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Sample records for fire-maintained pine woodlands

  1. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  2. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    OpenAIRE

    John Schelhas; Indrajit Majumdar; Yaoqi Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and ...

  3. Ground Spider Guilds and Functional Diversity in Native Pine Woodlands and Eucalyptus Plantations.

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    Corcuera, Pablo; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Jiménez, María Luisa; Ponce-Mendoza, Alejandro; De la Rosa, Gabriela; Nieto, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation structure and floristics have a strong influence on the relative abundance of spider guilds and functional diversity of terrestrial arthropods. Human activities have transformed much of the temperate woodlands. The aim of this study was to test five predictions related to the guild distribution and functional diversity of the ground spider communities of Eucalyptus plantations and native pine woodlands in western Mexico. Spiders were collected every fortnight from September to November from 15 pitfalls positioned in each of the eight sites. We also assessed the cover of grasses, herbs, shrubs, and leaf litter in each site. We found that the abundances of ground hunters and sheet weavers between plantations and pine woodlands were different. Nevertheless, there was not a consistent difference between sites of each of the vegetation types. Most species of ground hunters, sheet web weavers, and many other hunters were associated with litter and the grass cover. Nonetheless, in some cases, species of different families belonging to the same guild responded to different variables. Wolf spiders were related to the grass Aristida stricta Micheaux, 1803, while the species of the other families of ground hunters were associated with leaf litter. One Eucalyptus plantation and one pine woodland had the highest functional diversity of all sites. These sites have a well developed litter and grass cover. Our study suggests that the abundance of litter and a high cover of grasses explain the occurrence of species with different traits, and these habitat components results in a high functional diversity.

  4. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

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    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  5. Influence of plant community structure on vulnerability to drought of semiarid pine woodlands.

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    Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Cherubini, Paolo; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Querejeta, José Ignacio

    2010-05-01

    The growth, water status and water use efficiency of trees are sensitive to drought. The severity of drought experienced by trees can be magnified or diminished depending on plant community structure and density. This is especially important in semiarid environments. In dense afforested plantations, high inter-tree competition for soil water could increase the water stress of trees in comparison to plants in an open woodland. On the other hand, the shading effect of the tree canopy and the increased soil infiltration capacity in semiarid afforested stands could prevail over competition and buffer the drought effect. Thus, in dense afforested plantations, greater inter-tree competition but more favourable microclimatic conditions may have opposite effects, and the prevalence of one of them could depend on annual meteorological conditions. To test these hypotheses, we made a long term assessment (50 years) of tree ring growth and isotopic composition of Pinus halepensis in two nearby communities: an afforested pine stand and an open pine woodland with under storey (shrub land), both located in semiarid SE Spain (Murcia). We sampled 10 trees per site and we measured tree ring width. The individual time series were detrended and the mean chronology was calculated for each series. On selected five trees per location, the annual δ13C and δ18O were measured on cellulose extracted from latewood. The relationships between measured variables and meteorological (temperature and precipitation) data, provided by the Spanish Agency of Meteorology, were statistically assessed with linear regression analyses. We found a strong significant correlation between the standardized mean chronologies of pines in both communities. In both sites, the mean sensitivity of the mean chronologies was high: 0.37 in the open pine woodland (ow) and 0.54 in the afforested stand (as), suggesting that the individual growth series have a clear common signal. Our results show significant positive

  6. Productivity and species richness in longleaf pine woodlands: resource-disturbance influences across an edaphic gradient.

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    Kirkman, L K; Giencke, L M; Taylor, R S; Boring, L R; Staudhammer, C L; Mitchell, R J

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the complex feedback mechanisms that regulate a positive relationship between species richness and productivity in a longleaf pine-wiregrass woodland. Across a natural soil moisture gradient spanning wet-mesic to xeric conditions, two large scale manipulations over a 10-yr period were used to determine how limiting resources and fire regulate plant species diversity and productivity at multiple scales. A fully factorial experiment was used to examine productivity and species richness responses to N and water additions. A separate experiment examined standing crop and richness responses to N addition in the presence and absence of fire. Specifically, these manipulations addressed the following questions: (1) How do N and water addition influence annual aboveground net primary productivity of the midstory/overstory and ground cover? (2) How do species richness responses to resource manipulations vary with scale and among functional groups of ground cover species? (3) How does standing crop (including overstory, understory/midstory, and ground cover components) differ between frequently burned and fire excluded plots after a decade without fire? (4) What is the role of fire in regulating species richness responses to N addition? This long-term study across a soil moisture gradient provides empirical evidence that species richness and productivity in longleaf pine woodlands are strongly regulated by soil moisture. After a decade of treatment, there was an overall species richness decline with N addition, an increase in richness of some functional groups with irrigation, and a substantial decline in species richness with fire exclusion. Changes in species richness in response to treatments were scale-dependent, occurring primarily at small scales (≤10 m(2) ). Further, with fire exclusion, standing crop of ground cover decreased with N addition and non-pine understory/midstory increased in wet-mesic sites. Non-pine understory/midstory standing crop

  7. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brudvig, Lars A. [Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University; Orrock, John L. [Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin; Damschen, Ellen I. [Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin; et al, et al

    2014-01-23

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils lol(which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together. and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility

  8. Land-use history and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Brudvig

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities, and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients-i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes. Our study demonstrates

  9. Land-use history and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Orrock, John L; Damschen, Ellen I; Collins, Cathy D; Hahn, Philip G; Mattingly, W Brett; Veldman, Joseph W; Walker, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients-i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility of

  10. Land-use history, historical connectivity, and land management interact to determine longleaf pine woodland understory richness and composition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brudvig, Lars A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Damschen, Ellen L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2010-08-13

    Restoration and management activities targeted at recovering biodiversity can lead to unexpected results. In part, this is due to a lack of understanding of how site-level characteristics, landscape factors, and land-use history interact with restoration and management practices to determine patterns of diversity. For plants, such factors may be particularly important since plant populations often exhibit lagged responses to habitat loss and degradation. Here, we assess the importance of site-level, landscape, and historical effects for understory plant species richness and composition across a set of 40 longleaf pine Pinus palustris woodlands undergoing restoration for the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker in the southeastern United States. Land-use history had an overarching effect on richness and composition. Relative to historically forested sites, sites with agricultural histories (i.e. former pastures or cultivated fields) supported lower species richness and an altered species composition due to fewer upland longleaf pine woodland community members. Landscape effects did not influence the total number of species in either historically forested or post-agricultural sites; however, understory species composition was affected by historical connectivity, but only for post-agricultural sites. The influences of management and restoration activities were only apparent once land-use history was accounted for. Prescribed burning and mechanical overstory thinning were key drivers of understory composition and promoted understory richness in post-agricultural sites. In historically forested sites these activities had no impact on richness and only prescribed fire influenced composition. Our findings reveal complex interplays between site-level, landscape, and historical effects, suggest fundamentally different controls over plant communities in longleaf pine woodlands with varying land-use history, and underscore the importance of considering land

  11. Pinyon/juniper woodlands [Chapter 4

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    Robin J. Tausch; Sharon Hood

    2007-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands occur in 10 states and cover large areas in many of them. These woodlands can be dominated by several species of pinyon pine (Pinus spp. L.) and juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) (Lanner 1975; Mitchell and Roberts 1999; West 1999a). A considerable amount of information is available on the expansion of the woodlands that has occurred over large parts...

  12. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

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    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  13. Pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L.; Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    since the introduction of livestock and fire control. This relates to whether tree densities have been increasing or whether trees are invading grasslands and, to a lesser extent, drier ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. In areas where woodlands were heavily used by American Indians for fuelwood prior to European contact, the advance of pinyon and juniper could represent the slow recovery from intensive use (Samuels and Betancourt 1982). There are numerous questions regarding declines in watershed condition related to changes in pinyon-juniper tree stand densities and to the density and composition of understory vegetation. There are different opinions about proper management of woodland ecosystems. Should these lands be managed for a single resource, such as forage for livestock production, or managed for sustained production of multiple resource products and amenities? Depending on site and stand conditions, the woodlands can produce variable quantities of fuelwood, pinyon nuts, wildlife habitat, forage for livestock, and cover for watershed protection. Management must also consider increasing recreational demands, threatened and endangered species, and protection of archeological sites. Many pinyon-juniper woodland watersheds in New Mexico have unsatisfactory soil and watershed conditions (USDA Forest Service 1993); managers must develop restoration procedures that recognize the value of woodland ecosystems. The concerns, questions, and conflicts surrounding management of pinyon-juniper lands, as well as the ecological foundations of ecosystem management, require that all interested parties reevaluate attitudes toward the woodlands. Ecosystem management goals and concepts recognize diversity. Pinyonjuniper woodlands are diverse, and stand characteristics and site productivities vary. Management objectives and prescriptions must evaluate the potential of each site, and decisions must be based on sound scientific information. This information is often

  14. Cork oak woodlands patchiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of the agroforestry landscapes of Southwestern Iberia are undergoing drastic change due to severe natural and anthropogenic disturbances. These may eventually result in woodland loss or deforestation, the final step of an ongoing process of woodland...... degradation. Monitoring changes in the spatial patterns of woodlands - especially fractional canopy cover of woodlands and/or their patchiness in the landscape mosaic - potentially enables forecasting of loss and responding to it at an early stage. We examine the degradation process in two cork oak woodlands...

  15. Cork oak woodlands patchiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of the agroforestry landscapes of Southwestern Iberia are undergoing drastic change due to severe natural and anthropogenic disturbances. These may eventually result in woodland loss or deforestation, the final step of an ongoing process of woodland degra...

  16. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  17. Migration of vascular plant species to a recent wood adjoining ancient woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland communities can be restored by natural succession in sites adjoining ancient woodlands which can act as seed sources for trees, shrubs and woodland herbs. The influence of dominant tree species and the distance from an adjacent ancient oak-hornbeam woodland upon the floristic composition of species in a recent pine wood planted on dry rendzina soil were studied. It was found that, in spite of a 52-year long succession, the border between woods was sharp and the composition of species in the recent wood were significantly different than in the adjacent ancient woodland. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that the distance to the ancient woodland had a significant influence on species distributions in the recent wood. The numbers of species from the Querco-Fagetea class, vegetatively reproducing species and myrmecochores decreased with this distance, whereas the numbers of anemochores increased. The migration rate of many woodland species, calculated on occurrence of the farthest individuals was very slow, varying from 0.0 m year-1 to 0.38 m year-1. The restoration of the field layer vegetation in the studied pine wood was much slower than in recent deciduous woods on rich and moist soils where the migration rate of some species exceeded 1.50 m year-1. Recent woods adjacent to ancient woodlands can be more effectively colonised by woodland species only when they are dominated by broad-leaved trees with quickly decomposing litter, and the spatial continuity of these woods persists for a long period.

  18. Late pleistocene history of coniferous woodland in the mohave desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, P V; Berger, R

    1967-03-31

    Seventeen ancient wood-rat middens, ranging in radiocarbon age from 7400 to 19,500 years and to older than 40,000 years, have been uncovered in the northeastern, north-central, southeastern, and southwestern sectors of the Mohave Desert. Excellent preservation of macroscopic plant materials (including stems, buds, leaves, fruits, and seeds) enables identification of many plant species growing within the limited foraging range of the sedentary wood rat. An approximately synchronous zonal differentiation of vegetation in response to a gradient of elevation on limestone in the northeastern Mohave Desert is apparent from the macrofossil evidence, preserved in wood-rat middens and ground-sloth coprolites, covering a time span bracketed by radiocarbon ages of about 9000 and 10,000 years. XerophilQus juniper woodlands descended to an elevation of 1100 meters, some 600 meters below the present lower limit of woodland (1700 meters) in the latitude of Frenchman Flat. But desert or semidesert shrubs coexisted with the woodland trees throughout much of the span of elevation corresponding to the pluvial lowering of the woodland zone, and the more mesophytic phase of pinyonjuniper woodland was evidently confined to montane habitats at elevations above 1500 meters. Joshua trees, accompanied by desert shrubs, prevailed down to about 600 meters at Gypsum Cave, Nevada, but only the shrubs of the existing warm-desert vegetation occurred at 530 meters near Rampart Cave, Arizona. Pleistocene middens from the southeastern Mohave Desert record a relatively large downward shift of the pinyon-juniper woodland zone, paralleling the remarkably low minimum elevation of the existing woodland zone in that area. The macrofossil evidence speaks for former continuity of the many disjunct stands of woodland vegetation in the Mohave Desert region, at least along the higher divides connecting most of the ranges. However, there is no macrofossil evidence of pluvial continuity of range for the more

  19. Experimental test for facilitation of seedling recruitment by the dominant bunchgrass in a fire-maintained savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenllian D Iacona

    Full Text Available Facilitative interactions between neighboring plants can influence community composition, especially in locations where environmental stress is a factor limiting competitive effects. The longleaf pine savanna of the southeastern United States is a threatened and diverse system where seedling recruitment success and understory species richness levels are regulated by the availability of moist microsites. We hypothesized that the dominant bunch grass species (Aristida stricta Michx. would facilitate moist seedling microsites through shading, but that the effect would depend on stress gradients. Here, we examined the environmental properties modified by the presence of wiregrass and tested the importance of increased shade as a potential facilitative mechanism promoting seedling recruitment across spatial and temporal stress gradients. We showed that environmental gradients, season, and experimental water manipulation influence seedling success. Environmental properties were modified by wiregrass proximity in a manner that could facilitate seedling success, but we showed that shade alone does not provide a facilitative benefit to seedlings in this system.

  20. Shortleaf pine natural community restoration on Peck Ranch Conservation Area in the Missouri Ozarks

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    John G. Tuttle; Kim J. Houf

    2007-01-01

    Oak decline has become a significantly increasing problem on Peck Ranch Conservation Area over the last several years. Most of the oak decline problems exist on past shortleaf pine sites. To address this issue, the area managers wrote a natural community restoration plan for 2,233 acres located on the Current-Eleven Point Oak-Pine Woodland Dissected Plain land type...

  1. Indiana residents' perceptions of woodland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Witter; Shannon M. Amberg; David J. Case; Phillip T. Seng

    2013-01-01

    A 2009 telephone survey of 1,402 Indiana adults was conducted to assess opinions regarding woodland management. Forty-eight percent said they were "very concerned" about the health and productivity of Indiana's woodlands, and 45 percent, "somewhat concerned." Almost half (47 percent) thought that the state's woodlands are held in about...

  2. Restoring longleaf pine forest ecosystems in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Donald J. Tomczak; E. E. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    Longleafpine (Pinus palustris) forests were historically one of the most extensive ecosystems in North America, covering 38 million ha along the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia and extending into central Florida and the Piedmont and mountains of Alabama and Georgia. Throughout its domain. longleaf pine occurred in forests, woodlands and savannas...

  3. Farm woodlands for the future. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P.J.; Brierley, E.D.R.; Morris, J. [eds.] [Cranfield University, Silsoe (United Kingdom). Institute of Water and Environment; Evans, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). T.H. Huxley School

    1999-07-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the conference on 'Farm Woodlands for the Future' held at Cranfield University on 8-10 September 1999. Topics covered include the socio-economic role of farm woodlands; the value of farm woodlands for shelter, biodiversity and landscape enhancement; the economic value of of farm woodlands; the value of agroforestry, poplar and short rotation coppice; and the promotion of farm woodlands. Of the eighteen papers published in this book, one is abstracted here.

  4. Pinyon-juniper woodlands [chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Thomas W. Swetnam; Craig D. Allen; Julio L. Betancourt; Alice L. Chung-MacCoubrey

    1995-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are one of the largest ecosystems in the Southwest and in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (Fig. 1). The woodlands have been important to the region's inhabitants since prehistoric times for a variety of natural resources and amenities. The ecosystems have not been static; their distributions, stand characteristics, and site conditions have...

  5. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

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    Hobbs, Richard

    2009-07-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  6. Management of California Oak Woodlands: Uncertainties and Modeling

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    Jay E. Noel; Richard P. Thompson

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical policy model of oak woodlands is presented. The model illustrates the policy uncertainties that exist in the management of oak woodlands. These uncertainties include: (1) selection of a policy criterion function, (2) woodland dynamics, (3) initial and final state of the woodland stock. The paper provides a review of each of the uncertainty issues. The...

  7. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  8. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-12-01

    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  9. Woodland Management Plan: Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four objectives have been established for the woodland management program for Sherburne NWR. These objectives are in compliance with and support the overall...

  10. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  11. Avian community responses to juniper woodland structure and thinning treatments on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Claire; van Riper, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Federal land managers are increasingly implementing fuels-reduction treatments throughout the western United States with objectives of ecological restoration and fire hazard reduction in pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.) woodlands. The pinyon-juniper woodland ecosystem complex is highly variable across the western landscape, as is bird community composition. We investigated relations between breeding birds and vegetation characteristics in modified pinyon-juniper woodlands at three sites (BLM, USFS, NPS) on the Colorado Plateau. During the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006, we surveyed birds and measured vegetation in 74 study plots. These plots were each 3.1 hectares (ha; 7.6 acres), located across the range of natural variation, with 41 control sites and 33 plots in areas previously thinned by hand-cutting or chaining. We found that relations of avian pinyon-juniper specialists and priority species to vegetation characteristics were generally in agreement with the findings of previous studies and known nesting and feeding habits of those birds. Relatively high density of pinyon pines was important to species richness and abundance in 6 of 14 species. Abundance of all species was related to treatment method, and we found no difference in bird communities at chaining and hand-cut sites.

  12. The economic drivers behind residential conversion in the oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Stewart; James Spero; Shawn Saving

    2008-01-01

    Acre for acre, oak woodlands provide habitats for a greater range of wildlife species than grasslands and irrigated agricultural lands. Oak woodlands also are highly valued as open space around residential development. The rich habitat diversity and the physical attractiveness drives residential interest in living in or adjacent to oak woodlands as well as preservation...

  13. Seedling diversity and spatially related regenaration dynamics in holly woodlands and surrounding habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arrieta

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of seedling distribution and diversity were analysed in small fragments of holly Ilex aquifolium L. woodlands and in their surrounding areas. Two sampling locations with similar structure were selected for this study: Oncala and Robregordo. They consist of nearly monospecific Ilex stands surrounded by grasslands with high scrub abundance.

    The seedling appearance of woody species was quantified from March to November 1998. Sampled areas were: 1 closed holly canopy; 2 open holly canopy or small forest gaps; 3 holly woodland edge; 4 surrounding grassland; 5 under isolated fleshy-fruited shrubs scattered over the grassland; 6 under dry-fruited shrubs and 7 the closest forest to the holly woodland. Additionally, a pine forest at a distance of 20 km from Oncala was sampled. In every area ten permanent 50 × 50 cm quadrats were fixed for monthly seedling control.

    The highest germination density occurs under the holly woodland, especially in closed canopy areas. Nevertheless, these closed woodlands neither maintain a great quantity of surviving seedlings nor a high diversity. Seedling density is considerable in canopy gaps, shrubs and forest edge, and these habitats have greater diversity values than understorey habitats. Fleshy-fruited shrubs maintain higher seedling densities and diversity than dry-fruited shrubs. Woody seedlings are rare over the grassland. The three non-holly forests studied have very similar seedling densities and diversity values, higher than those under closed-canopy holly.

    Regional differences are important for the numbers of seedlings surviving from previous years, which are scareer in Robregordo. However, little difference is observed in spatial patterns of seedling diversity between the two locations.

    We discuss a number of processes affecting seed rain density and differential mortality rates that could account for these spatial patterns, namely competition

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  15. The oak woodland bird conservation plan: a strategy for protecting and managing oak woodland habitats and associated birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Zack; Mary K. Chase; Geoffrey R. Geupel

    2002-01-01

    Over 330 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California at some stage in their life cycle. California oak woodlands may rank among the top three habitat types in North America for bird richness. Oak woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious...

  16. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Viktoria; Chytrý, Milan; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, Stephan; Biurrun, Idoia; Knollová, Ilona; Berg, Christian; Vassilev, Kiril; Rodwell, John S.; Škvorc, Željko; Jandt, Ute; Ewald, Jörg; Jansen, Florian; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Casella, Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Ćušterevska, Renata; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Brunet, Jörg; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens Christian; Kącki, Zygmunt; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária; Šilc, Urban; García-Mijangos, Itziar; Campos, Juan Antonio; Fernández-González, Federico; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Onyshchenko, Viktor; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the

  17. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul H. Haria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and intensities were less. Measured interception by the forest canopy (interception by the undergrowth was not measured was very different from HYLUC simulated values. By changing interception parameters to those optimised against measured canopy interception, HYLUC simulated changing soil moisture deficits better and gave more confidence in the resulting transpiration values. The results showed that natural pine woodland interception may be similar to plantation stands although the physical structure of the natural and plantation forests are different. Though having fewer storage sites for interception in the canopy, the natural pine woodland had greater ventilation and so evaporation of intercepted rainfall was enhanced, especially during low intensity rainfall. To understand the hydrological changes that would result with changing land-use (an expansion of natural forests into the wet heath land, the modelled outputs of the wet heath and mature forest sites were compared. Evaporation, a combination of transpiration and interception, was 41% greater for the forest site than for the wet heath moorland. This may have significant consequences for the rainfall-runoff relationship and consequently for the hydrological response of the catchment as the natural woodland cover increases Keywords: Evaporation; interception; transpiration; water balance; Scots pine; forest

  18. Coastal plain pond water quality and mercury contend of biota of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens and Mashomack Preserve: Effects of atmospheric deposition and human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Siemion, Jason; Lane, Oksana P.

    2015-01-01

    Pine barrens are considered an imperiled ecosystem in the northeastern U.S. The Suffolk County Pine Barrens, once the second largest in the Northeast, were substantially reduced and fragmented by development during the 20th century. The coastal plain ponds being considered in this study occur in central Suffolk County within the Long Island Central Pine Barrens region. This highly unique natural environment, embedded with forests and woodlands, resulted from its glacial origins and a land use history that predates European colonization. Included in this study was The Nature Conservancy’s Mashomack Preserve, located on Shelter Island between Peconic Bay and Gardiner’s Bay. There are no freshwater ponds in the Mashomack Preserve, but this area was included with the Central Pine Barrens investigation, because Shelter Island has a similar geologic and land-use history that has resulted in a similarly unique low-nutrient forest and woodland ecosystem with extremely coarse-textured soils.

  19. Soil phytoliths from miombo woodlands in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Esselmont, Chris; Simpson, Steven; Walde, Dale

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes topsoil phytolith assemblages from 25 loci underneath miombo woodlands on an eco-transect intersecting the Mozambican Rift along a geographical, altitudinal, climatic and botanical gradient. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the phytolith spectrum that defines northern Mozambique's Zambezian floristic zone. Our classifying criteria derive from comparison with previously described and quantified reference collections of trees and grasses growing in the study area. We characterize the sedimentological and soil features of the matrices where phytoliths are found, establishing correlation among geo-edaphic variables and phytoliths. Descriptive statistics along with nonparametric and parametric statistical analyses evaluate phytolith grouping criteria, variation, robustness, and membership. From a taphonomic perspective, we attest that topsoil phytolith assemblages are polygenic and do not represent an episodic snapshot of extant vegetation, but a palimpsest from plants representing various disturbance episodes, succession stages, and ecological trends. Phytoliths retrieved from Mozambican miombo soils do not seem to trace altitudinal, temperature, or precipitation gradients, and no significant differences exist between highland and lowland phytolith assemblages. This article provides a phytolith analog for woodland environments that can guide future paleoenvironmental research. It also confirms that phytolith analysis is able to detect shifts in the woodland/grassland interface.

