderate level of knowledge regarding epilepsy, and they generally displayed a positive attitude. It was also determined that as the awareness of epilepsy increased, they displayed more positive attitudes toward patients with epilepsy. The study also suggests that specialists working on epilepsy should provide more lectures and educational sessions to improve the knowledge of and attitude toward epilepsy and first aid knowledge of seizures among hospital staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental health first aid guidelines: an evaluation of impact following download from the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Mental health first aid guidelines provide the public with consensus-based information about how to assist someone who is developing a mental illness or experiencing a mental health crisis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the usefulness and impact of the guidelines on web users who download them. Web users who downloaded the documents were invited to respond to an initial demographic questionnaire, then a follow up about how the documents had been used, their perceived usefulness, whether first-aid situations had been encountered and if these were influenced by the documents. Over 9.8 months, 706 web users responded to the initial questionnaire and 154 responded to the second. A majority reported downloading the document because their job involved contact with people with mental illness. Sixty-three web users reported providing first aid, 44 of whom reported that the person they were assisting had sought professional care as a result of their suggestion. Twenty-three web users reported seeking care themselves. A majority of those who provided first aid reported feeling that they had been successful in helping the person, that they had been able to assist in a way that was more knowledgeable, skilful and supportive, and that the guidelines had contributed to these outcomes. Information made freely available on the Internet, about how to provide mental health first aid to someone who is developing a mental health problem or experiencing a mental health crisis, is associated with more positive, empathic and successful helping behaviours. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16): Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2015-16. First Look. NCES 2018-466

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, David; Conzelmann, Johnathan G.; Nunnery, Annaliza; Lacy, T. Austin; Wu, Joanna; Lew, Stephen; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This First Look report presents selected findings about student financial aid during the 2015-16 academic year. These findings are based on data from the 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16), a nationally representative sample survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled any time between July 1, 2015, and June 30,…

  8. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pim A. de Ruijter; Heleen A. Biersteker; Jan Biert; Harry van Goor; Edward C. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students.Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From thes...

  9. Maxillary first molars with six canals confirmed with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahra Mohammad Al-Habboubi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary first molar exhibits unpredictable root canal morphology. Different number of root canals has been reported with the aids of new tools. It is very important to clinically detect all canals for better outcome results. The purpose of the present case is to present a case of the maxillary first molar in a Saudi male patient with an anatomical variation of having six root canals that were confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography.

  10. Developing ''SMART'' Equipment and Systems through Collaborative NERI Research and Development: A First Year of Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, Daryl L.; Golay, Michael W.; Chapman, Leon D.; Maynard, Kennet P.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) created the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) in 1999 to conduct research and development with the objectives of: (1) overcoming the principal technical obstacles to expanded nuclear energy use, (2) advancing the state of nuclear technology to maintain its competitive position in domestic and world markets, and (3) improving the performance, efficiency, reliability, and economics of nuclear energy. The NERI program is now beginning its second year with increased funding and an emphasis on international participation. Among the programs selected for funding was the ''Smart Equipment and Systems to Improve Reliability and Safety in Future Nuclear Power Plant Operations''. This program is a 36 month collaborative effort bringing together the technical capabilities of Westinghouse Nuclear Automation, Sandia National Laboratories, Duke Engineering and Services (DE and S), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Pennsylvania State University (PSU). The goal of the program is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated set of tools and methodologies that can improve the reliability and safety of advanced nuclear power plants through the introduction of smart equipment and predictive maintenance technology. The results have implications for reduced construction costs. This paper discusses: (1) the goals and significance of the program, (2) the significant achievements of the program's first year and the current direction for its continuing efforts and (3) potential cooperation with the domestic nuclear and component manufacturing industries, and with international organizations

  11. Knowledge of first aid skills among students of a medical college in mangalore city of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, N; Kumar, Gs; Babu, Ypr; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-03-01

    The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum.

  12. Can training improve laypersons helping behaviour in first aid? A randomised controlled deception trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Stijn; Roex, Ann; Vangronsveld, Karoline; Niezink, Lidewij; Van Praet, Koen; Heselmans, Annemie; Donceel, Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2013-04-01

    There is limited evidence indicating that laypersons trained in first aid provide better help, but do not help more often than untrained laypersons. This study investigated the effect of conventional first aid training versus conventional training plus supplementary training aimed at decreasing barriers to helping. The authors conducted a randomised controlled trial. After 24 h of conventional first aid training, the participants either attended an experimental lesson to reduce barriers to helping or followed a control lesson. The authors used a deception test to measure the time between the start of the unannounced simulated emergency and seeking help behaviour and the number of particular helping actions. The authors randomised 72 participants to both groups. 22 participants were included in the analysis for the experimental group and 36 in the control group. The authors found no statistically or clinically significant differences for any of the outcome measures. The time until seeking help (geometrical mean and 95% CI) was 55.5 s (42.9 to 72.0) in the experimental group and 56.5 s (43.0 to 74.3) in the control group. 57% of the participants asked a bystander to seek help, 40% left the victim to seek help themselves and 3% did not seek any help. Supplementary training on dealing with barriers to helping did not alter the helping behaviour. The timing and appropriateness of the aid provided can be improved. The authors registered this trial at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00954161.

  13. The effect of the mental health first-aid training course offered employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla B; Morthorst, Britt R; Vendsborg, Per B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies show a high and growing prevalence of mental disorders in the population worldwide. 25% of the general population in Europe will during their lifetime experience symptoms related to a mental disorder. The Mental Health First Aid concept (MHFA) was founded in 2000 in Australia...... by Kitchener and Jorm, in order to provide the population with mental health first aid skills. The aim of the concept is, through an educational intervention (course), to increase confidence in how to help people suffering from mental health problems. Further, secondary aims are to increase the mental health...... participants will be allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. The control group will attend the course six months later, hence waiting list design. From fall 2013 to spring 2014 participants will be educated to be "mental health first-aiders" following a manualized, two days MHFA course...

  14. Disaster Mental Health and Community-Based Psychological First Aid: Concepts and Education/Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerard A; Gray, Brandon L; Erickson, Sara E; Gonzalez, Elvira D; Quevillon, Randal P

    2016-12-01

    Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. First lunar occultation results from the 2.4 m Thai national telescope equipped with ULTRASPEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A.; Irawati, P.; Soonthornthum, B. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Building, Huay Kaew Road, Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Dhillon, V. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, T. R., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    The recently inaugurated 2.4 m Thai National Telescope (TNT) is equipped with, among other instruments, the ULTRASPEC low-noise, frame-transfer EMCCD camera. At the end of its first official observing season, we report on the use of this facility to record high time resolution imaging using small detector subarrays with a sampling as fast as several 10{sup 2} Hz. In particular, we have recorded lunar occultations of several stars that represent the first contribution to this area of research made from Southeast Asia with a telescope of this class. Among the results, we discuss an accurate measurement of α Cnc, which has been reported previously as a suspected close binary. Attempts by several authors to resolve this star have so far met with a lack of unambiguous confirmation. With our observation we are able to place stringent limits on the projected angular separation (<0.''003) and brightness (Δm > 5) of a putative companion. We also present a measurement of the binary HR 7072, which extends considerably the time coverage available for its yet undetermined orbit. We discuss our precise determination of the flux ratio and projected separation in the context of other available data. We conclude by providing an estimate of the performance of ULTRASPEC at TNT for lunar occultation work. This facility can help to extend the lunar occultation technique in a geographical area where no comparable resources were available until now.

  16. Algorithm of first-aid management of dental trauma for medics and corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadik, Yehuda

    2008-12-01

    In order to fill the discrepancy between the necessity of providing prompt and proper treatment to dental trauma patients, and the inadequate knowledge among medics and corpsmen, as well as the lack of instructions in first-aid textbook and manuals, and after reviewing the dental literature, a simple algorithm for non-professional first-aid management for various injuries to hard (teeth) and soft oral tissues, is presented. The recommended management of tooth avulsion, subluxation and luxation, crown fracture and lip, tongue or gingival laceration included in the algorithm. Along with a list of after-hour dental clinics, this symptoms- and clinical-appearance-based algorithm is suited to tuck easily into a pocket for quick utilization by medics/corpsmen in an emergency situation. Although the algorithm was developed for the usage of military non-dental health-care providers, this method could be adjusted and employed in the civilian environment as well.

  17. Can first aid training encourage individuals' propensity to act in an emergency situation? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Emily; Cooper, Jane; McKinney, David

    2014-06-01

    To explore the effect that different activities included in first aid training can have on an individual's propensity to act in a medical emergency. Additional pilot-developed activities were added to a core first aid training session to create six unique groups, including a control group where no activities were added. Participants rated their agreement to pre-identified fears following the course and scored their self-efficacy and willingness to act before, immediately after and 2 months after the course. Change values were compared between groups. Three locations in the UK (community halls, schools). 554 members of the public were recruited using advertising and community groups. A deliberately broad demographic was sought and achieved using targeted approaches where a particular demographic was deficient. Each participant attended one British Red Cross first aid course lasting 2 h. The same questionnaire was completed by all participants before and after each course. Two months later all participants were asked a series of follow-up questions. All courses showed an increase in self-efficacy and willingness to act immediately following the course. The course, which included both factual information relevant to helping in an emergency and 'helper' identity activities, produced significantly more positive responses to pre-identified fears. Activities which allow the learner to explore and discuss behaviour in an emergency situation can effectively increase the learner's propensity to act. First aid education should be expanded to support the learner to develop both the skill and the will to help. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Mental health first aid training for Australian medical and nursing students: an evaluation study

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Background The role and demands of studying nursing and medicine involve specific stressors that may contribute to an increased risk for mental health problems. Stigma is a barrier to help-seeking for mental health problems in nursing and medical students, making these students vulnerable to negative outcomes including higher failure rates and discontinuation of study. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a potential intervention to increase the likelihood that medical and nursing students will ...

  19. Conception of undergraduate nursing students on the practice of health education on first aid

    OpenAIRE

    Marília Rosa de Oliveira; Ana Rita Arrigo Leonel; Juliana Helena Montezeli; Andréia Bendine Gastaldi; Eleine Aparecida Penha Martins; Cristiano Caveião

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to present the conception of undergraduate nursing students participating in an integrated project on health education on first aid. Methods: qualitative research conducted at the Universidade Estadual de Londrina with five senior nursing students, participating in the project “Nursing in clinical and surgical urgent and emergency care.” We applied semi-structured interviews with content analysis. Results: the following categories emerged: Health education as a facilitator for acad...

  20. First aid to miners suffering from overheating in deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makartsev, V.I.; Tsepurdei, A.A.; Zabolotnii, V.N.; Mozhaev, G.A.; Gridin, V.S. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornospasatel' nogo Dela (Russian Federation))

    1993-03-01

    Describes the symptoms of hyperthermia and approaching thermal shock in coal miners working in deep coal mines. First aid is given to miners suffering from hyperthermia and thermal shock. It is pointed out that prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures at workplaces can result in thermal exhaustion with a deficit of body fluids and minerals. Thermal exhaustion is characterized by general weakness, headaches, insomnia, sleepiness, choleric mood, emotional upset, tremulous pulse and labored breathing. Preventive measures against overheating in deep coal mines are listed.

  1. Providing mental health first aid in the workplace: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovopoulos, Nataly; Jorm, Anthony F; Bond, Kathy S; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Reavley, Nicola J; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Martin, Angela

    2016-08-02

    Mental health problems are common in the workplace, but workers affected by such problems are not always well supported by managers and co-workers. Guidelines exist for the public on how to provide mental health first aid, but not specifically on how to tailor one's approach if the person of concern is a co-worker or employee. A Delphi consensus study was carried out to develop guidelines on additional considerations required when offering mental health first aid in a workplace context. A systematic search of websites, books and journal articles was conducted to develop a questionnaire with 246 items containing actions that someone may use to offer mental health first aid to a co-worker or employee. Three panels of experts from English-speaking countries were recruited (23 consumers, 26 managers and 38 workplace mental health professionals), who independently rated the items over three rounds for inclusion in the guidelines. The retention rate of the expert panellists across the three rounds was 61.7 %. Of the 246 items, 201 items were agreed to be important or very important by at least 80 % of panellists. These 201 endorsed items included actions on how to approach and offer support to a co-worker, and additional considerations where the person assisting is a supervisor or manager, or is assisting in crisis situations such as acute distress. The guidelines outline strategies for a worker to use when they are concerned about the mental health of a co-worker or employee. They will be used to inform future tailoring of Mental Health First Aid training when it is delivered in workplace settings and could influence organisational policies and procedures.

  2. Survey of Equipment Quality Control in Radiotherapy Centers in Croatia: First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkovic, S.; Diklic, A.; Smilovic Radojcic, Dj.; Svabic, M.; Kasabasic, M.; Ivkovic, A.; Faj, D.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of advanced radiation therapy techniques into clinical practice has a huge influence on tumour control as well as normal tissue sparing. Introduction of Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) into clinical practice results in precise 'tailoring' of dose distributions and according to that in reduction of irradiated volumes. This is not possible without, for the application of advanced radiation therapy techniques constructed, linear accelerators. They must be very precise, well tuned and maintained. In this way the milestone of radiation therapy quality assurance programme is machine quality control (QC). First step in development of quality control programme is existence of written QC protocols. The survey of existence of written QC protocols showed the lack of written protocols for QC procedures in Croatian radiotherapy departments. In this way regular implementation of the procedures are usually left to the conscience of the medical physicists. In the IAEA granted projects CRO6008 and RER9093, we harmonized existing QC protocols between radiation therapy departments at University hospitals Rijeka and Osijek and developed the new ones. The protocols made according to international guidelines are publicly available at websites of the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety and Croatian medical physics society in order to help other radiotherapy departments in Croatia to develop their own ones. Next step was reviewing of QC practices in different centres and exchanging experiences. For that purpose we defined a set of tests, according to the existing QC protocols. Then, on-site measurements were done to check QC parameters of linear accelerators and simulators in six radiation therapy centres in Croatia. In this paper we present the tests preformed, devices and analysing tools used, along with the overall results. Tests were preformed in six radiotherapy centres in Croatia on nine linear

  3. Beyond the first 25 years: The International AIDS Society and its role in the global response to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClure Craig

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dr. Pedro Cahn, International AIDS Society (IAS President and Mr. Craig McClure, IAS Executive Director, provide their thoughts and analysis on the current and future role of the IAS as part of the global response to HIV/AIDS.

  4. Mental health first aid training for Australian medical and nursing students: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    The role and demands of studying nursing and medicine involve specific stressors that may contribute to an increased risk for mental health problems. Stigma is a barrier to help-seeking for mental health problems in nursing and medical students, making these students vulnerable to negative outcomes including higher failure rates and discontinuation of study. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a potential intervention to increase the likelihood that medical and nursing students will support their peers to seek help for mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored MHFA course for nursing and medical students. Nursing and medical students self-selected into either a face-to-face or online tailored MHFA course. Four hundred and thirty-four nursing and medical students completed pre- and post-course surveys measuring mental health first aid intentions, mental health literacy, confidence in providing help, stigmatising attitudes and satisfaction with the course. The results of the study showed that both the online and face-to-face courses improved the quality of first aid intentions towards a person experiencing depression, and increased mental health literacy and confidence in providing help. The training also decreased stigmatizing attitudes and desire for social distance from a person with depression. Both online and face-to-face tailored MHFA courses have the potential to improve outcomes for students with mental health problems, and may benefit the students in their future professional careers.

  5. Establishing evidence-informed core intervention competencies in psychological first aid for public health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L; Everly, George S; Barnett, Daniel J; Links, Jonathan M

    2006-01-01

    A full-scale public health response to disasters must attend to both the physical and mental health needs of affected communities. Public health preparedness efforts can be greatly expanded to address the latter set of needs, particularly in light of the high ratio of psychological to physical casualties that often rapidly overwhelms existing mental health response resources in a large-scale emergency. Psychological first aid--the provision of basic psychological care in the short term aftermath of a traumatic event--is a mental health response skill set that public health personnel can readily acquire with proper training. The application of psychological first aid by public health workers can significantly augment front-line community-based mental health responses during the crisis phase of an event. To help achieve this augmented response, we have developed a set of psychological first aid intervention competencies for public health personnel. These competencies, empirically grounded and based on best practice models and consensus statements from leading mental health organizations, represent a necessary step for developing a public health workforce that can better respond to the psychological needs of impacted populations in disasters.

  6. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. Analysis of calls to the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services in a Brazilian capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Nonnemacher Luchtemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a documentary study to characterize Mobile First-Aid Medical Services calls that did not provide assistance in the state of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Data were collected from assistance reports, being noticed 393,912 prank phone calls to the institution. The main reason for the assistance not being provided was the removal of the victim by third parties. The others were refusal of care, the removal of the patient and incorrect address. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the years under study concerning the calls received by the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the number of prank phone calls received in the state macro-regions. The results indicate the need of investment in health education activities, reducing costs and increasing effectiveness. It is also necessary to improve communication between Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the other services (Military Police and Fire Brigade reducing the number of assistance.

  8. Comparison of Peer and Self-Video Modeling in Teaching First Aid Skills to Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Serife Yucesoy

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) compare peer and self-video modeling in terms of effectiveness and efficiency in teaching first aid skills to children with intellectual disability and (2) analyze the error patterns made in probe sessions to determine whether the children who took the role of sufferers during the first aid skill sessions…

  9. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  10. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Wood

    Full Text Available Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort.The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ. The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed.Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction (p = 0.014. The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction (p<0.001 and hospital length of stay

  11. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona M; Phillips, Michael; Jovic, Tom; Cassidy, John T; Cameron, Peter; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort. The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost) outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed. Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction) (p = 0.014). The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction) (pfirst aid. The size of burn and age interacted

  12. The Development of Computer-Aided Design for Electrical Equipment Selection and Arrangement of 10 Kv Switchgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernaya Anastassiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to give an overview of a computer-aided design program application. The research includes two main parts: the development of a computer-aided design for an appropriate switchgear selection and its arrangement in an indoor switchgear layout. Matlab program was used to develop a computer-aided design system. The use of this program considerably simplifies the selection and arrangement of 10 kV switchgear.

  13. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-11-23

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Teaching wilderness first aid in a remote First Nations community: the story of the Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Born; Aaron Orkin; David VanderBurgh; Jackson Beardy

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. Study design. A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a communitybased participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Methods. Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the rese...

  15. Suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Saranga A; Colucci, Erminia; Mendis, Jayan; Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F; Minas, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Gatekeeper programs aimed at specific target groups could be a promising suicide prevention strategy in the country. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines that help members of the public to provide first aid to persons in Sri Lanka who are at risk of suicide. The Delphi method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to include in the guidelines. These statements describe information members of the public should have and actions they can take to help a person who is experiencing suicidal thoughts. An expert panel, comprised of mental health and suicide experts in Sri Lanka, rated each statement. The panellists were encouraged to suggest any additional action that was not included in the original questionnaire and, in particular, to include items that were culturally appropriate or gender specific. Responses to open-ended questions were used to generate new items. These items were included in the subsequent Delphi rounds. Three Delphi rounds were carried out. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed (rated as essential or important) by at least 80 % of the panel. Statements endorsed by 70-79 % of the panel were re-rated in the following round. Statements with less than 70 % endorsement, or re-rated items that did not receive 80 % or higher endorsement were rejected. The output from the Delphi process was a set of endorsed statements. In the first round questionnaire 473 statements were presented to the panel and 58 new items were generated from responses to the open-ended questions. Of the total 531 statements presented, 304 were endorsed. These statements were used to develop the suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka. By engaging Sri Lankans who are experts in the field of mental health or suicide this research developed culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to a person at risk of suicide in Sri

  16. Evaluation of mental health first aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Colucci, Erminia; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-09-07

    The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient evidence to scale up to a population

  17. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for panic attacks: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic attacks are common, and while they are not life-threatening events, they can lead to the development of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Appropriate help at the time that a panic attack occurs may decrease the fear associated with the attack and reduce the risk of developing an anxiety disorder. However, few people have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple first aid guidelines may help members of the public to offer help to people who experience panic attacks. Methods The Delphi method was used to reach consensus in a panel of experts. Experts included 50 professionals and 6 people who had experience of panic attacks and were active in mental health advocacy. Statements about how to assist someone who is having a panic attack were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. These statements were rated for importance as first aid guidelines by the expert and consumer panels and guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed. Results Of 144 statements presented to the panels, 27 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusion There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public to do if they encounter someone who is having a panic attack. These guidelines will be useful in revision of curricula of mental health first aid programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist someone who is experiencing panic attacks.

  18. Difference in First Aid Activity During Mass Casualty Training Based on Having Taken an Educational Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Omori, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Sato, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Osaka, Hiromichi

    2017-11-20

    The Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine developed a mass casualty life support (MCLS) course to improve cooperation among medical practitioners during a disaster, which is essential for reducing the rates of preventable disaster death. We investigated whether there was difference in first aid activity among members of the ambulance service during mass casualty training based on having taken the MCLS course. Mass casualty training was held at the fire department of Numazu City. Twenty-one ambulance service parties participated in this training. They first evaluated the mass casualty situation, performed the appropriate services at the scene during the initial period, and then provided START triage for mock wounded patients. Throughout the training, 5 examiners evaluated their performance. Regarding the difference in first aid activity based on MCLS course attendance among the ambulance service members, the cooperative management (scored on a scale of 1 to 5) among the members who had taken the MCLS course was significantly better than that among those who had not taken the course (median [interquartile range]: 5 [0.5] vs. 4 [1.75], P<0.05). Attending an MCLS course may help to improve outcomes in the face of an actual mass casualty incident. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 4).

  19. Domestic burns prevention and first aid awareness in and around Jamshedpur, India: strategies and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Bharat, R

    2000-11-01

    This article highlights the strategy for awareness creation regarding burns prevention and first aid and its impact in and around the steel-producing city of Jamshedpur, India. This is a joint venture of the Burns Centre and the Medico Social Welfare Unit of the Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur in collaboration with the Social Service Division of Tata Steel and city schools. The first phase of 5 years has been devoted to general awareness building in the population through two main programmes, namely "Community Awareness Programmes" for the target group of ladies and teenage girls and "School Education Programmes" for the target group of school children of Standard 8 in the steel-producing city. These programmes include audio-visual presentations as well as face to face interactions regarding structure and arrangements in the kitchen, floor level cooking, clothing while cooking, careful use of electrical appliances, pressure stoves, etc. The discussions also include suicidal and homicidal burns prevention strategies. Various competitions for the target group provide feedback on programmes. The growing awareness about burns prevention among school children and community members, and steady increase in the number of patients who use water as first aid, speak about the success of the strategies.

  20. Emotional first aid for a suicide crisis: comparison between Telephonic hotline and internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilat, Itzhak; Shahar, Golan

    2007-01-01

    The telephone and the internet have become popular sources of psychological help in various types of distress, including a suicide crisis. To gain more insight into the unique features of these media, we compared characteristics of calls to three technologically mediated sources of help that are part of the volunteer-based Israeli Association for Emotional First Aid (ERAN): Telephonic hotline (n = 4426), personal chat (n = 373) and an asynchronous online support group (n = 954). Threats of suicide were much more frequent among participants in the asynchronous support group than the telephone and personal chat. These findings encourage further research into suicide-related interpersonal exchanges in asynchronous online support groups.

  1. Psychological first aid training after Japan's triple disaster: changes in perceived self competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitz, Linda; Ogiwara, Kaori; Weissbecker, Inka; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Sato, Maiko; Taniguchi, Machi; Ishii, Chikako; Sawa, Chie

    2013-01-01

    International Medical Corps and TELL, a local mental health non-profit organization in Japan, collaborated to develop localized Psychological First Aid (PFA) training of welfare and volunteer organizations supporting survivors of the Japan March 11, 2011 triple disaster The trainings significantly increased participants 'perceived competency in applying PFA principles and in interacting with the disaster affected populations in a safe manner The collaboration between International Medical Corps and TELL in developing, implementing and evaluating the training has potential to inform PFA activities in other disaster affected settings.

  2. Rescuing Rover: A First Aid and Disaster Guide for Dog Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Sebastian E.

    1998-01-01

    Whether you're hiking with your canine friend in a remote area or work with a dog on a search-and-rescue team or police force, you need to be prepared for emergencies when veterinary service is not available. Rescuing Rover: A First Aid and Disaster Guide for Dog Owners provides dog owners, handlers, and emergency physicians with an understandable guide for safe treatment until the dog can be transported to a veterinarian. Although a number of books describe some techniques for the emergency ...