  20. An integrative analysis of the dynamics of landscape- and local-scale colonization of Mediterranean woodlands by Pinus halepensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Sheffer

    Full Text Available Afforestation efforts have resulted in extensive plantations of either native or non-native conifers, which in many regions has led to the spread of those conifers into surrounding natural vegetation. This process of species colonization can trigger profound changes in both community dynamics and ecosystem processes. Our study disentangled the complexity of a process of colonization in a heterogeneous landscape into a simple set of rules. We analyzed the factors that control the colonization of natural woodland ecosystems by Pinus halepensis dispersing from plantations in the Mediterranean region of Israel. We developed maximum-likelihood models to explain the densities of P. halepensis colonizing natural woodlands. Our models unravel how P. halepensis colonization is controlled by factors that determine colonization pressure by dispersing seeds and by factors that control resistance to colonization of the natural ecosystems. Our models show that the combination of different seed arrival processes from local, landscape, and regional scales determine pine establishment potential, but the relative importance of each component varied according to seed source distribution. Habitat resistance, determined by abiotic and biotic conditions, was as important as propagule input in determining the density of pine colonization. Thus, despite the fact that pine propagules disperse throughout the landscape, habitat heterogeneity within the natural ecosystems generates significant variation in the actual densities of colonized pine. Our approach provides quantitative measures of how processes at different spatial scales affect the distribution and densities of colonizing species, and a basis for projection of expected distributions. Variation in colonization rates, due to landscape-scale heterogeneity in both colonization pressure and resistance to colonization, can be expected to produce a diversity of new ecosystems. This work provides a template for

  1. An integrative analysis of the dynamics of landscape- and local-scale colonization of Mediterranean woodlands by Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Efrat; Canham, Charles D; Kigel, Jaime; Perevolotsky, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Afforestation efforts have resulted in extensive plantations of either native or non-native conifers, which in many regions has led to the spread of those conifers into surrounding natural vegetation. This process of species colonization can trigger profound changes in both community dynamics and ecosystem processes. Our study disentangled the complexity of a process of colonization in a heterogeneous landscape into a simple set of rules. We analyzed the factors that control the colonization of natural woodland ecosystems by Pinus halepensis dispersing from plantations in the Mediterranean region of Israel. We developed maximum-likelihood models to explain the densities of P. halepensis colonizing natural woodlands. Our models unravel how P. halepensis colonization is controlled by factors that determine colonization pressure by dispersing seeds and by factors that control resistance to colonization of the natural ecosystems. Our models show that the combination of different seed arrival processes from local, landscape, and regional scales determine pine establishment potential, but the relative importance of each component varied according to seed source distribution. Habitat resistance, determined by abiotic and biotic conditions, was as important as propagule input in determining the density of pine colonization. Thus, despite the fact that pine propagules disperse throughout the landscape, habitat heterogeneity within the natural ecosystems generates significant variation in the actual densities of colonized pine. Our approach provides quantitative measures of how processes at different spatial scales affect the distribution and densities of colonizing species, and a basis for projection of expected distributions. Variation in colonization rates, due to landscape-scale heterogeneity in both colonization pressure and resistance to colonization, can be expected to produce a diversity of new ecosystems. This work provides a template for understanding species

  2. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  3. Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

  4. The threatened plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media) associates with a wide range of biotrophic fungi in native Scottish pine woods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Tenna; Iason, Glenn R.; Alexander, Ian J.;

    2010-01-01

    The plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media, Ericaceae) is in need of conservation action in Scotland. Although widespread, it is locally distributed in dwarf shrub heath and more commonly in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodlands. A recent study on the mycorrhizal status of Pyrola suggested...

  5. Woodland: dynamics of average diameters of coniferous tree stands of the principal forest types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region has been done. The aggregate data of average tree, the analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done. The most representative forest types have been selected to be analyzed. There were nine of them including three Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour stands, three Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. stands, one Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. stand, and two dwarf Siberian pine Pinus pumila (Pallas Regel stands. The whole high-altitude range of mountain taiga has been evaluated. Mathematical and statistic indicators have been calculated for every forest type. Stone pine stands are the largest. Dynamics of mean diameters of forest stands have been examined by dominant species for every forest type. Quite a number of interesting facts have been elicited. Generally, all species have maximal values of periodic annual increment that is typical for young stands, but further decrease of increment is going on differently and connects to the different lifetime of wood species. It is curious that annual increment of the dwarf Siberian pine stands almost does not decrease with aging. As for mean annual increment, it is more stable than periodic annual increment. From the fifth age class (age of stand approaching maturity mean annual increment of cedar stands varies from 0.20 to 0.24 cm per year; from 0.12–0.15 to 0.18–0.21 cm per year – in fir stands; from 0.18 to 0.24 cm per year – in spruce stands; and from 0.02–0.03 to 0.05–0.06 cm per year – in draft pine stands. Mean annual increment of dwarf Siberian pine increases with aging and increment of other

  6. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in re...

  7. Oak woodland conservation management planning in southern CA - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit

    2015-01-01

    The California Oak Woodlands Conservation Act (AB 242 2001) established requirements for the preservation and protection of oak woodlands and trees, and allocated funding managed by the Wildlife Conservation Board. In order to qualify to use these funds, counties and cities need to adopt an oak conservation management plan. Between 2008 and 2011, a team of concerned...

  8. RESTORATION OF QUAKING ASPEN WOODLANDS INVADED BY WESTERN JUNIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaking aspen woodlands are important plant communities in the interior mountains of the western United States, providing essential habitat for many wildlife species and contain a high diversity of understory plants. Western juniper woodlands are rapidly replacing lower elevation (<6800 ft) quaking...

  9. Silvicultural considerations for managing fire-dependent oak woodland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Carter O. Kinkead; Benjamin O. Knapp; Michael Leahy; Matthew G. Olson; Michael C. Stambaugh; Aaron P. Stevenson

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands are characterized by open understories and dense ground flora composed of forbs, grasses, and sedges. They once were common in the western Central Hardwood Forest region and the prairie-forest transition zone where low-intensity fires occurred frequently. In the absence of fire, many of the woodland ecosystems throughout much of this region have succeeded...

  10. Assessment of soil erosion under woodlands using USLE in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changshun ZHANG; Gaodi XIE; Chunlan LIU; Chunxia LU

    2011-01-01

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE),originally developed by the USDA for agricultural lands and then used throughout the world,was applied in mountainous forest terrain in China.The woodland area was divide into 100 m × 100 m grid cells.The ArcInfo 9.2 GIS software provided spatial input data was used to predict the spatial distribution of the average annual soilloss on grid basis.The average rainfall erositivityfactor (R) for national woodlands was found to be 21-highest for Chinese woodland.Most of the slope lengthfactors (LS) were less than 5 for the national woodland.The highest and lowest values of cover and managementfactor (C) were found out to be 0.0068 and 0.2550respectively for coniferous woodland and orchard woodland.The value of conservation factor (P) was assigned to be 1 for Chinese woodlands because of scarcity of conversation practice data at the national scale.The average annual soil loss of the national woodland areas area was found out to be under slight erosion class,whereas it only resulted in about 41.97% of soil loss under woodland area,and 58.03% of soil loss occurred under Therefore,those zones need immediate attention from soil conservation point of view.The results here are consistent with many domestic and oversea previous researches under mountainous forests or hilly catchments,thus we showed that the USLE can be applied to estimations of soil erosion for Chinese woodlands at the national scale.

  11. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Sargent, Daniel J; Crowhurst, Ross N; Mockler, Todd C; Folkerts, Otto; Delcher, Arthur L; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Liston, Aaron; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Burns, Paul; Davis, Thomas M; Slovin, Janet P; Bassil, Nahla; Hellens, Roger P; Evans, Clive; Harkins, Tim; Kodira, Chinnappa; Desany, Brian; Crasta, Oswald R; Jensen, Roderick V; Allan, Andrew C; Michael, Todd P; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Celton, Jean-Marc; Rees, D Jasper G; Williams, Kelly P; Holt, Sarah H; Ruiz Rojas, Juan Jairo; Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Bo; Silva, Herman; Meisel, Lee; Adato, Avital; Filichkin, Sergei A; Troggio, Michela; Viola, Roberto; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Wang, Hao; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Elser, Justin; Raja, Rajani; Priest, Henry D; Bryant, Douglas W; Fox, Samuel E; Givan, Scott A; Wilhelm, Larry J; Naithani, Sushma; Christoffels, Alan; Salama, David Y; Carter, Jade; Lopez Girona, Elena; Zdepski, Anna; Wang, Wenqin; Kerstetter, Randall A; Schwab, Wilfried; Korban, Schuyler S; Davik, Jahn; Monfort, Amparo; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Arus, Pere; Mittler, Ron; Flinn, Barry; Aharoni, Asaph; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Salzberg, Steven L; Dickerman, Allan W; Velasco, Riccardo; Borodovsky, Mark; Veilleux, Richard E; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-02-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14), is a versatile experimental plant system. This diminutive herbaceous perennial has a small genome (240 Mb), is amenable to genetic transformation and shares substantial sequence identity with the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and other economically important rosaceous plants. Here we report the draft F. vesca genome, which was sequenced to ×39 coverage using second-generation technology, assembled de novo and then anchored to the genetic linkage map into seven pseudochromosomes. This diploid strawberry sequence lacks the large genome duplications seen in other rosids. Gene prediction modeling identified 34,809 genes, with most being supported by transcriptome mapping. Genes critical to valuable horticultural traits including flavor, nutritional value and flowering time were identified. Macrosyntenic relationships between Fragaria and Prunus predict a hypothetical ancestral Rosaceae genome that had nine chromosomes. New phylogenetic analysis of 154 protein-coding genes suggests that assignment of Populus to Malvidae, rather than Fabidae, is warranted.

  12. Monitoring of recharge water quality under woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajenbrink, G. J. W.; Ronen, D.; Van Duijvenbooden, W.; Magaritz, M.; Wever, D.

    1988-03-01

    The study compares the quality of groundwater in the water table zone and soil moisture below the root zone, under woodland, with the quality of the regional precipitation. The water quality under forest shows evidence of the effect of atmospheric deposition of acidic components (e.g. SO 2) and ammonia volatilized from land and feed lots. Detailed chemical profiles of the upper meter of groundwater under different plots of forest, at varying distances from cultivated land, were obtained with a multilayer sampler, using the dialysis-cell method. Porous ceramic cups and a vacuum method were used to obtain soil moisture samples at 1.20 m depth under various types of trees, an open spot and arable land, for the period of a year. The investigation took place in the recharge area of a pumping station with mainly mixed forest, downwind of a vast agricultural area with high ammonia volatilization and underlain by an ice-deformed aquifer. Very high NO -3 concentrations were observed in soil moisture and groundwater (up to 21 mg Nl -1) under coniferous forest, especially in the border zone. This raises the question of the dilution capacity of recharge water under woodland in relation to the polluted groundwater under farming land. The buffering capacity of the unsaturated zone varies substantially and locally a low pH (4.5) was observed in groundwater. The large variability of leachate composition on different scales under a forest and the lesser but still significant concentration differences in the groundwater prove the importance of a monitoring system for the actual solute flux into the groundwater.

  13. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  14. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  15. Assessment of soil erosion under woodlands using USLE in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changshun; Xie, Gaodi; Liu, Chunlan; Lu, Chunxia

    2011-06-01

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), originally developed by the USDA for agricultural lands and then used throughout the world, was applied in mountainous forest terrain in China. The woodland area was divide into 100 m × 100 m grid cells. The ArcInfo 9.2 GIS software provided spatial input data was used to predict the spatial distribution of the average annual soil loss on grid basis. The average rainfall erositivity factor ( R) for national woodlands was found to be 21-1798 MJ·mm·ha-1·h-1·a-1. The soil erodibility factor ( K) with a magnitude of 0.043 t·ha·h· ha-1·MJ-1·mm-1 is the highest for Chinese woodland. Most of the slope length factors ( LS) were less than 5 for the national woodland. The highest and lowest values of cover and management factor ( C) were found out to be 0.0068 and 0.2550 respectively for coniferous woodland and orchard woodland. The value of conservation factor ( P) was assigned to be 1 for Chinese woodlands because of scarcity of conversation practice data at the national scale. The average annual soil loss of the national woodland areas was 3.82 t·km-2·a-1. About 99.89% of Chinese woodland area was found out to be under slight erosion class, whereas it only resulted in about 41.97% of soil loss under woodland area, and 58.03% of soil loss occurred under high erosion potential zone, namely more than 5 t·ha-1·a-1. Therefore, those zones need immediate attention from soil conservation point of view. The results here are consistent with many domestic and oversea previous researches under mountainous forests or hilly catchments, thus we showed that the USLE can be applied to estimations of soil erosion for Chinese woodlands at the national scale.

  16. Challenging the Woodfuel Crisis in West African Woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansfort, Sofie Louise; Mertz, Ole

    2011-01-01

    —have been produced by the government of Mali to prove the impacts of woodfuel consumption in Bamako on surrounding woodlands. This study evaluates the methodology and data used to describe this woodfuel crisis through a comparison with regional and historical data. The results of the energy gap analyses...... of West African woodlands and urban consumption are needed to avoid misinterpretations of the impacts of woodfuel harvesting on woody resources....

  17. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Sargent, Daniel J; Crowhurst, Ross N; Mockler, Todd C; Folkerts, Otto; Delcher, Arthur L; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Liston, Aaron; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Burns, Paul; Davis, Thomas M; Slovin, Janet P; Bassil, Nahla; Hellens, Roger P; Evans, Clive; Harkins, Tim; Kodira, Chinnappa; Desany, Brian; Crasta, Oswald R; Jensen, Roderick V; Allan, Andrew C; Michael, Todd P; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Celton, Jean-Marc; Rees, D Jasper G; Williams, Kelly P; Holt, Sarah H; Ruiz Rojas, Juan Jairo; Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Bo; Silva, Herman; Meisel, Lee; Adato, Avital; Filichkin, Sergei A; Troggio, Michela; Viola, Roberto; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Wang, Hao; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Elser, Justin; Raja, Rajani; Priest, Henry D; Bryant, Douglas W; Fox, Samuel E; Givan, Scott A; Wilhelm, Larry J; Naithani, Sushma; Christoffels, Alan; Salama, David Y; Carter, Jade; Girona, Elena Lopez; Zdepski, Anna; Wang, Wenqin; Kerstetter, Randall A; Schwab, Wilfried; Korban, Schuyler S; Davik, Jahn; Monfort, Amparo; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Arus, Pere; Mittler, Ron; Flinn, Barry; Aharoni, Asaph; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Salzberg, Steven L; Dickerman, Allan W; Velasco, Riccardo; Borodovsky, Mark; Veilleux, Richard E; Folta, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14), is a versatile experimental plant system. This diminutive herbaceous perennial has a small genome (240 Mb), is amenable to genetic transformation and shares substantial sequence identity with the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and other economically important rosaceous plants. Here we report the draft F. vesca genome, which was sequenced to ×39 coverage using second-generation technology, assembled de novo and then anchored to the genetic linkage map into seven pseudochromosomes. This diploid strawberry sequence lacks the large genome duplications seen in other rosids. Gene prediction modeling identified 34,809 genes, with most being supported by transcriptome mapping. Genes critical to valuable horticultural traits including flavor, nutritional value and flowering time were identified. Macrosyntenic relationships between Fragaria and Prunus predict a hypothetical ancestral Rosaceae genome that had nine chromosomes. New phylogenetic analysis of 154 protein-coding genes suggests that assignment of Populus to Malvidae, rather than Fabidae, is warranted. PMID:21186353

  18. Woodland as working space: where is the restorative green idyll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Much has been written on the beneficial, restorative qualities of 'natural' (non-built) rural or urban 'green' space, including woodland, in promoting mental and physical health when accessed for leisure, sport and education. In contrast, with the exception of rural health studies, there is relatively little debate about the health benefits of 'green space' as work place, especially in woodland and forests. In the developed world, this apparent gap in the literature may be partly due to an assumption of the forest work place as inherently healthy, and also the invisibility of a tiny percentage of the workforce now employed in forestry. However, in the UK and parts of Europe over recent years there has been a small, though significant, increase in opportunities to train and work in woodlands using traditional, sustainable management such as coppicing, and an exploration of health issues of woodland work is timely. This paper reports on findings from a secondary narrative analysis of oral history interviews selected from two phases of the Woodland Recollections Project and newsletters written by local people historically and currently engaged in coppicing and woodland work in North West England. Perceptions of healthy working in green space are examined by applying key concepts of Attention Restoration Theory (ART). Findings suggest that woodland work environments involve many counter-restorative factors that can render the 'green idyll' detrimental to health and wellbeing. To benefit from restorative elements requires drawing on a high level of specialist skills that empower individuals to manage and maintain healthy working practices in these diverse and challenging environments.

  19. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  20. Western juniper and ponderosa pine ecotonal climate-growth relationships across landscape gradients in southern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, K.C.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasts of climate change for the Pacific northwestern United States predict warmer temperatures, increased winter precipitation, and drier summers. Prediction of forest growth responses to these climate fluctuations requires identification of climatic variables limiting tree growth, particularly at limits of free species distributions. We addressed this problem at the pine-woodland ecotone using tree-ring data for western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Loud.) from southern Oregon. Annual growth chronologies for 1950-2000 were developed for each species at 17 locations. Correlation and linear regression of climate-growth relationships revealed that radial growth in both species is highly dependent on October-June precipitation events that recharge growing season soil water. Mean annual radial growth for the nine driest years suggests that annual growth in both species is more sensitive to drought at lower elevations and sites with steeper slopes and sandy or rocky soils. Future increases in winter precipitation could increase productivity in both species at the pine-woodland ecotone. Growth responses, however, will also likely vary across landscape features, and our findings suggest that heightened sensitivity to future drought periods and increased temperatures in the two species will predominantly occur at lower elevation sites with poor water-holding capacities. ?? 2008 NRC.

  1. US Forest Service Historical Woodland Density of the Conterminous United States, 1873

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that includes polygons with a minimum of 40 acres of woodlands per square mile as depicted in William H. Brewer’s 1873 map of woodland...

  2. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  3. Analysis of forest stands used by wintering woodland caribou in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Antoniak

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Two summers' field surveys at 9 locations in northwestern Ontario showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou wintering areas supported jack pine and black spruce stands with low tree densities (mean 1552 trees/ ha, 39% of a fully stocked stand, low basal areas (mean 14.14 m2/ha, low volumes (mean 116 mVha, 68% of Normal Yield Tables and short heights (95% of stands 12 m or less. Ecologically, most sights were classed V30. Significantly more lichen (averaging 39% lichen ground cover was found on plots used by caribou. Three measured areas showed few shrubs, possibly enhancing escape possibilities and reducing browse attractive to moose. An HIS model predicted known locations of caribou winter habitat from FRI data with 76% accuracy. Landsat imagery theme 3 (open conifer produced 74% accuracy. Combining these methods permitted prediction of all 50 test sites. The low volumes of timber found in caribou wintering areas suggest that setting aside reserves for caribou winter habitat would not sacrifice as much wood product value as might at first appear.

  4. Riparian woodland flora in upland rivers of Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although natural riparian woodlands are an important feature that affects the quality of aquatic conditionsin streams and rivers, surveying riparian zone flora is rarely implemented in the Mediterraneancountries. We developed a rapid assessment method for gathering standardized plot-based woody flora andvegetation data from riparian woodlands. In 2005 we surveyed 218 streamside vegetation plots at 109 sitesin upland areas of four major rivers in mainland Greece (Alfios, Acheloos, Arachthos, and Aoos. Herewe describe the survey method and provide selected results from its initial implementation. The simplicityand effectiveness of this survey procedure supports the use of rapid site-based biodiversity surveys for riparianzones alongside aquatic status assessments.

  5. Towards a Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou strategy: Outcomes from Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Scurrah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Manitoba Hydro is responsible for the continued supply of energy to meet the needs of the province and is committed to protecting the environment when planning the construction and operation of its facilities. Corporate policy dictates ongoing improvement of Environmental Management Systems (EMS in order to meet or surpass regulatory requirements. Environmental objectives are reviewed annually and programs are modified when necessary to address improvements in environmental performance. Manitoba Hydro plans and constructs major transmission projects throughout northern Manitoba which includes areas occupied by boreal woodland caribou. In recognition of the potential issues associated with hydro transmission construction in boreal caribou range, Manitoba Hydro hosted an expert workshop on May 8, 2007 to provide objective advice in the development of a draft corporate strategy that effectively directs targeted monitoring and research for environmental assessment and mitigation. The workshop focused on assessing the potential threats to boreal woodland caribou from a transmission line construction and operation perspective, and identifying appropriate approaches in site selection and environmental assessment (SSEA and long-term monitoring and research. A total of nine threat categories were reviewed to determine the degree and magnitude of potential effects that may result from transmission construction and operation; and of the original nine, five final threat categories were delineated. The main elements of the workshop provided strategic approaches for proactive pre-construction monitoring, research on recruitment and mortality for local populations impacted by ROWs and control areas, and various habitat monitoring, management, and mitigation techniques. Research and monitoring priorities have been identified and continued collaboration with Manitoba Conservation and other land users were also identified.

  6. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  7. Woodland Birds in Three Different Forest Types in Eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard N. Conner

    1996-01-01

    Birds were censusedalong three routes through relatively mature forest in eastern Texas using the fixed circular plot technique. The routes sampled three forest types (based on tree species composition): (1)longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) Savannah, (2) mixed pine-hardwood forest, and (3) bottomland hardwood forest. Each route consisted of 20 plots censused twice...

  8. Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer L; Meyer, Grant A; Jull, A J Timothy

    2004-11-04

    Western US ponderosa pine forests have recently suffered extensive stand-replacing fires followed by hillslope erosion and sedimentation. These fires are usually attributed to increased stand density as a result of fire suppression, grazing and other land use, and are often considered uncharacteristic or unprecedented. Tree-ring records from the past 500 years indicate that before Euro-American settlement, frequent, low-severity fires maintained open stands. However, the pre-settlement period between about ad 1500 and ad 1900 was also generally colder than present, raising the possibility that rapid twentieth-century warming promoted recent catastrophic fires. Here we date fire-related sediment deposits in alluvial fans in central Idaho to reconstruct Holocene fire history in xeric ponderosa pine forests and examine links to climate. We find that colder periods experienced frequent low-severity fires, probably fuelled by increased understory growth. Warmer periods experienced severe droughts, stand-replacing fires and large debris-flow events that comprise a large component of long-term erosion and coincide with similar events in sub-alpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that given the powerful influence of climate, restoration of processes typical of pre-settlement times may be difficult in a warmer future that promotes severe fires.

  9. A National Perspective on Women Owning Woodlands (WOW) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a national overview of women owning woodlands (WOW) networks and the barriers and successes they encounter. Qualitative interview data with key network leaders were used for increasing understanding of how these networks operate. Network leaders were all connected professionally, and all successful WOW networks involved…

  10. The ecology and management of the Miombo woodlands for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology and management of the Miombo woodlands for sustainable livelihoods in southern Africa: the case for non-timber forest products. ... This paper examines and reviews some of the work that has been done in the Miombo ecoregion ...

  11. Characteristics of urban woodlands affecting breeding bird diversity and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.G. Tilghman

    1987-01-01

    Breeding bird communities were studied in 32 forest islands surrounded by urban development. These isolated woodlands in Springfield, Massachusetts, provided breeding habitats for a wider variety of birds (77 species) than previously described for other urban habitats (e.g. four times as many species as found in urban residential areas in the same city in a...

  12. Cryptic indirect effects of exurban edges on a woodland community

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Warren; S. M. Pearson; S. Henry; K. Rossouw; J. P. Love; M. J. Olejniczak; Katherine Elliott; M. A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Exurban development (e.g., second homes) in woodlands spreads urban land use impacts beyond suburbs, but because exurban developments often retain many components of original ecosystem structure—such as a forest canopy rather than open lawn—their ecological impacts may be underestimated. Changes in seed-dispersing ant behavior prompted by exurban land use,...

  13. Consequences of Widespread Piñon Mortality for Water Availability and Water Use Dynamics in Piñon-Juniper Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, L.; Pangle, R. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Pockman, W.; Litvak, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tree die-off events have showed a rapid increase in the last decade as a result of warmer temperatures and more severe drought. In the southwestern US, where piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands occupy 24 million ha, the turn of the century drought (1999-2002) triggered 40-95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperous monosperma). To determine the consequences of this disturbance on surface water balance we conducted a girdling experiment where all piñon trees above 7 cm of diameter at breast height in an area of 200 m2 were girdled in September 2009. We compared water and energy fluxes in this girdled site (PJG) using open-path eddy covariance (EC) to fluxes measured simultaneously in an intact PJ woodland less than 3 km away (PJC). In addition to evapotranspiration (ET) measurements from EC, canopy transpiration (ETc) was measured using sap flow probes (Granier thermal dissipation method) installed on five juniper and five piñon trees at each site. Soil water content (SWC) was also monitored using TDR probes (CS610, Campbell Scientific) under the three main cover types ( bare soil, under juniper and under piñon) and at three depths (5,10 and 30 cm depths) in both sites. Total ET at PJG decreased slowly, but progressively, relative to PJC following the girdling, with annual ET 5%, 10% and 19% lower in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, in the girdled site. Following the girdling, canopy transpiration was significantly reduced at PJG, with an observed reduction of annual ETc at PJG of 45%, 59% and 71% from 2010 to 2012 compared to the PJC site. Our results suggest that girdling triggered a significant increase of soil evaporation and understory transpiration (not directly measured) as a result of canopy cover loss. This agrees with significant higher establishment of annual forbs seen at PJG relative to PJC and the increase of solar radiation reaching the soil surface as a result of canopy cover loss. Our results suggest pi

  14. Will ecosystem management supply woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Euler

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is emerging as an important concept in managing forests. Although the basic conceptual idea is not new, important defining principles are developing that elucidate some of the specific attributes of ecosystem management. These principles include: the maintenance of all ecosystems in the managed forest, rhe emulation of natural disturbance patterns on rhe landscape and the insurance that structure and function of forested ecosystems are conserved. Forest management has an impact on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, although the presence of wolves (Canis lupus and moose (Alces alces in the same northern ecosystems also affects the caribou-forestry interacrion. Specific management for caribou as a featured species has been proposed, based on managing large landscape blocks. Ecosystem management would also produce habitat in a manner that might accomplish the goal of conserving woodland caribou as well as maintaining other important ecosystem functions.

  15. Woodland Survey of Great Britain 1971-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. M.; Smart, S. M.; Bunce, R. G. H.

    2015-08-01

    The Woodland Survey of Great Britain is a unique data set, consisting of a detailed range of ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 30 years. A set of 103 woods spread across Britain were first surveyed in 1971, which were again surveyed in 2000-2003 (for convenience referred to subsequently as the "2001 survey"). Standardised methods of describing the trees, shrubs, ground flora, soils and general habitats present were used for both sets of surveys. The sample of 1648 plots spread through 103 woodland sites located across Britain makes it probably the most extensive quantitative ecological woodland survey undertaken in Britain; it is also notable for the range of sites that have been revisited after such a long interval. The data set provides a unique opportunity to explore the effects of a range of potential drivers of woodland change that operated between 1971 and 2001. The data set is available in four discrete parts, which have been assigned the following DOIs: 10.5285/4d93f9ac-68e3-49cf-8a41-4d02a7ead81a (Kirby et al., 2013b), 10.5285/d6409d40-58fe-4fa7-b7c8-71a105b965b4 (Kirby et al., 2013d), 10.5285/fb1e474d-456b-42a9-9a10-a02c35af10d2 (Kirby et al., 2013c), 10.5285 (Kirby et al., 2013a).

  16. Arborealities: The Tactile Ecology of Hardy’s Woodlanders

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Cohen

    2014-01-01

    This article asks what consequences two recent movements in scholarship - affect theory and environmental studies - might have for understanding the Victorian tactile imagination. Thomas Hardy's 1887 novel 'The Woodlanders' provides a means of addressing this question, for it shares with posthumanist critics a view that people are material things in a world of things, and that the world is itself a collection of vital agencies and networked actors. Hardy shows how a tactile modality provides...

  17. Workshop: Conserving woodland caribou in the managed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hamilton et al.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held August 19 to foster discussion and debate on issues related to conservation of woodland caribou in the managed forest. Six panelists were invited to make brief presentations on their points of view on this subject. They were Don Thomas (Canadian Wildlife Service; Hartley Multimaki (Buchanan Forest Products; Colin Edey (NOVA Corporation; Jerry English (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources - retired; Dale Seip (British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Harold Cumming (Lakehead University - retired.

  18. Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Zutta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.

  19. Arborealities: The Tactile Ecology of Hardy’s Woodlanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Cohen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article asks what consequences two recent movements in scholarship - affect theory and environmental studies - might have for understanding the Victorian tactile imagination. Thomas Hardy's 1887 novel 'The Woodlanders' provides a means of addressing this question, for it shares with posthumanist critics a view that people are material things in a world of things, and that the world is itself a collection of vital agencies and networked actors. Hardy shows how a tactile modality provides a point of entry into discussions of both affect and ecology, situating the human in a proximate, contiguous relation to both bodily and environmental materialities. 'The Woodlanders' offers a world in which trees, in particular, work on - and are in turn worked on by - human objects; a world in which, one might say, the trees are people and the people are trees. This arboreality is far from a sentimental oneness with nature, nor is it an exercise in anthropomorphization. Instead, it provides a recognition of the inhuman, material, and sensate aspects of the human; or, perhaps better, of the human as rooted, budding, leafy, and abloom. Like some recent theoretical accounts, 'The Woodlanders' disperses agency among human and non-human elements alike, employing a tactile mode of representation to break down distinctions between them. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  20. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-15

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands.

  1. Status of woodland caribou in western north America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Janet Edmonds

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of current population size and trends of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in seven jurisdictions in western North America shows a wide range of situations. A total maximum population estimate of woodland caribou west of the Ontario/Manitoba border is 61 090. Of 44 herds or populations described in this review: 14 are stable; two are stable to slightly decreasing; four are decreasing; four are increasing; and 22 are of unknown status. Caribou are classified as a threatened species in Alberta and as an endangered species in Washington/Idaho. The decline of caribou in North America following settlement (Bergerud, 1974 has continued along the southern edge of woodland caribou distribution. Direct loss of habitat to logging, mines and dams continued throughout the I960s, 1970s and 1980s. The secondary effects of these habitat changes, (i.e. increased roads leading to increased hunting and poaching, and increased early succession habitat leading to increased alternate prey/predator densities has led in some cases to the total loss or decreased size of local herds. Three ecotypes of woodland caribou are described and their relative distribution delineated. These ecotypes live under different environmental conditions and require different inventory and management approaches. Woodland caribou herds in northern B.C., Yukon and N.W.T. generally are of good numbers and viable (stable or increasing, and management primarily is directed at regulating human harvest and natural predation to prevent, herd declines. Land use activities such as logging or energy development are not extensive. Managers in southern caribou ranges stress the need for a better understanding of caribou population stability within mixed prey/predator regimes; how habitat changes (eg. through logging affect these regimes; and how to develop effective land use guidelines for resource extraction that can sustian caribou populations and maintain resource industries

  2. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  3. Evaluation Model of the Ecology Benefit Value of Woodland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Main influencing factors affecting the ecology benefit value of woodland are analyzed,mainly including the water conservation value,environment cleaning value,water and soil conservation value,and climate regulation value.Evaluation model of the ecology benefit value of woodland is put forward which can deal with the uncertain information.Method for determining index weights is discussed,as well as the processing method for uncertain information during the evaluation of ecology benefit value of woodland.Finally,the feasibility and convenience of the evaluation model of the woodland ecology benefit value are illustrated with examples.

  4. [Vertical distribution characteristics of N2O emission in tea garden and its adjacent woodland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-chao; Han, Wen-yan; Li, Xin; Li, Zhi-xin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we determined the vertical distribution of N2O emission rates in tea soils and its adjacent woodland soils. The results showed that total nitrogen contents, N2O fluxes and cumulative emissions in the tea garden and woodland decreased with the increasing depth of the soil layer, and their average values were greater in tea garden than in woodland. Generally, pH, soil water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N contents had a downward trend with the increasing depth of soil layer. The WSON, MBN, NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N contents from each soil layer were greater in tea garden than in woodland, but the pH value in tea garden was lower than that in woodland. The N2O emission rate was significantly positively related with TN, MBN and NH(4+)-N contents, but not with pH value. The N2O emission rate was significantly correlated with WSON content in woodland, but not in tea garden. The N20 emission rate was significantly correlated with NO(3-)-N concentration in tea garden, but not in woodland. WSON/TN and N2O-N/SMBN were averagely greater than in tea garden in woodland, and SMBN/TN was opposite. These results indicated that tea soil was not conducive to accumulate nitrogen pool, maintain soil quality and its sustainable use compared to woodland.

  5. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  6. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  7. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  8. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  9. Great Basin semi-arid woodland dynamics during the late quaternary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigand, P.E.; Hemphill, M.L.; Sharpe, S.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Semi-arid woodlands have dominated the middle elevations of Great Basin mountain ranges during the Holocene where subalpine woodlands prevailed during the Pleistocene. Ancient woodrat middens, and in a few cases pollen records indicate in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene woodland history lowered elevation of subalpine woodland species. After a middle Holocene retrenchment at elevations in excess of 500 meters above today, Juniper-dominated semi-arid woodland reached its late Holocene maximum areal extent during the Neoglacial (2 to 4 ka). These records, along with others indicate contracting semi-arid woodland after the Neoglacial about 1.9 ka. Desert shrub community expansion coupled with increased precariousness of wetland areas in the southern Great Basin between 1.9 and 1.5 ka coincide with shrinking wet-lands in the west-central and northern Great Basin. Coincident greater grass abundance in northern Great Basin sagebrush steppe, reaching its maximum between 1.5 and 1.2 ka, corresponds to dramatic increases in bison remains in the archaeological sites of the northern Intermontane West. Pollen and woodrat midden records indicate that this drought ended about 1.5 ka. Succeeding ameliorating conditions resulted in the sudden northward and downward expansion of pinon into areas that had been dominated by juniper during the Neoglacial. Maximum areal extent of pinon dominated semi-arid woodland in west-central Nevada was centered at 1.2 ka. This followed by 100 years the shift in dominance from juniper to pinon in southern Nevada semi-arid woodlands. Great Basin woodlands suffered from renewed severe droughts between .5 to .6 ka. Effectively wetter conditions during the {open_quotes}Little Ice Age{close_quotes} resulted in re-expansion of semi-arid woodland. Activities related to European settlement in the Great Basin have modified prehistoric factors or imposed new ones that are affecting woodland response to climate.

  10. Energy-conserving site design: case study, The Woodlands, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located north of Houston. It includes 22,000 acres and the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center called the Metro Center and several additional tracts, such as the Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Each village is to be structured around one large and several supporting neighborhood centers. Ultimate population is planned to be 150,000. Included in this report are sections on background, team structure and organization, methodological considerations, the conventional and energy-conserving plan, constraints to implementation, and general conclusions and next phases.

  11. Conservation opportunities in Spanish Juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands: the case of migratory thrushes Turdus spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleria, J.L.; De la Hera, I.; Ramírez, A.; Santos, T.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation opportunities in Spanish juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands: the case of migratory thrushes Turdus spp. Spanish juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands are the core habitat of several sites included in the Nature 2000 Network and the wintering ground of many European thrushes Turdus

  12. Facilitation of Quercus ilex recruitment by shrubs in Mediterranean open woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; den Ouden, Jan; Diaz, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Question: Insufficient tree regeneration threatens the long-term persistence of biodiverse Mediterranean open oak woodlands. Could shrubs, scarce due to decades of management ( clearing and ploughing), facilitate holm oak recruitment at both acorn and seedling stages? Location: Open oak woodlands in

  13. Sagebrush steppe recovery after fire varies by development phase of Juniperus occidentalis woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus-Juniperus L. (Piñon- juniper) woodlands have expanded into Artemisia tridentata Beetle (big sagebrush) steppe of the western United States primarily as a result of reduced fire disturbances. Woodland control measures, including prescribed fire, have been increasingly employed to restore sagebr...

  14. Restoring oak forest, woodlands and savannahs using modern silvicultural analogs to historic cultural fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Callie J. Schweitzer; Michael C. Stambaugh; John M. Kabrick

    2015-01-01

    Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak savannahs, woodlands and forests that were dominant vegetation types throughout the region. In the past century, once abundant savannahs and woodlands have become scarce due to conversion to agriculture, or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. In addition, the...

  15. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  16. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  17. Sources, sinks, and spatial ecology of cotton mice in longleaf pine stands undergoing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N.W.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Fire and Fire Surrogate studya replicated, manipulative experimentsought the most economically and ecologically efficient way to restore the nation's fire-maintained ecosystems. As part of this study, we conducted a 3-year markrecapture study, comprising 105,000 trap-nights, to assess demographic responses of cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) to Fire and Fire Surrogate treatments at the Gulf Coastal Plain site, where longleaf pine was the ecosystem to be restored. We compared competing models to evaluate restoration effects on variation in apparent survival and recruitment over time, space, and treatment, and incorporated measures of available source habitat for cotton mice with reverse-time modeling to infer immigration from outside the study area. The top-ranked survival model contained only variation over time, but the closely ranked 2nd and 3rd models included variation over space and treatment, respectively. The top 4 recruitment models all included effects for availability of source habitat and treatments. Burning appeared to degrade habitat quality for cotton mice, showing demographic characteristics of a sink, but treatments combining fire with thinning of trees or application of herbicide to the understory appeared to improve habitat quality, possibly creating sources. Bottomland hardwoods outside the study also acted as sources by providing immigrants to experimental units. Models suggested that population dynamics operated over multiple spatial scales. Treatments applied to 15-ha stands probably only caused local variation in vital rates within the larger population. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. [Physical factors influencing the floristic relationships of pinyon pine (Pinaceae) from San Luis Potosi, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Angélica; Luna, Mario; García, Edmundo

    2014-06-01

    In plant communities, the species distribution patterns and their relationships with environmental factors are of central importance in ecology. In San Luis Potosí of Mexico, woodlands of Pinus cembroides and P. johannis are sympatric, but P. cembroides tends to be located in South and Southwest slopes, in more disturbed sites; unlike, P. johannis, is mostly distributed in mesic areas, in North and Northeast slopes. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of some physical factors on the floristic similarity of pinyon pine P. cembroides and P. johannis. The study area was located in the Sierra San Miguelito, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We selected 40 sampling units spread over an area of 50km2. In each unit, we laid out two 20m long lines perpendicular to each other, in which we recorded cover data of the plant species intercepted. We developed two data matrices, the first one including cover values of 91 species, and the second one, considering seven topographical, climatic, and solar radiation variables. We applied cluster analysis and ordination to explore the influence of environmental variables on the floristic differentiation of pinyon pine woodlands. Clustering showed six groups, the first three characterized by P. cembroides. The ordination showed that variance represented by the first three axes was 65.9%. Axis 1 was positively correlated with altitude and negatively with mean annual temperature; axes two and three, showed low correlation with the variables tested. P. cembroides woodlands and accompanying flora tend to be located in lower altitude, higher mean annual temperature, and mainly in South-Southwestern slopes. In contrast, stands of P. johannis, mixed stands of P. johannis-P. cembroides, and Quercus potosina, were usually founded in greater altitudes, mean annual temperature slightly lower, and North-Northeastern exposure. The sites of these monospecific and mixed woodlands with associated species, indicators of environmental variables

  19. The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: III. The results from Black Wood and Bridgets Farm compared with those from other woodland and grassland sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom the planting of broadleaved woodland has led to concerns about the impact on water resources. Comparative studies, typically using soil water measurements, have been established to compare water use of broadleaved woodland and grassland. The diversity of outcomes from these studies makes it difficult to make any consistent prediction of the hydrological impact of afforestation. Most studies have shown greater drying of soils under broadleaved woodland than under grass. However, two studies in a beech wood growing on shallow soils above chalk at Black Wood, Micheldever, Hampshire showed little overall difference between broadleaved woodland and grass, either in soil water abstraction or in evaporation. Two factors are thought to contribute to the different results from Black Wood. It is known that evaporation can be considerably enhanced at the edges of woodlands or in small areas of woodlands. The studies at Black Wood were made well within a large area of fairly uniform woodland. Other studies in which a difference occurred in soil drying between broadleaved woodland and grass used measurements made in small areas of woodlands or at woodland edges. Another important difference between comparison of woodland at Black Wood and grassland growing nearby, also on shallow soils above Chalk, compared to other broadleaved woodland/grass comparisons, growing on other geologies, is the influence of the Chalk. Although vegetation such as grass (and woodland does not populate the chalk profusely with roots, water can be removed from the Chalk by the roots which proliferate at the soil/chalk interface and which can generate upward water movement within the Chalk. Published work showed that only in a very dry summer did the evaporation from grass growing on shallow soils above chalk fall below potential. In broadleaved woodland/grass comparisons on non-chalky soils it is possible that moisture deficits in the soil below the grass may

  20. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  1. Microsatellite variability of Sardinian pine martens, Martes martes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Licia; Cannas, Rita; Deiana, Anna M; Tagliavini, James

    2011-08-01

    The pine marten, Martes martes, is a medium-sized terrestrial carnivore associated with woodland habitats of the western Palearctic region. The present distribution area of the species also includes six islands of the western Mediterranean basin. The origin of these insular populations and their taxonomic status are still debated; their molecular characterization appears relevant for conservation purposes. To describe the genetic variability of the pine martens from Sardinia we characterized 40 insular and 14 Italian individuals at seven nuclear microsatellite loci. The identification of private alleles and the calculated F(ST) value of 0.074 revealed some genetic differentiation between the two populations, which accounts for the high percentages of correct allocation (96.39-98.80%) scored by the genotype assignment test. The presence of two distinct clusters corresponding to Sardinia and mainland Italy was further confirmed by the multivariate Factorial Correspondence Analysis of individual genotypes. Moreover, the genome of the Sardinian individuals bore signs of past demographic fluctuations, i.e. the presence of the monomorphic locus Ma-4, a lower allelic richness and a lower number of private alleles, which may derive from the combination of drift, founder effects, and human overexploitation. Anyway, if such events ever affected the Sardinian population, this is likely to have happened in the past since, according to our microsatellite data, the present-day population does not show evidence of recent bottlenecks or inbreeding, the Wilcoxon sign-rank test and the F(IS) index being not statistically significant (both P > 0.05). Based on this genetic evidence, we advance hypotheses about the distinctiveness of the Sardinian population and its significance for taxonomy and conservation.

  2. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  3. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  4. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  6. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A Gray

    Full Text Available The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp. are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  7. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  8. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  9. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  10. Litter leachate sources for streamwater dissolved organic matter in an oak woodland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, R. Y.; Hernes, P. J.; Flores, S. C.; O'Geen, A. T.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Spencer, R.

    2009-12-01

    Streamwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) is derived from a variety of sources, but until recently was largely thought to originate from degraded soil organic matter (SOM) pools. However, recent investigations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have called into question the idea that DOM in streams is derived primarily from aged SOM. Evidence includes riverine DOC 14C ages (~5 years) that are much younger than SOM within the catchment as well as the riverine particulate organic matter (POM) pool (decades to 100’s of years). Molecular fractionation due to litter leaching in the laboratory and sorption to mineral surfaces can completely account for the degraded molecular signatures observed in dissolved lignin compositions within the DOM pool. To evaluate whether these processes hold true under environmental conditions, we conducted a leaching incubation experiment using litters and degraded “duff” litters (estimated 2-5 yrs of degradation) from four vegetation types (live and blue oak leaves, foothill pine needles, and mixed annual grasses) in an oak woodland ecosystem in the foothills of the Sierra mountains of California. Litters and duffs were placed on sieves within funnels throughout the catchment, and leachates were collected during each rainfall event from Dec. 1, 2006 through May 31, 2007. On a bulk carbon basis, duff material yielded the greatest flux of DOC and weighted average carbon normalized lignin yields and ratios of syringyl and cinnamyl phenols to vanillyl phenols were remarkably similar to that observed in the stream, indicating that processes such as sorption may not be the driving force behind the composition observed. However, elevated ratios of acid to aldehyde compounds of the syringyl and vanillyl phenols in the stream relative to the weighted average of the litter leachate as well as the litter and duff materials indicates that some modification of the lignin phenols. Areal yields of DOM are up to two orders of magnitude greater than

  11. Socialist and postsocialist land-use legacies determine farm woodland composition and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Schaich, H.

    2014-01-01

    . Mean diameters and species richness values are high. Typical socialist woodland species are nonnative (mean 35 %) and/or coniferous (mean 51 %). Stands have a uniform, even-aged stand structure. Species richness/diversity indices are generally low. Postsocialist woodlands exhibit a high degree...... of variability. Percentages of nonnative (7 %) and coniferous (10 %) individuals are low. The findings suggest that socialist and postsocialist farmland and forest policies translated into distinct land-use legacies in the newly established farm woodlands, which differ considerably from the composition...

  12. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  13. UAV – a useful tool for monitoring woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmarz Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial systems are in many countries one of the most dynamically developing branches of technology. They have also been recognized and are being utilized by scientists who find remote sensing indispensable in their work. Today, it is increasingly common to find research teams utilizing so-called drones in field research. Unmanned systems are becoming ever more important for environment monitoring by, on the one hand, providing data from inaccessible or remote areas, and, on the other hand, reducing the human costs required by traditional large field teams while also increasing the efficiency of the work. This paper presents the possibility of utilizing UAVs for image data collection in woodland areas.

  14. Surveying woodland raptors by broadcast of conspecific vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, J.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Kopeny, M.

    1990-01-01

    We surveyed for raptors in forests on study areas in five of the eastern United States. For Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperi), Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus), and Barred Owls (Strix varia) the contact rates obtained by broadcasting taped vocalizations of conspecifics along roads were significantly greater than contact rates obtained by only looking and listening from the roadside. Broad-winged Hawks (B. platypterus) were detected only after their calls were broadcast. Most raptors were detected within 10 min of the beginning of the broadcasts. Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) and Goshawks (A. gentilis) nested infrequently on our study areas, and we were unable to increase detections of these species. Generally, point count transects along woodland roads, from which conspecific vocalizations were broadcast, resulted in higher species specific detection rates than when walking, driving continuously, or only looking and listening for raptors at roadside stops.

  15. Preliminary research on environmental impact of woodland grazing by pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 6 castrate pigs about 30 kg live weight each entered in a fence into hilly woodland area. The pigs were bred until about 140 kg live weight. After 10 months of pasture breeding, the environmental damages (cover ground, plants and soil characteristics by rooting and trampling were evaluated. The damages to cover ground and to shrubs and to physical structure (Fissures and Aggregate stability caused hydro-geological instability with soil erosion and landslides. Removing surface layers of soil caused considerable loss of organic matter (Total Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen, microbial activity (Microbial ATP and breathing and enzyme activity changes (Total β−glucosidase and Extra cellular β−glucosidase. Damages to native plants are different in relation to the root and the trunk kinds, and to the palatability of leaves and apexes which result inversely related whit the abundance of disagreeable substances content (ADL, Tannins, Resins, Latex.

  16. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  17. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  18. SGR: an online genomic resource for the woodland strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Omar; Slovin, Janet P; Kang, Chunying; Hollender, Courtney A; Geretz, Aviva; Houston, Sam; Liu, Zhongchi; Alkharouf, Nadim W

    2013-12-23

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid strawberry species commonly known as the alpine or woodland strawberry, is a versatile experimental plant system and an emerging model for the Rosaceae family. An ancestral F. vesca genome contributed to the genome of the octoploid dessert strawberry (F. ×ananassa), and the extant genome exhibits synteny with other commercially important members of the Rosaceae family such as apple and peach. To provide a molecular description of floral organ and fruit development at the resolution of specific tissues and cell types, RNAs from flowers and early developmental stage fruit tissues of the inbred F. vesca line YW5AF7 were extracted and the resulting cDNA libraries sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq2000. To enable easy access as well as mining of this two-dimensional (stage and tissue) transcriptome dataset, a web-based database, the Strawberry Genomic Resource (SGR), was developed. SGR is a web accessible database that contains sample description, sample statistics, gene annotation, and gene expression analysis. This information can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/strawberry/Default.aspx. The SGR website provides user friendly search and browse capabilities for all the data stored in the database. Users are able to search for genes using a gene ID or description or obtain differentially expressed genes by entering different comparison parameters. Search results can be downloaded in a tabular format compatible with Microsoft excel application. Aligned reads to individual genes and exon/intron structures are displayed using the genome browser, facilitating gene re-annotation by individual users. The SGR database was developed to facilitate dissemination and data mining of extensive floral and fruit transcriptome data in the woodland strawberry. It enables users to mine the data in different ways to study different pathways or biological processes during reproductive development.