  3. First aid to fight hazards at the uranium ore processing plant at Seelingstaedt/Thuringia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.; Molitor, N.; Ripper, P.

    1991-01-01

    Mining for uranium ore in Saxonia and Thuringen under the ownership of the German-Soviet group SDAG Wismut has severely affected the environment in the concerned regions over the last 45 years. By means of a special project, the article gives an overview of hazard potentials, acute hazards and envisaged first aid, as well as on additional measures to restore and revegetate the landscape. The state of knowledge on which the article is based is as at June 1991. (orig./HP) [de

  4. [30 years since the first AIDS cases were reported: history and the present. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brůcková, Marie

    2012-05-01

    The 30-year natural history of AIDS disease is presented from the first clinical cases reported in 1981 to the identification of the HIV as the etiological agent of the disease. The priority dispute between Robert C. Gallo and Luc Montagnier over the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus is briefly addressed. The final confirmation of the French priority was provided by the fact that the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2008 was awarded to Luc Montagnier and Francoise Barré--Sinoussi from the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

  5. Reminder from SC/ME to those in charge of first-aid boxes

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Medical Service wishes to remind all those responsible for first-aid boxes that: all the medication and materials in the boxes must be checked at least once a month to make sure that they are always ready for use when needed; they must notify the Medical Service when their CERN contract comes to an end and designate someone to replace them. NB. The medication and materials supplied are for OCCASIONAL USE only and must not be used to treat personal medical conditions on a regular basis. For further information please contact the Infirmary (Building 57 R.004 - Tel 73802).

  6. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  7. A first aid training course for primary health care providers in Nagorno Karabagh: assessing knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael E; Harutyunyan, Tsovinar L; Dorian, Alina H

    2012-12-01

    Conflict in the South Caucasus' Nagorno Karabagh region has damaged health facilities and disrupted the delivery of services and supplies as well as led to depletion of human and fixed capital and weakened the de facto government's ability to provide training for health care providers. In response to documented medical training deficits, the American University of Armenia organized a first aid training course (FATC) for primary health care providers within the scope of the USAID-funded Humanitarian Assistance Project in Nagorno Karabagh. This paper reports the follow-up assessments conducted to inform policy makers regarding FATC knowledge and skill retention and the potential need for periodic refresher training. Follow-up assessments were conducted six months and 18 months following the FATC to assess the retention of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices. Eighty-four providers participated in the first follow-up and 210 in the second. The assessment tool contained items addressing the use and quality of the first aid skills, trainee's evaluation of the course, and randomly selected test questions to assess knowledge retention. At both follow-up points, the participants' assessment of the course was positive. More than 85% of the trainees self-assessed their skills as "excellent" or "good" and noted that skills were frequently practiced. Scores of approximately 58% on knowledge tests at both the first and second follow-ups indicated no knowledge decay between the first and second survey waves, but substantial decline from the immediate post-test assessment in the classroom. The trainees assessed the FATC as effective, and the skills covered as important and well utilized. Knowledge retention was modest, but stable. Refresher courses are necessary to reverse the decay of technical knowledge and to ensure proper application in the field.

  8. Effectiveness of touch and feel (TAF) technique on first aid measures for visually challenged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Helen; Sasikalaz, D; Venkatesan, Latha

    2013-01-01

    There is a common perception that a blind person cannot even help his own self. In order to challenge that view, a workshop for visually-impaired people to develop the skills to be independent and productive members of society was conceived. An experimental study was conducted at National Institute of Visually Handicapped, Chennai with the objective to assess the effectiveness of Touch and Feel (TAF) technique on first aid measures for the visually challenged. Total 25 visually challenged people were selected by non-probability purposive sampling technique and data was collected using demographic variable and structured knowledge questionnaire. The score obtained was categorised into three levels: inadequate (0-8), moderately adequate (8 - 17), adequate (17 -25). The study revealed that most of the visually challenged (40%) had inadequate knowledge, and 56 percent had moderately adequate and only few (4%) had adequate knowledge in the pre-test, whereas most (68%) of them had adequate knowledge in the post-test which is statistically significant at p TAF technique was effective for the visually challenged. There was no association between the demographic variables and their level of knowledge regarding first aid.

  9. A systematic literature search on psychological first aid: lack of evidence to develop guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltjens, Tessa; Moonens, Inge; Van Praet, Koen; De Buck, Emmy; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Providing psychological first aid (PFA) is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible. To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies. Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N) were conducted from inception to July 2013. Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20-53%) and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims.

  10. Psychological first aid training for the faith community: a model curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Lating, Jeffrey M; Everly, George S; Mosley, Adrian M; Teague, Paula J; Links, Jonathan M; Kaminsky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally faith communities have served important roles in helping survivors cope in the aftermath of public health disasters. However, the provision of optimally effective crisis intervention services for persons experiencing acute or prolonged emotional trauma following such incidents requires specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities. Supported by a federally-funded grant, several academic health centers and faith-based organizations collaborated to develop a training program in Psychological First Aid (PFA) and disaster ministry for members of the clergy serving urban minorities and Latino immigrants in Baltimore, Maryland. This article describes the one-day training curriculum composed of four content modules: Stress Reactions of Mind-Body-Spirit, Psychological First Aid and Crisis Intervention, Pastoral Care and Disaster Ministry, and Practical Resources and Self Care for the Spiritual Caregiver Detailed descriptions of each module are provided, including its purpose; rationale and background literature; learning objectives; topics and sub-topics; and educational methods, materials and resources. The strengths, weaknesses, and future applications of the training template are discussed from the vantage points of participants' subjective reactions to the training.

  11. The Johns Hopkins model of psychological first aid (RAPID-PFA): curriculum development and content validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Barnett, Daniel J; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    There appears to be virtual universal endorsement of the need for and value of acute "psychological first aid" (PFA) in the wake of trauma and disasters. In this paper, we describe the development of the curriculum for The Johns Hopkins RAPID-PFA model of psychological first aid. We employed an adaptation of the basic framework for the development of a clinical science as recommended by Millon which entailed: historical review, theoretical development, and content validation. The process of content validation of the RAPID-PFA curriculum entailed the assessment of attitudes (confidence in the application of PFA interventions, preparedness in the application of PFA); knowledge related to the application of immediate mental health interventions; and behavior (the ability to recognize clinical markers in the field as assessed via a videotape recognition exercise). Results of the content validation phase suggest the six-hour RAPID-PFA curriculum, initially based upon structural modeling analysis, can improve confidence in the application of PFA interventions, preparedness in the application of PFA, knowledge related to the application of immediate mental health interventions, and the ability to recognize clinical markers in the field as assessed via a videotape recognition exercise.

  12. Listen protect connect for traumatized schoolchildren: a pilot study of psychological first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Harland, Karisa; Frederick, Maisha; Shepherd, Rhoda; Wong, Marleen; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2013-01-01

    Listen Protect Connect (LPC), a school-based program of Psychological First Aid delivered by non-mental health professionals, is intended to support trauma-exposed children. Our objective was to implement LPC in a school setting and assess the effectiveness of LPC on improving psychosocial outcomes associated with trauma. A pilot quasi-experiment was conducted with middle school children self-identified or referred to the school nurse as potentially exposed to stressful life experiences. LPC was provided to students by the school nurse, and questionnaires were administered at baseline, 2-, 4- and 8-weeks to assess life stressors, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, social support, and school connectedness. A total of 71 measurements were collected from 20 children in all. Although a small sample size, multiple measurements allowed for multivariable mixed effects models to analyze changes in the repeated outcomes over time. Students who received the intervention had reduced depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms from baseline throughout follow-up period. Total social support also increased significantly from baseline through 8-weeks, and school connectedness increased up to 4-weeks post-intervention. This study demonstrates the potential of LPC as a school-based intervention of Psychological First Aid. Future randomized trials of LPC are needed, however.

  13. A systematic literature search on psychological first aid: lack of evidence to develop guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Dieltjens

    Full Text Available Providing psychological first aid (PFA is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible.To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies.Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N were conducted from inception to July 2013.Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20-53% and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices.The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims.

  14. Evaluation of mental health first aid training in a diverse community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Fletcher, Renee; Pope, Susan; Heathwood, Ellen; Anderson, Emily; McAuliffe, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Mental health first aid (MHFA) training has been disseminated in the community and has yielded positive outcomes in terms of increasing help-seeking behaviour and mental health literacy. However, there has been limited research investigating the effectiveness of this programme in multicultural communities. Given the increasing levels of multiculturalism in many countries, as well as the large number of barriers presented to these groups when trying to seek help for mental illnesses, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of MHFA in these settings. A total of 458 participants, who were recruited from multicultural organizations, participated in a series of MHFA training courses. Participants completed questionnaires pre and post the training course, and 6-month follow-up interviews were conducted with a subsample of participants. Findings suggested that MHFA training increased participant recognition of mental illnesses, concordance with primary care physicians about treatments, confidence in providing first aid, actual help provided to others, and a reduction in stigmatizing attitudes. A 6-month follow up also yielded positive long-term effects of MHFA. The results have implications for further dissemination and the use of MHFA in diverse communities. In addition, the results highlight the need for mental health training in health-care service providers. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Are schoolteachers able to teach first aid to children younger than 6 years? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, Christine; Gagnayre, Rémi; Amsallem, Carole; Némitz, Bernard; Gignon, Maxime

    2014-09-19

    This study was designed to assess the knowledge acquired by very young children (emergency medical teams to perform basic first aid. Eighteen classes comprising 315 pupils were randomly selected: nine classes of trained pupils (cohort C1) and nine classes of untrained pupils (cohort C2). The test involved observing and describing three pictures and using the phone to call the medical emergency centre. Assessment of each child was based on nine criteria, and was performed by the teacher 2 months after completion of first aid training. This study concerned 285 pupils: 140 trained and 145 untrained. The majority of trained pupils gave the expected answers for all criteria and reacted appropriately by assessing the situation and alerting emergency services (55.7-89.3% according to the questions). Comparison of the two groups revealed a significantly greater ability of trained pupils to describe an emergency situation (p<0.005) and raise the alert (p<0.0001). This study shows the ability of very young children to assimilate basic skills as taught by their own schoolteachers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Experimental study on the first aid for the accidental intake of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we described an experimental study on the first aid for the accidental intake of radionuclides. Following experiments on first aid were made: (1) Sodium Alginate or prussian blue was respectively given orally to the mice immediately after administration of 85 Sr or 134 Cs. (2) Isotonic saline intraperitoneal treatment as a type of water supply or DTPA oral treatment was made to the mice immediately after intravenous injection of 58 Co or 54 Mn. The whole body retention in mice was measured with a 5 cm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector up to 28 hr after administration. Sodium alginate or prussian blue reduced intestinal absorption of radiostrontium or radiocesium. DTPA and isotonic saline increased excretion of radiocobalt and radiomanganese in urine. DTPA oral treatment reduced the whole body retention of 58 Co to 66% and 54 Mn to 89% of the control. It was worked out from the dose estimation that the intraperitoneal injection of 10 ml isotonic saline or DTPA oral administration immediately after 58 Co injection decreased the internal radiation dose by approximately 22% or 14%, respectively. (author)

  17. The Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Among Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Navarro, Concepción; Ponce-Salas, Beatriz; Guerrero-Márquez, Gloria; Lorente-Romero, Jorge; Caballero-Grolimund, Elena; Rivas-García, Arístides; Almagro-Colorado, María Ana

    2018-03-27

    To determine the level of knowledge of first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the parents of children who attended our Pediatric Emergency Department and to identify the factors that affect this knowledge. Descriptive, transversal study. A questionnaire was distributed anonymously among parents to collect data about their previous CPR training, knowledge and experience. A total 405 valid questionnaires were returned. The mean age of the sample was 38.08 (SD 7.1) years, and 66.9% of participants were female. The mean score of correctly answered questions was 6.76 out of 19 questions. Parents with a university education received a mean score of 7.16 versus 6.24 for those with a primary education (p = 0.022). Parents with previous training received a higher mean score (8.04 vs 6.17, respectively, p training. Knowledge of first aid among the general population is lacking. Parents with previous training in this field, those with a university-level education, and those who are healthcare providers and educational professionals received significantly higher scores. Studies based on surveys can be useful in estimating a population's knowledge base, allowing the development of community-based training activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 29 CFR Appendix V to Part 1918 - Basic Elements of a First Aid Training Program (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... principles and first aid intervention in: a. human and animal (especially dog and snake) bites. b. bites and...) Pontoons .43(a)(1), (e) Hatch, Protection around Open Hatch .35 Hazard Communication .1(b)(4), .90...

  19. 76 FR 79755 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226 Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Administrative Remarks Introductions RTCA Overview Audio Systems and Equipment--Background and History Agenda..., Discussion, Recommendations and Assignment of Responsibilities Other Business Establish Agenda for Next..., Manager, Business Operations Branch, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2011-32863 Filed 12-21-11...

  20. Perceptions of psychological first aid among providers responding to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Brymer, Melissa J; Steinberg, Alan M; Vernberg, Eric M; Jacobs, Anne; Speier, Anthony H; Pynoos, Robert S

    2010-08-01

    Psychological First Aid (PFA), developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, has been widely disseminated both nationally and internationally, and adopted and used by a number of disaster response organizations and agencies after major catastrophic events across the United States. This study represents a first examination of the perceptions of providers who utilized PFA in response to a disaster. Study participants included 50 individuals who utilized PFA in their response to Hurricane Gustav or Ike. Findings indicated that participation in PFA training was perceived to increase confidence in working with adults and children. PFA was not seen as harmful to survivors, and was perceived as an appropriate intervention for responding in the aftermath of hurricanes.

  1. Teaching wilderness first aid in a remote First Nations community: the story of the Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Karen; Orkin, Aaron; VanderBurgh, David; Beardy, Jackson

    2012-01-01

    To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a community-based participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the research focus groups. Three community research partners validated and reviewed the data collected from this process. These data were coded and analysed using open coding. Community members responded to the course in ways related to their past experiences with injury and first aid, both as individuals and as members of the community. Feelings of confidence and self-efficacy related access to care and treatment of injury surfaced during the course. Findings also highlighted how the context of the remote First Nations community influenced the delivery and development of course materials. Developing and delivering a first aid course in a remote community requires sensitivity towards the response of participants to the course, as well as the context in which it is being delivered. Employing collaborative approaches to teaching first aid can aim to address these unique needs. Though delivery of a first response training programme in a small remote community will probably not impact the morbidity and mortality associated with injury, it has the potential to impact community self-efficacy and confidence when responding to an emergency situation.

  2. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a sel...

  3. UC3M Emergencies : health center search, first aid, defibrillators, emergency exits, last warnings and torch (iOS platform)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Civiac, María

    2013-01-01

    This document contains Maria Martin’s bachelor thesis. The issues that this project wants to solve are emergencies-related: health centersand emergency exits location,emergency call, first aid instructions and information and latest emergency alerts at Carlos III University. It has been detected that members of Carlos III University currently have difficulties to find health centers, emergency exits and first aid information. Furthermore, the University itself did not have any mechanism to pu...

  4. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed.

  5. A world first. Industrial operation of computer-aided master-slave manipulator at the La Hague recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueziere, Jerome; Thro, Jean Francois; Brudieu, Marie-Anne; Piolain, Gerard; Geffard, Franck; Garrec, Philippe; Measson, Yvan; Coudray, Alain; Lelann, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of industrial nuclear plants like recycling, mechanical master-slave manipulators have been widely used for operation and maintenance in hot cells, in conjunction with shielding windows. In the La Hague plant for instance, all hot cells where maintenance is or could be required are fitted with shielding windows and through-wall telescopic master-slave manipulators. This well mastered solution, if used by highly skilled workers, has demonstrated its capability to perform all the maintenance tasks required, as long as equipment and tools inside the cell were designed accordingly. However, this technology has also shown significant limitations in terms of capacity, flexibility, efficiency and reliability. In order to improve those characteristics, AREVA and CEA have developed together a new technology: computer-aided master-slave manipulators. By replacing the traditional mechanical link, between the 'slave arm' in the cell and the 'master arm', with motors, sensors and electronics, this new tool improves load capacity and provides added flexibility and efficiency, while protecting the slave arm from overload and therefore improving reliability. In addition, this new device was developed to be fully compatible with current La Hague configuration. After developing and testing this solution in realistic but inactive environment, by performing all kinds of operation and maintenance activities with trained workers, the first generation tool was improved by incorporating feed-back and suggestions from operators. Second generation system was then developed, and first introduced in 2010 in an active cell of the La Hague plant, namely a vitrification cell. After a few months in operation, feedback from manufacturing staff was so positive that implementation of several new arms was decided for 2011. This paper will describe how this development benefited from the existing know-how and component library jointly developed by AREVA and CEA, as well as the main

  6. The "first digit law" - A hypothesis on its possible impact on medicine and development aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollach, Gregor; Brunkhorst, Frank; Mipando, Mwapatsa; Namboya, Felix; Mndolo, Samson; Luiz, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The "first digit law" or "Benford's law" is a mathematical distribution discovered by Simon Newcomb and Frank Benford. It states, that the probability of the leading number d (d∈{1,…,9}) in many natural datasets follows: P (d)=log 10 (d+1)-log 10 (d)=log 10 (1+1/d). It was successfully used through tax authorities and "forensic accounting" in order to detect fraud and other irregularities. Benfords law was almost neglected for its use outside financial accounting. The planning for health care systems in developing countries is extremely dependant on good, valid data. Whether you plan the catchment area for the future district hospitals, the number of health posts, the staff establishment for the central hospital or the drug budget in the Ministry. The "first digit law" can be used in medicine, public health, physiology and development aid to unmask questionable data, to discover unexpected challenges, difficulties in the data collection process, loss through corruption and criminal fraud. Our hypothesis suggests, that the "first digit law" is a cost effective tool, which is easy to use for most people in the medical profession, which does not really needs complicated statistical software and can be used on the spot, even in the resource restricted conditions of developing countries. Several preconditions (like the size of the data set and its reach over more than two dimensions) have to be fulfilled, but then Benfords law can be used by any clinician, physiologist, public health specialist or aid consultant without difficulties and without deeper statistical knowledge in the four steps, we suggest in this article. The consequences will be different depending on the level (local regional, national, continental, international) on which you will use the law. All levels will be enabled to get insight into the validity of the data-challenges for the other levels without the help of trained statisticians or accountants. We believe that the "first digit law" is a

  7. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Japanese public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of 32 Japanese mental health professionals to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms). Responses to these open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 38 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 176 items, 56 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this article. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the Japanese public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to health professionals working in health and welfare settings who do not have clinical mental health training. PMID:21592409

  8. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Indian public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of Indian mental health clinicians to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. Experts were recruited by SC, EC and HM. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms.. Responses to the open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 30 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 168 items, 71 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Translated versions of the guidelines will be produced and used for training. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to non-mental health professionals working in health and welfare settings.

  9. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Sawyer, Michael G; Scales, Helen; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-06-24

    Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. ACTRN12608000561381.

  10. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. Methods The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. Results The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. Trial registration ACTRN12608000561381

  11. Polish school nurses' knowledge of the first-aid in tooth avulsion of permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Joanna; Rodakowska, Ewa; Milewski, Robert; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena; Kierklo, Anna

    2016-03-09

    The frequency of dental trauma in schools is secondary only to accidents at home. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of first aid in the avulsion of permanent teeth presented by Polish school nurses from different areas. A cross-sectional study with the use of a structured self-administrative questionnaire was conducted in 2014 on school nurses working in randomly selected Polish provinces. The instrument consisted of demographic questions, questions referring to nurses' experience and training in dental trauma and questions checking knowledge of first-aid in the avulsion of permanent teeth. The maximum number of points to be scored was eight. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis, the Mann-Whitney U and Chi(2) tests with the level of statistical significance at p nurses of which 70.1 % had experience with dental injuries and 45.7 % witnessed a tooth avulsion in pupils. 10.4 % nurses participated in training courses concerning tooth avulsion and 67.1 % of them independently broadened their knowledge. The knowledge of the first-aid management of an avulsed tooth was moderate (4.72 ± 1.95 points). 78.1 % of nurses chose a correct definition of the term of 'tooth avulsion'. Only 7.3 % of them were aware that the replantation could be conducted by any witness of an accident. Saline was most often chosen as a proper transport medium for an avulsed tooth (57.9 %), whereas 16.1 % of nurses indicated milk. 13.4 % of evaluated nurses showed readiness to conduct an immediate replantation. Most respondents preferred calling child's parents and advising them to bring the child to a dentist (63.4 %). The main factor influencing nurses' level of knowledge was self-education (p schools with sports classes (p = 0.0423) were positive determinants of improved knowledge. Nurses from large agglomerations had significantly lower knowledge (p = 0.005). The main source of information for self-education was the Internet. The evaluated nurses were in need of

  12. Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes, ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental

  13. [Judicial and medical/legal aspects of the responsibility of workers appointed to carry out first aid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, L C; Ciavarella, M; Sacco, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the innovations introduced by law 626/94 [the Italian law on occupational health and safety of workers] is the obligation of the employer to designate workers responsible for first aid. To identify and discuss the duties, the role and the medical and legal responsibility of workers appointed to carry out first aid measures. Analysis of legislation and current practice concerning medical and legal responsibility in first aid procedures. The worker appointed to carry out first aid measures is, by virtue of his appointment, obliged to take action. Therefore, he could commit an illegitimate act both by "acting" and by "omitting" to carry out a duty that is his responsibility. In the first case the worker could be accused of committing an unpremeditated criminal offence when his actions involve negligence, imprudence, inexperience or violation of regulations concerning his duties. A "serious criminal offence" is committed when the most elementary rules of diligence, prudence and skill are violated; the offence is "slight" when negligence, imprudence or inexperience are involved in particularly complex situations. The reference parameter for inexperience is not a first aid volunteer, nor a member of the public, but a worker designated to carry out first aid possessing "average" attitudes, training and ability. Briefly, a guilty error by the appointed worker consists of the following: i) the professional conduct of the operator was clearly wrong, serious and unjustifiable; ii) the operator clearly omitted doing his/her duty; iii) the consequence of the error is physical personal damage. The observations made clearly illustrate the delicacy of the tasks of the worker appointed to carry out first aid measures. Essential elements for minimizing wrong and/or negligent conduct are appropriate choice of the designated workers and their adequate training.

  14. Psychological first aid: a consensus-derived, empirically supported, competency-based training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah; Tallchief, Vicki L; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-04-01

    Surges in demand for professional mental health services occasioned by disasters represent a major public health challenge. To build response capacity, numerous psychological first aid (PFA) training models for professional and lay audiences have been developed that, although often concurring on broad intervention aims, have not systematically addressed pedagogical elements necessary for optimal learning or teaching. We describe a competency-based model of PFA training developed under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Schools of Public Health. We explain the approach used for developing and refining the competency set and summarize the observable knowledge, skills, and attitudes underlying the 6 core competency domains. We discuss the strategies for model dissemination, validation, and adoption in professional and lay communities.

  15. The use of psychological first aid (PFA) training among nurses to enhance population resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Barnett, Daniel J; Sperry, Nancy L; Links, Jonathan M

    2010-01-01

    Disaster mental health research has found that psychological casualties from a given disaster can be expected to far outnumber physical casualties. Amidst a shortage of mental health professionals and against the backdrop of natural disasters, continued terrorism, and pandemic influenza, there is a striking need to expand and operationalize available human resources to enhance the psychological resiliency of those affected. Through the utilization of psychological first aid (PFA) as an early crisis intervention tool, and by virtue of their occupation and experience, nurses are particularly well-suited to assume a leadership role in expanding the disaster mental health presence beyond the existing cadre of mental health clinicians. Here, we characterize the importance of integrating PFA in the context of other nursing functions, to augment mental health surge capacity in disaster settings.

  16. Towards successful Dissemination of Psychological First Aid: a study of provider training preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Erin P; Rubens, Sonia L; Vernberg, Eric M; Jacobs, Anne K; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    Dissemination of Psychological First Aid (PFA) is challenging considering the complex nature of disaster response and the various disaster mental health (DMH) trainings available. To understand challenges to dissemination in community mental health centers (CMHCs), interviews were conducted with nine DMH providers associated with CMHCs. Consensual qualitative analysis was used to analyze data. Interviews were targeted toward understanding organizational infrastructure, DMH training requirements, and training needs. Results clarified challenges to DMH training in CMHCs and factors that may promote buy-in for trainings. For example, resources are limited and thus allocated for state and federal training requirements. Therefore, including PFA in these requirements could promote adoption. Additionally, a variety of training approaches that differ in content, style, and length would be useful. To conclude, a conceptual model for ways to promote buy-in for the PFA Guide is proposed.

  17. An overview of the construction of emergency and pre-hospital first aid platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To further improve the ability of pre-hospital and in-hospital collaborative treatment, strengthen emergency multidisciplinary cooperation and construct a scientific, rational and efficient emergency system, under the support of former chairman Yu Xue-zhong, Dr. Li Chun-sheng and numerous colleagues in the industry, the Emergency Medicine Society of the Chinese Medical Association appeal to us to draft Construction of Emergency and Pre-hospital Platform. Based on this background, the platform of emergency and pre-hospital first aid helps to build a “one horizontal and one Longitudinal” treatment model, using the horizontal and longitudinal patterns to integrate emergency medical resources to satisfy the automatic information integration and intelligent analysis sharing, realizing the emergency management visualization and medical information digitization, simplifying the medical process and establishing a perfect standard for the emergent diseases, thereby ultimately achieving efficient diagnosis and scientific treatment.

  18. Experiences of a Mental Health First Aid training program in Sweden: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Stjernswärd, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    Restricted mental health literacy and stigma are barriers to treatment of mental disorders. A Mental Health First Aid training program was tested for implementation in Sweden among employees in the public sector. The aim of the present qualitative study was to explore participants' experiences of the program in more depth, in conjunction with a randomized controlled study. Twenty four persons participated in a total of six focus groups 6-8 months after program participation. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The analysis resulted in five categories illustrating the participants' experiences of the course: increased awareness, knowledge and understanding; influence on attitude and approach; tool box and confidence; feedback on content and layout; and tangible examples of applied knowledge. The most central finding is the fruitfulness of the program's practical focus and use, the increased confidence and inclination to act following program participation, and the importance of experienced instructors.

  19. Reminder by SC/ME to those in charge of first-aid boxes

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Medical Service wishes to remind all those in charge of first-aid boxes that: the contents of the boxes must be checked at least once a month to ensure that all the medication and materials are available for immediate use at all times and that none of the medication has exceeded its expiry date. in the event of termination of their contract with CERN, they must inform the Medical Service accordingly, indicating the name of their designated successor. NB: The medication and materials provided in the boxes are for occasional use only and must not be used for the regular treatment of personal medical conditions. Those requiring such regular treatment should contact the Infirmary in Building 57 R.004 - Tel. 73802

  20. Reminder by SC/ME to those in charge of first-aid boxes

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Medical Service wishes to remind all those in charge of first-aid boxes that: the contents of the boxes must be checked at least once a month to ensure that all the medication and materials are available for immediate use at all times and that none of the medication has exceeded its expiry date; in the event of termination of their contract with CERN, they must inform the Medical Service accordingly, indicating the name of their designated successor. NB: The medication and materials provided in the boxes are for OCCASIONAL USE ONLY and must not be used for the regular treatment of personal medical conditions. Those requiring such regular treatment should contact the Infirmary in Building 57 R.004 - Tel. 73802

  1. Effect of health education on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy: An interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Christian N; Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C

    2015-12-01

    High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention might reduce these rates. We examined the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy on trainee teachers in Nigeria. Baseline data and socio-demographic determinants were collected from 226 randomly selected trainee teachers, at the Federal College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria, with self-administered questionnaires. They received a health intervention comprising an hour and half epilepsy lecture followed by a discussion. Baseline knowledge of, and attitudes towards PWE and their first aid epilepsy management skills were compared to post-interventional follow-up data collected twelve weeks later with similar questionnaires. At baseline the majority (61.9%) and largest proportion (44.2%) of respondents had negative attitudes and poor knowledge of epilepsy, respectively. The knowledge of, and attitudes towards epilepsy, and the first aid management skill increased in most respondents, post-intervention. The proportion of respondents with poor knowledge and negative attitudes dropped by 15.5% (pfirst aid management skills increased by 25.0% (pfirst aid management. This emphasizes the potential benefit of incorporating an epilepsy tailored intervention programme into teachers' training curricula. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Tianjin characteristics of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first aid medical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun

    2018-05-01

    Tianjin, as the earliest city to open up, the exchange of Chinese and Western cultures also started earlier. Therefore, today's emergency medicine system with integrated features of Chinese and Western medicine is formed. Professor Wang Jinda, who works in Tianjin First Center Hospital, makes the theory of "treating bronchitis and treating diseases" and "three methods of three syndromes" for the treatment of severe diseases such as sepsis. The surgical aspect is the treatment of acute abdomen with the combination of Chinese and Western medicine which is proposed by Academician Wu Xianzhong who worked in Tianjin Nankai Hospital. In the aspect of acupuncture and moxibustion, Professor Guo Yi, who works in Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, provides the twelve Jing points blood-letting therapy for cerebral diseases such as stroke. Professor Liu Xinqiao from the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine also conducts in-depth studies on brain protection after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). He proposes the importance of traditional Chinese medicine in addition to mild hypothermia and neuroprotective agents. The author summarized these achievements, in light of which looked forward to the future and proposed the concept of establishing a multi-specialist collaboration and an emergency center with obvious characteristics of integrated Chinese and Western medicine, which would pave the way for the development of integrated Chinese and Western medicine first aid.

  3. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim A. de Ruijter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA and basic life support (BLS course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349 medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78% and 69 (58% participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. Results: After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. Conclusions: The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  4. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, Pim A; Biersteker, Heleen A; Biert, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Tan, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78%) and 69 (58%) participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  5. First evidence of genetic intraspecific variability and occurrence of Entamoeba gingivalis in HIV(+/AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibeli B S Cembranelli

    Full Text Available Entamoeba gingivalis is considered an oral commensal but demonstrates a pathogenic potential associated with periodontal disease in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, this study evaluated the occurrence, opportunistic conditions, and intraspecific genetic variability of E. gingivalis in HIV(+/AIDS patients. Entamoeba gingivalis was studied using fresh examination (FE, culture, and PCR from bacterial plaque samples collected from 82 HIV(+/AIDS patients. Genetic characterization of the lower ribosomal subunit of region 18S (18S-SSU rRNA was conducted in 9 positive samples using low-stringency single specific primer PCR (LSSP-PCR and sequencing analysis. Entamoeba gingivalis was detected in 63.4% (52/82 of the samples. No association was detected between the presence of E. gingivalis and the CD4(+ lymphocyte count (≤200 cells/mm(3 (p = 0.912 or viral load (p = 0.429. The LSSP-PCR results helped group E. gingivalis populations into 2 polymorphic groups (68.3% similarity: group I, associated with 63.6% (7/11 of the samples, and group II, associated with 36.4% (4/11 of the samples, which shared 74% and 83.7% similarity and association with C and E isolates from HIV(- individuals, respectively. Sequencing of 4 samples demonstrated 99% identity with the reference strain ATCC 30927 and also showed 2 divergent clusters, similar to those detected by LSSP-PCR. Opportunistic behavior of E. gingivalis was not detected, which may be related to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy by all HIV(+/AIDS patients. The high occurrence of E. gingivalis in these patients can be influenced by multifactorial components not directly related to the CD4(+ lymphocyte counts, such as cholesterol and the oral microbiota host, which could mask the potential opportunistic ability of E. gingivalis. The identification of the 18S SSU-rRNA polymorphism by LSSP-PCR and sequencing analysis provides the first evidence of genetic variability in E. gingivalis

  6. First Aid and Transportation Course Contents Based on Experience gained in the Iran-Iraq War: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhangi, Forogh; Gholami, Hamid Reza; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Najafi Mehri, Soheil

    2015-02-01

    Effective first aid and transportation influences injury-induced mortality. But few qualitative studies have been conducted so far in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the content of the first aid and patient transportation course based on experience gained from the Iran-Iraq war. This was a conventional qualitative content analysis study; a purposeful sample of 14 first aid and transportation experts who had worked during the Iran-Iraq war was recruited. We collected and analyzed the study data by using the semi-structured interview method and the conventional content analysis approach respectively. Each interview transcript was reviewed several times. Words, sentences, and paragraphs were labeled with codes. Codes were compared with each other and categorized according to their similarities. Similar sub-categories and categories were also grouped together and formed themes. Study participants' experiences of wartime first aid and transportation (FAT) education fell into two main themes including 'the congruence of education and educational needs' and 'managers' engagement in FAT education. The four main categories of these two themes were use of appropriate educational facilities, adopting effective teaching strategies, universal FAT education and specialized training skills. The two key requirements of the first aid and transportation courses are practicality and managerial engagement. We developed and provided specific guidance of FAT curriculum by using the study findings. This curriculum is recommended for educating FAT staffs, paramedics, emergency technicians, and military nurses.

  7. Safety warnings and first aid instructions on consumer and pharmaceutical products in Nigeria: has there been an improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonyelum, Stanley Catherine; Nkem, Nwachukwu; Ifeyinwa, Chijoke-Nwauche; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the adequacy of safety warnings and first aid instructions on the labels of pharmaceutical and consumer products in Nigeria. A market basket method (total collection of all available samples) was used to investigate the adequacy of safety warnings and first aid instructions on the labels of 600 pharmaceutical and consumer products in Nigeria. The results showed that 69.8% of the products had adequate warnings whereas 385 (64.1%) of the products screened had legible product warnings. Only 52 (8.7%) of the total number of products had appropriate first aid instructions while only 25 (4.12%) of the products described symptoms and full treatment of poisoning by the product and 319 (53.2%) products surveyed recommended calling a health professional. A total of 31 (5.2%) products had labels that were considered too technical (non English). Of the 600 products, 386 (64.3%) had dosage instructions that were considered adequate while 538 (89.6%) had adequate storage instructions. About 68% of the products had partially correct warnings while 44 or 7.3% had partially correct first aid instructions. Some products had neither warnings nor first aid instructions. This study suggests a not too impressive improvement in the correctness and appropriateness of label information.

  8. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Feasibility of Psychological First Aid for Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Bruce, Martha L; Hyer, Kathryn; Mills, Whitney L; Vongxaiburana, Elizabeth; Polivka-West, Lumarie

    2009-07-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the pilot study were to modify existing psychological first aid (PFA) materials so they would be appropriate for use with institutionalized elders, evaluate the feasibility of using nursing home staff to deliver the intervention to residents, and solicit feedback from residents about the intervention. The STORM Study, an acronym for "services for treating older residents' mental health", is the first step in the development of an evidence-based disaster mental health intervention for this vulnerable and underserved population. METHOD: Demographic characteristics were collected on participating residents and staff. Program evaluation forms were completed by staff participants during the pilot test and nurse training session. Staff and resident discussion groups were conducted during the pilot test to collect qualitative data on the use of PFA in nursing homes. RESULTS: Results demonstrate the feasibility of the PFA program to train staff to provide residents with PFA during disasters. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should focus on whether PFA improves coping and reduces stress in disaster exposed nursing home residents.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO-, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO- group. The RLOs were shown to be beneficial to first

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  11. Using Peer-Mediated Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions to Increase First Aid Safety Skills in Students With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kelly B; Brady, Michael P; Hall, Kalynn; Honsberger, Toby

    2017-08-01

    Many adolescents with developmental disabilities do not learn the safety skills needed to maintain physical well-being in domestic and community environments. Literacy-based behavioral interventions (LBBIs) that combine print, pictures, and behavioral rehearsal are effective for promoting acquisition and maintenance of self-care skills, but have not been investigated as safety skill intervention. Also, LBBIs have primarily been implemented by teachers and other professionals. In this study, a peer partner was taught to deliver an LBBI story to students so they would learn to perform a basic first aid routine: cleaning and dressing a wound. Results showed that students' accuracy with the first aid routine increased after a peer delivered the LBBI instructional package, and maintained after the peer stopped delivering it. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the LBBI instructional package for teaching first aid safety skills, and extends previous research showing the efficacy of peers in delivering this intervention.

  12. Application of the Consumer Decision-Making Model to Hearing Aid Adoption in First-Time Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlani, Amyn M

    2016-05-01

    Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed.

  13. Adapting the emergency first aid responder course for Zambia through curriculum mapping and blueprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigoga, Jennifer L; Cunningham, Charmaine; Kafwamfwa, Muhumpu; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-12-10

    Community members are often the first to witness and respond to medical and traumatic emergencies, making them an essential first link to emergency care systems. The Emergency First Aid Responder (EFAR) programme is short course originally developed to help South Africans manage emergencies at the community level, pending arrival of formal care providers. EFAR was implemented in two rural regions of Zambia in 2015, but no changes were originally made to tailor the course to the new setting. We undertook this study to identify potential refinements in the original EFAR curriculum, and to adapt it to the local context in Zambia. The EFAR curriculum was mapped against available chief complaint data. An expert group used information from the map, in tandem with personal knowledge, to rank each course topic for potential impact on patient outcomes and frequency of use in practice. Individual blueprints were compiled to generate a refined EFAR curriculum, the time breakdown of which reflects the relative weight of each topic. This study was conducted based on data collected in Kasama, a rural region of Zambia's Northern Province. An expert group of five physicians practising emergency medicine was selected; all reviewers have expertise in the Zambian context, EFAR programme and/or curriculum development. The range of emergencies that Zambian EFARs encounter indicates that the course must be broad in scope. The refined curriculum covers 54 topics (seven new) and 25 practical skills (five new). Practical and didactic time devoted to general patient care and scene management increased significantly, while time devoted to most other clinical, presentation-based categories (eg, trauma care) decreased. Discrepancies between original and refined curricula highlight a mismatch between the external curriculum and local context. Even with limited data and resources, curriculum mapping and blueprinting are possible means of resolving these contextual issues. © Article author

  14. An Elective Seminar to Teach First-Year Students the Social and Medical Aspects of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jonathon D.

    1987-01-01

    A seven-week seminar Northwestern University introduces medical students to a comprehensive approach to biological, psychological, and social aspects of AIDS. The course includes: a television movie and documentary film; roundtable discussions with AIDS patients, volunteers, and health care professionals; reading materials and lectures; and…

  15. Introducing embedded indigenous psychological support teams: a suggested addition to psychological first aid in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.

  16. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge of School Teachers regarding First Aid Management in Selected Schools of Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    Safe childhood is the foundation of a good future. Children face different kinds of accidents at school premises while playing. Prevention of these accidents and their management is essential. A study was therefore conducted among school teachers at Anekal Taluk, Bangalore to make them aware about different accidents of children at school premises and their first aid management. The sample consisted of 30 primary and higher primary school teachers selected by convenience sampling technique. The analysis showed that improvement of knowledge occurred after administering structured teaching programme (STP) on first aid management. Nursing professionals can benefit from the study result at the area of community, administration, research and education.

  17. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  18. Getting to First Flight: Equipping Space Engineers to Break the Start-Stop-Restart Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christopher E.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) history is built on a foundation of can-do strength, while pointing to the Saturn/Apollo Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s as its apex a sentiment that often overshadows the potential that lies ahead. The chronicle of America s civil space agenda is scattered with programs that got off to good starts with adequate resources and vocal political support but that never made it past a certain milestone review, General Accountability Office report, or Congressional budget appropriation. Over the decades since the fielding of the Space Shuttle in the early 1980s, a start-stop-restart cycle has intervened due to many forces. Despite this impediment, the workforce has delivered engineering feats such as the International Space Station and numerous Shuttle and science missions, which reflect a trend in the early days of the Exploration Age that called for massive infrastructure and matching capital allocations. In the new millennium, the aerospace industry must respond to transforming economic climates, the public will, national agendas, and international possibilities relative to scientific exploration beyond Earth s orbit. Two pressing issues - workforce transition and mission success - are intertwined. As this paper will address, U.S. aerospace must confront related workforce development and industrial base issues head on to take space exploration to the next level. This paper also will formulate specific strategies to equip space engineers to move beyond the seemingly constant start-stop-restart mentality to plan and execute flight projects that actually fly.

  19. Principles governing medical first aid to workers exposed to internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Nenot, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The growing use of radionuclides, whether at hospital, laboratory or nuclear facility level, increases the risk of internal contamination. Not only that, some particularly dangerous elements are being handled more and more frequently. Hence the importance of therapeutic concepts based on the general principles governing action to be taken in cases of internal contamination. These principles should be applicable without the nature of the contaminant having to be taken into account, and irrespective of whether it is transferable and of the route of entry, i.e. healthy skin, wound or bronchial tree. The basic principle is the concept of urgency: ''blind'' treatment should be applied merely on the supposition of internal contamination. It is desirable, moreover, that the first aid should be given at the site of the accident. Hence, the product used should be non-toxic under normal conditions of use and should be simple to apply, as, for example, the administration of an aerosol. It is not until later that the doctor should undertake treatment in the proper sense of the term, the emergency treatment having afforded him sufficient time to carry out the preliminary examination required to gain an exact idea of the internal contamination. (author)

  20. Psychological first aid following trauma: implementation and evaluation framework for high-risk organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Lewis, Virginia; Varker, Tracey; Phelps, Andrea; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Wade, Darryl J; Ruzek, Josef I; Watson, Patricia; Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    International clinical practice guidelines for the management of psychological trauma recommend Psychological First Aid (PFA) as an early intervention for survivors of potentially traumatic events. These recommendations are consensus-based, and there is little published evidence assessing the effectiveness of PFA. This is not surprising given the nature of the intervention and the complicating factors involved in any evaluation of PFA. There is, nevertheless, an urgent need for stronger evidence evaluating its effectiveness. The current paper posits that the implementation and evaluation of PFA within high risk organizational settings is an ideal place to start. The paper provides a framework for a phasic approach to implementing PFA within such settings and presents a model for evaluating its effectiveness using a logic- or theory-based approach which considers both pre-event and post-event factors. Phases 1 and 2 of the PFA model are pre-event actions, and phases 3 and 4 are post-event actions. It is hoped that by using the Phased PFA model and evaluation method proposed in this paper, future researchers will begin to undertake the important task of building the evidence about the most effective approach to providing PFA in high risk organizational and community disaster settings.

  1. Implementing psychological first-aid training for medical reserve corps volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anita; Kim, Jee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Tang, Jennifer; McCreary, Michael; Schreiber, Merritt; Wells, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    We assessed the feasibility and impact on knowledge, attitudes, and reported practices of psychological first-aid (PFA) training in a sample of Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) members. Data have been limited on the uptake of PFA training in surge responders (eg, MRC) who are critical to community response. Our mixed-methods approach involved self-administered pre- and post-training surveys and within-training focus group discussions of 76 MRC members attending a PFA training and train-the-trainer workshop. Listen, protect, connect (a PFA model for lay persons) focuses on listening and understanding both verbal and nonverbal cues; protecting the individual by determining realistic ways to help while providing reassurance; and connecting the individual with resources in the community. From pre- to post-training, perceived confidence and capability in using PFA after an emergency or disaster increased from 71% to 90% (P psychological distress of persons affected by public health threats. PFA training is a promising approach to improve surge responder confidence and competency in addressing postdisaster needs.

  2. Link for Injured Kids: A Patient-Centered Program of Psychological First Aid After Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Toussaint, Maisha; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Harland, Karisa; Wetjen, Kristel; Wilgenbusch, Tammy; Pitcher, Graeme; Jennissen, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Injury, the most common type of pediatric trauma, can lead to a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Currently, few evidence-based parent programs exist to support children hospitalized after a traumatic injury. Using methods in evaluation and intervention research, we completed a formative research study to develop a new program of psychological first aid, Link for Injured Kids, aimed to educate parents in supporting their children after a severe traumatic injury. Using qualitative methods, we held focus groups with parents and pediatric trauma providers of children hospitalized at a Level I Children's Hospital because of an injury in 2012. We asked focus group participants to describe reactions to trauma and review drafts of our intervention materials. Health professionals and caregivers reported a broad spectrum of emotional responses by their children or patients; however, difficulties were experienced during recovery at home and upon returning to school. All parents and health professionals recommended that interventions be offered to parents either in the emergency department or close to discharge among admissions. Results from this study strongly indicate a need for posttrauma interventions, particularly in rural settings, to support families of children to address the psychosocial outcomes in the aftermath of an injury. Findings presented here describe the process of intervention development that responds to the needs of an affected population.

  3. Game-based learning as a vehicle to teach first aid content: a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Nathalie; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of first aid (FA), which constitutes lifesaving treatments for injuries or illnesses, is important for every individual. In this study, we have set up a group-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a board game for learning FA. Four class groups (120 students) were randomly assigned to 2 conditions, a board game or a traditional lecture method (control condition). The effect of the learning environment on students' achievement was examined through a paper-and-pencil test of FA knowledge. Two months after the intervention, the participants took a retention test and completed a questionnaire assessing enjoyment, interest, and motivation. An analysis of pre- and post-test knowledge scores showed that both conditions produced significant increases in knowledge. The lecture was significantly more effective in increasing knowledge, as compared to the board game. Participants indicated that they liked the game condition more than their fellow participants in the traditional lecture condition. These results suggest that traditional lectures are more effective in increasing student knowledge, whereas educational games are more effective for student enjoyment. From this case study we recommend alteration or a combination of these teaching methods to make learning both effective and enjoyable. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  4. Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid training in Denmark: a randomized trial in waitlist design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kamilla B; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge and ability to recognize mental illness and improved positive attitudes towards people suffering from mental health problems. Study design was a randomized trial with a waitlist control group. The intervention group was compared with the control group at 6-month follow-up. Both groups completed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. A significant difference was found between employees trained in the intervention group compared to the control group at 6-month follow-up on the items of confidence in making contact to (Cohen's d 0.17), talking to (Cohen's d 0.18) and providing help to (Cohen's d 0.31) people suffering from a mental health illness. Further, participants improved in knowledge (Cohen's d depression vignette 0.40/Cohen's d schizophrenia vignette 0.32) and in the ability to recognize schizophrenia OR = 1.75 (95 % CI 1.00-3.05), p = 0.05. A significant difference between the intervention group and control group at follow-up concerning actual help offered was not found. Changes in attitudes were limited. The MHFA training was effective in a Danish context.

  5. Mental health first aid training for the Bhutanese refugee community in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Parangkush; Li, Changwei; Gurung, Ashok; Bizune, Destani; Dogbey, M Christina; Johnson, Caroline C; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-tests. The questionnaires assessed each participant's ability to recognize signs of depression, knowledge about professional help and treatment, and attitudes towards people with mental illness. Between the pre- and post-test, participants showed significant improvement in the recognition of symptoms of depression and expressed beliefs about treatment that became more concordant with those of mental health professionals. However, there was no reduction in negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. MHFA training course is a promising program for Bhutanese refugee communities in the U.S. However, some adaptations may be necessary to ensure that MHFA training is optimized for this community.