  19. Ecohydrologic relationships of two juniper woodlands with different precipitation regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Guldan, S. J.; Deboodt, T.; Fernald, A.; Ray, G.

    2015-12-01

    The significant expansion of juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands throughout the western U.S. during the last two centuries has disrupted important ecological functions and hydrologic processes. The relationships between water and vegetation distribution are highly impacted by the ongoing shift from shrub steppe and grassland to woodland-dominated landscapes. We investigated vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes occurring in two distinct juniper landscapes with different precipitation regimes in the Intermountain West region: A winter snow-dominated (Oregon) and a summer rain-dominated with some winter precipitation (New Mexico) landscape. Results from the Oregon site showed marginal differences (1-2%) in soil moisture in treated vs untreated watersheds throughout the dry and wet seasons. In general, soil moisture was greater in the treated watershed in both seasons. Canopy cover affected soil moisture over time. Perennial grass cover was positively correlated with changes in soil moisture, whereas juniper cover was negatively correlated with changes in soil moisture. Shallow groundwater response observed in upland and valley monitoring wells indicate there are temporary hydrologic connections between upland and valley locations during the winter precipitation season. Results from the New Mexico site provided valuable information regarding timing and intensity of monsoon-driven precipitation and the rainfall threshold (5 mm/15 min) that triggers runoff. Long-term vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes were evaluated based on pre- and post-juniper removal (70%) in three watersheds. In general, less runoff and greater forage response was observed in the treated watersheds. During rainfall events, soil moisture was less under juniper canopy compared with inter-canopy; this difference in soil moisture was intensified during high intensity, short duration rainstorms in the summer months. We found that winter snow precipitation helped recharge soil moisture

  20. Phytoliths in woody plants from the Miombo woodlands of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Esselmont, Chris; Simpson, Steven; Walde, Dale

    2009-07-01

    There are no descriptions of phytoliths produced by plants from the 'Zambezian' zone, where Miombo woodlands are the dominant element of the largest single phytochorion in sub-Saharan Africa. The preservation of phytoliths in fossil records of Africa makes phytoliths a tool to study early plant communities. Paleo-ethnobotanical interpretation of phytoliths relies on the comparison of ancient types with morphotypes extracted from living reference collections. Phytoliths were extracted from plant samples representing 41 families, 77 genera and 90 species through sonic cleaning, dry ashing and acid treatment; and phytoliths thus extracted were quantified. For each species, an average of 216 phytoliths were counted. The percentage of each morphotype identified per species was calculated, and types were described according to the descriptors from the International Code for Phytolith Nomenclature. Phytolith assemblages were subject to discriminant analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Phytoliths were grouped into 57 morphotypes (two were articulated forms and 55 were discrete shapes), and provide a reference collection of phytolith assemblages produced by Miombo woody species. Common and unique morphotypes are described and taxonomic and grouping variables are looked into from a statistical perspective. The first quantitative taxonomy of phytoliths from Miombos is presented here, including new types and constituting the most extensive phytolith key for any African ecoregion. Evidence is presented that local woody species are hypervariable silica producers and their phytolith morphotypes are highly polymorphic. The taxonomic significance of these phytoliths is largely poor, but there are important exceptions that include the morphotypes produced by members from >10 families and orders. The typical phytolithic signal that would allow scientists to identify ancient woodlands of 'Zambezian' affiliation comprises only half of the original number of

  1. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  2. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine Project Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine-grassland Project includes 261 ac of mid– to late-rotation loblolly pine which were managed with a heavy pine thin (50-60...

  3. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  4. Past and future landscape dynamics in pasture-woodlands of the Swiss Jura Mountains under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Peringer

    2013-09-01

    We present a refined version of the spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model WoodPaM with improved climate sensitivity of simulated vegetation. We investigate pasture-woodland dynamics by applying an innovative combination of retrospective simulations starting in the Middle Ages with prospective simulations following two climate change scenarios. The retrospective simulations demonstrate the strong dependency of the landscape mosaic on both climate and management. In high elevation mountain pastures, climate cooling during the Little Ice Age hindered simulated tree regeneration and reduced forage production of grasslands. Both led to an increase in open grassland and to a structural simplification of the landscape. In turn, climate warming afterwards showed the opposite effect. At lower elevations, high cattle stocking rates generally dominate simulated succession, leading to a slow development of quite homogenous landscapes whose structures are hardly affected by historical climate variability. Aerial photographs suggest that logging and windstorms critically shaped the current landscape, both homogenizing mosaic structures that emerge from selective grazing. Simulations of climate change scenarios suggest delayed but inevitable structural changes in the landscape mosaic and a temporary breakdown of the ecosystem service wood production. The population of currently dominating Norway spruce collapses due to simulated drought. Spruce is only slowly replaced either by beech under moderate warming or by Scots pine under extreme warming. In general, the shift in tree species dominance results in landscapes of less structural richness than today. In order to maintain the mosaic structure of pasture-woodlands, we recommend a future increase in cattle stocking on mountain pastures. The (re- introduction of mixed herds (cattle with horses, sheep, and goats could mitigate the simulated trend towards structural homogenization of the forest-grassland mosaic because

  5. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Rangifer tarandus caribou (Southern Selkirk Mountains population of Woodland Caribou).

  6. Final Critical Habitat for Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Rangifer tarandus caribou (Southern Selkirk Mountains population of Woodland Caribou).

  7. Habitat characteristics of prairie-woodland edges at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known about the vegetation structure and composition of prairie-woodland transition areas at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge (DLNWR) in northwestern...

  8. Management Tools and Potential of Dry Miombo Woodland in Carbon Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward

    Abstract Tools to support sustainable management of dry Miombo woodlands and precise assessment of carbon storage and sequestration potential are in most cases lacking in Tanzania. Accordingly, using Gangalamtumba Village Land Forest Reserve as a case study area located in Iringa region......, this thesis aims to develop management tools and generate information that will enhance our understanding of the actual and potential contribution of dry Miombo woodlands in carbon cycling. This is done through a detailed assessment of floristic composition, structure, species associations and through...... development of models for wood basic density, volume, biomass and growth. The overall research objective was thus to enhance the basis for good woodland management planning including exploring the extent to which dry Miombo woodlands in Tanzania store and sequester C from the atmosphere. Correct...

  9. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010,...

  10. Dynamics of Sudanian savanna-woodland ecosystem in response to disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Savadogo, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    Grazing, fire and selective tree cutting are major disturbances shaping species diversity and productivity in savanna-woodland ecosystems. Their effects, however, are highly variable and poorly understood. Structural and functional responses of the Sudanian savanna-woodland ecosystem to such disturbances were investigated, with particular emphasis on the herbaceous vegetation. Fuel and fire behaviour were characterized in relation to grazing, dominant grass type and wind direction. The result...

  11. The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: I. Soil water changes below beech woodland and grass on chalk sites in Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of broadleaved woodland on recharge to the UK Chalk aquifer have led to a study of evaporation and transpiration from beech woodland (Black Wood and pasture (Bridgets Farm, growing in shallow soils above chalk in Hampshire. Eddy correlation measurements of energy balance components above both the forest and the grassland enabled calculation of latent heat flux (evaporation and transpiration as a residual. Comparative measurements of soil water content and soil water potential in 9 m profiles under both forest and grassland found changes in soil water content down to 6 m at both sites; however, the soil water potential measurements showed upward movement of water only above a depth of about 2 m. Below this depth, water continued to drain and the soil water potential measurements showed downward movement of water at both sites, notwithstanding significant negative soil water potentials in the chalk and soil above. Seasonal differences occur in the soil water content profiles under broadleaved woodland and grass. Before the woodland foliage emerges, greater drying beneath the grassland is offset in late spring and early summer by increased drying under the forest. Yet, when the change in soil water profiles is at a maximum, in late summer, the profiles below woodland and grass are very similar. A comparison of soil water balances for Black Wood and Bridgets Farm using changes in soil water contents, local rainfall and evaporation measured by the energy balance approach allowed drainage to be calculated at each site. Although seasonal differences occurred, the difference in cumulative drainage below broadleaved woodland and grass was small.

  12. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  13. Fire-induced pine woodland to shrubland transitions in Southern Europe may promote shifts in soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Valdecantos, A.; Vallejo, V.R.; Keizer, J.J.; Bloem, J.; Baeza, J.; González-Pelayo, O.; Machado, A.I.; Ruiter, de P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid of the last century, fire recurrence has increased in the Iberian Peninsula and in the overall Mediterranean basin due to changes in land use and climate. The warmer and drier climate projected for this region will further increase the risk of wildfire occurrence and recurrence. Alt

  14. 77 FR 59163 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... structures such as culvert installations, inside slope ditching, road crown specifications, widened turn... structure in some stands. ] Woodland Treatments (202 Acres) The woodland treatments would cut all...

  15. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  16. Development of secondary woodland in oak wood pastures reduces the richness of rare epiphytic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks.

  17. Potential for Ammonia Recapture by Farm Woodlands: Design and Application of a New Experimental Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Theobald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing pressure on farmers in Europe to reduce the emissions of ammonia from their land. Due to the current financial climate in which farmers have to operate, it is important to identify ammonia control measures that can be adopted with minimum cost. The planting of trees around farmland and buildings has been identified as a potentially effective and low-cost measure to enhance ammonia recapture at a farm level and reduce long-range atmospheric transport. This work assesses experimentally what fraction of ammonia farm woodlands could potentially remove from the atmosphere. We constructed an experimental facility in southern Scotland to simulate a woodland shelterbelt planted in proximity to a small poultry unit. By measuring horizontal and vertical ammonia concentration profiles within the woodland, and comparing this to the concentration of an inert tracer (SF6 we estimate the depletion of ammonia due to dry deposition to the woodland canopy. Together with measurements of mean ammonia concentrations and throughfall fluxes of nitrogen, this information is used to provide a first estimate of the fraction of emitted ammonia that is recaptured by the woodland canopy. Analysis of these data give a lower limit of recapture of emitted ammonia, at the experimental facility, of 3%. By careful design of shelterbelt woodlands this figure could be significantly higher.

  18. Restoration planting options for limber pines in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2011-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pineʼs critical role in these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating these impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods, six limber pine seedling...

  19. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  20. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  1. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  2. A Spectral Evaluation of Models Performances in Mediterranean Oak Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Abramowitz, G.; Carrara, A.; Correia, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Papale, D.; Pearson, D.; Pereira, J.; Piao, S.; Rambal, S.; Sonnentag, O.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem processes are influenced by climatic trends at multiple temporal scales including diel patterns and other mid-term climatic modes, such as interannual and seasonal variability. Because interactions between biophysical components of ecosystem processes are complex, it is important to test how models perform in frequency (e.g. hours, days, weeks, months, years) and time (i.e. day of the year) domains in addition to traditional tests of annual or monthly sums. Here we present a spectral evaluation using wavelet time series analysis of model performance in seven Mediterranean Oak Woodlands that encompass three deciduous and four evergreen sites. We tested the performance of five models (CABLE, ORCHIDEE, BEPS, Biome-BGC, and JULES) on measured variables of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In general, model performance fails at intermediate periods (e.g. weeks to months) likely because these models do not represent the water pulse dynamics that influence GPP and ET at these Mediterranean systems. To improve the performance of a model it is critical to identify first where and when the model fails. Only by identifying where a model fails we can improve the model performance and use them as prognostic tools and to generate further hypotheses that can be tested by new experiments and measurements.

  3. Reactive nitrogen oxides and ozone above a taiga woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakwin, Peter S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Daube, Bruce C.; Bradshaw, John D.; Sandholm, Scott T.; Talbot, Robert W.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Blake, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx and NOy) and ozone (O3) were made in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) above a taiga woodland in northern Quebec, Canada, during June-August, 1990, as part of NASA Artie Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B. Levels of nitrogen oxides and O3 were strongly modulated by the synoptic scale meteorology that brought air from various source regions to the site. Industrial pollution from the Great Lakes region of the U.S. and Canada appears to be a major source for periodic elevation of NOx, NOy and O3. We find that NO/NO2 ratios at this site at midday were approximately 50% those expected from a simple photochemical steady state between NOx and O3, in contrast to our earlier results from the ABLE 3A tundra site. The difference between the taiga and tundra sites is likely due to much larger emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons (particularly isoprene) from the taiga vegetation. Hydrocarbon photooxidation leads to relatively rapid production of peroxy radicals, which convert NO to NO2, at the taiga site. Ratios of NOx to NOy were typically 2-3 times higher in the PBL during ABLE 3B than during ABLE 3 A. This is probably the result of high PAN levels and suppressed formation of HNO3 from NO2 due to high levels of biogenic hydrocarbons at the ABLE 3B site.

  4. Social complexity and the bow in the Eastern Woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, John H; Porth, Erik S

    2013-01-01

    Bingham and Souza have presented an evolutionary theory that specifies a causal relationship between the advent of powerful projectile weapons such as the bow and radical rearrangements in social relations and histories. They propose that the acquisition of weapons that permitted humans to kill at ever-increasing distances provided the coercive means to suppress conflicts of interest among nonkin, self-interested individuals in social groups, thus paving the way for greater social complexity. An unprecedented reduction in projectile point size identifies the arrival of the bow ca. A.D. 300 in the Eastern Woodlands of North America, which initiated a causal chain of cultural changes. In the Midwest, the bow, combined with food production, precipitated the decline of Hopewell by conferring household autonomy and dispersal, which at first suppressed social complexity, but later created conditions favorable to maize intensification. In the lower Southeast, where food production was unimportant, populations aggregated at concentrated wild-food sources, and the bow did not confer household autonomy. The relationship between the bow and social complexity varied under different environmental, social, and historical conditions.

  5. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkby G. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  6. Woodland caribou range occupancy in northwestern Ontario: past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Racey

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A zone of continuous woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou distribution is defined for northwestern Ontario. This zone establishes a benchmark for measuring the success of future management of habitat and conservation of populations. Inventory of key winter, summer and calving habitats reaffirms the concept of a dynamic mosaic of habitat tracts that supports caribou across the landscape. The historical range recession leading to this current distribution has been associated with resource development, fire and hunting activities over the past 150 years, and numerous attempts at conservation over the last 70 years. The decline was apparently phased according to several periods of development activity: i early exploitation in the early to mid-1800s; ii isolation and extirpation of southern populations due to rapid changes in forest use and access between 1890 and 1930; and iii further loss of the southernmost herds due to forest harvesting of previously inaccessible areas since the 1950s. Lessons learned from history support current conservation measures to manage caribou across broad landscapes, protect southern herds, maintain caribou habitat as part of continuous range, maintain large contiguous tracts of older forest and ensure connectivity between habitat components.

  7. Life-cycle assessment of typical Portuguese cork oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-05-01

    Cork forest systems are responsible for making an important economic contribution to the Mediterranean region, especially Portugal where the cork oak woodlands or montados contain about 32% of the world's area. The environmental profile derived from reproduction cork production and extraction in two Portuguese regions (Tagus valley and Alentejo) representative of the Portuguese sector were assessed in detail using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology from a cradle-to-gate perspective. The production line was divided into four stages considering all the processes involved: stand establishment, stand management, cork stripping and field recovery. According to the environmental results, there were remarkable differences between the two production scenarios mainly due to the intensity and repetition of forest activities even though the cork yield was reported to be the same. The management system in the Alentejo region presented the worse environmental profile in almost all the impact categories under assessment, mainly due to the shorter cycle duration of the mechanical cleaning and pruning processes. Cork stripping was identified in both scenarios as the production stage with the highest contribution to the environmental profile due to the cleaning and pruning processes. A sensitivity assessment concerning the cork yield was performed since the average production yields in the Portuguese montados are lower than the ones used in this study. Thus, if the cork yield is reduced, the environmental profile in both scenarios gets worse since almost all the forest activities involved are the same.

  8. Grassland to woodland transitions: Dynamic response of microbial community structure and carbon use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Courtney A.; Filley, Timothy R.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Rowe, Helen I.

    2016-06-01

    Woodland encroachment into grasslands is a globally pervasive phenomenon attributed to land use change, fire suppression, and climate change. This vegetation shift impacts ecosystem services such as ground water allocation, carbon (C) and nutrient status of soils, aboveground and belowground biodiversity, and soil structure. We hypothesized that woodland encroachment would alter microbial community structure and function and would be related to patterns in soil C accumulation. To address this hypothesis, we measured the composition and δ13C values of soil microbial phospholipids (PLFAs) along successional chronosequences from C4-dominated grasslands to C3-dominated woodlands (small discrete clusters and larger groves) spanning up to 134 years. Woodland development increased microbial biomass, soil C and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and altered microbial community composition. The relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) increased linearly with stand age, consistent with decreases in soil pH and/or greater rhizosphere development and corresponding increases in C inputs. δ13C values of all PLFAs decreased with time following woody encroachment, indicating assimilation of woodland C sources. Among the microbial groups, fungi and actinobacteria in woodland soils selectively assimilated grassland C to a greater extent than its contribution to bulk soil. Between the two woodland types, microbes in the groves incorporated relatively more of the relict C4-C than those in the clusters, potentially due to differences in below ground plant C allocation and organo-mineral association. Changes in plant productivity and C accessibility (rather than C chemistry) dictated microbial C utilization in this system in response to shrub encroachment.

  9. Taxonomic status of Woodland's enigmatic tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Amazonian catfishes: back to museum collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Poorly known proteocephalidean cestodes of peculiar morphology, described by Woodland (1934) from pimelodid catfishes in Amazonia, Brazil, were studied. Re-examination of their type-specimens and evaluation of newly-collected material from Brazil and Peru made it possible to clarify their taxonomic status. Brayela karuatayi (Woodland, 1934), the type-species of the monotypic Brayela Rego, 1984, which has never been recorded since its original description, is redescribed and its scolex morphology, which has been misinterpreted in the original description, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The actual definitive host of B. karuatayi is not a species of Glanidium Lütken (Auchenipteridae), but coroatá, Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine) (Pimelodidae). Peru is a new geographical record for B. karuatayi. The definitive host of other two proteocephalidean cestodes, Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 and Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934, is not a species of Rhamdia Bleeker (family Heptapteridae), but the pimelodid Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt) [syn. Paulicea luetkeni (Steindachner)]. Proteocephalus jandia is in fact conspecific with Travassiella avitellina Rego & Pavanelli, 1987, type-species of Travassiella Rego & Pavanelli, 1987. As a result, a new combination, Travassiella jandia (Woodland, 1934), is proposed. Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 is considered conspecific with M. brooksi Rego & Pavanelli, 1985 described from the congeneric host [Zungaro jahu (Ihering)] from the Paraná River in Brazil; the latter species becomes its new junior synonym. The validity of M. travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992, a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz) in the Paraná River basin in Brazil, is confirmed by a study of its type- and voucher specimens. The present account provides strong arguments to always study museum specimens in taxonomic studies; it also represents an evidence of the importance of depositing types and vouchers in

  10. Observations and methodology of atmospheric ammonia within the Colorado Rocky Mountain pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Amy; Moravek, Alexander; Murphy, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of trace gases (HCl, HNO3, HONO, NH3, SO2) and particle phase constituents from fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were continuously measured using an online ambient ion monitor ion chromatograph (AIM-IC) within the canopy at the Rocky Mountain Research Station (Manitou Experimental Forest) in Woodland Park, Colorado, from July 31 - August 12 2015. A consistent diurnal pattern of ammonia mixing ratios was observed, ranging from 0.1 - 2.6 ppb. Analysis of PM2.5ammonium was below the 130 ng m-3 detection limit of the instrument, which was corroborated by parallel particle concentration data also gathered at the site showing extremely low overall particle concentrations in the order of 103. As a result, variability in gas phase ammonia can be attributed to surface-atmosphere exchange and/or transport rather than gas particle partitioning. Complimentary analysis of ammonium found within the pine needles and the soil was also performed on site using established extraction methods and analysis by ion chromatography. Emissions potentials calculated from observed ammonium levels were generally consistent in the pine needles showing stomatal emission potentials within the range of 28 - 60, whereas the soil data varied widely, spanning 5 - 2100. The measurements are used to quantify compensation points of ammonia representative of the canopy and ground at the site to better predict the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia within the forest.

  11. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  12. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  13. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  14. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  15. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  16. Restoration planting options for limber pines impacted by mountain pine beetles and/or white pine blister rust in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rock Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pine’s critical role these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods six seedling planting trial sites were installed...

  17. Potential for long-term seed storage for ex situ genetic conservation of high elevation white pine species – whitebark pine and foxtail pine case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; A.J. Kegley

    2017-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and foxtail pine (P. balfouriana) are conifers native to western North America. Due to several threats, including a non-native pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) and a changing climate, whitebark pine and foxtail pine are classified on the IUCN Red List as ‘endangered’ and ‘...

  18. The social value of carbon sequestered in Great Britain's woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, Julii; Bateman, Ian J.; Lovett, Andrew A. [Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The economic value of carbon storage associated with British woodland is calculated. Models were developed to estimate C flux associated with live trees, forest floor litter, soils, wood products, harvest, fossil fuel used in manufacturing and C displacement from biofuels and products for representative British plantation species: Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). Map databases of publicly and privately owned woodlands were compiled for Great Britain. Carbon flux was determined for individual woodland sites, and monetised using candidate parameters for the social discount rate (1, 3, 3.5 or 5%) and social value of carbon (USD109.5, USD1, USD10 or USD17.10/t). A conventional discount function was applied. Final results are expressed as Net Present Values, for the base year 2001, with discounting commencing in 2002. The minimum suggested NPV (discount rate = 3% and social value of carbon = USD1) of GB woodlands already existing in 2001 is USD82 million, with a further USD72 million that might be added by future afforestation. These figures rise dramatically if a discount rate of 1% and social value of sequestered carbon = USD109.5/t are assumed. The calculated total value of C stored in British woodland depends significantly on parameter assumptions, especially about appropriate discount rate and social value of sequestered carbon. (author)

  19. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  20. Hydrology and ecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Conceptual framework and field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands represent an important ecosystem in the semiarid western United States. Concern over the sustainability of, and management approaches for, these woodlands is increasing. As in other semiarid environments, water dynamics and vegetation patterns in pinyon-juniper woodlands are highly interrelated. An understanding of these relationships can aid in evaluating various management strategies. In this paper we describe a conceptual framework designed to increase our understanding of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands. The framework comprises five different scales, at each of which the landscape is divided into {open_quotes}functional units{close_quotes} on the basis of hydrologic characteristics. The hydrologic behavior of each unit and the connections between units are being evaluated using an extensive network of hydrological and ecological field studies on the Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. Data from these studies, coupled with application of the conceptual model, have led to the development of a number of hypotheses concerning the interrelationships of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands.

  1. Revision of Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from catfishes (Siluriformes) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Jirků, Miloslav; Mahmoud, Zuheir N; Scholz, Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), parasites of catfishes in Africa, are revised. This revision is based on material from large-scale sampling, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan between 2006 and 2009, and the examination of all of the type-specimens available. The following six species are considered valid and their redescriptions are provided: Wenyonia virilis Woodland, 1923 (type-species; new synonym W. kainjii Ukoli, 1972); W. acuminata Woodland, 1923; W. longicauda Woodland, 1937; W. minuta Woodland, 1923 (new synonym W. mcconnelli Ukoli, 1972); W. synodontis Ukoli, 1972; and W. youdeoweii Ukoli, 1972. A key to the identification of Wenyonia spp. is provided and numerous new hosts and geographical records are reported. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of four species divided the monophyletic genus into two lineages, one represented by W. acuminata and W. minuta and another one composed of W. virilis and W. youdeoweii.