  6. Association of dental trauma experience and first-aid knowledge among rugby players in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Dalia; Liew, Amy Kia Cheen; Wan Noorina, Wan Ahmad; Khoo, Selina; Wee, Fay Chwee Lin

    2015-10-01

    To assess and compare the knowledge of rugby players regarding first-aid measures for dental injuries. A cross-sectional study was conducted at rugby tournaments in 2009 and 2010 on players aged 16 and over. Convenient sampling was performed. A total of 456 self-administered questionnaires were returned. Data collected were analysed using SPSS 21. Descriptive analysis was undertaken for the demographic data. The subjects were classified according to their experience of sustaining each type of injury. Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were carried out to compare the responses. When the expected cell count was less than five, Fisher's exact test was used. The level of significance was set at P history of tooth fracture were more likely to seek immediate treatment (P history of tooth avulsion admitted to not knowing the correct answer, while three of five casualties would keep the tooth iced. Knowledge of the management of tooth fracture and storage medium differs between previous casualties and non-casualties. Overall, knowledge of dental trauma management was insufficient, suggesting the need to educate and train the players. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Experimental Comparison of Efficiency of First Aid Dressings in Burning White Phosphorus on Bacon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Biesaga, Magdalena; Gierczak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of first aid dressings in extinguishing burning white phosphorous (WP), eliminating WP pieces from the surface, inhibiting re-ignition on the model (fresh bacon covered with military uniform), and preventing from late re-ignition caused by persistent WP pieces. Material/Methods Burning WP was extinguished with several dressings: tactical Military Dressing (WJ10), wet gauze, 2 hydrocolloids, and 3 prototypes of hydrocolloids developed by the authors. Results All examined dressings were effective in extinguishing WP provided that the entire area of the burning substance was completely covered. Moist gauze was especially effective in extinguishing WP, and also removed and absorbed the majority of the WP mass, preventing deeper penetration of WP particles. The immediate re-ignition was observed when all the remaining examined dressings were removed from the bacon. A stream of water was dangerous, as it splashed and transferred pieces of WP around. Conclusions Moist gauze placed on burning WP for approximately 3 min was most effective in extinguishing WP and removing most of the WP pieces. We recommend moist gauze, used once or twice, as the best primary means for WP elimination and preventing tissue penetration. As a dressing used for medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), or as a second step after complete removal of visible WP, innovative hydrocolloid or hydrogel dressings should be used. PMID:26264209

  8. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for suicidal ideation and behaviour: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchener Betty A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a statistically rare event, but devastating to those left behind and one of the worst possible outcomes associated with mental illness. Although a friend, family member or co-worker may be the first person to notice that a person is highly distressed, few have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple guidelines may help such a person to encourage a suicidal individual to seek professional help or decide against suicide. Methods This research was conducted using the Delphi methodology, a method of reaching consensus in a panel of experts. Experts recruited to the panels included 22 professionals, 10 people who had been suicidal in the past and 6 carers of people who had been suicidal in the past. Statements about how to assist someone who is thinking about suicide were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. The guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed by all three panels. Results Of 114 statements presented to the panels, 30 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusion There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. These guidelines will be useful in revision of curricula of mental health first aid and suicide intervention training programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist a suicidal person.

  9. Self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents among parents with 0- to 4-year-old children at a metropolitan community health center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Li; Chen, Li-Li; Li, Tsai-Chung; Ma, Wei-Fen; Peng, Niang-Huei; Huang, Li-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Although accidental injury is the main factor involved in the death of young children in many countries, few studies have focused on parents' competence with regard to self-efficacy of first aid for their children following injuries occurring at home. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate parental self-sufficiency of first aid for home accidents in children aged 0-4 years. The study is a cross-sectional designed. Data from 445 parents recruited were collected by purposive sampling at eight metropolitan community health centers in central Taiwan. Measurements were taken from a self-developed questionnaire that included 37 questions. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the associations between factors and parents' self-efficacy of first aid at home accident. Our findings show that parents' overall rate of knowledge of first aid was 72%. The mean score for 100% certainty in parents' self-efficacy of first aid was 26.6%. The lowest scores for self-efficacy were with regard to choking and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There was a significantly positive correlation between parents' knowledge and self-efficacy of first aid (pfirst aid is a predictor of parents' self-efficacy. Knowledge of first aid is also a partly mediator between participants' attending first aid program, participants' first aid information obtained from health personnel and self-efficacy of first aid. Our findings suggest that medical services should provide first aid resources to help manage accidental injuries involving children, particularly information on how to deal with choking and CPR. With an appropriate program provided by health professionals, parents' self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents will be positively enhanced. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid Training among Student Affairs Staff at a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Brooks, Meghan; Burrow, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of providing the Mental Health First Aid training program to student affairs staff. The objective of the training was to increase knowledge of mental health, enhance sensitivity, and raise confidence to intervene and assist individuals experiencing a mental health issue. We found the training successfully met…

  11. Effect of health education on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy : An interventional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eze, Christian N.; Ebuehi, Olufunke M.; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M.; Igwe, Stanley C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention

  12. Effectiveness of a first-aid intervention program applied by undergraduate nursing students to preparatory school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafik, Wagida; Tork, Hanan

    2014-03-01

    Childhood injuries constitute a major public health problem worldwide. First aid is an effective life-preservation tool at work, school, home, and in public locations. In this study, the effectiveness of a first-aid program delivered by undergraduate nursing students to preparatory school children was examined. This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 100 school children in governmental preparatory schools in Egypt. The researchers designed a program for first-aid training, and this was implemented by trained nursing students. The evaluation involved immediate post-test and follow-up assessment after two months. The results showed generally low levels of satisfactory knowledge and inadequate situational practice among the school students before the intervention. Statistically-significant improvements were shown at the post- and follow-up tests. Multivariate regression analysis identified the intervention and the type of school as the independent predictors of the change in students' knowledge score, while the intervention and the knowledge score were the predictors of the practice score. The study concluded that a first-aid training program delivered by nursing students to preparatory school children is effective in improving their knowledge and practice. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practices of students about first aid epilepsy seizures management in a Northern Indian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Results: Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. Conclusion: We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practices of students about first aid epilepsy seizures management in a Northern Indian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Singh, Navpreet; Lal, Vivek; Singh, Amarjeet

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment) and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment) on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum.

  15. Evaluation of a transit first-aid station providing emergency care to former Yugoslavian war victims evacuated in Ancona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, E; Raffo, M; Appignanesi, R; Faccenda, G; Ronveaux, O; Annino; D'Errico, M M

    2000-03-01

    A first-aid station was implemented in Falconara Marittima airport (Ancona, Italy). It provided medical emergency care to war victims evacuated from former Yugoslavia in transit for further treatment. A descriptive analysis of the displaced population arriving at the first-aid station was performed using three independent datasets for administrative information, of which one included medical information. The implemented resources were also evaluated. From August 1993 to March 1995, 2272 displaced persons were registered at the first-aid station, out of which 54.2% were accompanying family members. Among those needing medical intervention (45.8% of total), most frequent diagnoses were traumatisms and burns (59.8%), neoplasms (15.6%), and congenital malformations (13.2%). The medical care provided at the first-aid station was most often basic: a medical examination alone was performed on 77.0% of the patients, and a minor dressing on 17.3%. Median length of stay was 1 day. Patients were sent to 30 different countries and 8% were forwarded to the local regional hospital. Deployed logistical resources exceeded by far actual needs but a lack of psychological assistance was observed, mainly for children. The agencies involved did not coordinate data sharing and follow-up information. The medical assistance to the war victims was efficient regarding provided care and timeliness. Effectiveness of such a programme could be improved by a better coordination between partners, allowing more adequate logistics according to appropriate epidemiological information.

  16. [First-aid training at work on interpersonal development: exploratory study on employees in integration into the workplace centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pascale; Bridot, Michel; Semedo, Luis; Gagnayre, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Research and Security and the “CHANTIER Ecole” network have developed first-aid training for employees of integration into the workplace centres. Specifically geared towards workplace safety, but similar in its content to home first-aid and rescue training, this training is also designed to enhance individual and collective responsibility and citizenship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the personal and interpersonal effects of first-aid training of these employees by considering their social and professional difficulties in terms of psychosocial skills, such as empowerment, stress and emotions management, and decision-making capacity. A descriptive-inductive study was conducted over 18 months based on the grounded theory approach. Five integration into the work-place centres participated in the study and 34 interviews were conducted. These results raise several questions concerning: a) the characteristics of this public targeted by this training and their perception of integration into the workplace; b) the suitability of this training to working conditions and the link with other types of training such as family health education; c) the relationship between citizenship training and first-aid training at work, as it is more applicable to family training than workplace training. A quantitative study is considered to confirm these observations in other integration into the workplace centres.

  17. Selection of equipment for equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection procedure adopted and the rationale behind the criteria used in identifying the equipment. The equipment items on the list have been grouped into three priority categories as a planning aid to AECB staff for a review of the qualification status of the special safety systems

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Mental Health First Aid training: Effects on knowledge, stigma, and helping behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Ross, Anna; Reavley, Nicola J

    2018-01-01

    To provide an up-to-date assessment of the effectiveness of the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training program on improving mental health knowledge, stigma and helping behaviour. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted in October 2017 to identify randomised controlled trials or controlled trials of the MHFA program. Eligible trials were in adults, used any comparison condition, and assessed one or more of the following outcomes: mental health first aid knowledge; recognition of mental disorders; treatment knowledge; stigma and social distance; confidence in or intentions to provide mental health first aid; provision of mental health first aid; mental health of trainees or recipients of mental health first aid. Risk of bias was assessed and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were pooled using a random effects model. Separate meta-analyses examined effects at post-training, up to 6 months post-training, and greater than 6 months post-training. A total of 18 trials (5936 participants) were included. Overall, effects were generally small-to-moderate post-training and up to 6 months later, with effects up to 12-months later unclear. MHFA training led to improved mental health first aid knowledge (ds 0.31-0.72), recognition of mental disorders (ds 0.22-0.52) and beliefs about effective treatments (ds 0.19-0.45). There were also small reductions in stigma (ds 0.08-0.14). Improvements were also observed in confidence in helping a person with a mental health problem (ds 0.21-0.58) and intentions to provide first aid (ds 0.26-0.75). There were small improvements in the amount of help provided to a person with a mental health problem at follow-up (d = 0.23) but changes in the quality of behaviours offered were unclear. This review supports the effectiveness of MHFA training in improving mental health literacy and appropriate support for those with mental health problems up to 6 months after training. PROSPERO (CRD42017060596).

  19. A reflective learning report about the implementation and impacts of Psychological First Aid (PFA) in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alison; Snider, Leslie; Sammour, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Psychological First Aid (PFA) is the recommended immediate psychosocial response during crises. As PFA is now widely implemented in crises worldwide, there are increasing calls to evaluate its effectiveness. World Vision used PFA as a fundamental component of their emergency response following the 2014 conflict in Gaza. Anecdotal reports from Gaza suggest a range of benefits for those who received PFA. Though not intending to undertake rigorous research, World Vision explored learnings about PFA in Gaza through Focus Group Discussions with PFA providers, Gazan women, men and children and a Key Informant Interview with a PFA trainer. The qualitative analyses aimed to determine if PFA helped individuals to feel safe, calm, connected to social supports, hopeful and efficacious - factors suggested by the disaster literature to promote coping and recovery (Hobfoll et al., 2007). Results show positive psychosocial benefits for children, women and men receiving PFA, confirming that PFA contributed to: safety, reduced distress, ability to engage in calming practices and to support each other, and a greater sense of control and hopefulness irrespective of their adverse circumstances. The data shows that PFA formed an important part of a continuum of care to meet psychosocial needs in Gaza and served as a gateway for addressing additional psychosocial support needs. A "whole-of-family" approach to PFA showed particularly strong impacts and strengthened relationships. Of note, the findings from World Vision's implementation of PFA in Gaza suggests that future PFA research go beyond a narrow focus on clinical outcomes, to a wider examination of psychosocial, familial and community-based outcomes.

  20. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Sheng; Feng, Ya-Ping; Xie, Jia-Xin; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Shen, Cai-Hong; Niu, Fang; Zou, Jian; Tang, Shao-Feng; Hao, Jiang; Xu, Jia-Xiang; Xiao, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its intrinsic advantages in

  1. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Sheng Liu

    Full Text Available Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its

  2. System of regional centres of first aid in cases of radiation accidents in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    When in the seventies the number of occupational radiation exposed persons in the Federal Republic of Germany increased from about 35,000 (1974) to about 160,000 (1978) the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes felt prompted to reflect about special measures to prevent radiation accidents and provide health care for this special cases. They did so without any actual occasion: accidents were persons have been exposed by ionizing radiation were in the seventies just as rare as today. But that fact does not allow the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes to neglect the existing potential for severe accidents. So the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Electrical Industry including Precision Mechanics and the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Chemical Industry created the Institute for Radiation Protection in 1978. The primary task of that Institute is to guarantee an effective first aid in the case of a radiation accident. To realize that task the Institute contracted 11 wellknown institutions like radiological departments of large hospitals or the medical departments of research centres where the i knowledge on diagnostic and therapy of radiation effects is present. They are called 'Regionale Strahlenschutzzentren', Regional Centres for Radiation Protection (RCRP). In the case of radiation accidents these RCRP are the logistical centres for all arising questions of treatment. They have facilities for reconstructing exposure situations and assessing and evaluating doses, including measurements of internal contamination as well as for medical inpatient or out-patient treating like internal or external decontamination. Another important task of the RCRP is to advise employers in ad radiation protection questions which arise with the industrial application of ionizing radiation. Of course the centres give also answer to many question from members of the public, for example the personal effects of the power plant accident at Chernobyl

  3. A pilot randomised controlled study of the mental health first aid eLearning course with UK medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E Bethan; Beever, Emmeline; Glazebrook, Cris

    2018-03-21

    Medical students face many barriers to seeking out professional help for their mental health, including stigma relating to mental illness, and often prefer to seek support and advice from fellow students. Improving medical students' mental health literacy and abilities to support someone experiencing a mental health problem could reduce barriers to help seeking and improve mental health in this population. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is an evidence-based intervention designed to improve mental health literacy and ability to respond to someone with a mental health problem. This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the MHFA eLearning course in UK medical students. Fifty-five medical students were randomised to receive six weeks access to the MHFA eLearning course (n = 27) or to a no-access control group (n = 28). Both groups completed baseline (pre-randomisation) and follow-up (six weeks post-randomisation) online questionnaires measuring recognition of a mental health problem, mental health first aid intentions, confidence to help a friend experiencing a mental health problem, and stigmatising attitudes. Course feedback was gathered at follow-up. More participants were lost follow-up in the MHFA group (51.9%) compared to control (21.4%). Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and non-ITT analyses showed that the MHFA intervention improved mental health first aid intentions (p = first aid actions at follow-up (p = .006). Feedback about the MHFA course was generally positive, with participants stating it helped improve their knowledge and confidence to help someone. This pilot study demonstrated the potential for the MHFA eLearning course to improve UK medical students' mental health first aid skills, confidence to help a friend and stigmatising attitudes. It could be useful in supporting their own and others' mental health while studying and in their future healthcare careers. Retrospectively registered ( ISRCTN11219848 ).

  4. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bandyopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 230, 6th and 7th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. Results: The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t-test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47 to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30. To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96 to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03; Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Conclusion: Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  5. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Lina; Manjula, M; Paul, Bobby; Dasgupta, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. A total of 230, 6 th and 7 th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t -test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47) to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30). To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d) was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96) to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03); Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  6. Evaluation of simulation-based training on the ability of birth attendants to correctly perform bimanual compression as obstetric first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Pamela; Gans-Larty, Florence; Debpuur, Domitilla; Ofosu, Anthony; Perosky, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Maternal mortality from postpartum hemorrhage remains high globally, in large part because women give birth in rural communities where unskilled (traditional birth attendants) provide care for delivering mothers. Traditional attendants are neither trained nor equipped to recognize or manage postpartum hemorrhage as a life-threatening emergent condition. Recommended treatment includes using uterotonic agents and physical manipulation to aid uterine contraction. In resource-limited areas where Obstetric first aid may be the only care option, physical methods such as bimanual uterine compression are easily taught, highly practical and if performed correctly, highly effective. A simulator with objective performance feedback was designed to teach skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform the technique. To evaluate the impact of simulation-based training on the ability of birth attendants to correctly perform bimanual compression in response to postpartum hemorrhage from uterine atony. Simulation-based training was conducted for skilled (N=111) and unskilled birth attendants (N=14) at two regional (Kumasi, Tamale) and two district (Savelugu, Sene) medical centers in Ghana. Training was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's 4-level model. All participants significantly increased their bimanual uterine compression skills after training (p=0.000). There were no significant differences between 2-week delayed post-test performances indicating retention (p=0.52). Applied behavioral and clinical outcomes were reported for 9 months from a subset of birth attendants in Sene District: 425 births, 13 postpartum hemorrhages were reported without concomitant maternal mortality. The results of this study suggest that simulation-based training for skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform bi-manual uterine compression as postpartum hemorrhage Obstetric first aid leads to improved applied procedural skills. Results from a smaller subset of the sample suggest that these skills

  7. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of first aid interventions for burns given to caregivers of children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek B; Mullen, Stephen; Quinn-Scoggins, Harriet; Mann, Mala; Kemp, Alison

    2018-05-01

    the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of burns first-aid educational interventions given to caregivers of children. Systematic review of eligible studies from seven databases, international journals, trials repositories and contacted international experts. Of 985 potential studies, four met the inclusion criteria. All had high risk of bias and weak global rating. Two studies identified a statistically significant increase in knowledge after of a media campaign. King et al. (41.7% vs 63.2%, pfirst-aid training program and showed a reduction in use of harmful traditional methods for burns in children (29% vs 16.1%, pfirst aid administration. High quality clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. First clinical experiences with an implantable bone conduction hearing aid at the University of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. J.; Dreschler, W. A.; Tange, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    A transcutaneous bone-conduction hearing aid was implanted in 11 patients who were not suitable for transcranial sound amplification. Audiological and surgical selection criteria were followed strictly. One device had to be explanted and minor revision surgery was needed in two cases for skin

  9. [Evaluation of the decision aid "Entscheidungshilfe Prostatakrebs" from the patients' view : Results from the first three months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeben, C; Ihrig, A; Hölscher, T; Krones, T; Kessler, E; Kliesch, S; Wülfing, C; Koch, R; Wirth, M P; Huber, J

    2016-12-01

    The decision aid "Entscheidungshilfe Prostatakrebs" is available online free of charge since June 2016. It is designed to support patients with their treatment decision-making and to lighten the burden on their treating urologists. This study evaluates usage data from the first 3 months. The ICHOM standard set was applied to allow a personalised presentation and to collect relevant data for subsequent counselling. Additionally, personal preferences and psychological burden were assessed amongst others. We collected anonymous data. A multivariate model evaluated predictors for high user satisfaction. From June through August 2016 a total of 319 patients used the decision aid, showing a continuous monthly increase in the number of users. There were n = 219 (68.7%) complete questionnaires. Median age was 66.1 ± 8.0 years. The oncological risk was low in 30.3%, intermediate in 43.6% and high in 26.1%. A majority of 57.5% used the decision aid together with their partner, 35.1% alone and 5.5% with their children. In all, 54.8% were "very satisfied" and 32.0% were "satisfied" with the decision aid for a total satisfaction rate of about 87%. The only predictors of total satisfaction were the usage mode and reported distress level. As shown by the continuously increasing number of users this decision aid is becoming well established in German urology. Patients' overall ratings are very positive. The majority of patients use the decision aid with their partner. This represents a significant advantage of a multimedia approach compared to print media.

  10. Changing concepts of life-saving procedures in 19th century Polish popular first-aid publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieznanowska, Joanna

    2006-12-01

    Throughout Europe, before the era of health insurance, access to professional medical help in an emergency was limited, for the vast majority of people, especially for those living outside big cities. This did not improve in the nineteenth century, even though the number of physicians grew rapidly. The industrial revolution added a range of previously unknown threats and, with the dramatic rise in population, many more people could not afford medical help. Therefore, the need for popular, easy-to-understand instructions on first aid became urgent. In Poland, such publications were especially needed because of the country's political situation, which resulted in restricted access to university medical education. During the nineteenth century, approximately 50 works on first aid were published in Polish, with almost 90% addressed to non-physicians. Evaluation of the contents of these books and the instructions which they contained gives a good insight into the evolution that first aid concepts underwent in the nineteenth century. These range from changes in the most urgent threats (from epidemic disorders to industrial accidents and combat injuries) and the accelerating development of medical knowledge (especially the asepsis / antisepsis concept), to the changing spectrum of readers (with growing numbers of those who could read but were otherwise poorly educated).

  11. Evaluation of a School-Based Train-the-Trainer Intervention Program to Teach First Aid and Risk Reduction among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Ann K.; Pryor, Susan; Cormier, Cathy; Bateman, Aaron; Matzke, Brenda; Gilmore, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Farming is a hazardous occupation posing health risks from agricultural exposures for the farm owner and family members. First Aid for Rural Medical Emergencies (F.A.R.M.E.) was developed to support a train-the-trainer (TTT) program to prepare high school students to teach first aid skills and risk reduction through peer interaction.…

  12. Historical Review: The U.S. Army Medical Belt for Front Line First Aid: A Well-Considered Design That Failed the Medical Department During the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Peter C; Korst, Mike B J M; Otte, Maarten

    2016-10-01

    In December 1913, a board of medical officers was appointed to adapt new U.S. Army equipment to the needs of the Hospital Corps. One of the improvements concerned substitution of the satchel-like Hospital Corps pouch used to carry first aid equipment. A waist belt with 10 pockets, known as the medical belt, was devised, and supplied with a tourniquet, adhesive plaster, safety pins, iodine swabs, sublimated gauze, individual dressing packets, gauze bandages, aromatic spirit of ammonia, and common pins. In addition, an ax carrier accommodating a hand ax, a canteen hanger, and a pouch to carry diagnosis tags and instruments were attached to the medical belt. In 1916, the medical belt was incorporated in the field supply tables in the Manual for the Medical Department. The next year, on April 6, 1917, the U.S. Congress declared war on Germany in reaction to sinking of American ships by German submarines. Although the medical belt had given satisfaction in preliminary trials, it did not withstand the test of war. In practice, the medical belt proved a source of dissatisfaction both as to the methods of packing and its contents, which were considered useless in modern warfare. Subsequently, discontinuance of the medical belt was recommended. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. First Rescue Under the Rubble: The Medical Aid in the First Hours After the Earthquake in Amatrice (Italy) on August 24, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasetti, Angelo Geremia; Petrucci, Emiliano; Cofini, Vincenza; Pizzi, Barbara; Scimia, Paolo; Pozone, Tullio; Necozione, Stefano; Fusco, Pierfrancesco; Marinangeli, Franco

    2018-02-01

    Specific Event Identifiers a. Event Type: Earthquake measuring 6.2 (SD=0.016) on the moment magnitude; b. Event Onset: August 24, 2016 - 03:36:32 CEST (01:36 UTC); c. Location of Event: Central Italy, in the town of Amatrice; d. Geographic Coordinates: latitude (DMS): 42°37'45.77″N; longitude (DMS): 13°17'18.14″E; elevation: 955 meters above sea-level; e. Dates: August 24, 2016 at 4:48 AM; f. Response Type: Medical Relief. On August 24, 2016, an earthquake hit the town of Amatrice (Italy). This study aims to document the first medical aid provided to earthquake victims in Amatrice immediately following the earthquake. Patient data were collected and recorded during the first clinical evaluation and before definitive hospitalization. Blood gas tests were performed on survivors extricated from the rubble using the iSTAT (Abbott Point of Care Inc.; Princeton, New Jersey USA) handheld blood analyzer. Performing "victim-side" blood gas tests could provide concrete information to facilitate clinical evaluation and decision making when treating buried victims. After a natural disaster, it is essential to provide effective analgo-sedation to victims. Blasetti AG , Petrucci E , Cofini V , Pizzi B , Scimia P , Pozone T , Necozione S , Fusco P , Marinangeli F . First rescue under the rubble: the medical aid in the first hours after the earthquake in Amatrice (Italy) on August 24, 2016. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):109-113.

  14. Legal rights, human rights and AIDS: the first decade. Report from South Africa 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E

    1993-01-01

    A broad range of coercive measures has been considered internationally and applied in some countries in the interest of controlling the spread of HIV. Although a couple such measures are on the books in South Africa, they have never been invoked and will soon be officially repealed. There is, however, a problem in South Africa with the violation by health care workers, employers, and others of individuals' rights to dignity, privacy, and autonomy. The exaggerated and undue fear that doctors and other health workers have of being infected by patients with HIV has led to widespread and gross human rights abuses in clinical management and treatment. Abuses include the refusal of treatment, testing patients for HIV without their informed or any consent, insisting upon HIV testing devoid of diagnostic or therapeutic justification, and widespread breaches of confidentiality. Persons with AIDS and HIV are also denied access to their fair share of national resources. This latter phenomenon is likely to become the principal form of human rights abuse, with racism and class differences exacerbating the problem. The practice is proliferating and takes many forms including pre-employment HIV testing; exclusionary discrimination in insurance; discrimination between HIV and other life-threatening conditions in corporate medical, pension, and provident funds; and the discriminatory denial of fair and adequate health care to people with HIV or AIDS. Discrimination of all kinds, however, retards preventive efforts. Public health therefore demands the recognition and enforcement of individual human rights and that structures of discrimination be eliminated. Human rights protection may, by limiting the effect of discrimination, play a significant part in fighting the epidemic. Protective measures could include enacting legislation to prohibit pre-employment testing, legislation to regulate the provision of insurance and to prohibit or regulate pre-insurance HIV testing and the

  15. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandan, Joht Singh; Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-29

    This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. West London Police Station. Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the 'thematic framework approach' to analysis. Four main themes were identified. (1) 'Our responsibility?'--Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) 'Confidence'--Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) 'Training needs'--Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) 'Personal first aid knowledge'--Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. What's wrong with John? a randomised controlled trial of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training with nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Hunt, Kristen; Chih, Hui Jun; Tilley, P J Matt

    2017-03-23

    The prevalence of mental health problems have been found to be higher among university students compared to their non-student peers. Nursing students in particular face a range of additional stressors which may impact their undergraduate performance and their careers. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to increase mental health literacy and to reduce stigma and may positively impact on the student population. This paper describes a MHFA randomised controlled trial targeting nursing students at a large Australian university. This study aimed to measure the impact of the MHFA course on mental health literacy, mental health first aid intentions, confidence in helping someone with a mental health problem and stigmatising attitudes including social distance. Participants were first year nursing students (n = 181) randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 92) or control (n = 89) group. Intervention group participants received the standardised MHFA course for nursing students. Online self-report questionnaires were completed at three time intervals: baseline (one week prior to the intervention: T 1 ) (n = 140), post intervention (T 2 ) (n = 120), and two months post intervention (T 3 ) (n = 109). Measures included demographics, mental health knowledge, recognition of depression, confidence in helping, mental health first aid intentions and stigmatising attitudes including social distance. Repeated measures ANOVA was computed to measure if the impact of time (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 ) and group (intervention and control) on the outcome variables. There was a significant improvement among intervention compared to control group participants across the three time periods for knowledge scores (p mental health first aid intentions (p mental health literacy and reduce stigmatising attitudes and social distance. While this course has particular salience for nursing and other health science students, there are broader benefits to the general university population that

  17. Impact of First Aid on Treatment Outcomes for Non-Fatal Injuries in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from an Injury and Demographic Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Islam, Md Irteja; Sharmin Salam, Shumona; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Agrawal, Priyanka; Rahman, Aminur; Rahman, Fazlur; El-Arifeen, Shams; Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle

    2017-07-12

    Non-fatal injuries have a significant impact on disability, productivity, and economic cost, and first-aid can play an important role in improving non-fatal injury outcomes. Data collected from a census conducted as part of a drowning prevention project in Bangladesh was used to quantify the impact of first-aid provided by trained and untrained providers on non-fatal injuries. The census covered approximately 1.2 million people from 7 sub-districts of Bangladesh. Around 10% individuals reported an injury event in the six-month recall period. The most common injuries were falls (39%) and cuts injuries (23.4%). Overall, 81.7% of those with non-fatal injuries received first aid from a provider of whom 79.9% were non-medically trained. Individuals who received first-aid from a medically trained provider had more severe injuries and were 1.28 times more likely to show improvement or recover compared to those who received first-aid from an untrained provider. In Bangladesh, first-aid for non-fatal injuries are primarily provided by untrained providers. Given the large number of untrained providers and the known benefits of first aid to overcome morbidities associated with non-fatal injuries, public health interventions should be designed and implemented to train and improve skills of untrained providers.

  18. [Philippe-Nicolas Pia (1721-1799), creator of the first-aid service to rescue drowned people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépardoux, F

    1997-01-01

    Ph.-N. Pia is known as a philanathropist. In 1770, this apothecary is elected at the board of the city of Paris. Then, he wishes to create a first-aid service to rescue drowned people. In wooden boxes, he gathers together the drugs and devices used at that time, as a fumigating machine to inject tobacco smoke into the intestine, bottles of spirit of camphor, ammonia, a long shirt of wool, wood canulas and flexible pipes made of thin sheep leather. In each of the fiveteen guard houses standing along the river, are deposited a box and a stretcher. As far as Pia is at the head of the military police, he is especially innovating when he decids to train the guards to apply the drugs and the resuscitation processes. With such a regulated way of functioning associated to medical education and granting of awards, within fiveteen years hundreds of people are rescued and resuscitated. Yearly, he publishes the results obtained in Paris and in several places in France, with comments on the situation in the Netherlands, Germany and Britain. In 1780, the king nominates him in the royal order of Saint-Michel. The Révolution supresses the Etablissement en faveur des noyés, and Pia died in 1799 as completely forgotten. In Paris, the first-aid services come back to their former efficiency around 1835, when Marc proposes a special medical training to the fire-men and the military police to form first-aid groups. In this field, the pionneering work of Pia is still of great value and can abe kept in mind as a worldwide reference.

  19. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12): Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2011-12. First Look. NCES 2013-165

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, David; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter; Bryan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This brief report presents selected findings about student financial aid during the 2011-12 academic year. These findings are based on data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), a nationally representative sample survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled any time between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012,…

  20. Psychological first aid training for Lebanese field workers in the emergency context of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoury-Dirani, Leyla; Sahakian, Tina S; Hassan, Fahed Y; Hajjar, Ranya V; El Asmar, Khalil

    2015-11-01

    The Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon required a fast and efficient comprehensive rescue strategy. Professionals working in emergency response were neither prepared to provide psychological first aid nor prepared to screen for mental health disorders in child refugees. This article examines the efficacy of a national training program in psychological first aid (PFA) to enhance the readiness of mental health field workers in the Syrian refugee response. Participant (N = 109) were recruited from Lebanese ministries and nongovernmental organizations. They received a 2.5-day training on PFA and on screening for mental health disorders in children. Their knowledge and perceived readiness were assessed before the training, immediately after the training, and 1 month after the training using 2 evaluation forms. Evaluation Form A was a multiple choice questionnaire composed of 20 questions and created on the basis of the content of the training, and Evaluation Form B was a Likert-type scale of 20 items created based on the core components of PFA. The data of 60 participants were analyzed. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge and readiness, specifically on the components related to the principles and techniques of PFA. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cost-efficiency assessment of 3 different pediatric first-aid training models for caregivers and teachers in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Xing-Ming; Shen, Xiao-Ming

    2011-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess, in cost-effective measures, 3 different models for pediatric first-aid training among caregivers and teachers. Quasi-experimental design was used. A stratified random sampling method was used to obtain 1282 teachers working at nurseries and kindergartens in Shanghai that consists of 18 districts and 1 county. One thousand two hundred eighty-two teachers were allocated randomly to the 3 models of training: 441 to interactive training model (group A), 441 to lecture-based training model (group B), and 400 to video instruction training model (group C). The first-aid knowledge in the 3 models was evaluated before and after the training. There was a statistical significance in the results of postassessment among the 3 training models. In group A, 329 (87.3%) trainees passed the course; in group B, 294 (81.7%) passed; and in group C, 262 (79.4%) passed. The total cost of group A was ¥2361 per edition, the total cost of group B was ¥1955 per edition, and the total cost of group C was ¥1064 per edition (P training model may slightly increase the rate of trainees who passed the course, the cost-effectiveness of video instruction training model is clearly superior.

  2. Perceived risks of HIV/AIDS and first sexual intercourse among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Rajulton, Fernando; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2009-04-01

    The 'Health Belief Model' (HBM) identifies perception of HIV/AIDS risks, recognition of its seriousness, and knowledge about prevention as predictors of safer sexual activity. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey (CAPS) and hazard models, this study examines the impact of risk perception, considered the first step in HIV prevention, set within the context of the HBM and socio-economic, familial and school factors, on the timing of first sexual intercourse among youth aged 14-22 in Cape Town, South Africa. Of the HBM components, female youth who perceive their risk as 'very small' and males with higher knowledge, experience their sexual debut later than comparison groups, net of other influences. For both males and females socio-economic and familial factors also influence timing of sexual debut, confirming the need to consider the social embeddedness of this sexual behavior as well as the rational components of decision making when designing prevention programs.

  3. "Evita Una Muerte, Esta en Tus Manos" Program: Bystander First Aid Training for Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo Castro, J J; Meneses Pardo, J C; Salinas Casado, P L; Hernandez Martin, P; Montilla Canet, R; Del Campo Cuesta, J L; Incera Bustio, G; Martin Ayuso, D

    The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ first responders group. 2017.

  4. Pattern Of First Aid Treatment In Chemical Burns Of The Face In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When burns occur in Nigeria, the first reaction is panic by relations and neighbours. All manner of suggestions are made to the victim and his relations by by-standers. Local applications of groundnut oil, palm oil, engine oil, kerosene and other forms of chemicals are usually made in a bid to attenuate the damage as well as ...

  5. Young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs prospectively predict their actions: findings from an Australian National Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2012-04-30

    Little is known about whether mental health first aid knowledge and beliefs of young people actually translate into actual behavior. This study examined whether young people's first aid intentions and beliefs predicted the actions they later took to help a close friend or family member with a mental health problem. Participants in a 2006 national survey of Australian youth (aged 12-25 years) reported on their first aid intentions and beliefs based on one of four vignettes: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, psychosis, and social phobia. At a two-year follow-up interview, they reported on actions they had taken to help any family member or close friend with a problem similar to the vignette character since the initial interview. Of the 2005 participants interviewed at follow-up, 608 reported knowing someone with a similar problem. Overall, young people's first aid intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of particular first aid actions predicted the actions they actually took to assist a close other. However, the belief in and intention to encourage professional help did not predict subsequent action. Findings suggest that young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs may be valid indicators of their subsequent actions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Erminia; Kelly, Claire M; Minas, Harry; Jorm, Anthony F; Nadera, Dinah

    2010-12-20

    This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Filipino public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of 34 Filipino mental health clinicians to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms). Responses to these open-ended questions were used to generate new items. The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 48 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 186 items, 102 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. The guidelines are currently being translated into local languages. There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to non-mental health professionals working in health and welfare settings.

  7. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Filipino public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of 34 Filipino mental health clinicians to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms. Responses to these open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 48 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 186 items, 102 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. The guidelines are currently being translated into local languages. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to non-mental health professionals working in health and welfare settings.

  8. Experiences in applying skills learned in a mental health first aid training course: a qualitative study of participants' stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchener Betty A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence of mental disorders and the comparatively low rate of professional help-seeking, it is useful for members of the public to have some skills in how to assist people developing mental disorders. A Mental Health First Aid course has been developed to provide these skills. Two randomized controlled trials of this course have shown positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes and behavior. However, these trials have provided limited data on participants' subsequent experiences in providing first aid. To remedy this, a study was carried out gathering stories from participants in one of the trials, 19–21 months post-training. Methods Former course participants were contacted and sent a questionnaire either by post or via the internet. Responses were received from 94 out of the 131 trainees who were contacted. The questionnaire asked about whether the participant had experienced a post-training situation where someone appeared to have a mental health problem and, if so, asked questions about that experience. Results Post-training experiences were reported by 78% of respondents. Five key points emerged from the qualitative data: (1 the majority of respondents had had some direct experience of a situation where mental health issues were salient and the course enabled them to take steps that led to better effects than otherwise might have been the case; (2 positive effects were experienced in terms of increased empathy and confidence, as well as being better able to handle crises; (3 the positive effects were experienced by a wide range of people with varied expectations and needs; (4 there was no evidence of people over-reaching themselves because of over-confidence and (5 those who attended were able to identify quite specific benefits and many thought the course not only very useful, but were keen to see it repeated and extended. Conclusion The qualitative data confirm that most members of the

  9. The Potential Efficacy of Psychological First Aid on Self-Reported Anxiety and Mood: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M; Sherman, Martin F; Goncher, Ian

    2016-03-01

    The authors explored the efficacy of a randomized controlled trial to assess the potential benefits of psychological first aid (PFA) compared with a social acknowledgement condition in a sample of 42 participants who spoke about a stressful life event. Demographics and standardized questionnaires, including the state version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale and the Brief Profile of Mood States, assessed anxiety and mood state. Those in the PFA group evidenced significantly lower anxiety scores at 30-minute postdisclosure than at baseline and, although not significant, showed lowered distressed mood compared with baseline at 30-minute postdisclosure. Those in the social acknowledgment condition evidenced increases in anxiety and distressed mood scores, albeit not significantly, at 30 minutes post disclosure compared with their baseline scores. These results provide preliminary empirical evidence for the efficacy of PFA, and implications for intervention and additional assessment are suggested.

  10. Evaluation of Youth Mental Health First Aid USA: A program to assist young people in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Jennifer M; Lucksted, Alicia; Browning-McNee, Lea Ann

    2016-05-01

    Youth Mental Health First Aid USA (YMHFA) is a manualized training program designed to educate members of the public on common emotional problems and psychological disorders among youth and to provide trainees with tools anyone can use to assist young people in psychological distress. The present study used a pre versus post design to assess the ability of social service employees to generate appropriate strategies to use in hypothetical situations featuring a young person in distress, before versus after participation in the 8-hr YMHFA training. Trainee responses demonstrated significant overall improvement (M = 1.32, SD = 0.80 pretraining vs. M = 1.87, SD = 1.1 posttraining, t = 6.6, p psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. First Aid Management in Emergency Care of Dental Injuries – Knowledge among Teachers in Rijeka, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakarčić, Danko; Hrvatin, Sandra; Maroević, Mia; Ivančić Jokić, Nataša

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude regarding emergency treatment of dental trauma among elementary school teachers in the city of Rijeka, Croatia. A total of 144 teachers answered a four-part questionnaire which comprised questions regarding demographic data, role and responsibility at the working place, knowledge about dental trauma, and motivation for further education on the topic. Nearly half of the participants (47.2%) reported having seen at least one dental trauma in their professional careers. They chose to contact the child’s parent first (54.1%) and only 11.1% chose to contact a dentist instead. The majority of teachers (81.9%) were not aware of the meaning of the term avulsio dentis. As to treatment of avulsed tooth, 17.3% of teachers knew the appropriate management, while 14% of them would not even touch it. With regard to transport of avulsed tooth or fractured tooth fragments, only 2% responded correctly. The majority of the responders (87.5%) had never been educated about dental trauma, but were willing to be informed through lectures (53.4%), basic life support courses (15.2%) and brochures (9.7%). Planning teachers’ education through advanced training on the topic is suggested to be part of teachers’ lifetime education.

  12. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  13. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  14. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  15. Reviews Book: George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Book: 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Book: Head First Physics Book: Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws Book: Froth! The Science of Beer Equipment: SEP Charge Indicator Book: How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Another science-based kids' adventure from the Hawkings 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Brief, accessible descriptions of some complex physics Head First Physics Mechanics-focused non-traditional textbook Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws An original text aimed at students Froth! The Science of Beer A tongue-in-cheek physics-heavy guide to brewery science SEP Charge Indicator Classroom equipment that is affordable, usable and works How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years An enjoyable read suitable for student or teacher WEB WATCH Simulators can be useful teaching aids, as long as you remain aware of their flaws

  16. The helical tomo-therapy: appeal to projects Inca 2005 first assessment of the three equipped establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zefkili, S.; Francois, P.; Giraud, P.; Caron, J.; Dejean, C.; Kantor, G.; Munos, C.; Mahe, M.A.; Lisbona, A.

    2007-01-01

    The centers of fight against cancer ( C.L.C.C.) Institute Curie of Paris, Institute Bergonie of Bordeaux, Center Rene Gauducheau of Nantes have got to exploit the helical radiotherapy (tomo-therapy) in the frame of an appeal to projects launched in 2005 by the National Institute of cancer (I.n.c.a.) in relation with the innovating techniques in radiotherapy and presenting one of the measures of the Cancer plan 2003-2007. This communication constitutes a step report in the installation and use of equipments. (N.C.)

  17. The tower of ivory meets the house of worship: psychological first aid training for the faith community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Mosley, Adrian M; Gwon, Howard S; Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M; Links, Jonathan M; Kaminsky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Clergy and laity have been a traditional source of support for people striving to cope with everyday tragedies, but not all faith leaders have the specialized knowledge required for the challenges of mental health ministry in the aftermath of widespread trauma and mass casualty events. On the other hand, some mental health professionals have acquired high levels of expertise in the field of disaster mental health but, because of their limited numbers, cannot be of direct help to large numbers of disaster survivors when such events are broad in scale. The authors have addressed the problem of scalability of post-disaster crisis mental health services by establishing an academic/faith partnershipforpsychological first aid training. The curriculum was piloted with 500 members of the faith community in Baltimore City and other areas of Maryland. The training program is seen as a prototype of specialized first-responder training that can be built upon to enhance and extend the roles of spiritual communities in public health emergencies, and thereby augment the continuum of deployable resources available to local and state health departments.

  18. French mental health first aid guidelines for eating disorders: an exploration of user characteristics and usefulness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melioli, Tiffany; Rispal, Magali; Hart, Laura M; Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2018-04-01

    The literature has highlighted that strategies to increase appropriate and timely treatment seeking for eating disorders (EDs) are needed. The aim of this study was to use the Internet to disseminate guidelines for providing first aid to individuals suffering from ED among college students. Users were invited to complete two surveys: an initial one assessing user characteristics and, 28 days later, a questionnaire assessing the perceived usefulness of the guidelines. A sample of 651 college students (M age  = 22, standard deviation (SD) = 3.9) responded to the first questionnaire and 50 completed the second questionnaire (M age  = 22.2, SD = 2.6). The guidelines were downloaded 1174 times and 56% of users reported finding them useful. College students might be particularly interested in learning more about ED and the guidelines could be valuable to address the gap in available resources for ED-related mental health literacy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Dislocation: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a collision during contact or high-speed sports. Dislocation usually involves the body's larger joints. In adults, the most common site of the injury is the shoulder. In children, it's the elbow. ...

  20. Electrical Shock: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage ... 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person ... breathing Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac ...

  1. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local emergency number if the source of the burn is a high-voltage wire or lightning. Don't get near high-voltage ... 20 feet (about 6 meters) away — farther if wires are jumping and sparking. Don't move a person with ... breathing Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) Cardiac ...

  2. Conferences on first aid

    CERN Multimedia

    Leclerc; Lugon,N

    1984-01-01

    Trois orateurs exposent leurs expériences dans différents domaines du secourisme: le Dr Leclerc de Charleroi en Belgique parle de l'intervention des grands brûlés avec présentation et explication des dias, Mme le medecin capitaine Colin fait un exposé sur le secourisme dans l'entreprise française et son enseignement et Mons.Noel Lugnon, instructeur auprès de la police et gendarmerie genevoise qui forment l'ensemble des équipes de secours de la police, explique comment se fait la formation des spécialistes en secourisme et comment travaille la brigade motorisée à Genève.

  3. Spider Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care immediately if: You were bitten by a black widow or brown recluse spider You are unsure whether the bite ... in the South. Signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite may include: At ... fever and nausea Brown recluse spider The brown recluse spider has a ...

  4. Fever: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dry mouth, decreased or dark urine, or refusal to drink fluids Skin rashes Difficulty swallowing fluids Pain with urination or pain in the back When to seek emergency care Seek emergency medical care if your child has ...

  5. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  6. Hypothermia: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t give the person alcohol or cigarettes. Alcohol hinders the rewarming process, and tobacco products interfere with ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  7. First Aid: Coughing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Flu Center Asthma Center Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Is It a Cold or the Flu? Why Is Hand Washing So ... Asthma Center Flu Center Whooping Cough Your Lungs & Respiratory ...

  8. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home. If you have asthma, see the article on asthma to learn ways to manage it. Make sure your child gets the whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine . Make sure your tetanus booster is up to date. When traveling by airplane, get up and walk around every few hours ...

  9. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids do, it's no surprise that falls are common. Although many result in mild bumps, cuts, and bruises, some can cause serious injuries that need immediate medical attention. What to Do ...

  10. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  11. Choking: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017. Kleinman ME, et al. Part 5: Adult basic life support and cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality — 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  12. First Aid Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...

  13. Helping adolescents to better support their peers with a mental health problem: A cluster-randomised crossover trial of teen Mental Health First Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Morgan, Amy J; Rossetto, Alyssia; Kelly, Claire M; Mackinnon, Andrew; Jorm, Anthony F

    2018-02-01

    teen Mental Health First Aid (tMHFA) is a classroom-based training programme for students aged 15-18 years to improve supportive behaviours towards peers, increase mental health literacy and reduce stigma. This research evaluated tMHFA by comparing it to a matched emergency Physical First Aid (PFA) training programme. A cluster-randomised crossover trial matched four public schools in two pairs and then randomised each to first receive tMHFA or PFA for all Year 10 students. In the subsequent calendar year, the new Year 10 cohort received the opposite intervention, giving eight cohorts. Online surveys were administered at baseline and 1 week post-training, measuring quality of first aid intentions, mental health literacy, problem recognition and stigmatising beliefs, towards fictional adolescents with depression and suicidality (John) and social anxiety (Jeanie). A total of 1942 students were randomised (979 received tMHFA, 948 received PFA), 1605 (84%) analysed for the John vignette at baseline and 1116 (69% of baseline) provided post-training data. The primary outcomes, 'helpful first aid intentions' towards John/Jeanie, showed significant group-by-time interactions with medium effect sizes favouring tMHFA ( ds = 0.50-0.58). Compared to PFA, tMHFA students also reported significantly greater improvements in confidence supporting a peer ( ds = 0.22-0.37) and number of adults rated as helpful ( ds = 0.45-0.46) and greater reductions in stigmatising beliefs ( ds = 0.12-0.40) and 'harmful first aid intentions' towards John/Jeanie ( ds = 0.15-0.41). tMHFA is an effective and feasible programme for increasing supportive first aid intentions and mental health literacy in adolescents in the short term. tMHFA could be widely disseminated to positively impact on help seeking for adolescent mental illness.

  14. Trabalho em equipe e interdisciplinaridade: desafios para a efetivação da integralidade na assistência ambulatorial às pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids em Pernambuco Team Work and Interdiciplinarity: Challenges facing the implementation of Comprehensive Outpatient Care for People with HIV/Aids in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jucineide Lopes Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A complexidade da atenção à saúde das pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids requer o investimento na integralidade das ações e do cuidado, lançando às equipes multiprofissionais o desafio da construção de uma prática interdisciplinar. Este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar a integralidade da atenção à saúde em Serviços de Assistência Especializada em HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids de Recife/Pernambuco, a partir do processo e organização do trabalho em equipe. Trata-se de um estudo de caso desenvolvido em três unidades de SAE-HIV/Aids, com base em abordagem qualitativa, por meio de diferentes técnicas de investigação. Os resultados apontam que os SAE atendem a grande parte das recomendações do Ministério da Saúde, sobre a infraestrutura básica, mas nenhum serviço apresentava a constituição da equipe mínima satisfatória. Há o reconhecimento da fragmentação do trabalho em equipe e da dificuldade de sistematizar uma prática interdisciplinar e intersetorial, sendo apontadas falhas para garantir o fluxo de referência e contrarreferência. Identificou-se pouca valorização do papel do gerente como articulador da equipe; a necessidade de perceber o usuário como um todo; e de a equipe trabalhar de forma articulada, buscando a prática comunicativa e as atividades relacionais.The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry

  15. New Graduate Paramedics’ First and Emergency Aid Formal and Practical Training Levels and Perception of Competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Kizilkan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine first and emergency aid formal and practical education levels and perception of adequacy of trainee medical noncommissioned officers who graduated from Gulhane Military Medical Academy Medical NCO Vocational School in 2007. METHOD: The study included 54 trainee medical NCOs who had graduated from Gulhane Military Medical Academy Medical NCO Vocational School in 2007. The data were collected by a questionnaire developed by the investigators. RESULTS: Of the participants 79,6 % stated that he had never used the defibrillator, 33,3 % had never made hemorrhage control, 53,7% had never done fracture stabilization, 90,7% expressed himself adequate in “Intravenous (IV cannulation”, 98,2% in “hemorrhage control” and 72,2% in “Firearms wounds management”. In the exam including 10 questions nobody answered all the questions correctly and correct answers average was 5.9 ± 1.3 (minimum 3, maximum 9. CONCLUSION: Having the medical NCOs in a training program before they start service would be useful. Revision of the training program for medical NCOs according to the findings of our study especially in competency giving practical training would help the training of NCOs. Skills related to combat casualty care of NCOs should be promoted. Bu arastirma 13 ncu Balkan Askeri Tip Komitesi Kongresinde poster bildiri olarak sunulmustur. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 291-296

  16. Responding to Trauma at Sea: A Case Study in Psychological First Aid, Unique Occupational Stressors, and Resiliency Self-Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millegan, Jeffrey; Delaney, Eileen M; Klam, Warren

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. Navy deploys Special Psychiatric Rapid Intervention Teams (SPRINT) to sites of military disasters to assist survivors and the command. SPRINT functions primarily as a consultant to help commands effectively respond to the mental health needs of their service members following a traumatic event. Utilizing the principles of psychological first aid, the overall goal of SPRINT is to mitigate long-term mental health dysfunction and facilitate recovery at both the individual and unit level. We present a case study of a SPRINT mission to a deployed U.S. Navy ship in response to a cluster of suicides and subsequent concerns about the well-being of the remaining crew. Throughout this mission, important themes emerged, such as the impact of accumulated operational stressors and the subsequent development of mental health stigma. Also, this case study demonstrates the potential effectiveness of introducing resiliency self-care meditation training to remote environments that lack ready access to mental health resources. From here, SPRINT can provide a model for immediate disaster mental health response that has potential relevancy beyond the military. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Assessing the Efficacy of First-Aid Measures in Physalia sp. Envenomation, Using Solution- and Blood Agarose-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie L. Wilcox

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stings from the hydrozoan species in the genus Physalia cause intense, immediate skin pain and elicit serious systemic effects. There has been much scientific debate about the most appropriate first aid for these stings, particularly with regard to whether vinegar use is appropriate (most current recommendations recommend against vinegar. We found that only a small percentage (≤1.0% of tentacle cnidae discharge during a sting event using an ex vivo tissue model which elicits spontaneous stinging from live cnidarian tentacles. We then tested a variety of rinse solutions on both Atlantic and Pacific Physalia species to determine if they elicit cnidae discharge, further investigating any that did not cause immediate significant discharge to determine if they are able to inhibit cnidae discharge in response to chemical and physical stimuli. We found commercially available vinegars, as well as the recently developed Sting No More® Spray, were the most effective rinse solutions, as they irreversibly inhibited cnidae discharge. However, even slight dilution of vinegar reduced its protective effects. Alcohols and folk remedies, such as urine, baking soda and shaving cream, caused varying amounts of immediate cnidae discharge and failed to inhibit further discharge, and thus likely worsen stings.