  2. Canopy Density Mapping on Ultracam-D Aerial Imagery in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khodaee, Z.

    2013-09-01

    Canopy density maps express different characteristics of forest stands, especially in woodlands. Obtaining such maps by field measurements is so expensive and time-consuming. It seems necessary to find suitable techniques to produce these maps to be used in sustainable management of woodland ecosystems. In this research, a robust procedure was suggested to obtain these maps by very high spatial resolution aerial imagery. It was aimed to produce canopy density maps by UltraCam-D aerial imagery, newly taken in Zagros woodlands by Iran National Geographic Organization (NGO), in this study. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The very high spatial resolution aerial imagery of the plot purchased from NGO, was classified by kNN technique and the tree crowns were extracted precisely. The canopy density was determined in each cell of different meshes with different sizes overlaid on the study area map. The accuracy of the final maps was investigated by the ground truth obtained by complete field measurements. The results showed that the proposed method of obtaining canopy density maps was efficient enough in the study area. The final canopy density map obtained by a mesh with 30 Ar (3000 m2) cell size had 80% overall accuracy and 0.61 KHAT coefficient of agreement which shows a great agreement with the observed samples. This method can also be tested in other case studies to reveal its capability in canopy density map production in woodlands.

  3. Ecosystem services from southern African woodlands and their future under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Casey M; Pritchard, Rose; McNicol, Iain; Owen, Matthew; Fisher, Janet A; Lehmann, Caroline

    2016-09-19

    Miombo and mopane woodlands are the dominant land cover in southern Africa. Ecosystem services from these woodlands support the livelihoods of 100 M rural people and 50 M urban dwellers, and others beyond the region. Provisioning services contribute $9 ± 2 billion yr(-1) to rural livelihoods; 76% of energy used in the region is derived from woodlands; and traded woodfuels have an annual value of $780 M. Woodlands support much of the region's agriculture through transfers of nutrients to fields and shifting cultivation. Woodlands store 18-24 PgC carbon, and harbour a unique and diverse flora and fauna that provides spiritual succour and attracts tourists. Longstanding processes that will impact service provision are the expansion of croplands (0.1 M km(2); 2000-2014), harvesting of woodfuels (93 M tonnes yr(-1)) and changing access arrangements. Novel, exogenous changes include large-scale land acquisitions (0.07 M km(2); 2000-2015), climate change and rising CO2 The net ecological response to these changes is poorly constrained, as they act in different directions, and differentially on trees and grasses, leading to uncertainty in future service provision. Land-use change and socio-political dynamics are likely to be dominant forces of change in the short term, but important land-use dynamics remain unquantified.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  5. Ecosystem services from southern African woodlands and their future under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rose; McNicol, Iain; Owen, Matthew; Fisher, Janet A.; Lehmann, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Miombo and mopane woodlands are the dominant land cover in southern Africa. Ecosystem services from these woodlands support the livelihoods of 100 M rural people and 50 M urban dwellers, and others beyond the region. Provisioning services contribute $9 ± 2 billion yr−1 to rural livelihoods; 76% of energy used in the region is derived from woodlands; and traded woodfuels have an annual value of $780 M. Woodlands support much of the region's agriculture through transfers of nutrients to fields and shifting cultivation. Woodlands store 18–24 PgC carbon, and harbour a unique and diverse flora and fauna that provides spiritual succour and attracts tourists. Longstanding processes that will impact service provision are the expansion of croplands (0.1 M km2; 2000–2014), harvesting of woodfuels (93 M tonnes yr−1) and changing access arrangements. Novel, exogenous changes include large-scale land acquisitions (0.07 M km2; 2000–2015), climate change and rising CO2. The net ecological response to these changes is poorly constrained, as they act in different directions, and differentially on trees and grasses, leading to uncertainty in future service provision. Land-use change and socio-political dynamics are likely to be dominant forces of change in the short term, but important land-use dynamics remain unquantified. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502377

  6. Changes in Structure and Diversity of Woody Plants in a Secondary Mixed Pine-Oak Forest in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biotic province of the Sierra Madre del Sur presents a mosaic of woodlands at different successional stages due to frequent modifications in land use. In this study, we analyzed changes in woody flora across three successional stages of pine-oak forest: early, intermediate, and mature. Vegetation composition and diversity were characterized in 10 plots (each 0.28 ha. The mature stage had the highest values for species richness, abundance, and diversity. Pioneer plants were dominant in the early-successional site and may promote the establishment of late-successional species. The vegetation structure was more complex in the mature stage, where members of the Quercus genus were co-dominant with Pinus species. Pine tree richness was highest in the early-successional stage, and its abundance increased at the intermediate-successional site. These results suggest that Pinus species can grow in perturbed and sunny environments but also require favorable edaphic and microclimatic conditions, such as those found in intermediate woodlands. Results of this fieldwork support the initial floristic composition succession model, which suggests that species present at early stages will also occur in subsequent stages. Ecological succession may be considered to be a natural restoration process, and thus, conservation strategies should focus on maintaining distinct successional communities in addition to mature forests in order to preserve a high number of species.

  7. Emissions and ambient distributions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC in a Ponderosa pine ecosystem: interpretation of PTR-MS mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Two proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry systems were deployed at the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Southern Rocky Mountain 2008 field campaign (BEACHON-SRM08; July to September 2008 at the Manitou Forest observatory in a Ponderosa pine woodland near Woodland Park, Colorado USA to simultaneously measure BVOC emissions and ambient distributions of their oxidation products. Here, we present mass spectral analysis in a wide range of masses (m/z=40+ to 210+ to assess our understanding of BVOC emissions and their photochemical process inside of the forest canopy. The biogenic terpenoids, 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO, 50.2% and several monoterpenes (MT, 33.5% were identified as the dominant BVOC emissions from a transmission corrected mass spectrum, averaged over the daytime (11 am to 3 p.m., local time of three days. To assess contributions of oxidation products of local BVOC, we calculate a oxidation product spectrum with the OH- and ozone-initiated oxidation product distribution mass spectra of two major BVOC at the ecosystem (MBO and β-pinene that were observed from laboratory oxidation experiments. A majority (~73% of the total signal could be explained by known compounds. The remainder are attributed to oxidation products of BVOC, emitted from nearby ecosystems and transported to the site, and oxidation products of unidentified BVOC emitted from the Ponderosa pine ecosystem.

  8. Woodland: Geographical and Forest Inventory Indications and Criteria (Continuation. Beginning in N. 1, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition of woodland is discussed. The structure and dynamics of forestland are considered on the example of the Tankhoisky forestry district in the South Baikal region. In particular, we consider the representation in the woodland series of forest types, forest inventory compartments by series of forest types, the types of tree species' mixing in the birch forest types. The distribution of all forest types by the productivity classes is done. The age dynamics of tree species' composition and tree stand timber stock is considered for the most representative forest types. The characteristics of natural regeneration in this woodland is presented. The features of forest management and forestry regime for the first group of mountain forests in the Baikal lake basin are discussed. In conclusion the geographical and forest inventory features, criteria and materials describing the forest are enumerated.

  9. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Proceviat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  10. Density and Distribution of Citemene Fields in a Miombo Woodland Environment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague; Oyama

    1999-09-01

    / The Bemba people of northern Zambia practice citemene shifting cultivation. We utilized Landsat satellite images from 1984 and 1992 to map the distribution of citemene fields in those two years and to assess changes in the spatial sustainability of citemene cultivation in a miombo woodland study area. The citemene fields were concentrated within about 5-6 km of roads. Between 1984 and 1992, there was a decrease in the number of fields, and an increase in the average distance from the road. These changes may have been due to the introduction of semipermanent maize farming in the intervening years. The estimated cycle times for woodland utilization may have been long enough to maintain sustainability under traditional citemene cultivation practices. However, cycle times may be too short to maintain sustainability within the woodlands along roads.KEY WORDS: Shifting agriculture; GIS; Sustainability; Citemene; Miombo; Zambiahttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p273.html

  11. Management Tools and Potential of Dry Miombo Woodland in Carbon Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward

    , this thesis aims to develop management tools and generate information that will enhance our understanding of the actual and potential contribution of dry Miombo woodlands in carbon cycling. This is done through a detailed assessment of floristic composition, structure, species associations and through......Abstract Tools to support sustainable management of dry Miombo woodlands and precise assessment of carbon storage and sequestration potential are in most cases lacking in Tanzania. Accordingly, using Gangalamtumba Village Land Forest Reserve as a case study area located in Iringa region...... in above- and below-ground soil carbon pools. Assuming that other species’ production are equal to B. spiciformis, which is the most dominant species in the study area, the estimated C sequestration potential of the dry Miombo woodlands was found to vary from 0.42 ± 0.03 Mg C ha-1year-1 to 1.39 ± 0.08 Mg C...

  12. Modeling wind fields and fire propagation following bark beetle outbreaks in spatially-heterogeneous pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman R. Linn; Carolyn H. Sieg; Chad M. Hoffman; Judith L. Winterkamp; Joel D. McMillin

    2013-01-01

    We used a physics-based model, HIGRAD/FIRETEC, to explore changes in within-stand wind behavior and fire propagation associated with three time periods in pinyon-juniper woodlands following a drought-induced bark beetle outbreak and subsequent tree mortality. Pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes are highly heterogeneous. Trees often are clumped, with sparse patches...

  13. Anchor chaining’s influence on soil hydrology and seeding success in burned piñon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used rehabilitation treatments for the restoration of burned piñon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands, but the success rate of this treatment is notoriously low. In piñon-juniper woodlands, post-fire soil water repellency can impair rese...

  14. Indigenous Cultural Self-Representation and Its Internal Critiques: A Case Study of the Woodland Cultural Centre, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    This research report discusses Indigenous cultural representation and its internal critiques, based on the case study of an Indigenous-run museum, the Woodland Cultural Centre, in Canada. Since its establishment in 1972, the Woodland Cultural Centre has strived to promote Indigenous culture, especially First Nations art, and has challenged the…

  15. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  16. Habitat fragmentation impacts mobility in a common and widespread woodland butterfly: do sexes respond differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergerot Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory predicts a nonlinear response of dispersal evolution to habitat fragmentation. First, dispersal will be favoured in line with both decreasing area of habitat patches and increasing inter-patch distances. Next, once these inter-patch distances exceed a critical threshold, dispersal will be counter-selected, unless essential resources no longer co-occur in compact patches but are differently scattered; colonization of empty habitat patches or rescue of declining populations are then increasingly overruled by dispersal costs like mortality risks and loss of time and energy. However, to date, most empirical studies mainly document an increase of dispersal associated with habitat fragmentation. We analyzed dispersal kernels for males and females of the common, widespread woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria in highly fragmented landscape, and for males in landscapes that differed in their degree of habitat fragmentation. Results The male and female probabilities of moving were considerably lower in the highly fragmented landscapes compared to the male probability of moving in fragmented agricultural and deciduous oak woodland landscapes. We also investigated whether, and to what extent, daily dispersal distance in the highly fragmented landscape was influenced by a set of landscape variables for both males and females, including distance to the nearest woodland, area of the nearest woodland, patch area and abundance of individuals in the patch. We found that daily movement distance decreased with increasing distance to the nearest woodland in both males and females. Daily distances flown by males were related to the area of the woodland capture site, whereas no such effect was observed for females. Conclusion Overall, mobility was strongly reduced in the highly fragmented landscape, and varied considerably among landscapes with different spatial resource distributions. We interpret the results relative to different cost

  17. Habitat fragmentation impacts mobility in a common and widespread woodland butterfly: do sexes respond differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerot, Benjamin; Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans; Baguette, Michel

    2012-04-27

    Theory predicts a nonlinear response of dispersal evolution to habitat fragmentation. First, dispersal will be favoured in line with both decreasing area of habitat patches and increasing inter-patch distances. Next, once these inter-patch distances exceed a critical threshold, dispersal will be counter-selected, unless essential resources no longer co-occur in compact patches but are differently scattered; colonization of empty habitat patches or rescue of declining populations are then increasingly overruled by dispersal costs like mortality risks and loss of time and energy. However, to date, most empirical studies mainly document an increase of dispersal associated with habitat fragmentation. We analyzed dispersal kernels for males and females of the common, widespread woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria in highly fragmented landscape, and for males in landscapes that differed in their degree of habitat fragmentation. The male and female probabilities of moving were considerably lower in the highly fragmented landscapes compared to the male probability of moving in fragmented agricultural and deciduous oak woodland landscapes. We also investigated whether, and to what extent, daily dispersal distance in the highly fragmented landscape was influenced by a set of landscape variables for both males and females, including distance to the nearest woodland, area of the nearest woodland, patch area and abundance of individuals in the patch. We found that daily movement distance decreased with increasing distance to the nearest woodland in both males and females. Daily distances flown by males were related to the area of the woodland capture site, whereas no such effect was observed for females. Overall, mobility was strongly reduced in the highly fragmented landscape, and varied considerably among landscapes with different spatial resource distributions. We interpret the results relative to different cost-benefit ratios of movements in fragmented landscapes.

  18. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Michiro [Natural History Museum and Inst., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The development of secondary Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) forests after pine wilt disease was studied through phytosociological analysis, estimation of forest structure before disease and size-structure, tree ring and stem analyses. Following the end of the disease, the growth of previously suppressed small oak trees was accelerated. This is quite different from the development of forests following fire, which starts with the establishment of pine seedlings. Pine wilt disease shifted the dominance of secondary forests from Pinus densiflora to Quercus serrata oak forest. In pine forests, disturbance by fire is important for forest maintenance. In contrast, disturbance by pine wilt disease leads to an acceleration of succession from pine forest to oak forest. 50 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  19. The development of an approach to assess critical loads of acidity for woodland habitats in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Langan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alongside other countries that are signatories to the UNECE Convention Long Range Transboundary on Air Pollution, the UK is committed to reducing the impact of air pollution on the environment. To advise and guide this policy in relation to atmospheric emissions of sulphur and nitrogen, a critical load approach has been developed. To assess the potential impact of these pollutants on woodland habitats a steady state, simple mass balance model has been parameterised. For mineral soils, a Ca:Al ratio in soil solution has been used as the critical load indicator for potential damage. For peat and organic soils critical loads have been set according to a pH criterion. Together these approaches have been used with national datasets to examine the potential scale of acidification in woodland habitats across the UK. The results can be mapped to show the spatial variability in critical loads of the three principal woodland habitat types (managed coniferous, managed broadleaved/ mixed woodland and unmanaged woodland. The results suggest that there is a wide range of critical loads. The most sensitive (lowest critical loads are associated with managed coniferous followed by unmanaged woodland on peat soils. Calculations indicate that at steady state, acid deposition inputs reported for 1995–1997 result in a large proportion of all the woodland habitats identified receiving deposition loads in excess of their critical load; i.e. critical loads are exceeded. These are discussed in relation to future modelled depositions for 2010. Whilst significant widespread negative impacts of such deposition on UK woodland habitats have not been reported, the work serves to illustrate that if acid deposition inputs were maintained and projected emissions reductions not achieved, the long-term sustainability of large areas of woodland in the UK could be compromised. Keywords: critical loads, acid deposition, acidification, woodland, simple mass balance model

  20. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  1. Developing blister rust resistance in white pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.

    2000-01-01

    After a century since introduction to North America from Europe, white pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., is recognized as one of the catastrophic plant disease epidemics in history. It has not yet stabilized and continues to spread and intensify. Its nine native white pine hosts comprise major timber producers, important...

  2. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  3. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  4. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  5. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  6. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  7. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  8. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  9. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  10. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  11. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  12. From protege to nurse plant : Establishment of thorny shrubs in grazed temperate woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Ruifrok, Jasper Laurens

    2011-01-01

    Question Thorny shrubs play keystone roles in grazed ecosystems by defending non-protected plants against herbivores, but their establishment in grazed ecosystems is poorly understood. Which factors control establishment of recruits of thorny nurse shrubs in grazed temperate woodlands? Location Anci

  13. Soil morphology of canopy and intercanopy sites in a pinon-Juniper woodland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, D.W.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshear, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands in the semiarid western USA have expanded as much as fivefold during the last 150 yr, often accompanied by losses of understory vegetation and increasing soil erosion. We conducted this study to determine the differences in soil morphology between canopy and intercanopy locations within a pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.)-juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] woodland with uniform parent material, topography, and climate. The woodland studied, located near Los Alamos, NM, has a mean tree age of 135 yr. We examined soil morphology by augering 135 profiles in a square grid pattern and comparing soils under pinon and juniper canopies with intercanopy soils. Only two of the 17 morphological properties compared showed significant differences. The B horizons make up a slightly greater proportion of total profile thickness in intercanopy soils, and there are higher percentages of coarse fragments in the lower portions of canopy soil profiles. Canopy soils have lower mean pH and higher mean organic C than intercanopy soils. Regression analysis showed that most soil properties did not closely correspond with tree size, but total soil thickness and B horizon thickness are significantly greater under the largest pinon trees, and soil reaction is lower under the largest juniper trees. Our findings suggest that during the period in which pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding, the trees have had only minor effects on soil morphology. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Developing a woodland caribou habitat mosaic on the Ogoki-Nakina North Forests of northwestern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armstrong

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ogoki-North Nakina Forests consist of (10 638 km2 unroaded boreal forest approximately 400 km northeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario (lat 50°- 51°31'N, long 86°30'- 89°W. Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou inhabit discrete portions within these forests based on minimal current and past historical data. As part of the Forest Management Planning process, for the period 1997-2097, a woodland caribou habitat mosaic has been developed to coordinate present and future forest management activities with the retention and development of current and future woodland caribou habitat. Several criteria including, past fire history, forest structure, age, species composition, proximity to current road access and location of existing and potential caribou habitat, helped identify and delineate 50 mosaic harvest blocks. Each harvest block will be logged in one of five 20 year periods over a 100 year rotation (1997¬2097. The harvest blocks have been developed to simulate a pattern of past wildfire history in an area that has not been subjected to past forest management activities, while managing for woodland caribou, a locally featured species.

  15. Modeling the effectiveness of tree planting to mitigate habitat loss in blue oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Douglas McCreary; William Frost

    2002-01-01

    Many local conservation policies have attempted to mitigate the loss of oak woodland habitat resulting from conversion to urban or intensive agricultural land uses through tree planting. This paper models the development of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) stand structure attributes over 50 years after planting. The model uses a single tree, distance...

  16. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  17. Managing fire for woodland caribou in Jasper and Banff National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon Shepherd

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou populations in Jasper (JNP and Banff National Parks (BNP have declined since the 1970s, coincident with reduced fire activity in both parks, relative to historic levels. Some researchers have suggested that long periods without fire may cause habitat deterioration for woodland caribou, primarily by reducing available lichen forage. We examined winter habitat selection by woodland caribou at coarse and fine scales based on GPS-derived telemetry data and used models that included stand origin (decade, topography, and several stand structure variables that are related to time since fire, to explore relationships among caribou, lichen, and fire history. Based on the relationships illustrated by the models, we assessed how fire management could be applied to caribou conservation in JNP and BNP. At a coarse scale, caribou selected old forest (> 75 years in landscapes that have likely experienced less frequent wildfire. While the abundance of Cladonia spp. influenced caribou use at fine scales, a preference for areas with older trees within stands was also significant. We conclude that short-term habitat protection for woodland caribou in JNP and BNP likely requires fire exclusion from caribou range.

  18. From protege to nurse plant : Establishment of thorny shrubs in grazed temperate woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Ruifrok, Jasper Laurens

    Question Thorny shrubs play keystone roles in grazed ecosystems by defending non-protected plants against herbivores, but their establishment in grazed ecosystems is poorly understood. Which factors control establishment of recruits of thorny nurse shrubs in grazed temperate woodlands? Location

  19. Mapping East African tropical forests and woodlands : a comparison of classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangendo, G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Oosten, van H.

    2007-01-01

    In mapping the forest¿woodland¿savannah mosaic of Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, four classification methods were compared, i.e. Maximum Likelihood classifier (MLC), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Maximum Likelihood combined with an Expert System (MaxExpert) and Spectral Angle Mapper combined with an

  20. Phenology and climate relationships in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forest and woodland communities of southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gretchen A.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Evelsizer, Ross J.; Vogelmann, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) occurs over wide geographical, latitudinal, elevational, and environmental gradients, making it a favorable candidate for a study of phenology and climate relationships. Aspen forests and woodlands provide numerous ecosystem services, such as high primary productivity and biodiversity, retention and storage of environmental variables (precipitation, temperature, snow–water equivalent) that affect the spring and fall phenology of the aspen woodland communities of southwestern Colorado. We assessed the land surface phenology of aspen woodlands using two phenology indices, start of season time (SOST) and end of season time (EOST), from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) database of conterminous U.S. phenological indicators over an 11-year time period (2001–2011). These indicators were developed with 250 m resolution remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer processed to highlight vegetation response. We compiled data on SOST, EOST, elevation, precipitation, air temperature, and snow water equivalent (SWE) for selected sites having more than 80% cover by aspen woodland communities. In the 11-year time frame of our study, EOST had significant positive correlation with minimum fall temperature and significant negative correlation with fall precipitation. SOST had a significant positive correlation with spring SWE and spring maximum temperature.

  1. Microsite and time since prescribed fire's influence on soil microbiology in a pinyon woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin M. Rau; Robert R. Blank; Tye Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frém.? Juniperus osteosperma Torr.) encroachment into sagebrush grasslands is a continuing problem in the Western United States. Prescribed burning has been suggested to slow woodland encroachment. We examined surface soil microbial community structure using Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA...

  2. Tree-shrub associations in grazed woodlands: First rodents, then cattle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Verwijmeren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial associations of tree saplings with spiny or toxic plants in grazed woodlands are generally explained by associational resistance, i. e., protection against grazing via a well-defended neighbor. In this study, we tested whether directed seed dispersal and post-dispersal seed removal by wood m

  3. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  4. Influence of Prescribed Fire on Ecosystem Biomass, Carbon, and Nitrogen in a Pinyon Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyon and juniper woodland encroachment associated with climate change and land use history in the Great Basin is thought to provide offsets for carbon emissions. However, the largest pools of carbon in arid landscapes are typically found in soils, and aboveground biomass cannot be considered long ...

  5. Nitrogen dynamics of spring-fed wetland ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada foothills oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall D. Jackson; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2002-01-01

    Spring-fed wetlands are small, highly productive, patchy ecosystems nested within the oak woodland/annual grassland matrix of the Sierra Nevada foothills. In an effort to place these wetlands in a landscape context, we described seasonal variation (1999-2000 growing season) in nitrogen cycling parameters at 6 spring-fed wetland sites of the Sierra Nevada foothill oak...

  6. Influence of Scale on the Management of Wildlife in California Oak Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Michael L. Morrison

    1991-01-01

    Distributions, abundances, and patterns of resource use of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals varied spatially and temporally in California oak woodlands. Spatial variations occurred within stands, between stands of a similar type (e.g., canyon live oak [Quercus chrysolepis], blue oak [Q. douglasii], or valley oak [

  7. Diversity and production of Ethiopian dry woodlands explained by climate- and soil- stress gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshete, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dry woodlands cover about 14% of the total African land surface and represent about 25% of the natural vegetation. They are characterized by a seasonal climate, with a dry season of 4–7 months. Large parts of these ecosystems are degrading due to grazing, fire or exploitation by people. We studied s

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands of Northern Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiru Birhane, E.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands in relation to season, management and soil depth in Ethiopia. We studied 43 woody species in 52 plots in three areas. All woody species were colonized by AM fungi,

  9. Woodland salamanders as metrics of forest ecosystem recovery: a case study from California’s redwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart Welsh; Garth Hodgson

    2013-01-01

    Woodland (Plethodontid) salamanders occur in huge numbers in healthy forests in North America where the abundances of many species vary along successional gradients. Their high numbers and trophic role as predators on shredder and decomposer arthropods influence nutrient and carbon pathways at the leaf litter/soil interface. Their extreme niche conservatism and low...