  18. The technique of MRT aided abdominal drainage using an open low field magnet. Feasibility and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehl, H.B.; Frahm, C.; Schimmelpenning, H.; Weiss, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    To test the practicality of MRT-aided drainage using an open low field magnet and to report on the early clinical results. So far seven patients have been treated (four subphrenic abscesses, two psoas abscesses and one pancreatic pseudocyst). The planning of the approach and catheter insertion were carried out under MRT control (Magnetom Open, 0.2 T). Subsequent treatment was controlled by CT and fluoroscopy. Initial puncture was carried out with a non-magnetic 18 gauge Chiba needle. The drainage catheter was introduced by Seldinger's technique in six cases and with a trocar in one patient. In all seven patients drainage could be started successfully. The design of the magnet and coils permitted adequate accessibility of the patient. There were no problems in visualising the puncture needle. Controlling the position of the catheter by MRT was, however, difficult. The first two steps in abscess drainage (planning the approach and inserting the catheter) can be carried out under MRT control. For further catheter control and observing the course of the disease we presently prefer CT or fluoroscopy. (orig.) [de

  19. Value of mental health first aid training of advisory and extension agents in supporting farmers in rural Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, D; Gorman, D; Eley, R; Coutts, J

    2010-01-01

    This study was a pilot project responding to the increasing levels of stress, depression and other mental health issues in Australian rural areas resulting from prolonged drought and a changing economic and social environment. Thirty-two Advisory and Extension Agents (AEAs) attended a training course held in 2007 and 2008 in Queensland, Australia. A year after the training, data was collected to determine its value. Interviews were conducted with course participants and their supervisors and focus groups were held with stakeholders (farmers, agency staff and health professionals). The findings show that Mental Health First Aid training improved the participants' confidence level and their knowledge of mental health issues and increased their empathy toward persons with mental health problems. Furthermore, providing training on mental health issues to AEAs was perceived by stakeholders to be beneficial to both farmers and AEAs. This study demonstrated that stakeholders and course participants see this type of training as very much needed and highly beneficial. Further, providing training in mental health issues to rural service providers can be very beneficial to their farmer clients and their social network.

  20. Impact of mental health first aid training on pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delivering Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for pharmacy students on their mental health literacy and stigma towards mental illness. A non-randomized controlled design was used, with all third year pharmacy students at the University of Sydney (n = 272) in 2009 invited to participate in one of two MHFA training courses, each of 12 hours duration. Of these, 174 students applied for MHFA training, of whom 60 were randomly selected and offered MHFA training. Outcome measures that were completed by all participants in the MHFA and non-MHFA groups before and after the MHFA training included an evaluation of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items related to self-reported behaviour. The survey instrument was completed by 258 participants at baseline (59 MHFA and 199 non-MHFA) and 223 participants at follow up (53 MHFA and 170 non-MHFA). The MHFA training improved the participants' ability to correctly identify a mental illness (p = 0.004). There was a significant mean decrease in total social distance of 2.18 (SD 3.35) p training. This study demonstrated that MHFA training can reduce pharmacy students' mental health stigma, improve recognition of mental disorders and improve confidence in providing services to consumers with a mental illness in the pharmacy setting.

  1. Delivering a basic mental health training programme: views and experiences of Mental Health First Aid instructors in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J

    2011-10-01

    Originating in Australia, 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA) is a way of providing support to someone who is experiencing a mental health problem before professional help is obtained. Positive evaluations have shown that it both increases confidence while decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. However, the evidence base surrounding the delivery of basic mental health programmes remains underdeveloped. This descriptive qualitative study explored the views and experiences of 14 MHFA instructors from across Wales through semi-structured interviews, as a means to identify the experience of course delivery from their perspective. Data were collected between January and April 2009. The study found individuals benefited from being an MHFA instructor through increased confidence and self-development. However, instructors encountered logistical difficulties in course delivery and noted that as attendees related to the course material, they wished to discuss their own mental health problems during the course. This created considerable challenges for instructors, who noted both positive and negative impacts on themselves, and on their expectations of the role of becoming MHFA instructors. In conclusion, basic mental health training courses must build a clear infrastructure, ongoing quality assurance processes and reliable support structures to train, support and monitor those delivering them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  2. Mental health first aid for the elderly: A pilot study of a training program adapted for helping elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of mental illness among the elderly. Clinical data however indicate both insufficient detection and treatment of illnesses. Suggested barriers to treatment include conceptions that mental health symptoms belong to normal aging and lack of competence among staff in elderly care in detecting mental illness. A Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training program for the elderly was developed and provided to staff in elderly care. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knowledge in mental illness, confidence in helping a person, readiness to give help and attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Single group pre-test-post-test design. The study group included staff in elderly care from different places in Sweden (n = 139). Significant improvements in knowledge, confidence in helping an elderly person with mental illness and attitudes towards persons with mental illness are shown. Skills acquired during the course have been practiced during the follow-up. The adaption of MHFA training for staff working in elderly care gives promising results. Improvements in self-reported confidence in giving help, attitudes towards persons with mental illness and actual help given to persons with mental illness are shown. However, the study design allows no firm conclusions and a randomized controlled trail is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the program. Outcomes should include if the detection and treatment of mental illness among the elderly actually improved.

  3. Assessing the Efficacy of First-Aid Measures in Physalia sp. Envenomation, Using Solution- and Blood Agarose-Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Christie L.; Headlam, Jasmine L.; Doyle, Thomas K.; Yanagihara, Angel A.

    2017-01-01

    Stings from the hydrozoan species in the genus Physalia cause intense, immediate skin pain and elicit serious systemic effects. There has been much scientific debate about the most appropriate first aid for these stings, particularly with regard to whether vinegar use is appropriate (most current recommendations recommend against vinegar). We found that only a small percentage (≤1.0%) of tentacle cnidae discharge during a sting event using an ex vivo tissue model which elicits spontaneous stinging from live cnidarian tentacles. We then tested a variety of rinse solutions on both Atlantic and Pacific Physalia species to determine if they elicit cnidae discharge, further investigating any that did not cause immediate significant discharge to determine if they are able to inhibit cnidae discharge in response to chemical and physical stimuli. We found commercially available vinegars, as well as the recently developed Sting No More® Spray, were the most effective rinse solutions, as they irreversibly inhibited cnidae discharge. However, even slight dilution of vinegar reduced its protective effects. Alcohols and folk remedies, such as urine, baking soda and shaving cream, caused varying amounts of immediate cnidae discharge and failed to inhibit further discharge, and thus likely worsen stings. PMID:28445412

  4. The effectiveness of psychological first aid as a disaster intervention tool: research analysis of peer-reviewed literature from 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey H; Burkle, Frederick M; Bass, Judith; Pia, Francesco A; Epstein, Jonathan L; Markenson, David

    2012-10-01

    The Advisory Council of the American Red Cross Disaster Services requested that an independent study determine whether first-aid providers without professional mental health training, when confronted with people who have experienced a traumatic event, offer a "safe, effective and feasible intervention." Standard databases were searched by an expert panel from 1990 to September 2010 using the keyword phrase "psychological first aid." Documents were included if the process was referred to as care provided to victims, first responders, or volunteers and excluded if it was not associated with a disaster or mass casualty event, or was used after individual nondisaster traumas such as rape and murder. This search yielded 58 citations. It was determined that adequate scientific evidence for psychological first aid is lacking but widely supported by expert opinion and rational conjecture. No controlled studies were found. There is insufficient evidence supporting a treatment standard or a treatment guideline. Sufficient evidence for psychological first aid is widely supported by available objective observations and expert opinion and best fits the category of "evidence informed" but without proof of effectiveness. An intervention provided by volunteers without professional mental health training for people who have experienced a traumatic event offers an acceptable option. Further outcome research is recommended.

  5. Development of an above-knee prosthesis equipped with a microcomputer-controlled knee joint: first test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeyels, B; Peeraer, L; Vander Sloten, J; Van der Perre, G

    1992-05-01

    The shortcomings of conventional above-knee prostheses are due to their lack of adaptive control. Implementation of a microcomputer controlling the knee joint in a passive way has been suggested to enhance the patient's gait comfort, safety and cosmesis. This approach was used in the design of a new prosthetic system for the above-knee amputee, and tested on one patient. The knee joint of a conventional, modular prosthesis was replaced by a knee joint mechanism, equipped with a controllable brake on the knee joint axis. Sensors and a microcomputer were added, keeping the system self-contained. The modularity of the design permits the use of an alternative, external, PC-based control unit, emulating the self-contained one, and offering extended data monitoring and storage facilities. For both units an operating environment was written, including sensor/actuator interfacing and the implementation of a real-time interrupt, executing the control algorithm. A double finite state approach was used in the design of the control algorithm. On a higher level, the mode identification algorithm reveals the patient's intent. Within a specific mode (lower level), the relevant mode control algorithm looks for the current phase within the gait cycle. Within a particular phase, a specific simple control action with the brake replaces normal knee muscle activity. Tests were carried out with one prosthetic patient using a basic control algorithm for level walking, allowing controlled knee flexion during stance phase. The technical feasibility of such a concept is illustrated by the test results, even though only flexion during early stance phase was controlled during the trials.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a First Aid Health Volunteers' Training Programme Using Kirkpatrick's Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Iman, Mohamad Taghi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a health volunteers' complementary training programme on first aid. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting: A comprehensive health centre in the southwest of Iran. Method: The study was conducted in the second half of 2015 with all 25 health volunteers in the Qamar Bani Hashem…

  7. Wetenschap kritisch bekeken: What's wrong with John? A randomized controlled trial of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training with nursing students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens, B.G.

    2017-01-01

    "Als iemand in zijn vinger snijdt of z'n hoofd stoot, pak je de EHBO-koffer. Maar wat als je geliefde of iemand anders in je omgeving een paniekaanval krijgt of depressief overkomt?" Dit zijn de eerste zinnen op de Nederlandse website van Mental Health First Aid (MHFA, www.mhfa.nl), oftewel eerste

  8. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). Price Estimates for Attending Postsecondary Education Institutions. First Look. NCES 2014-166

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Sean; Radwin, David; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter; Bryan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This First Look publication provides price estimates for attending postsecondary education institutions using data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), the most comprehensive, nationally representative survey of student financing of postsecondary education in the United States. The survey includes about 95,000…

  9. Unwrapping a First Aid Tourniquet From Its Plastic Wrapper With and Without Gloves Worn: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Lambert, Connor D; Moore, Virgil K; Dubick, Michael A

    The purpose of this study was to gather data about unwrapping a packaged limb tourniquet from its plastic wrapper while wearing different types of gloves. Because already unwrapped tourniquets require no time to unwrap, unwrapping data may provide insights into the issue of having tourniquets unwrapped when stowed in a first aid kit of a Serviceperson at war. In a laboratory setting, 36 tests of nine glove groups were performed in which four people, gloved and ungloved, unwrapped tourniquets. Other tourniquets were environmentally exposed for 3 months. All the users successfully unwrapped each tourniquet. Mean times to unwrap by glove group were not significantly different (p = .0961). When mean values of eight experimental groups were compared with that of one control group (i.e., bare hands), results showed no significant difference (p > .07). Mean time was least for bare hands (12 seconds) and most for cold gloves layered under mittens (22 seconds). Among the 36 pairwise comparisons of difference between glove group means, after adjustment for multiple comparisons, no comparison was noted to be statistically significant (p > .052, all 36 pairs). Glove thickness ranged from 0 mm for bare hands to 2.5 mm for cold gloves layered under mittens. By glove group, the thickness-time association was moderate, as tested by linear regression (R2 = 0.6096). The tourniquets exposed to the environment had evidence of rapid photodegradation due to direct exposure to sunlight. Such exposure also destroyed the wrappers. In a preliminary study, different gloves performed similarly when wearers unwrapped a tourniquet from its wrapper. The tourniquet wrappers gave no visible protection from sunlight, and environmental exposure destroyed the wrappers. 2017.

  10. First aid practices, beliefs, and sources of information among caregivers regarding paediatric burn injuries in Harare, Zimbabwe: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirongoma, Farai; Chengetanai, Samson; Tadyanemhandu, Cathrine

    2017-06-01

    While burns take seconds to occur, injuries incurred result in pain and undesirable long term effects that might take a lifetime to overcome. The study was carried out to determine the measures of first aid delivered by caregivers after a burn injury and sources of the information. A cross- sectional study was carried out over a period of 3 months at two central hospitals in Harare. A questionnaire was administered to the caregivers of children within the age group of 0-60 months admitted in burns wards to elicit information on the circumstances of the burn injury and the first aid methods which were administered. Out of the 50 children who were recruited, 54.0% were females and the mean age was 29.5 months (SD= 15.5). After the burn injury 30(60.0%) of the caregivers, cooled the burn injury with cold running water whilst some caregivers also applied eggs, margarine and some traditional herbs as first aid. The other practices reported by the caregivers included use of urine and crushed cockroaches after burn injury in 40 (80.0%) whilst 20 (40.0%) reported used aloe vera gel after a burn injury. About half of the caregivers got first aid information mainly from family members and very few indicated that the information was obtained from mass media, 3 (6.0%). The first aid measures used by the majority of caregivers were either incomplete or inadequate. Although some caregivers had adequate knowledge of what to do after an injury, there still was widespread use of alternatives therapies in burn management.

  11. Military Mental Health First Aid: Development and Preliminary Efficacy of a Community Training for Improving Knowledge, Attitudes, and Helping Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Boeckmann, Robert; Winkel, Nicola; Mohatt, Dennis F; Shore, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Persistent stigma, lack of knowledge about mental health, and negative attitudes toward treatment are among the most significant barriers to military service members and veterans seeking behavioral health care. With the high rates of untreated behavioral health needs among service members and veterans, identifying effective programs for reducing barriers to care is a national priority. This study adapted Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), an evidence-based program for increasing mental health knowledge, decreasing stigma, and increasing laypeople's confidence in helping and frequency of referring people in need, for military and veteran populations and pilot tested the adapted training program with 4 Army National Guard armories. A total of 176 community first responders (CFRs) participated in a comparative outcomes study, with 69 receiving the training and 107 participating in the control group. CFRs were individuals in natural positions within the Armory or home communities of Guard members to identify and help service members in mental health crisis. Surveys assessing confidence in helping, attitudes toward help seeking, knowledge of resources, use of MHFA practices, and stigma were completed before the training, immediately post-training, at 4 months post-training, and at 8 months post-training. Analyses included repeated measures analysis of variances on data from CFRs who received the training and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variances comparing the intervention and control group longitudinally at three time points. Institutional review board approval for this study was received from Montana State University and the U.S. Army Medical Department, Medical Research and Materiel Command, Human Research Protection Office. Significant and meaningful improvements in confidence (p stigma (p stigma (η 2 = 0.02), with a significant and meaningful difference observed for practice behaviors (p mental health support. In addition, there were positive growth

  12. Preliminary support for a brief psychological intervention to improve first-time hearing aid use among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J; Lees, Deborah; Lewis, Kathryn; Munro, Kevin J

    2017-11-01

    Suboptimal hearing aid use extorts significant social, health, and economic costs. The aims of this study were to (1) test the novel hypothesis that the threat associated with being diagnosed with hearing loss could be ameliorated with a self-affirmation manipulation and (2) gauge the feasibility of deploying the manipulation in routine clinical practice. Parallel groups randomized controlled trial with 10-week follow-up. Fifty people, newly prescribed with a hearing aid, completed either a questionnaire that included a brief self-affirming exercise or an identical questionnaire with no self-affirming exercise. The main outcome measure was derived from data logging automatically stored by the hearing aid. Perceived threat ('anxiety about ageing'), behavioural intention, and self-efficacy were measured as potential mediators. Objectively measured hours of daily hearing aid use were marginally higher in the intervention group compared with the control group (between-group difference = 1.94 hr, 95%CI = -1.24, 5.12, d = 0.43). At follow-up, participants in the intervention group were significantly less anxious about ageing and more accepting of older people than were participants in the control group (between-group difference = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.26, 1.22, d = 0.87). There was no statistically significant effect of the intervention on behavioural intention or self-efficacy. Although not statistically significant, the magnitude of the effect of the intervention on hearing aid use (d = 0.43) suggests that it would be worthwhile working towards a fully powered randomized controlled trial. The ability to reduce anxieties about ageing with this brief intervention could have far-reaching benefits for multiple patient and general population groups. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Hearing impairment is more disabling than diabetes, yet hearing aid use is suboptimal. Anxieties about ageing may undermine hearing aid use. What does

  13. Aids and Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... HIV/AIDS patients require surgery sometimes during their illness. The objective of the ... risks to surgical equipes and analysing preventive strategies to HIV ... of Atlanta, and after an assessment of the performance status and ...

  14. Psychological first-aid training for paraprofessionals: a systems-based model for enhancing capacity of rural emergency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Perry, Charlene; Azur, Melissa; Taylor, Henry G; Bailey, Mark; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-08-01

    Ensuring the capacity of the public health, emergency preparedness system to respond to disaster-related need for mental health services is a challenge, particularly in rural areas in which the supply of responders with relevant expertise rarely matches the surge of demand for services. This investigation established and evaluated a systems-based partnership model for recruiting, training, and promoting official recognition of community residents as paraprofessional members of the Maryland Medical Professional Volunteer Corps. The partners were leaders of local health departments (LHDs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), and an academic health center (AHC). A one-group, quasi-experimental research design, using both post-test only and pre-/post-test assessments, was used to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of the overall program and of a one-day workshop in Psychological First Aid (PFA) for Paraprofessionals. The training was applied to and evaluated for 178 citizens drawn from 120 Christian parishes in four local health jurisdictions in rural Maryland. Feasibility-The model was demonstrated to be practicable, as measured by specific criteria to quantify partner readiness, willingness, and ability to collaborate and accomplish project aims. Effectiveness-The majority (93-99%) of individual participants "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that, as a result of the intervention, they understood the conceptual content of PFA and were confident about ("perceived self-efficacy") using PFA techniques with prospective disaster survivors. Impact-Following PFA training, 56 of the 178 (31.5%) participants submitted same-day applications to be paraprofessional responders in the Volunteer Corps. The formal acceptance of citizens who typically do not possess licensure in a health profession reflects a project-engendered policy change by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that it is feasible to

  15. Mental health first aid training for nursing students: a protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in a large university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gemma; Burns, Sharyn K; Chih, Hui Jun; Hunt, Kristen; Tilley, P J Matt; Hallett, Jonathan; Coleman, Kim; Smith, Sonya

    2015-02-19

    The impact of mental health problems and disorders in Australia is significant. Mental health problems often start early and disproportionately affect young people. Poor adolescent mental health can predict educational achievement at school and educational and occupational attainment in adulthood. Many young people attend higher education and have been found to experience a range of mental health issues. The university setting therefore presents a unique opportunity to trial interventions to reduce the burden of mental health problems. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to train participants to recognise symptoms of mental health problems and assist an individual who may be experiencing a mental health crisis. Training nursing students in MHFA may increase mental health literacy and decrease stigma in the student population. This paper presents a protocol for a trial to examine the efficacy of the MHFA training for students studying nursing at a large university in Perth, Western Australia. This randomised controlled trial will follow the CONSORT guidelines. Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention group (receiving a MHFA training course comprising two face to face 6.5 hour sessions run over two days during the intervention period) or a waitlisted control group (not receiving MHFA training during the study). The source population will be undergraduate nursing students at a large university located in Perth, Western Australia. Efficacy of the MHFA training will be assessed by following the intention-to-treat principle and repeated measures analysis. Given the known burden of mental health disorders among student populations, it is important universities consider effective strategies to address mental health issues. Providing MHFA training to students offers the advantage of increasing mental health literacy, among the student population. Further, students trained in MHFA are likely to utilise these skills in the broader community, when they

  16. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis.

  17. Effects of two educational method of lecturing and role playing on knowledge and performance of high school students in first aid at emergency scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Vasili, Arezu; Zare, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two educational methods on students' knowledge and performance regarding first aid at emergency scenes. In this semi-experimental study, the sample was selected randomly among male and female public high school students of Isfahan. Each group included 60 students. At first the knowledge and performance of students in first aid at emergency scene was assessed using a researcher-made questionnaire. Then necessary education was provided to the students within 10 sessions of two hours by lecturing and role playing. The students' knowledge and performance was as-sessed again and the results were compared. It was no significant relationship between the frequency distribution of students' age, major and knowledge and performance before the educational course in the two groups. The score of knowledge in performing CPR, using proper way to bandage, immobilizing the injured area, and proper ways of carrying injured person after the education was significantly increased in both groups. Moreover, the performance in proper way to bandage, immobilizing injured area and proper ways of carrying injured person after educational course was significantly higher in playing role group compared to lecturing group after education. Iran is a developing country with a young generation and it is a country with high risk of natural disasters; so, providing necessary education with more effective methods can be effective in reducing mortality and morbidity due to lack of first aid care in crucial moments. Training with playing role is suggested for this purpose.

  18. Improving First Aid Management of Epilepsy by Trainee Teachers of the Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka - Lagos, South West Nigeria--Can Health Education have an Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Christian N; Ebuehi, Olufunke M

    2013-01-01

    lt is estimated that epilepsy affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and about 40 million of them live in developing countries. Studies have indicated high rates of poor knowledge, negative attitude and poor first aid management skills of students with epilepsy among practicing teachers. However, there is paucity of such studies on trainee teachers to ascertain any similarities or differences (if any) and the effect of educational interventions. To determine the effect of a health education intervention on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitude and first aid management of epilepsy. The effect of a health education intervention in first aid management of epilepsy was assessed among 226 trainee teachers, attending the Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka. This was done using a quasi-experimental study design. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 15. The respondents had a median age of 22 years with a range of 18 to 56 years. The majority of them were females (68.6%), single (79.2%), Christians (81.9%), Yoruba (70.4%) and in first year (100 level) of their study (69.9%). The highest proportion was from the Accounting department (46.0%). A consistent increase in responses to items on knowledge, attitude and first aid management of epileptic seizure items from baseline to post-intervention was observed. For instance, the proportion of responses that epileptic seizures originate from the brain significantly (p = 0.025) increased from 62.5% at baseline to 74.1% after intervention. Generally, slightly more than two-fifths (44.2%) and about two thirds (61.9%) of the respondents were observed to have poor knowledge and negative attitude to epilepsy respectively at baseline. Overall, giving health education on epilepsy led to a reduction in the proportion of respondents with poor knowledge by 15.5% (increase of good knowledge by 29.6%), decrease of negative attitude by 16.4% and increase of good first aid management skill by 25.0%. The knowledge

  19. Survival of HIV/AIDS patients with antiretroviral therapy in association with first-line regimens from 2007 – 2010 in Haji AdamMalik general hospital Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembaren, T.; Ginting, Y.; Saragih, R. H.

    2018-03-01

    The mortality related to AIDS have decreased dramatically among HIV infected patients taking HAART. HAART is the combination of at least 3 antiretroviral drugs based on the recommendation of WHO. The recent guideline for 1st line therapy recommended by the Indonesian Ministry of Health was Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine (ZDV+3TC+NVP), Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (ZDV+3TC+EFV), Stavudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine (d4T+3TC+NVP), Stavudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (d4T+3TC+EFV). Due to a side effect of Stavudine, Ministry of Health plan to pass out Stavudin from the regimens for 1stline therapy.We wanted to evaluate the survival of HIV/AIDS patients with first-line regimens in HAM general hospital Medan. A cohort retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the survival of HIV/AIDS patients taking a combination of 1st line antiretroviral therapy between January 2007 and December 2010. From 2007-2010, among 609 HIV/AIDS patients with first-line ARV medication, 77.5% were male, and 22.5% were female. The most common risk infection was heterosexual. The majority of the patients were in 25-34 years old group. Most of the patients with CD4 1-50 cell/mm3. 2 years survival rate in HIV/AIDS patients taking ZDV+3TC+NVP, ZDV+3TC+EFV, d4T+3TC+NVP, d4T+3TC+EFV were 61.5%, 61.2%, 57.5% and 59.3% respectively. There were no significant differences of 24 months survival in both regiment with or without d4T, 61.8% vs 63.6%.

  20. Aid and AIDS: a delicate cocktail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.

    2008-01-01

    Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.

  1. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claire M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful

  2. Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program serves two purposes. The first is to track temperature trends during normal plant operation in areas where suspected deviations from established environmental profiles exist. This includes the use of Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots for evaluation of equipment qualified life for comparison with tested parameters and the established Environmental Design Profile. It also may be used to determine the location and duration of steam leaks for effect on equipment qualified life. The second purpose of this program is to aid HVAC design engineers in determining the source of heat outside anticipated design parameters. Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots are also used for this application but the results may include design changes to eliminate the excess heat or provide qualified equipment (cable) to withstand the elevated temperature, splitting of environmental zones to capture accurate temperature parameters, or continued environmental monitoring for evaluation of equipment located in hot spots

  3. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  4. First aid to aid Helmand / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Välisministeeriumi rahastatud projekti raames saatsid MTÜ Mondo ja Eesti Kaitsevägi Afganistani 1500 esmaabipakki, mis on mõeldud Helmandi provintsis toimunud esmaabikoolituse läbinutele. Koolitusprojekti kogumaksumus on 2 246 580 krooni

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF CHAIN COUPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Sergeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the development stages of computer-aided design of chain couplings. The first stage is the automation of traditional design techniques (intermediate automation. The second integrated automation with the development of automated equipment and production technology, including on the basis of flexible manufacturing systems (high level of automation.

  6. Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata) Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Angel A; Wilcox, Christie; King, Rebecca; Hurwitz, Kikiana; Castelfranco, Ann M

    2016-01-11

    Despite the medical urgency presented by cubozoan envenomations, ineffective and contradictory first-aid management recommendations persist. A critical barrier to progress has been the lack of readily available and reproducible envenomation assays that (1) recapitulate live-tentacle stings; (2) allow quantitation and imaging of cnidae discharge; (3) allow primary quantitation of venom toxicity; and (4) employ rigorous controls. We report the implementation of an integrated array of three experimental approaches designed to meet the above-stated criteria. Mechanistically overlapping, yet distinct, the three approaches comprised (1) direct application of test solutions on live tentacles (termed tentacle solution assay, or TSA) with single image- and video-microscopy; (2) spontaneous stinging assay using freshly excised tentacles overlaid on substrate of live human red blood cells suspended in agarose (tentacle blood agarose assays, or TBAA); and (3) a "skin" covered adaptation of TBAA (tentacle skin blood agarose assay, or TSBAA). We report the use and results of these assays to evaluate the efficacy of topical first-aid approaches to inhibit tentacle firing and venom activity. TSA results included the potent stimulation of massive cnidae discharge by alcohols but only moderate induction by urine, freshwater, and "cola" (carbonated soft drink). Although vinegar, the 40-year field standard of first aid for the removal of adherent tentacles, completely inhibited cnidae firing in TSA and TSBAA ex vivo models, the most striking inhibition of both tentacle firing and subsequent venom-induced hemolysis was observed using newly-developed proprietary formulations (Sting No More™) containing copper gluconate, magnesium sulfate, and urea.

  7. First-aid management of tonic-clonic seizures among healthcare personnel: A survey by the Apulian section of the Italian League Against Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Tommaso; Lalla, Alessandra; Carapelle, Elena; Di Claudio, Maria Teresa; Avolio, Carlo; d'Orsi, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the knowledge of healthcare workers about first-aid measures to be performed during and after a tonic-clonic seizure. One hundred and fifty-four healthcare workers (86 physicians) working at 8 tertiary hospitals in the Apulia region, Italy, responded to a questionnaire comprising of 28 questions based on available Italian and international recommendations about what to do during a tonic-clonic seizure. One hundred and fifty-four healthcare workers completed and returned surveys with a response rate of 96.25%. There were 55 nurses (35.7%), 86 physicians (55.8%), and 13 healthcare workers with different roles (Electroencephalograph technicians, psychologists, social workers). Among physicians, there were 7 cardiologists, 3 surgeons, 12 infectious-disease specialists, 11 internal medicine specialists, 2 psychiatrists, 2 gynecologists, 27 specialists working in the emergency department, and 22 physicians with different specializations. Nearly 90% of the respondents identified head protection as important first aid, while 100% responded to not keep the legs elevated. To avoid tongue bite, both physicians and other healthcare workers would put something in the mouth (54.0%), like a Guedel cannula (71.0%) fingers (29.5%). Grabbing arms and legs, trying to stop the seizure, would be potentially performed by 11.6% of our sample. Physicians would administer a benzodiazepine during the seizure (65.7%) and during the postictal phase (29.2%), even if the patient is known to have epilepsy (23.7%), and in this case, 11.3% of respondents would administer the usual antiepileptic medications. More than half of respondents would call the emergency telephone number, because of necessary hospitalization in case of tonic-clonic seizure, even if it is experienced by a patient known to have epilepsy. Our survey suggests the need for epilepsy educational programs on first-aid management of seizures among healthcare workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  9. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  10. Gingival Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Hyperplastic Benignancy as the First Clinical Manifestation of AIDS: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Elvira Rozza-de-Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an unusual case of gingival ALCL, which mimicked a benign hyperplastic lesion that occurred in a 57-year-old white man representing the first clinical manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The patient was referred to the Dental Clinic of PUCPR complaining of a lobulated nodule on the gingiva of his upper central incisors. The presence of advanced chronic periodontitis and dental plaque raised suspicion for a benignancy. An excisional biopsy was performed, and large pleomorphic cells with an abundant cytoplasm, sometimes containing prominent nucleoli and “Hallmark” cells, were observed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. The tumor cells showed strong CD30 expression, EMA, Ki-67, and LCA, and negative stain for p80NPM/ALK, CKAE1/AE3, CD20, CD3, CD56, and CD15. The final diagnosis was ALCL (ALK-negative. Further laboratory tests revealed positivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, but four months after diagnosis, the patient died due to pneumonia and respiratory failure. Oral anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare disorder. Only 5 cases involving the gingiva have been reported, and to our knowledge, this is the first case reported of the ALCL, which mimicked a hyperplastic benignancy as the first clinical manifestation of AIDS.

  11. "What do kids know": a survey of 420 Grade 5 students in Cambodia on their knowledge of burn prevention and first-aid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Marvin; Tsai, Brian; Uk, Pisey; Jo, Harrison; Gomez, Manuel; Gollogly, James G; Beveridge, Massey

    2007-05-01

    Cambodia is a developing country of 13 million people where there are an estimated 20,000 burns and 2000 burn deaths annually. Two thirds of the burns occur to children under the age of 10 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of burn prevention and first aid for burns in Grade 5 Cambodian school children, as baseline information to design a burn prevention campaign. A 34-question survey regarding burn prevention and first-aid treatment for burn injuries was developed. Additional questions on TV watching habits were included to determine the feasibility of a targeted TV burn educational campaign. The survey was translated into Khmer language and tested on a trial class for accuracy and ease of administration. After obtaining the school director's permission and children's consent the survey was administered by Canadian medical students helped by trained translators and teachers to Grade 5 students from eight different elementary schools in the Kampot province. A total of 420 students were surveyed. Average age was 12.5 years (range 9-17 years) and 55% were females. Seventy-four percent routinely cared for other children. Only 52% had TV at home but still 78% managed to watch TV for an average 2h per day. Even though 36% of students indicated they had received information about burn prevention and first aid, only 13% mentioned application of cool water as initial treatment, only 7% knew to roll on the ground if their clothes caught fire, and nearly 50% would pour water on a burning pot of oil. Half of students indicated that they would not believe a TV message promoting application of cold water on acute burns. Top reasons given were parental influence, belief in other treatments, and not trusting TV messages. Interestingly, 62% of these skeptics would change their mind if the TV message was endorsed by an authority figure such as a physician, teacher, parent, or the Ministry of Health. A set of five Public Service Announcements for

  12. Factors associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adults with AIDS in the first six months of treatment in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Adriano Góes; Dourado, Inês; Brito, Ana Maria de; Silva, Carlos Alberto Lima da

    2015-06-01

    The control of viral replication is essential in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and adherence to therapy is instrumental for such control. Individual and external factors influence adhesion to the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. This is a cross-sectional study to investigate factors associated with non-adherence to HAART in AIDS patients in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, with age ≥ 13 years and first prescription in 2009. Data was collected from patient charts and pharmacy records. From a total of 216 patients, 65.3% were males; mean age 37.8 ± 9.5 years; single, 67.9%; heterosexual, 64%; more than 8 years of school education, 65.3%; alcohol users, 61.5%; non-smokers, 75,1% or non-illicit drug users, 93.7%. A proportion of 94% started ARV therapy with TCD4+ drug reaction. The prevalence of non-adherence was 25%. The variables associated were: longer time between HIV infection and AIDS (aOR = 3.9), adverse drug reaction (aOR = 2.4), under 34 years of age (aOR = 2.2), less than 8 years of school education (aOR = 2.2) and illicit drugs use (aOR = 2.6). A high-non-adherence rate is an important problem within the first six months of HAART.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting aid...

  15. Radiological emergencies the first response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This national training course about radiological emergencies first answer include: Targets and preparation for emergency response in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. Operations center, action guide for fire fighting, medical coverage, forensic test, first aid, basic instrumentation for radiation, safety equipment, monitoring radiation, gamma rays, personnel exposed protection , radiation exposure rate, injury and illness for radiation, cancer risk, contamination, decontamination and treatment, markers, personnel dosimetry, training, medical and equipment transportation, shielded and tools. Psychological, physical (health and illness), economical (agriculture and industry) and environment impacts. Terrorist attacks, security belts. Support and international agreements (IAEA)

  16. The influence of stigma on first aid actions taken by young people for mental health problems in a close friend or family member: findings from an Australian national survey of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2011-11-01

    Young people are an important source of first aid for mental health problems in people they are close to, but their first aid skills remain inadequate. Research into the factors that influence mental health first aid skills are required to reveal targets for improving these skills. This study examined the influence of stigma on first aid actions taken by young people to help someone close to them with a mental health problem. Participants in a national telephone survey of Australian youth (aged 12-25 years) reported on their stigmatising attitudes based on one of three disorders in vignettes: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, and social phobia. At a two-year follow-up interview, they were asked if they knew a family member or close friend with a problem similar to the vignette character since the initial interview, and those who did reported on the actions taken to help the person. Of the 1520 participants interviewed at follow up, 507 reported knowing someone with a similar problem. Young people's stigmatising attitudes (weak-not-sick, social distance and dangerousness/unpredictability) influenced their first aid actions. Social desirability could have affected the assessment of stigma, we could not assess the severity of the first aid recipient's problem or the benefit derived from the first aid provided, and the proportion of variance explained was modest. Reducing stigma may help to improve the first aid that people with mental health problems can receive from young people who are close to them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Endodontic Management of Maxillary First Molar With Two Palatal Canals Aided With Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamboo, Jaya; Hans, Manoj Kumar; Chander, Subhas; Sharma, Kapil

    2017-04-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on having sufficient endodontic access, correct cleaning and shaping, and adequate root canal obturation. However, endodontic treatment is also dependent on having a sound knowledge of the internal anatomy of human teeth, especially when anatomic variations are present. Reporting these alterations is important for improving the understanding and expertise of endodontists. The aim of this case report is to describe a unique case of maxillary first molar with 2 palatal canals within a single root, as confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This article also reviews recent case reports of extra palatal root canals in the maxillary first molars and the role of CBCT analysis in successfully diagnosing them.

  18. Surgical capacity building in Timor-Leste: a review of the first 15 years of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons-led Australian Aid programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Glenn D; Scott, David F; Xavier, Joao P; Martins, Nelson; Vreede, Eric; Chennal, Antony; Moss, Daliah; Watters, David A

    2017-06-01

    Timor-Leste suffered a destructive withdrawal by the Indonesian military in 1999, leaving only 20 Timorese-based doctors and no practising specialists for a population of 700 000 that has now grown to 1.2 million. This article assesses the outcomes and impact of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) specialist medical support from 2001 to 2015. Three programmes were designed collaboratively with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and Australian Aid. The RACS team began to provide 24/7 resident surgical and anaesthesia services in the capital, Dili, from July 2001. The arrival of the Chinese and Cuban Medical Teams provided a medical workforce, and the Cubans initiated undergraduate medical training for about 1000 nationals both in Cuba and in Timor-Leste, whilst RACS focused on specialist medical training. Australian Aid provided AUD$20 million through three continuous programmes over 15 years. In the first 10 years over 10 000 operations were performed. Initially only 10% of operations were done by trainees but this reached 77% by 2010. Twenty-one nurse anaesthetists were trained in-country, sufficient to cover the needs of each hospital. Seven Timorese doctors gained specialist qualifications (five surgery, one ophthalmology and one anaesthesia) from regional medical schools in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Indonesia and Malaysia. They introduced local specialist and family medicine diploma programmes for the Cuban graduates. Timor-Leste has developed increasing levels of surgical and anaesthetic self-sufficiency through multi-level collaboration between the Ministry of Health, Universidade Nacional de Timor Lorosa'e, and sustained, consistent support from external donors including Australian Aid, Cuba and RACS. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. A multiattribute utility analysis of sites nominated for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository: A decision-aiding methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In December 1984, the Department of Energy (DOE) published draft environmental assessments (EAs) to support the proposed nomination of five sites and the recommendation of three sites for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository. A chapter common to all the draft EAs (Chapter 7) presented rankings of the five sites against the postclosure and the preclosure technical siting guidelines. To determine which three sites appeared most favorable for recommendation for characterization, three simple quantitative methods were used to aggregate the rankings assigned to each site for the various technical guidelines. In response to numerous comments on the methods, the DOE has undertaken a formal application of one of them (hereafter referred to as the decision-aiding methodology) for the purpose of obtaining a more rigorous evaluation of the nominated sites. The application of the revised methodology is described in this report. The method of analysis is known as multiattribute utility analysis; it is a tool for providing insights as to which sites are preferable and why. The decision-aiding methodology accounts for all the fundamental considerations specified by the siting guidelines and uses as source information the data and evaluations reported or referenced in the EAs. It explicitly addresses the uncertainties and value judgments that are part of all siting problems. Furthermore, all scientific and value judgments are made explicit for the reviewer. An independent review of the application of the decision-aiding methodology has been conducted by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences; the comments of the Board are included as an appendix to this report

  20. A multiattribute utility analysis of sites nominated for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository: A decision-aiding methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In December 1984, the Department of Energy (DOE) published draft environmental assessments (EAs) to support the proposed nomination of five sites and the recommendation of three sites for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository. A chapter common to all the draft EAs (Chapter 7) presented rankings of the five sites against the postclosure and the preclosure technical siting guidelines. To determine which three sites appeared most favorable for recommendation for characterization, three simple quantitative methods were used to aggregate the rankings assigned to each site for the various technical guidelines. In response to numerous comments on the methods, the DOE has undertaken a formal application of one of them (hereafter referred to as the decision-aiding methodology) for the purpose of obtaining a more rigorous evaluation of the nominated sites. The application of the revised methodology is described in this report. The method of analysis is known as multiattribute utility analysis; it is a tool for providing insights as to which sites are preferable and why. The decision-aiding methodology accounts for all the fundamental considerations specified by the siting guidelines and uses as source information the data and evaluations reported or referenced in the EAs. It explicitly addresses the uncertainties and value judgments that are part of all siting problems. Furthermore, all scientific and value judgments are made explicit for the reviewer. An independent review of the application of the decision-aiding methodology has been conducted by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences; the comments of the Board are included as an appendix to this report.

  1. Durability of the first combined antiretroviral regimen in patients with AIDS at a reference center in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 1996 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Andrade Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Finding a better first antiretroviral regimen is one of the strategies used to improve span and quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. 891 patients were followed during 24 months or until interruption/abandonment of treatment, changing regimen or death. At the end of 6 months, 69% of the patients were still being treated with the first regimen, 54% at 12 months, 48% at 18 months and 39% at 24 months. AZT-3TC-EFV was the most prescribed regimen and with the lesser discontinuation. NNRTI regimens showed high effectiveness and durability compared to PI regimens. Irregular medication dispensation was the only risk factor for failure/interruption of treatment in multivariate analyses. Intolerance/adverse effects were mainly responsible for first regimen discontinuation, followed by abandonment/non-adherence and virologic failure. Results showed significant difference between causes of interruption of first HAART with higher percentage of intolerance/adverse effects with PI regimens and higher immunologic failure with NNRTI regimens. Even with the availability of more potent and tolerable drugs, lack of adherence to HAART and high level of adverse effects are still the most important barriers to prolonged success of treatment. This study adds relevant information about durability and effectiveness of HAART in the first decade of its use in Brazil.

  2. Effectiveness of mental health first aid training in Sweden. A randomized controlled trial with a six-month and two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent report from the European Brain Council and the European Colleague of Neuropsychopharmacology the one year prevalence of some kind of mental disorder is around 27% among the adult population in Europe. Research has shown a lack of mental health literacy in the population in general and it is thus important to find ways to improve the public's knowledge and skills to provide first hand support to people with mental disorders. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a training program that has shown positive changes in knowledge and helping behavior. This study investigates if MHFA training in a Swedish context provides a sustained improvement in knowledge about mental disorders, a better ability to be helpful in contacts with people who are ill and if it changes attitudes in a positive direction. The introduction of the training program was made in accordance with the constructor's instructions. Participants were mainly public sector employees from a county in the west of Sweden. The study was a randomized controlled trial with an experiment group (n = 199) and a control group (n = 207) placed on a waiting list during a 6-month follow-up. A two-year follow-up was conducted for participants (n = 155) from both the intervention and waiting list group who had completed the training and during the follow-up been in contact with persons with mental disorders. The intervention group improved in knowledge as well as in confidence in providing help for someone in need. The two-year follow-up showed that the improvements were to a great extent maintained. Mental Health First Aid might raise the level of awareness of mental disorders and have an influence on the number of people who can receive professional treatment for their problems.

  3. Effectiveness of mental health first aid training in Sweden. A randomized controlled trial with a six-month and two-year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Svensson

    Full Text Available According to a recent report from the European Brain Council and the European Colleague of Neuropsychopharmacology the one year prevalence of some kind of mental disorder is around 27% among the adult population in Europe. Research has shown a lack of mental health literacy in the population in general and it is thus important to find ways to improve the public's knowledge and skills to provide first hand support to people with mental disorders. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA is a training program that has shown positive changes in knowledge and helping behavior. This study investigates if MHFA training in a Swedish context provides a sustained improvement in knowledge about mental disorders, a better ability to be helpful in contacts with people who are ill and if it changes attitudes in a positive direction.The introduction of the training program was made in accordance with the constructor's instructions. Participants were mainly public sector employees from a county in the west of Sweden. The study was a randomized controlled trial with an experiment group (n = 199 and a control group (n = 207 placed on a waiting list during a 6-month follow-up. A two-year follow-up was conducted for participants (n = 155 from both the intervention and waiting list group who had completed the training and during the follow-up been in contact with persons with mental disorders. The intervention group improved in knowledge as well as in confidence in providing help for someone in need. The two-year follow-up showed that the improvements were to a great extent maintained.Mental Health First Aid might raise the level of awareness of mental disorders and have an influence on the number of people who can receive professional treatment for their problems.

  4. Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Ironfield, Natalie; Kelly, Claire M; Dart, Katrina; Arabena, Kerry; Bond, Kathy; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-08-22

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions. The Delphi consensus method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to be included in the guidelines. These statements describe helping actions that Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous frontline workers can take, and information they should have, to help someone who is engaging in NSSI. The statements were sourced from systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, books, websites and online materials, and existing NSSI courses. A panel was formed, comprising 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with expertise in NSSI. The panellists were presented with the helping statements via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest re-wording of statements and any additional helping statements that were not included in the original questionnaire. Statements were only accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥90% of panellists as essential or important. From a total of 185 statements shown to the expert panel, 115 were endorsed as helping statements to be included in the re-developed guidelines. A panel of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with expertise in NSSI were able to reach consensus on appropriate strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engaging in NSSI. The re-development of the guidelines has resulted in more comprehensive guidance than the earlier

  5. Rate of Compliance with Hand Hygiene by Dental Healthcare Personnel (DHCP) within a Dentistry Healthcare First Aid Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim-Finzi, Marcília Batista; Cury, Mauro Vieira Cezar; Costa, Cláudio Rodrigues R; Dos Santos, Angelis Costa; de Melo, Geraldo Batista

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the compliance with the opportunities of hand hygiene by dentistry school healthcare professionals, as well as the higher choice products. Through direct observation, the oral healthcare team-professors, oral and maxillofacial surgery residents, graduation students-for daily care were monitored: before performing the first treatment of the shift, after snacks and meals, and after going to the bathroom (initial opportunities) as well as between patients' care, and after ending the shift (following opportunities). The professors' category profited 78.4% of all opportunities while residents and graduation students did not reach 50.0% of compliance. Statistically significant data (Pwater and soap (82.2%), followed by 70% alcohol (10.2%), and both (7.6%). Although gloves were worn in all procedures, we concluded that the hygiene compliance by these professionals was under the expectation.

  6. A methodology to aid in the design of naval steels: Linking first principles calculations to mesoscale modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanos, G.; Geltmacher, A.B.; Lewis, A.C.; Bingert, J.F.; Mehl, M.; Papaconstantopoulos, D.; Mishin, Y.; Gupta, A.; Matic, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of a multidisciplinary effort at the Naval Research Laboratory aimed at developing a computationally-based methodology to assist in the design of advanced Naval steels. This program uses multiple computational techniques ranging from the atomistic length scale to continuum response. First-principles electronic structure calculations using density functional theory were employed, semi-empirical angular dependent potentials were developed based on the embedded atom method, and these potentials were used as input into Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Experimental techniques have also been applied to a super-austenitic stainless steel (AL6XN) to provide experimental input, guidance, verification, and enhancements to the models. These experimental methods include optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and serial sectioning in conjunction with computer-based three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative analyses. The experimental results are also used as critical input into mesoscale finite element models of materials response

  7. Impact of Mental Health First Aid on Confidence Related to Mental Health Literacy: A National Study With a Focus on Race-Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, Annette S; Luo, Li; McFaul, Mimi; Silverblatt, Helene; Pyeatt, Clinton

    2016-03-01

    Low mental health literacy (MHL) is widespread in the general population and even more so among racial and ethnic minority groups. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to improve MHL. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of MHFA on perceptions of confidence about MHL in a large national sample and by racial and ethnic subgroup. The self-perceived impact of MHFA on 36,263 people who completed the 12-hour training and a feedback form was examined. A multiple regression analysis showed that MHFA resulted in high ratings of confidence in being able to apply various skills and knowledge related to MHL. Perceived impact of MHFA training differed among some racial and ethnic groups, but the differences were small to trivial. Future research on MHFA should examine changes in MHL pre-post training and the extent to which perceived increases in MHL confidence among trainees translate into action.