  10. Why is cultural resource site density high in the pinon-juniper woodland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Schlanger; Signa Larralde

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an extended abstract only) Hunter gatherers relied on healthy pinon-juniper woodland because it supports a wide variety of small game, large game, and bird species that shelter in the trees and forage on pinon nuts, a rich food source for humans as well as game.

  11. Coppice management effects on experimentally established populations of three herbaceous layer woodland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H van Calster; P. Endels; K. Antonio; K. Verheyen; M. Hermy

    2008-01-01

    Traditional coppice management creates a temporal release of resources. We determined how this affected three herbaceous species (Cardamine pratensis, Primula elatior and Geum urbanum) and if it was suitable for their conservation within woodland given their differing phenologies and habitat affinit

  12. Tree-shrub associations in grazed woodlands : First rodents, then cattle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Verwijmeren, Mart

    2011-01-01

    Spatial associations of tree saplings with spiny or toxic plants in grazed woodlands are generally explained by associational resistance, i.e., protection against grazing via a well-defended neighbor. In this study, we tested whether directed seed dispersal and post-dispersal seed removal by wood mi

  13. Impacts of communal fuelwood extraction on lidar-estimated biomass patterns of savanna woodlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 54% of rural households in South Africa continue to use wood as their main source of energy, mainly for cooking and heating. The provision of biomass by savanna woodlands is thus of considerable value to rural households and therefore...

  14. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  15. Long-term changes in organic matter of woodland soils cleared for arable cropping in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingore, S.; Manyame, C.; Nyamugafata, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Subsistence farmers in Africa depend largely on the soil organic matter to sustain crop productivity. Long-term changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen were measured after woodland clearance for smallholder subsistence farming or for commercial farming. The contents of organic carbon and nitroge

  16. Biological soil crust response to late season prescribed fire in a Great Basin juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Larry L. St.Clair; Jeffrey R. Johansen; Paul Kugrens; L. Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of juniper on U.S. rangelands is a significant environmental concern. Prescribed fire is often recommended to control juniper. To that end, a prescribed burn was conducted in a Great Basin juniper woodland. Conditions were suboptimal; fire did not encroach into mid- or late-seral stages and was patchy in the early-seral stage. This study evaluated the effects...

  17. Changing forest-woodland-savanna mosaics in Uganda: with implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangendo, G.

    2005-01-01

    Forest-Woodland-Savanna (FWS) mosaics are complex, highly varied and dynamic landscapes.Until recently, they were considered poor in terms of biodiversity. Consequently, only few scientific studies have been done on them and little attention has been paid to their cons

  18. Unleached Prosopis litter inhibits germination but leached stimulates seedling growth of dry woodland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, Gabriel M.; Poorter, Lourens; Bala, Pauline; Mohren, Godefridus M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Prosopis chilensis-Prosopis juliflora hybrid (hereinafter referred to as Prosopis species) invade riverine Acacia woodlands and replace indigenous Acacia tortilis through mechanism that are not yet well understood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dense shade and allelopathic effects of Pros

  19. Long-term changes in organic matter of woodland soils cleared for arable cropping in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingore, S.; Manyame, C.; Nyamugafata, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Subsistence farmers in Africa depend largely on the soil organic matter to sustain crop productivity. Long-term changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen were measured after woodland clearance for smallholder subsistence farming or for commercial farming. The contents of organic carbon and nitroge

  20. Floristic composition, structure, and species associations of dry Miombo woodland in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward; Meilby, Henrik; Treue, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Village Land Forest Reserve, a dry Miombo woodland area in Tanzania. A total of 35 nested circular plots with radii of 5, 15, and 20 m were used to collect data on woody species and soil samples across the 6,065 ha community-managed forest reserve. Stumps were measured 20 cm above ground. A total of 88...

  1. Unleached Prosopis litter inhibits germination but leached stimulates seedling growth of dry woodland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, Gabriel M.; Poorter, Lourens; Bala, Pauline; Mohren, Godefridus M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Prosopis chilensis-Prosopis juliflora hybrid (hereinafter referred to as Prosopis species) invade riverine Acacia woodlands and replace indigenous Acacia tortilis through mechanism that are not yet well understood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dense shade and allelopathic effects of

  2. Four millennia of woodland structure and dynamics at the Arctic treeline of eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Sarah; Payette, Serge

    2010-05-01

    Paleoecological analysis using complementary indicators of vegetation and soil can provide spatially explicit information on ecological processes influencing trajectories of long-term ecosystem change. Here we document the structure and dynamics of an old-growth woodland before and after its inception 1000 years ago. We infer vegetation and soil characteristics from size and age distributions of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), soil properties, plant fossils, and paleosols. Radiocarbon ages of charcoal on the ground and in the soil indicate that the fire return interval was approximately 300 years between 2750 and 1000 cal. yr BP. No fire evidence was found before and after this period despite the presence of spruce since 4200 cal. yr BP. The size structures of living and dead spruce suggest that the woodland is in equilibrium with present climate in absence of fire. Tree establishment and mortality occurred regularly since the last fire event around 950 cal. yr BP. Both layering and occasional seeding have contributed to stabilize the spatial distribution of spruce over the past 1000 years. Since initial afforestation, soil development has been homogenized by the changing spatial distribution of spruce following each fire. We conclude that the history of the woodland is characterized by vegetation shifts associated with fire and soil disturbances and by millennial-scale maintenance of the woodland's structure despite changing climatic conditions.

  3. Design considerations for examining trends in avian abundance using point counts: examples from oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Sylvia R. Mori; Mary K. Chase

    2005-01-01

    We used data from two oak-woodland sites in California to develop guidelines for the design of bird monitoring programs using point counts. We used power analysis to determine sample size adequacy when varying the number of visits, count stations, and years for examining trends in abundance. We assumed an overdispersed Poisson distribution for count data, with...

  4. Mapping decadal land cover changes in the woodlands of north eastern Namibia using the Landsat satellite archive (1975-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Vladimir; Phinn, Stuart; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Woodland savannahs provide essential ecosystem functions and services to communities. On the African continent, they are widely utilized and converted to intensive land uses. This study investigates the land cover changes over 108,038 km2 in NE Namibia using multi-sensor Landsat imagery, at decadal intervals from 1975 to 2014, with a post-classification change detection method and supervised Regression Tree classifiers. We discuss likely impacts of land tenure and reforms over the past four decades on changes in land use and land cover. These included losses, gains and exchanges between predominant land cover classes. Exchanges comprised logical conversions between woodland and agricultural classes, implying woodland clearing for arable farming, cropland abandonment and vegetation succession. The dominant change was a reduction in the area of the woodland class due to the expansion of the agricultural class, specifically, small-scale cereal and pastoral production. Woodland area decreased from 90% of the study area in 1975 to 83% in 2014, while cleared land increased from 9% to 14%. We found that the main land cover changes are conversion from woodland to agricultural and urban land uses, driven by urban expansion and woodland clearing for subsistence-based agriculture and pastoralism.

  5. What Drives the Phenology of Carbon Exchange in an Australian Temperate Woodland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendall, E.; Resco de Dios, V.; Cleverly, J. R.; Isaac, P. R.; Renchon, A.; Barton, C. V.; Boer, M. M.; Tissue, D.; Maier, C.

    2015-12-01

    Temperate, broadleaved evergreen woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus species are adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions. However, these ecosystems can be susceptible to extremes of environmental stress, including droughts and heat waves. We evaluated climatic drivers of carbon and water exchange using eddy covariance techniques for over two years in a dry sclerophyll woodland near Sydney, Australia. We found that the strongest net C uptake by this ecosystem occurred during the winter months (June through August), and that precipitation and minimum air temperature were the most important environmental drivers of net uptake. Ecosystem respiration was highest during summer as soil drought was alleviated by frequent thunderstorm events, and lowest during winter due to drier soil and cooler temperatures. Gross primary production was independent of surface soil moisture but was constrained by high VPD during summer. Highest water and light use efficiencies for GPP were observed during winter. This study demonstrates the importance of strong stomatal regulation of dry Eucalyptus woodlands in limiting summer uptake, and warm-season rain in enhancing soil organic matter decomposition, leading to net C losses during summer. The temporal patterns of CO2 fluxes in this mild temperate forest are unusual in comparison to other temperate forests. By persisting through unfavourable conditions and growing in response to favourable conditions during any season, the phenology of C dynamics in temperate sclerophyll woodlands can resemble that of drier ecosystems. The climatic drivers of net C uptake by these woodlands should be considered for evaluating vulnerability to extreme climate events that might limit their productivity as well as ecosystem C storage.

  6. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  7. Classification and mapping of the composition and structure of dry woodland and savanna in the eastern Okavango Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Tedder

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The dry woodland and savanna regions of the Okavango Delta form a transition zone between the Okavango Swamps and the Kalahari Desert and have been largely overlooked in terms of vegetation classification and mapping. This study focused on the species composition and height structure of this vegetation, with the aim of identifying vegetation classes and providing a vegetation map accompanied by quantitative data. Two hundred and fifty-six plots (50 m × 50 m were sampled and species cover abundance, total cover and structural composition were recorded. The plots were classified using agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis using group means and Bray-Curtis similarity and groups described using indicator species analysis. In total, 23 woody species and 28 grass species were recorded. Acacia erioloba and Colophospermum mopane were the most common woody species, whilst Urochloa mossambicensis, Panicum maximum, Dactyloctenium gigantiumand Eragrostis lehmanniana were the most widespread grasses. Eleven vegetation types were identified, with the most widespread being Short mixed mopane woodland, Tall mopane woodland and Tall mixed mopane woodland, covering 288.73 km2 (28%, 209.14 km2 (20% and 173.30 km2 (17% of the area, respectively. Despite their extensive area, these three vegetation types were the least species-rich, whilst Palm thornveld, Short mixed broadleaf woodland and Open mixed Acacia woodland were the most taxonomically variable. By contrast, Closed mixed Acacia woodland and Closed Acacia–Combretum woodland had the most limited distribution, accounting for less than 1% of the mapped area each.Conservation implications: The dry woodland and savanna vegetation of the Okavango Delta comprises a much wider suite of plant communities than the Acacia-dominated and Mopane-dominated classifications often used. This classification provided a more detailed understanding of this vegetation and essential background information for monitoring

  8. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  9. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  10. [Pine mouth syndrome: a global problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redal-Baigorri, Ana Belén

    2011-12-01

    Pinemouth syndrome is characterised by the development of metallogeusia two days after the ingestion of Chinese pine nuts. The symptoms disappear 7-14 days later. The distribution of Chinese pine nuts not suitable for human consumption, is caused by an increasing demand due to price differences. The reason for the taste disturbances is unknown, some suggest turpentine-based products in its composition, and others have studied the fatty acid content of pine nuts and the properties of pinolenic acid. So far the presence of pesticides or mycotoxins is been ruled out, but the puzzle remains unsolved.

  11. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  12. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, C.; Kubisiak, L.; Nelson, D.; Stine, M.

    2002-04-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F(1) tree ( Pinus palustris Mill. x P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree ( P. elliottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family consisting of 258 progeny. Of the 150 hybrid F(1) parent-specific RAPD markers, 133 were mapped into 17 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 1,338.2 cM. Of the 116 slash pine parent-specific RAPD markers, 83 were mapped into 19 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 994.6 cM. A total of 11 different marker intervals were found to be significantly associated with 13 of the 20 traits on height and diameter growth using MAPMAKER/QTL. Nine of the eleven marker intervals were unique to the hybrid parent 488 genome, and two were unique to the recurrent parent 18-27 genome. The amount of phenotypic variance explained by the putative QTLs ranged from 3.6% to 11.0%. Different QTLs were detected at different ages. Two marker intervals from the hybrid parent 488 were found to have QTL by environment interactions.

  13. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  14. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  15. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  16. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  17. Assessment of nest fates of woodland songbirds in J. Clark Slayer National Wildlife Refuge : 2002 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress report for the 2002 field season of a study to assess nest fates of woodland songbirds in J. Clark Slayer National Wildlife Refuge (JCSNWR), in northcentral...

  18. 林地地租量化研究%A Study on the Calculation of Woodland Rent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹秀清; 张志云

    2001-01-01

    以马克思地租理论为指导,阐明市场经济条件下我国林地地租的内涵及特征:求出零级土地的立地指数等级和各立地等级的年级差地租,从总地租中分离出绝对地租和级差地租。%Guided by Marxist land rent theory, under the condition of market economy, the connotation and characteristics of woodland rent in our country are expounded. By calculating site index of zero-leveled woodland, annually differential woodland rent has been separated from absolute woodland rent among total rent.

  19. The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: II. Evaporation estimates from sensible heat flux measurements over beech woodland and grass on chalk sites in Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on recharge to the Chalk aquifer of substitution of broadleaved woodland for pasture is a matter of concern in the UK. Hence, measurements of energy balance components were made above beech woodland and above pasture, both growing on shallow soils over chalk in Hampshire. Latent heat flux (evaporation was calculated as the residual from these measurements of energy balances in which sensible heat flux was measured with an eddy correlation instrument that determined fast response vertical wind speeds and associated temperature changes. Assessment of wind turbulence statistics confirmed that the eddy correlation device performed satisfactorily in both wet and dry conditions. There was excellent agreement between forest transpiration measurements made by eddy correlation and stand level tree transpiration measured with sap flow devices. Over the period of the measurements, from March 1999 to late summer 2000, changes in soil water content were small and grassland evaporation and transpiration estimated from energy balance-eddy flux measurements were in excellent agreement with Penman estimates of potential evaporation. Over the 18-month measurement period, the cumulative difference between broadleaved woodland and grassland was small but evaporation from the grassland was 3% higher than that from the woodland. In the springs of 1999 and 2000, evaporation from the grassland was greater than that from the woodland. However, following leaf emergence in the woodland, the difference in cumulative evaporation diminished until the following spring.

  20. Group Dynamics of Zebra and Wildebeest in a Woodland Savanna: Effects of Predation Risk and Habitat Density

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Thaker; Vanak, Abi T.; Cailey R. Owen; Monika B. Ogden; Rob Slotow

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR) to test the hypothesis that group dynamics...

  1. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  2. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  3. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  4. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  5. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren; John H. Borden

    2005-01-01

    We conducted seven behavioral choice tests with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in stands of mature lodgepole pine in British Columbia, from 1988 to 1994, to determine the dosedependent responses of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its pheromones. Amultifunctional dose-dependent response was exhibited by D. ...

  6. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  7. Biology of a Pine Needle Sheath Midge, Contarinia Acuta Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie C. Weatherby; John C. Moser; Raymond J. Gagné; Huey N. Wallace

    1989-01-01

    The biology of a pine needle sheath midge, Contarinia acuta Gagné is described for a new host in Louisiana. This midge was found feeding within the needle sheath on elongating needles of loblolly pine, P. taeda L. Needle droop and partial defoliation were evident on heavily infested trees. Overwintering C. acuta...

  8. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  9. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  10. The Study of Woodland Use Efficiency from the Perspective of Forest Resources Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaozhou; ZHOU; Min; LIU

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of forest resources change,this article uses comparative analysis and panel data regression to study the woodland use efficiency from forest resources quantity and quality change.The results show that although the forest coverage and forest stock volume per hectare show an overall upward trend,there are different change laws between the two;there are also differences in the influencing factors between forest coverage and forest stock volume per hectare( population density,rainfall and project having significant effect on forest coverage;population density,economic density and institution having significant effect on forest stock per hectare).Finally the recommendations are put forth for improving the woodland resources use efficiency:it is necessary to improve both the forest quantity and forest quality,focus on demand and supply,and pay equal attention to project promotion and property rights system reform.

  11. Prey specialization and morphological conformation of wolves associated with woodland caribou and moose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M.A. Wiwchar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of wolves associated with woodland caribou in late succession boreal coniferous forests north of the commercial cut line and those associated with moose in early succession boreal deciduous forests south of the commercial cut line were studied in Ontario. Socalled “moose-wolves” could readily be distinguished from “caribouwolves” in both genders using a few morphological measurements. Wolves associated with woodland caribou were significantly smaller in most measurements, and increased in size within seven years post-harvest as moose totally replaced caribou in the ecosystem. Whether this change in wolf morphology is related to micro-evolutionary change, the migration of larger “moose-wolves” into the area, or both, remains unclear.

  12. Allometry and growth of eight tree taxa in United Kingdom woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Moustakas, Aristides; Carey, Gregory; Malhi, Yadvinder; Butt, Nathalie; Benham, Sue; Pallett, Denise; Schäfer, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    As part of a project to develop predictive ecosystem models of United Kingdom woodlands we have collated data from two United Kingdom woodlands - Wytham Woods and Alice Holt. Here we present data from 582 individual trees of eight taxa in the form of summary variables relating to the allometric relationships between trunk diameter, height, crown height, crown radius and trunk radial growth rate to the tree's light environment and diameter at breast height. In addition the raw data files containing the variables from which the summary data were obtained. Large sample sizes with longitudinal data spanning 22 years make these datasets useful for future studies concerned with the way trees change in size and shape over their life-span.

  13. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  14. Preliminary analysis of habitat utilization by woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario using satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Hillis

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Locational data collected over a one year period from 10 female woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou, collared with Argos satellite collars in northwestern Ontario, Canada were superimposed on supervised Landsat images using Geographical Information System (GIS technology. Landscape parameters, land cover classifications, and drainage were utilized to create the basemap. Using ARCVIEW software, all digital fixes from collared caribou with information of date, time, and activity status were overlain on the basemap to facilitate a preliminary analysis of habitat use in this species. Results supported the conclusions (1 that woodland caribou in northwestern Ontario select habitats containing high to moderate conifer cover and avoided disturbed areas and shrub-rich habitats, (2 that seasonal changes in habitat utilization occurs in females of this species, and (3 that satellite telemetry technology can be employed in the boreal forest ecosystem to assess habitat utilization by large ungulate species.

  15. Integration of woodland caribou habitat management and forest management in northern Ontario - current status and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted (E.R Armstrong

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou range across northern Ontario, occurring in both the Hudson Bay Lowlands and the Boreal Forest. Woodland caribou extend south well into the merchantable forest, occurring in licensed and/or actively managed Forest Management Units (FMU's across the province. Caribou range has gradually but continuously receded northward over the past century. Since the early 1990's, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR has been developing and implementing a woodland caribou habitat management strategy in northwestern Ontario. The purpose of the caribou habitat strategy is to maintain woodland caribou occupancy of currently occupied range in northwestern Ontario. Long-term caribou habitat needs and predator-prey dynamics form the basis of this strategy, which requires the development of a landscape-level caribou habitat mosaic across the region within caribou range. This represents a significant change from traditional forest management approaches, which were based partially upon moose (Alces alces habitat management principles. A number of issues and concerns regarding implications of caribou management to the forest industry are being addressed, including short-term and long-term reductions in wood supply and wood quality, and increased access costs. Other related concerns include the ability to regenerate forests to pre-harvest stand conditions, remote tourism concerns, implications for moose populations, and required information on caribou biology and habitat. The forest industry and other stakeholders have been actively involved with the OMNR in attempting to address these concerns, so that caribou habitat requirements are met while ensuring the maintenance of a viable timber industry, other forest uses and the forest ecosystem.

  16. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kent Brown; W. James Rettie; Bob Wynes; Kim Morton

    2011-01-01

    We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis o...

  17. Relative importance of perch and facilitative effects on nucleation in tropical woodland in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Individual trees in open vegetation such as woodlands can act as "nuclei" for the colonization of forest tree species, which consequently lead to the formation of forest patches. This phenomenon is known as nucleation. The mechanism of nucleation is generally attributed to two factors: trees provide perches for frugivores that increase seed deposition (perch effect), and tree crowns ameliorate environmental conditions, which improves seedling establishment (facilitative effect). Few studies have attempted to distinguish the relative importance of these two factors. In this study, I separated these two effects in a woodland in northern Malawi. I chose Ficus natalensis as a potential nuclei tree because large individuals of this species are commonly located at the center of forest patches within open woodland at the study site. I monitored several environmental variables, seedling survival, seedling composition, and seed rain at three microsites: under F. natalensis, under Brachystegia floribunda (a dominant woodland species), and in open sites. Both tree species provided similar favorable conditions for the establishment of forest species compared to open sites. Thus, the survival of forest tree seedlings under F. natalensis and B. floribunda was similar, and substantially higher than seedling survival in open sites. However, communities of naturally occurring seedlings differed significantly between F. natalensis and B. floribunda. These results indicate that the facilitative effect alone cannot explain the nucleation pattern. I attribute this result to the perch effect of F. natalensis because the forest seedling species recorded under F. natalensis reportedly have small, brightly colored diaspores, which are indicative of dispersal by birds. Seed deposition of forest species under F. natalensis was significantly higher than that under B. floribunda or in open sites. My findings reinforce the idea that trees will lead to nucleation when they enhance seed

  18. Litter dominates surface fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a Californian oak woodland

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wu; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Lett, Céline; Seibt, Ulli

    2016-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a promising tracer for partitioning terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration from net carbon fluxes, based on its daytime co-uptake alongside CO2 through leaf stomata. Because ecosystem COS fluxes are the sum of plant and soil fluxes, using COS as a photosynthesis tracer requires accurate knowledge of soil COS fluxes. At an oak woodland in Southern California, we monitored below-canopy surface (soil + litter) COS and CO2 fluxes for 40 days using chambers and laser ...

  19. Macrofungi diversity in cork-oak and holm-oak Woodlands in Alentejo (Southern Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Silva,Celeste; Louro, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    With the purpose of contributing to a better knowledge of the Portuguese mycota, a compilation study of the macrofungal diversity of cork-oak and holm-oak woodlands (montado/dehesas) of Alentejo, Southern Portugal was made. This work is based on a series of macrofungi surveys, carried out by the authors, between 2005 and 2011, in six representative sites. Taxonomy and nomenclature follows Kirk et al. (2001) and Kirk (2004-2011). Current species distribution was consulted in: online intern...

  20. Woodland: Dynamics of Deciduous Tree Stand Average Diameters of the Principal Forest Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region has been done. The aggregate data of average tree stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done.

  1. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  2. Differential responses to woodland character and landscape context by cryptic bats in urban environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Lintott

    Full Text Available Urbanisation is one of the most dramatic forms of land use change which relatively few species can adapt to. Determining how and why species respond differently to urban habitats is important in predicting future biodiversity loss as urban areas rapidly expand. Understanding how morphological or behavioural traits can influence species adaptability to the built environment may enable us to improve the effectiveness of conservation efforts. Although many bat species are able to exploit human resources, bat species richness generally declines with increasing urbanisation and there is considerable variation in the responses of different bat species to urbanisation. Here, we use acoustic recordings from two cryptic, and largely sympatric European bat species to assess differential responses in their use of fragmented urban woodland and the surrounding urban matrix. There was a high probability of P. pygmaeus activity relative to P. pipistrellus in woodlands with low clutter and understory cover which were surrounded by low levels of built environment. Additionally, the probability of recording P. pygmaeus relative to P. pipistrellus was considerably higher in urban woodland interior or edge habitat in contrast to urban grey or non-wooded green space. These results show differential habitat use occurring between two morphologically similar species; whilst the underlying mechanism for this partitioning is unknown it may be driven by competition avoidance over foraging resources. Their differing response to urbanisation indicates the difficulties involved when attempting to assess how adaptable a species is to urbanisation for conservation purposes.

  3. The Effect of Anthropogenic Disturbance in the Ecohydrology of Pinyon Juniper Woodlands with Soil Biocrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, I.; Chandler, D. G.; Robinson, D. A.; Belnap, J.; Madsen, M.