  8. Knowledge and awareness of first aid of avulsed tooth among physicians and nurses of hospital emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Sreepad Iyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians and nurses of emergency department are often the first line of qualified health-care providers attending the patient in person or parent's query over phone reporting immediately following the dental avulsion. Prompt action by them becomes the decisive factor in survival and prognosis of the tooth. Although a few researchers have evaluated knowledge of emergency room physicians, there is scanty of reports concerning nurses who play a climacteric role. Materials and Methods: A 10-item questionnaire regarding clinical situation apropos dental injury and tooth avulsion, inquiring knowledge of physicians and nurses was administered to 150 each of nursing professionals and physicians of the emergency department. Results: With 100% response rate, the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed lack of knowledge and confidence in both groups. About 66.7% (n = 100 nurses and 74.7% (n = 112 considered reimplantation of avulsed tooth. There was overbalanced confusion regarding storage/transport media and handling of avulsed tooth. Conclusion: The findings from the results suggested a definite inadequacy in knowledge, demanding need for appropriate training for delivering treatment with more predictability and better prognosis.

  9. Knowledge and Awareness of First Aid of Avulsed Tooth among Physicians and Nurses of Hospital Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sudeep Sreepad; Panigrahi, Antarmayee; Sharma, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    Physicians and nurses of emergency department are often the first line of qualified health-care providers attending the patient in person or parent's query over phone reporting immediately following the dental avulsion. Prompt action by them becomes the decisive factor in survival and prognosis of the tooth. Although a few researchers have evaluated knowledge of emergency room physicians, there is scanty of reports concerning nurses who play a climacteric role. A 10-item questionnaire regarding clinical situation apropos dental injury and tooth avulsion, inquiring knowledge of physicians and nurses was administered to 150 each of nursing professionals and physicians of the emergency department. With 100% response rate, the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed lack of knowledge and confidence in both groups. About 66.7% ( n = 100) nurses and 74.7% ( n = 112) considered reimplantation of avulsed tooth. There was overbalanced confusion regarding storage/transport media and handling of avulsed tooth. The findings from the results suggested a definite inadequacy in knowledge, demanding need for appropriate training for delivering treatment with more predictability and better prognosis.

  10. First aid strategies that are helpful to young people developing a mental disorder: beliefs of health professionals compared to young people and parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Annemarie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about

  11. Availability of Life Support Equipment and its Utilization by Ambulance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rija; Badhu, Angur; Shah, Tara; Shrestha, Sharmila

    2017-09-08

    An effective ambulance is a vital requirement for providing an emergency medical service. Well-equipped ambulances with trained paramedics can save many lives during the golden hours of trauma care. The objective was to document the availability and utilization of basic life support equipment in the ambulances and to assess knowledge on first aid among the drivers. Descriptive design was used. Total of 109 ambulances linked to B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled using purposive sampling method. Self- constructed observation checklist and semi structured interview schedule was used for data collection. More than half of the respondents had less than five years of experience and were not trained in first aid. About two-third of the respondents had adequate knowledge on first aid. About 90% of the ambulance had oxygen cylinder and adult oxygen mask which was 'usually' used equipment. More than half of ambulance had equipment less than 23% as compared to that of national guidelines. There was significant association of knowledge with the experience (p = 0.004) and training (p = 0.001). Availability of equipment was associated with training received (p = 0.007),organization (p= 0.032)and district (p = 0.023) in which the ambulance is registered. The study concludes that maximum ambulance linked to BPKIHS, Nepal did not have even one fourth of the equipment for basic life support. Equipment usually used was oxygen cylinder and oxygen mask. Majority of driver had adequate knowledge on first aid and it was associated with training and experience.

  12. Time-efficient CT colonography interpretation using an advanced image-gallery-based, computer-aided ''first-reader'' workflow for the detection of colorectal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Ringl, Helmut; Weber, Michael; Mueller-Mang, Christina; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Wolf, Matthias; Bogoni, Luca; Salganicoff, Marcos; Raykar, Vikas; Graser, Anno

    2012-01-01

    To assess the performance of an advanced ''first-reader'' workflow for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colorectal adenomas ≥ 6 mm at computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in a low-prevalence cohort. A total of 616 colonoscopy-validated CTC patient-datasets were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist using a ''first-reader'' CAD workflow. CAD detections were presented as galleries of six automatically generated two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images together with interactive 3D target views and 2D multiplanar views of the complete dataset. Each patient-dataset was interpreted by initially using CAD image-galleries followed by a fast 2D review to address unprompted colonic areas. Per-patient, per-polyp, and per-adenoma sensitivities were calculated for lesions ≥ 6 mm. Statistical testing employed Fisher's exact and McNemar tests. In 91/616 patients, 131 polyps (92 adenomas, 39 non-adenomas) ≥ 6 mm and two cancers were identified by reference standard. Using the CAD gallery-based first-reader workflow, the radiologist detected all adenomas ≥ 10 mm (34/34) and cancers. Per-patient and polyp sensitivities for lesions ≥ 6 mm were 84.3 % (75/89), and 83.2 % (109/131), respectively, with 89.1 % (57/64) and 85.9 % (79/92) for adenomas. Overall specificity was 95.6 % (504/527). Mean interpretation time was 3.1 min per patient. A CAD algorithm, applied in an image-gallery-based first-reader workflow, can substantially decrease reading times while enabling accurate detection of colorectal adenomas in a low-prevalence population. (orig.)

  13. First Aid: Stomachaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many things, from gas or constipation to stress, overeating, or a contagious stomach bug . Sometimes, complaints about ... or two Think Prevention! Encourage kids to: avoid overeating or eating right before going to sleep never ...

  14. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  16. Knowledge of venomous snakes, snakebite first aid, treatment, and prevention among clinicians in northern Nigeria: a cross-sectional multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Godpower C; Grema, Bukar A; Aliyu, Ibrahim; Alhaji, Mohammed A; Lawal, Teslim O; Ibrahim, Haliru; Fikin, Aminu G; Gyaran, Fatima S; Kane, Kennedy N; Thacher, Thomas D; Badamasi, Abba K; Ogwuche, Emmanuel

    2018-02-01

    Snakebite envenoming causes considerable morbidity and mortality in northern Nigeria. The clinician's knowledge of snakebite impacts outcome. We assessed clinicians' knowledge of snakebite envenoming to highlight knowledge and practice gaps for possible intervention to improve snakebite outcomes. This was a cross-sectional multicentre study of 374 doctors selected from the accident and emergency, internal medicine, family medicine/general outpatient, paediatrics and surgery departments of nine tertiary hospitals in northern Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their sociodemographics, knowledge of common venomous snakes, snakebite first aid, snake antivenom treatment and prevention. The respondents' mean age was 35.6±5.8 y. They were predominantly males (70.6%) from urban hospitals (71.9%), from the northwest region (35.3%), in family medicine/general outpatient departments (33.4%), of <10 years working experience (66.3%) and had previous experience in snakebite management (78.3%). Although their mean overall knowledge score was 70.2±12.6%, only 52.9% had an adequate overall knowledge score. Most had adequate knowledge of snakebite clinical features (62.3%), first aid (75.7%) and preventive measures (97.1%), but only 50.8% and 25.1% had adequate knowledge of snake species that caused most injuries/deaths and anti-snake venom treatment, respectively. Overall knowledge predictors were ≥10 y working experience (odd ratio [OR] 1.72 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.07 to 2.76]), urban hospital setting (OR 0.58 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.96]), surgery department (OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.24 to 0.81]), northwest/north-central region (OR 2.36 [95% CI 1.46 to 3.82]) and previous experience in snakebite management (OR 2.55 [95% CI 1.49 to 4.36]). Overall knowledge was low. Improvements in overall knowledge may require clinicians' exposure to snakebite management and training of accident and emergency clinicians in the region.

  17. First steps in quality control equipment MRI; Primeros pasos en el control de calidad de equipos de imagen por resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Diaz, M.; Castaneda Arronte, M. J.; Ferreiros Vazquez, N.; Sanchez Merino, G.

    2011-07-01

    The present work aims to develop the initial stages of a program of quality control of nuclear magnetic resonance equipment. Not intended to conduct a comprehensive study covering all aspects of quality control, but gather the steps are followed and the most common problems they are encountering during the development of this program. It has been claimed that the work will be helpful to others facing the same task. Have been studied the compatibility of mannequins and procedures for the various teams. Ideally, such controls should be independent of the procedures and mannequins own commercial houses.

  18. Weight/balance portable test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This document shows the general layout, and gives a part description for the weight/balance test equipment. This equipment will aid in the regulation of the leachate loading of tanker trucks. The report contains four drawings with part specifications. The leachate originates from lined trenches

  19. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiangping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhongdan; Yuan, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Fu, Jeannia; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Duan, Song; Bulterys, Marc; Sante, Michael; Ye, Runhua; Xiang, Lifen; Yang, Yuecheng

    2013-01-01

    We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations. 2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology. Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4%) prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM), with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%. Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  20. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Shan

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations.2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology.Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4% prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs, sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM, with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%.Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  1. Condom Advertising and AIDS. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document present witnesses' testimonies from the Congressional hearing called to examine condom advertising and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opening statements are included by Congressmen Henry Waxman, William Dannemeyer, and Jim Bates. C. Everett Koop, United States Surgeon General, and Gary Noble, AIDS coordinator for the…

  2. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  3. A preliminary evaluation of the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid program in students and school counselors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; You, Sungeun; Choi, Yun-Kyeung; Youn, Hyae-Young; Shin, Hye Sook

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid (PFA) program. Based on the competency-based model, the study sought to examine whether the PFA training would enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Study 1 examined the training effects of the PFA program in a sample of undergraduate and graduate students in psychology. Study 2 was conducted with school counselors. In both studies, all participants completed a one-day PFA workshop with a 3-hour didactic lecture and a 3-hour simulation-based practice. Assessments were conducted prior to the didactic lecture and upon completion of the simulation-based practice. In study 1, an examination of pre- and posttest comparisons indicated that the training significantly improved students' PFA knowledge and perceived competence in PFA skill. In study 2, the same PFA training significantly improved school counselors' PFA knowledge, perceived competence in PFA skill, perceived preparedness and confidence to provide psychological assistance for future disasters, but their perceived willingness to participate in psychological assistance did not significantly change after the training. This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of the PFA training program using a combined method of didactic and simulation-based practice for disaster mental health providers in Korea.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid program in students and school counselors in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Sun Lee

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid (PFA program. Based on the competency-based model, the study sought to examine whether the PFA training would enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Study 1 examined the training effects of the PFA program in a sample of undergraduate and graduate students in psychology. Study 2 was conducted with school counselors. In both studies, all participants completed a one-day PFA workshop with a 3-hour didactic lecture and a 3-hour simulation-based practice. Assessments were conducted prior to the didactic lecture and upon completion of the simulation-based practice. In study 1, an examination of pre- and posttest comparisons indicated that the training significantly improved students' PFA knowledge and perceived competence in PFA skill. In study 2, the same PFA training significantly improved school counselors' PFA knowledge, perceived competence in PFA skill, perceived preparedness and confidence to provide psychological assistance for future disasters, but their perceived willingness to participate in psychological assistance did not significantly change after the training. This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of the PFA training program using a combined method of didactic and simulation-based practice for disaster mental health providers in Korea.

  5. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Angus Yk; Jorm, Anthony F; Wong, Daniel Fk

    2010-06-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia) described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.

  6. The development of a model of psychological first aid for non-mental health trained public health personnel: the Johns Hopkins RAPID-PFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Lee McCabe, O; Semon, Natalie L; Thompson, Carol B; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness, which houses the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center, has been addressing the challenge of disaster-caused behavioral health surge by conducting training programs in psychological first aid (PFA) for public health professionals. This report describes our approach, named RAPID-PFA, and summarizes training evaluation data to determine if relevant knowledge, skills, and attitudes are imparted to trainees to support effective PFA delivery. In the wake of disasters, there is an increase in psychological distress and dysfunction among survivors and first responders. To meet the challenges posed by this surge, a professional workforce trained in PFA is imperative. More than 1500 participants received a 1-day RAPID-PFA training. Pre-/postassessments were conducted to measure (a) required knowledge to apply PFA; (b) perceived self-efficacy, that is, belief in one's own ability, to apply PFA techniques; and (c) confidence in one's own resilience in a crisis context. Statistical techniques were used to validate the extent to which the survey successfully measured individual PFA constructs, that is, unidimensionality, and to quantify the reliability of the assessment tool. Statistically significant pre-/postimprovements were observed in (a) knowledge items supportive of PFA delivery, (b) perceived self-efficacy to apply PFA interventions, and (c) confidence about being a resilient PFA provider. Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.90 suggested that the self-reported measures possessed sufficient internal consistency. Findings were consistent with our pilot work, and with our complementary research initiatives validating a variant of RAPID-PFA with faith communities. The RAPID-PFA model promises to be a broadly applicable approach to extending community behavioral health surge capacity. Relevant next steps include evaluating the effectiveness

  7. The emergency first aid responder system model: using community members to assist life-threatening emergencies in violent, developing areas of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jared H; Wallis, Lee A

    2012-08-01

    As many as 90% of all trauma-related deaths occur in developing nations, and this is expected to get worse with modernisation. The current method of creating an emergency care system by modelling after that of a Western nation is too resource-heavy for most developing countries to handle. A cheaper, more community-based model is needed to establish new emergency care systems and to support them to full maturity. A needs assessment was undertaken in Manenberg, a township in Cape Town with high violence and injury rates. Community leaders and successfully established local services were consulted for the design of a first responder care delivery model. The resultant community-based emergency first aid responder (EFAR) system was implemented, and EFARs were tracked over time to determine skill retention and usage. The EFAR system model and training curriculum. Basic EFARs are spread throughout the community with the option of becoming stationed advanced EFARs. All EFARs are overseen by a local organisation and a professional body, and are integrated with the local ambulance response if one exists. On competency examinations, all EFARs tested averaged 28.2% before training, 77.8% after training, 71.3% 4 months after training and 71.0% 6 months after training. EFARs reported using virtually every skill taught them, and further review showed that they had done so adequately. The EFAR system is a low-cost, versatile model that can be used in a developing region both to lay the foundation for an emergency care system or support a new one to maturity.

  8. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....

  9. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  10. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  11. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  12. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  13. 33 CFR 143.405 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “The Ship's Medicine Chest and Medical Aid at Sea”, DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 84-2024, available from... industrial first aid kit sized for 50 percent of the number of persons on the most populated facility that...

  14. Success for the Vulcano`s team. First real corium flow; Succes pour l`equipe de Vulcano. Premiere coulee de corium reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnoy, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etude des Reacteurs

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the joint CEA-DRN/EDF-DER project `Vulcano` is the mastery of the corium spreading and cooling on a recovery device. The first real corium spreading test has been successfully performed at the CEA/Cadarache centre (France). This short paper describes the experimental setup and the first results of the experiment. (J.S.)

  15. Health Services: Clinical. Pharmacy Aide. Instructor's Manual. Competency-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Julie; And Others

    This instructor's manual consists of materials for use in presenting a course in the occupational area of pharmacy aide. Included in the first part of the guide are a program master sequence; a master listing of instructional materials, equipment, and supplies; an overview of the competency-based vocational education (CBVE) system; and guidelines…

  16. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Oral yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS Thanks ... eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs. Candidiasis. Candidiasis ... tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is ...

  17. Daily bread: a novel vehicle for dissemination and evaluation of psychological first aid for families exposed to armed conflict in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khani, A; Cartwright, K; Redmond, A; Calam, R

    2016-01-01

    Risks to the mental health of children and families exposed to conflict in Syria are of such magnitude that research identifying how best to deliver psychological first aid is urgently required. This study tested the feasibility of a novel approach to large-scale distribution of information and data collection. Routine humanitarian deliveries of bread by a bakery run by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) were used to distribute parenting information leaflets and questionnaires to adults looking after children in conflict zones inside Syria. Study materials were emailed to a project worker in Turkey. Leaflets and questionnaires requesting feedback were transported alongside supplies to a bakery in Syria, and then packed with flatbreads. Three thousand bread-packs were distributed, from three distribution points to which questionnaires were returned, and then taken to Turkey and dispatched to the UK. Notwithstanding delays, 3000 leaflets and questionnaires were successfully distributed over 2 days. Questionnaire return yielded 1783 responses, a 59.5% return rate. Overall ratings of the usefulness of the leaflet were 1060 (59.5%) 'quite a lot' and 339 (19.0%) 'a great deal'. Content analysis was used to code 400 respondent comments. Four themes emerged; positive comments about the leaflet, suggestions for modifications, descriptions of children's needs and the value respondents placed on faith. Findings indicate the willingness of NGO staff and volunteers to assist in research, the remarkable willingness of caregivers to respond and the value of brief advice. It demonstrates the scope for using existing humanitarian routes to distribute information and receive feedback even in high-risk settings.

  18. Developing and assessing the acceptability of an epilepsy first aid training intervention for patients who visit UK emergency departments: A multi-method study of patients and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Darlene A; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone; Goodacre, Steve; Marson, Anthony G; Noble, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy affects around 1% of the UK population; 40% of whom experience two or more seizures annually. However, most Emergency Department (ED) visits by people with epilepsy (PWE) are clinically unnecessary. Evidence highlights that with correct training, seizures can be safely managed by patients and their families within the community. Arguably therefore, PWE who frequently visit the ED might benefit from a self-management intervention that improves their own and their families' confidence and ability in managing seizures. Currently, no such intervention is available for PWE attending the ED. A collaborative approach (patients, carers, health professionals) was adopted to develop a patient-focused, self-management intervention. An existing group-based seizure management course, offered by the Epilepsy Society, was adapted. Collaborative feedback was sought via a base-line document review, one-to-one semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions. The applied framework provided a systematic approach from development through to implementation. Participant feedback overall was extremely positive. People with epilepsy who visit the ED reported a positive view of epilepsy seizure first aid training and associated educational materials. Their feedback was then used to develop the optimized intervention presented here. Strengths and perceived barriers to successful implementation and participation, as well as the practical and psychosocial benefits, were identified. We describe the developed intervention together with the process followed. This description, while being project-specific, provides a useful template to assist in the development of interventions more generally. Ongoing evaluation will determine the effects of the training intervention on participants' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  20. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  1. Erotized, AIDS-HIV Information in Court: A Study in State Censorship, Cultural Resistance, and First Amendment Issues Affecting Information Delivery in Information Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This study analyzes court records of a county-level trial in Austin, Texas, in which erotized AIDS-HIV safer-sex information shown on a public access cable television program was claimed by the State of Texas to be obscene. This trial raised questions regarding such issues as: free access to information, especially through new technological…

  2. Using the Continuum of Design Modelling Techniques to Aid the Development of CAD Modeling Skills in First Year Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, I. J.; Campbell, R. I.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Designers need to understand and command a number of modelling techniques to communicate their ideas to themselves and others. Verbal explanations, sketches, engineering drawings, computer aided design (CAD) models and physical prototypes are the most commonly used communication techniques. Within design, unlike some disciplines,…

  3. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  4. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  5. Dynamics of T-cell subsets and their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of HAART in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Huang, Yuxiao; Liu, Zhenmin; Liu, Wei; Qin, Qi; Tao, Renchuan

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the dynamic changes in Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 of HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to explore their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections, a cohort study was carried out among HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi, China. Ninety HIV/AIDS patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) were included. The enrolled HIV/AIDS patients were examined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months of HAART. On each visit, oral and systemic opportunistic infections were recorded, oral Candida load and plasma viral load (VL) were counted, differential T-cell counts and flow cytometric analysis of T-cell subsets were performed. During the first year of HAART, the total number of opportunistic infections decreased steadily with the change in oral candidiasis (OC) most representatively. A significant Th1→Th2 switch (Th1/Th2 ratio 0.23 ± 0.12, HC 1.45 ± 0.38) and slight Tc1→Tc2 shift (Tc1/Tc2 ratio 0.93 ± 0.29, HC 1.13 ± 0.33) were found at baseline, and both received slow mitigation after HAART. LgCFU and clinical OC were correlated positively with both LgVL and clinical stage (P Candida load could be useful clinical markers in the evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients. Th1 may play an important role against oral and systemic opportunistic infections. Tc1 and Tc2 both showed positive roles in the control of viremia without HAART. J. Med. Virol. 87:1158-1167, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  7. Comparative Characteristics of the Results of Evacuation to Healthcare Facilities and Treatment Outcomes of Children Who Applied for First Aid With Acute Abdominal Pains. The Case of an Emergency Medical Setting of an Average Municipal Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina А. Romanova; Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova; Elena Yu. Dyakonova; Aleksey Yu. Romanov; Kazbek S. Mezhidov; Zharadat I. Dohshukaeva

    2017-01-01

    Background. Despite the active development of diagnostic capabilities, the problems of diagnosis at the pre-hospital stage with abdominal pain remain unresolved. Objective. Our aim was to analyze the results of evacuation to healthcare facilities as well as treatment outcomes (conservative and surgical) of hospitalized children who applied for first aid with acute abdominal pain, in order to identify possible shortcomings in the existing diagnostic algorithm and its optimization. Methods. The...

  8. Conceptual design of a telecommunications equipment container for humanitarian logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Parisi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication centre in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.

  9. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  10. 46 CFR 108.241 - Visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual aids. 108.241 Section 108.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Helicopter Facilities § 108.241 Visual aids. (a) Each helicopter deck must— (1...

  11. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  12. ATHENA AIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible

  13. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  14. Remote equipment technology. Final report for GFY 1880

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadekamper, D.C.

    1980-09-01

    An interactive graphics terminal and a desk-top computer were utilized to perform a Computer Aided Remote Maintenance simulation of a hypothetical equipment item. The equipment item included an electrical connection, hydraulic fitting, and simple bolt pattern which were maintained by remote manipulators during the simulation. These remote maintenance operations demonstrated that the Computer Aided Remote Maintenance simulation technology could be extended to complex equipment items. As a result, these equipment items can be evaluated from the standpoint of remote operation and maintenance prior to purchase or installation in a remote processing or cell arrangement

  15. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  16. The first ten years: achievements and challenges of the Brazilian program of universal access to HIV/AIDS comprehensive management and care, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mariana A; Kaida, Angela; Hogg, Robert S; Bastos, Francisco I

    2007-01-01

    A review was carried out of papers published between 1996 and 2006, documenting the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Brazil. Papers indexed in the MEDLINE and SciELO databases were retrieved using different combinations of keywords related to the management and care of AIDS in the post-HAART era: opportunistic diseases and co-infections, adherence to therapy, survival in the pre- and post-HAART eras, adverse events and side-effects, emergence and possible transmission of resistant viral strains, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and issues related to access to care and equity. The review documents the dramatic changes in HIV/AIDS disease progression in the post-HAART era, including an increase in survival and quality of life and a pronounced decrease in the episodes of opportunistic diseases. Notwithstanding such major achievements, new challenges have emerged, including slow evolving co-infections (such as hepatitis C, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders), the emergence of viral resistance, with consequences at the individual level (virological failure) and the community level (primary/secondary resistance at the population level), and impacts on the cost of new therapeutic regimens.

  17. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Subsea Multiphase Pump Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Shobowale Kafayat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding oil and gas reserves in deep/harsh environment with challenging reservoir and field conditions, subsea multiphase pumping benefits has found its way to provide solutions to these issues. Challenges such as failure issues that are still surging the industry and with the current practice of information hiding, this issues becomes even more difficult to tackle. Although, there are some joint industry projects which are only accessible to its members, still there is a need to have a clear understanding of these equipment groups so as to know which issues to focus attention on. A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a potential first aid in understanding this equipment groups. A survey questionnaire/interview was conducted with the oil and gas operating company and equipment manufacturer based on the literature review. The results indicates that these equipment’s group are similar with its onshore counterpart, but the difference is the robustness built into the equipment internal subsystems for subsea applications. The results from the manufacturer perspectives indicates that Helico-axial multiphase pump have a mean time to failure of more than 10 years, twin-screw and electrical submersible pumps are still struggling with a mean time to failure of less than 5 years.

  18. USING DIDACTIC EQUIPMENT IN VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    JIROUT, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Baccalaureate Work ?Using Didactic Equipment In Vocational Subjects Teaching? describes various methods of teaching and using didactic engineering in education. Theoretic part describes general aspects of using didactic engineering, teaching methods a and ways how to use didactic engineering in teaching vocational subjects. Practical part finds how students appreciate using modern didactic aids and engineering in education.

  19. AIDS wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.

  20. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...