    2005-12-01

    The canopy and intercanopy in pinyon-juniper woodlands are intrinsically related and constitute an ecosystem of great importance in the arid lands in the United States. The integrity of this ecosystem is continually challenged by anthropogenic disturbances as oil exploration and recreation activities in these environments. An important feature in the intercanopy of pinyon juniper drylands is the soil biological crust or biocrust. Biocrust is important to the nutrient cycles and hydrology and sediment production of this system. To quantify the effect of disturbances in the soil physical properties in the interspace of a pinion-juniper woodland we measured soil bulk density, water content, and hydraulic conductivity in undisturbed and disturbed areas of sandy soil. The disturbance had minimal impact on the bulk soil properties in the interspace soils. We also analyzed chlorophyll and other pigments related with bacterial activity in top 4mm of the soil and found chlorophyll activity to be almost zero in the disturbed areas while the undisturbed ones showed several orders of magnitude higher concentrations. Subsequent analysis of the soil surface properties indicates that a drastic change in the surface roughness and structure at the surface due to disturbances can alter the microenvironment characteristics critical for the bacterial survival. Since cyanobacteria colonization is the first step in the formation of biocrust, we conclude that surface properties are critical for the preservation and establishment of biocrust in the intercanopy space of the pinyon-juniper woodlands ecosystems.

  4. Performance of Burn-Severity Metrics and Classification in Oak Woodlands and Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Stambaugh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Burn severity metrics and classification have yet to be tested for many eastern U.S. deciduous vegetation types, but, if suitable, would be valuable for documenting and monitoring landscape-scale restoration projects that employ prescribed fire treatments. Here we present a performance analysis of the Composite Burn Index (CBI and its relationship to spectral data (differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR and its relative form (RdNBR across an oak woodland - grassland landscape in southwestern Oklahoma, USA. Correlation and regression analyses were used to compare CBI strata, assess models describing burn severity, and determine thresholds for burn severity classes. Confusion matrices were used to assess burn severity classification accuracy. Our findings suggest that dNBR and RdNBR, thresholded using total CBI, can produce an accurate burn severity map in oak woodlands, particularly from an initial assessment period. Lower accuracies occurred for burn severity classifications of grasslands and raises questions related to definitions and detection of burn severity for grasslands, particularly in transition to more densely treed structures such as savannas and woodlands.

  5. Annual and monthly range fidelity of female boreal woodland caribou in respons to petroleum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan V. Tracz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-sector development in northern Alberta, Canada has been implicated as one factor influencing the decline of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Previous research showed that caribou are farther from petroleum-sector disturbances within their home range than expected. As petroleum development increases, the distance caribou can selectively place themselves relative to industrial disturbance must decrease, because distances between disturbances decrease. Conceptually, the number of local disturbances becomes so large that caribou either abandon their local avoidance behaviour or leave their traditional home range. We evaluated whether an intense petroleum- development event in northern Alberta was sufficient to result in home range abandonment by female woodland caribou. Using well locations as an index of petroleum development, we found that caribou studied from 1992 to 2000 did not change their annual or monthly range fidelity as a function of development intensity. Caribou remained in peatland complexes containing a large number of petroleum-sector disturbances rather than move to new areas, presumably because the risks of dispersing across upland habitat to reach other suitable habitat are high. Such range fidelity may have fitness consequences for woodland caribou if they suffer greater predation in areas where petroleum development is occurring.

  6. Changes to oak woodland stand structure and ground flora composition caused by thinning and burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Carter O.; Kabrick, John M.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to quantify the cumulative effects of prescribed burning and thinning on forest stocking and species composition at a woodland restoration experiment site in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. Our study used four treatments (burn, harvest, harvest and burn, control) on three slope position and aspect combinations (south, north, ridge) replicated in three complete blocks. Harvested stands were thinned from below to 40 percent residual stocking. Two prescribed fires were applied to both burn and harvest-burn treatment units in a 5-year period. Results reflect changes that have taken place over a 6-year period, from pretreatment conditions to 1 year after the last fire. In this period, there was a 10-percent reduction in the stocking in burned stands compared to control and a 6-percent reduction in harvested and burned stands compared to harvested stands. Compared to the control, percentage ground cover of woodland indicators was seven times greater in burned stands, six times greater in harvested stands, and 22 percent greater in harvested and burned stands. Th ere was no significant (P > 0.05) interaction between aspect and treatment on stocking or ground flora cover. Th is study indicated that silvicultural treatments do achieve various goals that are common to managers who aim to restore woodland communities.

  7. Woodland type and spatial distribution of nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Zhioua, Elyes; Mitra, Shaibal; Fischer, Jason L.; Buckley, P.A.; Verret, Frank; Underwood, H. Brian; Buckley, Francine G.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in deciduous and coniferous woodlands were studied by sampling ticks in different woodland types and at sites from which deer had been excluded and by quantifying movement patterns of tick host animals (mammals and birds) at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, from 1994 to 2000. Densities of nymphal ticks were greater in deciduous than coniferous woods in 3 of 7 yr. Only engorged ticks survived the winter, and overwintering survival of engorged larvae in experimental enclosures did not differ between deciduous and coniferous woods. Nymphs were not always most abundant in the same forest type as they had been as larvae, and the habitat shift between life stages differed in direction in different years. Therefore, forest type by itself did not account for tick distribution patterns. Nymphal densities were lower where deer had been excluded compared with areas with deer present for 3 yr after exclusion, suggesting that movement patterns of vertebrate hosts influenced tick distribution, but nymphal densities increased dramatically in one of the enclosures in the fourth year. Therefore, movements of ticks on animal hosts apparently contribute substantially to tick spatial distribution among woodland types, but the factor(s) that determine spatial distribution of nymphal I. scapularis shift from year to year.

  8. The carbon accumulation and dissipation features of sub—alpine woodland in Mt.Gongga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGGenwei

    2003-01-01

    Based on biomass investigations,soil respiration and plant photosynthesis measurement of dominant trees in Hailuogou valley of Mt.Gongga,Southwest China,the carbon(C) storage,absorption and release for several typical woodlands in sub-alpine zones have been discussed.For Abies fahri forest of 3,000 m above sea level,the Cstorage amount is 177.4t/ha for above-ground biomass and 143.2 t/ha for soil below-ground biomass. The annual gross C fixed by vegetation photosynthesis is 20-24 t/ha. The C release by canopy respiration is 3.0-5.5 t/ha for arbors and 10-19 t/ha for surface soil and roots.The annual net C fixed of forest ecosystem is about 6.0-7.1 t/ha.At lower elevations,the amount of C released by woodlands is higher than that of woods at higher elevations.The C fixed capacity of renewed forest with middle-aged trees is higher than that of mature forest.Before becoming over-matured forest,woodland is an important sink of C whereas bareland in woods is the source of atmospheric C.

  9. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  10. Pine Savannah restoration monitoring –Tammany Holding Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitor the response of pine flatwood/savannah to restoration and management actions including brush removal, prescribed burning and planting longleaf pine...

  11. The Influence of Woodland Encroachment on Runoff and Erosion in Sagebrush Steppe Systems, Great Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, F. B.; Kormos, P. R.; Williams, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have expanded 10 to 30% in the past 30 years and now occupy nearly 20 million hectares of sagebrush shrub steppe in the Great Basin Region and Colorado Plateau, USA. The conversion of sagebrush steppe to pinyon and juniper woodlands has been linked to changes in plant community structure and composition and respective increases in overland flow and erosion from these landscapes. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP, www.sagestep.org) was implemented in 2005 as a 5 year interdisciplinary research study to evaluate restoration methodologies for sagebrush rangelands degraded by woodland and grassland encroachment over a six state area within the Great Basin. The hydrology component of SageSTEP focuses on the relationships between changes in vegetation and groundcover and runoff/erosion processes. In 2006, 140 small scale (0.5 m2) rainfall simulations were conducted at 2 locations within the Great Basin to determine whether critical thresholds exist in vegetation and ground cover that significantly influence infiltration, runoff, and erosion in pinyon and juniper woodlands. Simulation plots were distributed on interspaces (areas between shrub/tree canopies) and juniper, pinyon, and shrub coppices (areas underneath canopy). Water drop penetration times and litter depths were also collected for each plot to explore controls on soil hydrophobicity. Preliminary results suggest a positive correlation between litter depth and hydrophobicity, as soils under thick pinyon and juniper coppices are strongly water repellant and soils in interspaces and under shrub coppices are easily wettable. Interspace plots with varying amounts of grasses and forbs have the highest erosion and runoff rates due to higher percentages of bare ground and relatively low soil stability. Pinyon coppices have the least runoff and erosion due to very high litter depths and low bare ground cover, even though surface soils are hydrophobic. Juniper and

  12. Drivers of Productivity Trends in Cork Oak Woodlands over the Last 15 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher biodiversity leads to more productive ecosystems which, in turn, supports more biodiversity. Ongoing global changes affect ecosystem productivity and, therefore, are expected to affect productivity-biodiversity relationships. However, the magnitude of these relationships may be affected by baseline biodiversity and its lifeforms. Cork oak (Quercus suber woodlands are a highly biodiverse Mediterranean ecosystem managed for cork extraction; as a result of this management cork oak woodlands may have both tree and shrub canopies, just tree and just shrub canopies, and just grasslands. Trees, shrubs, and grasses may respond differently to climatic variables and their combination may, therefore, affect measurements of productivity and the resulting productivity-biodiversity relationships. Here, we asked whether the relationship between productivity and climate is affected by the responses of trees, shrubs, and grasses in cork oak woodlands in Southern Portugal. To answer this question, we linked a 15-year time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI derived from Landsat satellites to micrometeorological data to assess the relationship between trends in EVI and climate. Between 2000 and 2013 we observed an overall decrease in EVI. However, EVI increased over cork oaks and decreased over shrublands. EVI trends were strongly positively related to changes in relative humidity and negatively related to temperature. The intra-annual EVI cycle of grasslands and sparse cork oak woodland without understorey (savannah-like ecosystem had higher variation than the other land-cover types. These results suggest that oaks and shrubs have different responses to changes in water availability, which can be either related to oak physiology, to oaks being either more resilient or having lagged responses to changes in climate, or to the fact that shrublands start senesce earlier than oaks. Our results also suggest that in the future EVI could improve because the

  13. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  14. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  15. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  16. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler

    2009-01-01

    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  17. Yield of a Choctawhatchee Sand Pine Plantation at Age 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell M. Burns; R.H. Brendemuehl

    1969-01-01

    A little-known tree, Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa [Chapm.] Vasey), seems well adapted to the infertile, droughty soils common to the sandhills of Florida which now produce little value. Published yield data based on plantation-grown Choctawhatchee sand pine are not available. One 28-year-old plantation of this race of sand pine, growing...

  18. 78 FR 52498 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The... Standard Time. All RAC meetings are subject to change or cancellation. For status of the White Pine-Nye...

  19. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  20. Historical mapping reveals causes and temporal patterns of woodland contraction in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla from the 12th century AD to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Þorbjarnarson, Höskuldur

    2016-04-01

    Land-cover changes in Iceland over the last millennium encompass birch (Betula pubescens) woodland depletion and extensive soil erosion. Yet few studies have focused on spatial change of birch woodland coverage in Iceland over centuries and why and how the woodland depletion took place. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to map the woodland distribution today in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla (3041 km2) in southern Iceland; (2) to map woodland holdings over a period of 900 years from eleventh. AD 1100 to the early 20th century; (3) explain the relative impacts of socio-economic and natural forces on woodland cover over this period. We use a combined approach of historical reconstruction from diverse written archives, GIS techniques and field work. The woodland in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla now covers 73.2 km2 (2.5% of the study area). The woodland holdings, 44 in total, are regularly listed in the church inventories from 1179 to 1570 and are owned by the church. In the first complete register for the district in 1641 the woodland holdings were 73, owned and used by 58 estates, and distributed across Austur-Skaftafellssýsla. All the main patches of woodland remain today, with the exception of four minor woodlands which were exhausted near the end of the 19th century. The woodland was used for firewood and charcoal making as well as grazing during the study period but, crucially, in most cases only one estate had authority over each holding, none were commons. The main driving force behind the development of woodlands was socio-economic, rather than natural, where the form of ownership was fundamental for the fate of the woodland. Harsh climate and volcanism were not directly responsible for woodland depletion. The latter half of the 19th century was the period of greatest woodland loss. This period coincides with considerable expansion in livestock numbers, especially sheep and associated all year around grazing, at a time when the Little Ice Age culminated in

  1. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-02-19

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  2. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  3. Seasonal Variability in Soil Inorganic Nitrogen Across Borders Between Woodland and Farmland in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang-Cun; FU Yao; LIU Li; WANG Kun; WANG De-Li

    2013-01-01

    To study the seasonal variability of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) across borders at the woodland-farmland ecotone and potential mechanisms,contents of soil inorganic N were measured during the dry season (May 20 and June 30) and the rainy season (August 10 and September 20) of 2006 in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China.The borders between farmland and woodland were determined by a border-and-ecotone detection analysis (BEDA).The ecotone limits,often referred to as the depth-of-edge influence (DEI),are critical for determining the scale at which edge effect operates.The results showed that the soil inorganic N border between the woodland and farmland was located further toward the woodland interior during the rainy season (DEI =53.4 ±-8.7 m,August 10) than during the dry season (DEI =35.0 ± 12.6 m,May 20).The seasonal variability in the soil inorganic N border was found to be associated with seasonal changes of deposition flux of N (the correlation coefficients between them for the dry season and rainy season were 0.61 and 0.67,respectively),which resulted from foliation patterns of trees and crops.Accordingly,the leaf area index at woodland edges was lower than that in the woodland interior,so woodland edges captured large amounts of atmosphere nitrogen deposition.The average DEI was 44.1 m,which was in accordance with the values of other temperate forest boundaries in literatures; therefore,BEDA was an appropriate method to estimate the borders of ecotones.

  4. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steve; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  5. As Long as it is Not My Land: Landowners and Oak Woodland Conservation in Spain and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, L.; Oviedo, J. L.; Plieninger, T.

    2009-04-01

    In Spain and California, landowners have a crucial role to play in the conservation of oak woodlands. The value of environmental services from private oak woodlands used for extensive agriculture has drawn the attention of policymakers and conservationists, and policy strategies for maintenance of traditional extensive agriculture are emergent in both places. These strategies require landowner participation. Surveys of landowners in each place reveal similarities in management practices, goals, attitudes, and demographics, as well as some interesting points of divergence. Despite very different institutional and political contexts, landowner attitudes show some striking similarities. Both favor a degree of government protection of natural resources, but would prefer that this would not include regulation of activities on their own lands. With a relatively stable woodland ecologically, and a high rate of urban out-migration into woodland areas, the more visible initiatives in California today focus on landowner education, and tax relief for temporary or permanent restrictions on land conversion. Non-governmental organizations have taken an increasingly visible role in the brokering of purchased or donated land title restrictions for conservation. These programs have resulted in an apparent decline in oak harvest and some limitations on development, but have not often directly influenced regeneration or management on private lands. In contrast, with more stable patterns of population distribution and less stable woodland ecological dynamics, Spanish incentive programs approach regeneration and management issues more directly, with subsidies for oak planting and maintenance, and price advantages for the products of traditional agriculture. The results of a twenty-year longitudinal study in California show a shift towards an increasing focus on amenities by California oak woodland landowners, whether they are ranch owners with hundreds of hectares of woodland, or

  6. Interaction between fires and elephants in relation to vegetation structure and composition of miombo woodlands in northern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Natasha Sofia

    Miombo woodlands represent one of the most important dry deciduous ecosystems in southern Africa. They provide goods and services for over 80% of the population in the sub-continent. The ecology of this important ecosystem is strongly defined by the trio climate-fire-herbivory. Thus, miombo woodlands have a key role in the regional, and the global, energy, water and carbon balances. Niassa Reserve located in northern Mozambique, embodies the largest and most pristine conservation area of miombo woodlands in the region. It was left abandoned for almost twenty years of armed conflict in Mozambique. Currently it has the lowest human population and the highest density of elephants within miombo woodlands in the country. Fires occur every year within Niassa Reserve. Thus, Niassa Reserve represents a key area to investigate the relationships between vegetation and environmental drivers, a crucial question in miombo woodlands. The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the vegetation dynamics in relation to rainfall, fire and herbivory by elephants. To accomplish this goal, I used an innovative approach within miombo woodlands that couples field and remote sensing data. Field data collection aimed to gather information on woody species composition, structure and production (measured as biomass and leaf area index). Production data was used to calibrate remote sensing data and address large-scale variations in woody vegetation production. The results from this study indicate that there is a gradient of decreasing fire frequency, elephant density and rainfall and increasing woody production from east to west of Niassa Reserve. There is also a varied species composition along the same direction. These results provide information for ecological models predicting ecosystem dynamics under environmental changing conditions. Regionally, this study contributes to the understanding of the fundamental functioning of miombo woodlands and the associated driving

  7. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  8. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  9. Emissions and ambient distributions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC in a ponderosa pine ecosystem: interpretation of PTR-MS mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry systems were deployed at the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Southern Rocky Mountain 2008 field campaign (BEACHON-SRM08; July to September, 2008 at the Manitou Forest Observatory in a ponderosa pine woodland near Woodland Park, Colorado USA. The two PTR-MS systems simultaneously measured BVOC emissions and ambient distributions of their oxidation products. Here, we present mass spectral analysis in a wide range of masses (m/z 40+ to 210+ to assess our understanding of BVOC emissions and their photochemical processing inside of the forest canopy. The biogenic terpenoids, 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO, 50.2% and several monoterpenes (MT, 33.5% were identified as the dominant BVOC emissions from a transmission corrected mass spectrum (PTR-MS, averaged over the daytime (11 a.m. to 3 p.m., local time of three days. To assess contributions of oxidation products of local BVOC, we calculate an oxidation product spectrum with the OH- and ozone-initiated oxidation product distribution mass spectra of two major BVOC emissions at the ecosystem (MBO and β-pinene that were observed from laboratory oxidation experiments. The majority (~76% of the total signal in the transmission corrected PTR-MS spectra could be explained by identified compounds. The remainder are attributed to oxidation products of BVOC emitted from nearby ecosystems and transported to the site, and oxidation products of unidentified BVOC emitted from the ponderosa pine ecosystem.

  10. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G

    2015-05-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa.

  11. [The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ido; Mendel, Zvi

    2002-09-01

    The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is considered to be a serious pest of medical importance. The hair on the dorsum of the last instar larvae of the moth may cause urticarial reactions (erucism) as well as eye problems and temporary blindness. In Israel, the pest occurs in all pine plantations as well as on ornamental pine trees in urban areas. The biology, ecology and management of the moth population are discussed as well as the mechanism of action of the urticarial hairs and their medical significance. Awareness of the life cycle and ecology of the pest may reduce the contact of the population with the urticarial hairs and prevent the morbidity caused by it.

  12. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  13. Workshop proceedings: research and management in whitebark pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine C.; Coen, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to exchange information on on-going and soon-to-be-initiated whitebark pine research and management projects. By doing so we hope to encourage future work on this valuable species. We also hope to promote the use of consistent methods for evaluation and investigation of whitebark pine, and to provide avenues of collaboration. Speakers will present information on a variety of topics related to whitebark pine management and research. Featured presentation topics include anthropomorphic utilization of whitepark pine forests, whitebark pine natural regeneration, blister rust and the decline of whitebark pine, blister rust resistance studies, ecological mapping of the species, restoration and management projects, and survey/monitoring techniques. Information gained from these presentations may hopefully be used in the planning of future projects for the conservation of whitebark pine.

  14. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  15. Host Preference by Monochamus alternatus (Hope) during Maturation Feeding on Pine Species and Masson Pine Provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Host preferences pine of the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternates (Hope), during maturation feeding on 8 conifer trees and 40 masson pine provenances, were investigated using 3 types of laboratory bioassay of consistent feeding preference, feeding area and visitation frequency. M. alternatus adults have the highest frequency of feeding and prefer to feed on the branches of P. massoniana and P. densiflora and had significant host selectivity on 8 conifer trees in the area of Nanjing. The adult feeding vi...

  16. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.

    1967-11-01

    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  17. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds have been established, such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations). For Mediterranean ecosystems, few studies have been carried out to assess these parameters. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. For that we have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, which have been shown to be one of the most sensitive to excessive N. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done under Mediterranean climate, in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, by sampling lichen functional diversity and annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations and modelling N deposition downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). By modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition, the critical load was estimated to be below 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. By modelling the highly significant relationship of lichen functional groups with annual atmospheric ammonia concentration, the critical level was estimated to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should be taken into account in policies that aim at protecting Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  18. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo woodlands versus the energy needs of people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Maurice, Muchinda; Mukufute M, Mukelabai; J, Scholes Robert; Waldemar, Ziegler; L, Kutsch Werner

    2010-05-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between the dry open savannas and the moist forests in Southern Africa and occupy the vast area of 2.7 Mio km2. These ecosystems are highly disturbed by deforestation, mostly for charcoal production. Charcoal has become the largest source to satisfy urban energy demands. Even though when charcoal is a less energy-efficient fuel compared to firewood but by having higher energy densities and thus being cheaper to transport. Over the last decades, charcoal production has become a full-time employment for migrant workers, resulting in very different and no longer sustainable deforestation patterns. Strategies to reduce the pressure on the miombo woodlands have to take aspects of employment and energy demand into account. The objectives of the study were to examine above- and belowground carbon losses from an intact miombo woodland (protected forest reserve) in comparison to a highly disturbed surrounding area due to charcoal production. Detection of changes in carbon concentrations and stocks were made possible by applying biomass- and soil inventories as well as the eddy-covariance method. These local results were up-scaled to countrywide estimates of carbon lost to the atmosphere by deforestation in addition to carbon losses fossil fuel combustion. The results show, that in the worst case scenario which does not assume any regeneration, a developing country as Zambia, can easily emit as much carbon per capita as a developed Western world country such as France, when deforestation is included in the national inventory (up to 9.1 t of CO2 per capita). However, regeneration is very probably when post-harvest disturbance is low. Further studies on miombo regeneration are highly demanded.

  19. Soil respiration and organic carbon dynamics with grassland conversions to woodlands in temperate china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon store and soil respiration is the second-largest flux in ecosystem carbon cycling. Across China's temperate region, climatic changes and human activities have frequently caused the transformation of grasslands to woodlands. However, the effect of this transition on soil respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics remains uncertain in this area. In this study, we measured in situ soil respiration and SOC storage over a two-year period (Jan. 2007-Dec. 2008 from five characteristic vegetation types in a forest-steppe ecotone of temperate China, including grassland (GR, shrubland (SH, as well as in evergreen coniferous (EC, deciduous coniferous (DC and deciduous broadleaved forest (DB, to evaluate the changes of soil respiration and SOC storage with grassland conversions to diverse types of woodlands. Annual soil respiration increased by 3%, 6%, 14%, and 22% after the conversion from GR to EC, SH, DC, and DB, respectively. The variation in soil respiration among different vegetation types could be well explained by SOC and soil total nitrogen content. Despite higher soil respiration in woodlands, SOC storage and residence time increased in the upper 20 cm of soil. Our results suggest that the differences in soil environmental conditions, especially soil substrate availability, influenced the level of annual soil respiration produced by different vegetation types. Moreover, shifts from grassland to woody plant dominance resulted in increased SOC storage. Given the widespread increase in woody plant abundance caused by climate change and large-scale afforestation programs, the soils are expected to accumulate and store increased amounts of organic carbon in temperate areas of China.

  20. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pinho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds have been established, such as critical loads (deposition fluxes and levels (concentrations. For Mediterranean ecosystems, few studies have been carried out to assess these parameters. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. For that we have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, which have been shown to be one of the most sensitive to excessive N. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done under Mediterranean climate, in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, by sampling lichen functional diversity and annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations and modelling N deposition downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn. By modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition, the critical load was estimated to be below 26 kg (N ha−1 yr−1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. By modelling the highly significant relationship of lichen functional groups with annual atmospheric ammonia concentration, the critical level was estimated to be below 1.9 μg m−3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should be taken into account in policies that aim at protecting Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  1. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  2. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: evidence for a major gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A W; Sniezko, R A; Kegley, A; Burns, K S

    2014-02-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections from >100 limber pine trees confirm that genetic segregation of a stem symptom-free trait to blister rust is consistent with inheritance by a single dominant resistance (R) gene, and the resistance allele appears to be distinct from the R allele in western white pine. Following previous conventions, we are naming the R gene for limber pine "Cr4." The frequency of the Cr4 allele across healthy and recently invaded populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains was unexpectedly high (5.0%, ranging from 0 to 13.9%). Cr4 is in equilibrium, suggesting that it is not a product of a recent mutation and may have other adaptive significance within the species, possibly related to other abiotic or biotic stress factors. The identification of Cr4 in native populations of limber pine early in the invasion progress in this region provides useful information for predicting near-term impacts and structuring long-term management strategies.

  3. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  4. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  5. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  6. Ecology and management of a remnant Brachystegia Speciformis (Miombo) Woodland in North Eastern Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saidi, AT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available -based identification of the components of each vegetation stratum as well as the measuring of the actual maximum height of each stratum. Phenological changes were also monitored over the four different seasons in a year and recorded in a form of photographs taken... As for phenology, the results of the analysis revealed that the woodland in the study area goes through four distinctive changes that correspond with the four seasons in a year. In summer, Brachystegia spiciformis is in full green canopy. Flowering starts...

  7. Taphonomic alterations by the rodent species woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T

    2015-12-01

    This forensic case report describes the taphonomic effects of woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon a set of skeletonized human remains recovered in Massachusetts, USA. Remains of an individual of this rodent species were discovered where it had been nesting inside the human cranium. Fine, parallel grooves indicative of small rodent gnawing were noted on multiple postcranial elements, and all isolated grooves were consistent in size with the incisors of this species. Other taphonomic alterations to these remains include some gnawing damage and dispersal by large carnivores. This case represents the first report of this rodent species affecting human remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transpiration and hydraulic strategies in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Hultine, K R; Sperry, J S; Bush, S E; Ehleringer, J R

    2008-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is likely to alter the patterns of moisture availability globally. The consequences of these changes on species distributions and ecosystem function are largely unknown, but possibly predictable based on key ecophysiological differences among currently coexisting species. In this study, we examined the environmental and biological controls on transpiration from a piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) woodland in southern Utah, USA. The potential for climate-change-associated shifts in moisture inputs could play a critical role in influencing the relative vulnerabilities of piñons and junipers to drought and affecting management decisions regarding the persistence of this dominant landscape type in the Intermountain West. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of this woodland to seasonal variations in moisture and to mechanistically explain the hydraulic strategies of P. edulis and J. osteosperma through the use of a hydraulic transport model. Transpiration from the woodland was highly sensitive to variations in seasonal moisture inputs. There were two distinct seasonal pulses of transpiration: a reliable spring pulse supplied by winter-derived precipitation, and a highly variable summer pulse supplied by monsoonal precipitation. Transpiration of P. edulis and J. osteosperma was well predicted by a mechanistic hydraulic transport model (R2 = 0.83 and 0.92, respectively). Our hydraulic model indicated that isohydric regulation of water potential in P. edulis minimized xylem cavitation during drought, which facilitated drought recovery (94% of pre-drought water uptake) but came at the cost of cessation of gas exchange for potentially extended periods. In contrast, the anisohydric J. osteosperma was able to maintain gas exchange at lower water potentials than P. edulis but experienced greater cavitation over the drought and showed a lesser degree of post-drought recovery (55% of pre-drought uptake). As a result, these species

  9. Assessment of bird populations in a high quality savanna/woodland: a banding approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Sandra L.; Glowacki, Gary A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2004, Save the Dunes Conservation Fund's Miller Woods Bird Banding Program monitored migrating and breeding bird populations within a high quality black oak, dry-mesic sand savanna/woodland with ridge and swale topography. The objectives of this program were to collect consistent and reliable demographic and abundance data on the bird populations, to investigate long-term population trends, and to contribute to improved land management decisions at regional and national scales. The technique employed involved capturing birds in mist nets that were deployed for set periods of time at 17 net sites in two banding areas in Miller Woods.

  10. Simultaneous assimilation of satellite and eddy covariance data for improving terrestrial water and carbon simulations at a semi-arid woodland site in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, T.; Knorr, W.; Scholtze, M.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Kaminski, T.; Kattge, J.; Gobron, N.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial productivity in semi-arid woodlands is strongly susceptible to changes in precipitation, and semi-arid woodlands constitute an important element of the global water and carbon cycles. Here, we use the Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS) to investigate the key parameters control

  11. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the po

  12. Status of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pine snake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Ricky W. Maxey

    2006-01-01

    Extensive trapping surveys across the historical range of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake) suggest that extant populations are extremely small and limited to remnant patches of suitable habitat in a highly fragmented landscape. Evaluation of habitat at all known historical localities of P. ruthveni documents the widespread...

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  14. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes: The Case of Deciduous Oak Woodlands in Lesvos (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9 %. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats.

  15. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo D Shirima

    Full Text Available We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m, stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps, soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand

  16. Redescrição de Nomimoscolex admonticellia (Woodland, comb.n. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea, parasito de Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, um siluriforme de água doce Redescription of Nomimoscolex admonticellia (Woodland, comb.n (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea parasite of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, a freshwater siluriform fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Arandas Rego

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monticelliidae species, Nomimoscolex admonticellia (Woodland, 1934, comb.n., parasite of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, 1829 a freshwater siluriform fish, is redescribed. This species is the type of the genus Myzophorus Woodland, 1934. The authors discuss the validity of this genus and propose its suppression. Their species are transferred to Nomimoscolex (Zigobothriinae whose diagnose is modified to include: N. admonticellia, comb.n., N. pirarara (Woodland, 1935, comb.n. and N. woodlandi (Rego, 1984, comb.n.

  17. Runoff and erosion in a pinon-juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, K.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.; MacDonald, L.

    1999-12-01

    In many semiarid regions, runoff and erosion differ according to vegetation patch type. These differences, although hypothesized to fundamentally affect ecological processes, have been poorly quantified. In a semiarid pinion-juniper woodland [Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] in northern New Mexico, the authors measured runoff and erosion from the three patch types that compose these woodlands: Canopy patches (those beneath woody plants), vegetated patched in intercanopy areas, and bare patches in intercanopy areas. The bare intercanopy patches exhibited the highest rates, followed by vegetated intercanopy patches and then by canopy patches. Large convective summer storms, though relatively infrequent, generated much of the runoff and most of the sediment; prolonged frontal storms were capable of generating considerable runoff but little sediment. A portion of the runoff and most of the sediment generated from bare intercanopy patches was redistributed down-slope, probably to adjacent vegetated intercanopy patches, demonstrating connectivity between these two patch types. Their results indicate that there are significant and important differences in runoff and sediment production from the three patch types; that bare intercanopy patches act as sources of both water and sediment for the vegetated intercanopy patches; and that the transfer of water and sediment at small scales is both frequent enough and substantial enough to be considered ecologically significant.

  18. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  19. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  20. Auxin biosynthesis by the YUCCA6 flavin monooxygenase gene in woodland strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Xie, Wei-Fa; Zhang, Ling; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Ye, Zheng-Wen; Gao, Qing-Hua; Duan, Ke

    2014-04-01

    Auxin has been regarded as the main signal molecule coordinating the growth and ripening of fruits in strawberry, the reference genomic system for Rosaceae. The mechanisms regulating auxin biosynthesis in strawberry are largely elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that two YUCCA genes are involved in flower and fruit development in cultivated strawberry. Here, we show that the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome harbors nine loci for YUCCA genes and eight of them encode functional proteins. Transcription pattern in different plant organs was different for all eight FvYUCs. Functionality of the FvYUC6 gene was studied in transgenic strawberry overexpressing FvYUC6, which showed typical high-auxin phenotypes. Overexpression of FvYUC6 also delayed flowering and led to complete male sterility in F. vesca. Additionally, specific repression of FvYUC6 expression by RNA interference significantly inhibited vegetative growth and reduced plant fertility. The development of leaves, roots, flowers, and fruits was greatly affected in FvYUC6-repressed plants. Expression of a subset of auxin-responsive genes was well correlated with the changes of FvYUC6 transcript levels and free indole-3-acetic acid levels in transgenic strawberry. These observations are consistent with an important role of FvYUC6 in auxin synthesis, and support a main role of the gene product in vegetative and reproductive development in woodland strawberry.

  1. Modelling soil moisture for a grassland and a woodland site in south-east England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blyth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison between two soil moisture prediction models. One is MORECS (Met Office Rainfall and Evaporation Calculation Scheme, the Met Office soil moisture model that is used by agriculture, flood modellers and weather forecasters to initialise their models. The other is MOSES (Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme, modified with a runoff generation module. The models are made compatible by increasing the vegetation information available to MOSES. Both models were run with standard parameters and were driven using meteorological observations at Wallingford (1995-1997. Detailed soil moisture measurements were available at a grassland site and a woodland site in this area. The comparison between the models and the observed soil moisture indicated that, for the grassland site, MORECS dried out too quickly in the spring and, for the woodland site, was too wet. Overall, the performance of MOSES was superior. The soil moisture predicted by the new, modified MOSES will be included as a product of Nimrod - the 5 km x 5km gridded network of observed meteorological data across the UK. Keywords: Soil moisture, model, observation, field capacity

  2. Estimating forest and woodland aboveground biomass using active and passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Aboveground biomass was estimated from active and passive remote sensing sources, including airborne lidar and Landsat-8 satellites, in an eastern Arizona (USA) study area comprised of forest and woodland ecosystems. Compared to field measurements, airborne lidar enabled direct estimation of individual tree height with a slope of 0.98 (R2 = 0.98). At the plot-level, lidar-derived height and intensity metrics provided the most robust estimate for aboveground biomass, producing dominant species-based aboveground models with errors ranging from 4 to 14Mg ha –1 across all woodland and forest species. Landsat-8 imagery produced dominant species-based aboveground biomass models with errors ranging from 10 to 28 Mg ha –1. Thus, airborne lidar allowed for estimates for fine-scale aboveground biomass mapping with low uncertainty, while Landsat-8 seems best suited for broader spatial scale products such as a national biomass essential climate variable (ECV) based on land cover types for the United States.

  3. Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Increase in Soil Physical Fractions Following Vegetation Change from Grassland to Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Boutton, T. W.; Filley, T. R.; Hallmark, C. T.

    2009-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment has been pervasive in grass-dominated ecosystems around the world during the past century due to livestock grazing, fire suppression, and/or changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry. In the Rio Grande Plains of Texas, subtropical thorn woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands. This dramatic land cover change has increased above- and belowground primary productivity and accelerated rates of biogeochemical processes in the soil. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of this grassland to woodland transition on C, N, and P concentrations in soil physical fractions that differ in turnover rates. Soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands and near the centers of woody plant clusters ranging in age from 15 to 90 yrs in a subtropical savanna parkland in southern Texas. Soils were fractionated by wet sieving into five size and density classes: un-sieved whole soil, free light fraction (density 250 µm), microaggregates (53-250 µm), and free silt and clay (plant-microbe and plant-plant interactions, and successional dynamics in this ecosystem.

  4. Mapping forest stand complexity for woodland caribou habitat assessment using multispectral airborne imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Hu, B.; Woods, M.

    2014-11-01

    The decline of the woodland caribou population is a result of their habitat loss. To conserve the habitat of the woodland caribou and protect it from extinction, it is critical to accurately characterize and monitor its habitat. Conventionally, products derived from low to medium spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as land cover classification and vegetation indices are used for wildlife habitat assessment. These products fail to provide information on the structure complexities of forest canopies which reflect important characteristics of caribou's habitats. Recent studies have employed the LiDAR system (Light Detection And Ranging) to directly retrieve the three dimensional forest attributes. Although promising results have been achieved, the acquisition cost of LiDAR data is very high. In this study, utilizing the very high spatial resolution imagery in characterizing the structural development the of forest canopies was exploited. A stand based image texture analysis was performed to predict forest succession stages. The results were demonstrated to be consistent with those derived from LiDAR data.

  5. Soil Black Carbon Loss and Sediment Black Carbon Accumulation in a Central Texas Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, E. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; White, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge is located along the eastern edge of the Edwards Plateau in Texas, and was established in 1992 for the purpose of conserving habitat for two endangered bird species. The landscape is composed of hilly, mesa-valley terrain, which is mostly covered by grasslands and woodlands dominated by juniper with intermingling of various oak species. Based on historical photo analysis and tree fire scar dendrochronology, the area has experienced major land use changes over the last century due to wildfire, logging, and drought affecting soil stability and woodland species composition. A previous study on soil black carbon showed that site-specific soil erosion potential and time since last fire may act as controls on soil black carbon concentrations. However, the black carbon transport flux, depositional fate, or the magnitude of soil erosion effects upon the black carbon budget are unconstrained at the watershed scale. To address this, we sampled the sediments accumulating in small ponds constructed during the 1950's for livestock watering. We are quantifying black carbon in sediments using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Preliminary data suggest that the pond sediments are a black carbon sink. Black carbon comprises 15 % - 25 %, of the sedimentary organic carbon, as substantial enrichment relative to soils within the watershed. We will present an early assessment of the black carbon erosion and sediment accumulation rates in first- and second-order watersheds.

  6. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  7. The Influence of Rainfall, Vegetation, Elephants and People on Fire Frequency of Miombo Woodlands, Northern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, N. S.; Okin, G. S.; Shugart, H. H.; Swap, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Miombo woodlands are important in southern Africa as they occupy over 50% of the land and, their good and services support a large proportion of people in the region. Anthropogenic fires occur in miombo every year especially in the dry season (May - October). This study explores the influence of annual rainfall, elephant density, human density and corridors, and vegetation on the fire frequency. It was carried out in Niassa Reserve located in northern Mozambique, the largest and more pristine conservation area of miombo woodlands in the world. We used a time series analysis and statistical t-test of MODIS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to explore the relationship between biomass and fire frequency. The influence of rainfall, elephants, people and vegetation on fire return was explored using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that fire frequency is higher in places with high biomass at beginning of the dry season. In these areas fire seems to be more intense and to strongly reduce biomass in the late dry season. Land cover is the strongest predictor of fire frequency, but elephant density, annual rainfall and human corridors are also important.

  8. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change.

  9. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  10. Wilderness and woodland ranchers in California: A total income case study of public grazing permits and their impacts on conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo Pro, J. L.; Huntsinger, L.; Campos, P.; Caparros, A.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean woodlands in California are managed as agro-silvo-pastoral systems producing a number of commercial products as well as a huge variety of environmental services, including private amenities for the landowner. In many parts of the woodlands, grazing on government owned (public) lands has traditionally had an important role in private ranching. In recent decades the risk of conversion to alternative uses (such as urban development or vineyards) has threatened these woodlands due to the increasing opportunity costs of capital. Understanding the economy of these woodlands and the potential effects of public grazing policies on the total income perceived by the landowner is crucial when considering strategies attempting to slow or stop land use change. However, traditional cash-flow analyses are lacking crucial information needed to understand all the elements that have an important role in the economic decisions that landowners make about their woodlands. For more than half a century, the use of public lands by private ranchers has been one of the most controversial debates in the American west. Wilderness conservationist groups have denounced grazing as destructive and argue for the removal of any kind of livestock. Ranchers have fought for their right to hold public grazing leases, arguing that they are crucial for the continuity of private ranching and consequently for the conservation of extensive rangeland habitat that otherwise could be converted to alternative uses. In this study, we apply the Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS) methodology to a California oak woodland case study to estimate the total private income generated in an accounting period. The presented case study is characterized by a household economy with self-employed labour and with part of the grazing dependent on public land leases. The AAS methodology extends traditional cash-flow analysis in order to estimate the total private income that would accurately explain the woodland

  11. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  12. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  13. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  15. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D; Marshall, Robert M; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B; Haney, Jeanmarie A; Gori, David F

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  16. Wild Harvests from Scottish Woodlands Social, cultural and economic values of contemporary non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla Emery; Suzanne Martin; Alison Dyke; Alison Dyke

    2006-01-01

    More than 30 people were interviewed about the wild edibles, medicinals, and craft materials they collect and the part that collecting plays in their lives as part of the Wild Harvests from Scottish Woodlands project. Interviews were conducted in autumn 2004. Collecting non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is a source of joy and satisfaction for many of those interviewed...

  17. Current forest and woodland carbon storage and flux in California: An estimate for the 2010 statewide assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Robards

    2012-01-01

    This study used USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data, forest growth models, wildland fire emission estimates and timber harvest data to estimate the live tree carbon storage and flux of California's forests and woodlands. Approximately 30 Tg C02e per year was estimated as the annual flux for all California forests. The forest inventory...

  18. Genetic structure in populations of an ancient woodland sedge, carex sylvatica Hudson, at a regional and local scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.F.P.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Os, van B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Wood sedge (Carex sylvatica) is a well-known ancient woodland species with a long-term persistent seed bank and a caespitose growth habit. All thirteen isolated Carex sylvatica populations in the Dutch Rhine floodplain (including the river branches Waal and IJssel) were mapped in detail and analysed

  19. Influence of soil water repellency on seedling emergence and plant survival in a burned semi-arid woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite post-fire reseeding efforts, Pinus-Juniperus (piñon-juniper) woodlands often become invaded by annual weeds that out-compete native species, degrade ecological processes, and modify natural fire patterns. In order to develop successful post-fire restoration approaches in these communities, i...

  20. Utilizing national agriculture imagery program data to estimate tree cover and biomass of pinyon and juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the encroachment of pinyon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus ssp.) (P-J) woodlands into sagebrush steppe communities, there is an increasing interest in rapid, accurate, and inexpensive quantification methods to estimate tree canopy cover and aboveground biomass over large landscapes. The o...

  1. 林地估价技术体系研究%A Study of Technical System of Woodland Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况水标; 尹少华; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of the system of integrated environmental and economic accounting,forest valuation is a new job of woodland asset management.In terms of the valuation of woodland benefits,combining with the present methods of estimating,the paper proposed a whole set of estimation methods for assessing the woodland.In the framework of the system of integrated environmental and economic accounting,it will take the time as the work of forest resources commercialization after implementation of woodland protection using.%林地估价是绿色国民经济核算体系框架背景下林地资产化管理的一项新工作。从林地的收益估算理论入手,结合现行林地和林木资产评估方法,在林地分等定级相关研究成果基础上,建立以评估林地基准地价为核心的一整套林地估价技术体系,以期为今后绿色国民经济框架下,森林资源的商品化推进工作奠定基础。

  2. Exploiting machine learning algorithms for tree species classification in a semiarid woodland using RapidEye image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adelabu, S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available in semiarid environments. In this study, we examined the suitability of 5-band RapidEye satellite data for the classification of five tree species in mopane woodland of Botswana using machine leaning algorithms with limited training samples. We performed...

  3. Comparative measurements of transpiration an canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; Morecroft, Michael D.;

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration of two heterogeneous broadleaved woodlands in southern England was monitored by the sap flux technique throughout the 2006 growing season. Grimsbury Wood, which had a leaf area index (LAI) of 3.9, was dominated by oak (Quercus robur L.) and birch (Betula pubescens L.) and had a cont...

  4. What lies beneath: detecting sub-canopy changes in savanna woodlands using a three-dimensional classification method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, JT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation Science What lies beneath: detecting sub-canopy changes in savanna woodlands using a three-dimensional classification method Jolene T. Fisher, Ed T.F. Witkowski, Barend F.N. Erasmus, Penelope J. Mograbi, Gregory P. Asner, Jan A.N. van...

  5. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) abundance and seasonal flight activity in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and woodlands in five eastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, J C; Leskey, T C; Walgenbach, J F; Klingeman, W E; Kain, D P; Zhang, A

    2009-06-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 +/- 644 and 3095 +/- 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, exceeding captures at urban sites by 16 and 13 times and at woodland sites by 210 and 206 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Mean total captures at urban sites exceeded those in woodland habitats by 13 and 16 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mean duration (wk) of the flight period did not differ significantly between apple orchards (22.6 +/- 0.6 SE) and urban sites (20.3 +/- 1.2 SE). The onset of flight was somewhat later in New York (around early June) than further south (around early to mid-May), but moth captures continued into October in all states. Captures in apple orchards and at urban sites with higher populations were essentially continuous throughout the flight period, with substantial weekly fluctuations, and tended to show a bimodal pattern with peaks from late May through mid-July and from late August through mid-September. Captures at woodland sites tended to occur predominantly from mid-May through about mid-June and were very sporadic thereafter.

  6. Planning for and implementing an emerald ash borer-induced forest restoration program in municipal woodlands in Oakville, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; Candace. Karandiuk

    2017-01-01

    Oakville is an urban municipality with 846 ha of woodland. Management priorities are to maintain forest health, environmental health, and safety; wood production is a minor objective. The town developed a comprehensive strategy to plan for emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) induced ash mortality and forest restoration. Oakville has begun...

  7. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  8. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  9. Engaging with Peri-Urban Woodlands in England: The Contribution to People’s Health and Well-Being and Implications for Future Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz O'Brien

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we engage with debates concerning people and their contact with the natural environment as part of everyday life drawing on Irwin’s ideas of co-construction and Gibson’s theory of affordances. We focus on peri-urban woodlands in England as important places where people can interact with nature for health and well-being. Qualitative data were collected in situ via walks in the woods, focus group discussions and photo elicitation, with a sample of 49 people. These methods provide rich data on the wide range of meanings associated with woodlands that can have a perceived impact on people’s health and well-being. The findings link to contemporary debates about health, well-being and ecosystem services. We explore the inter-play between attributes of the physical environment and the range of facilities provided to enable access, social interactions and the benefits people attribute to their woodland experiences. We conclude that peri-urban woodlands can clearly contribute to self-reported health and well-being in multiple ways, and that organized activities can be important for those who face barriers to accessing woodlands. A strong message emerging from the research is the opportunity afforded by woodlands for social connections with others, as well as the provision of a range of sensory benefits and opportunities to observe and enjoy seasonal change in woodlands. Mental restoration via connection with nature also emerged as important, confirming previous research.

  10. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined...

  11. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977].

  12. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  13. Tree retention in boreal pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Santaniello, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Tree retention forestry aims at increasing structural diversity in managed forests. In this study, I have investigated the influence of tree retention forestry on delivery of two ecosystem services (wood production and carbon sequestration) and dead wood (as a proxy for biodiversity). Furthermore, habitat requirements of lichens dependent on dead wood were investigated. The study was conducted in 15 Scots pine forest stands with five various tree retention levels, in which four...

  14. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  15. Carbon dioxide fluxes over an ancient broadleaved deciduous woodland in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study of canopy-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from 2007 to 2009 above a site in Wytham Woods, an ancient temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in southern England. Gap-filled net ecosystem exchange (NEE data were partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re and analysed on daily, monthly and annual timescales. Over the continuous 24 month study period annual GPP was estimated to be 21.1 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and Re to be 19.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1; net ecosystem productivity (NEP was 1.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. These estimates were compared with independent bottom-up estimates derived from net primary productivity (NPP and flux chamber measurements recorded at a plot within the flux footprint in 2008 (GPP = 26.5 ± 6.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, Re = 24.8 ± 6.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, biomass increment = ~1.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Over the two years the difference in seasonal NEP was predominantly caused by changes in ecosystem respiration, whereas GPP remained similar for equivalent months in different years. Although solar radiation was the largest influence on daily values of CO2 fluxes (R2 = 0.53 for the summer months for a linear regression, variation in Re appeared to be driven by temperature. Our findings suggest that this ancient woodland site is currently a substantial sink for carbon, resulting from continued growth that is probably a legacy of past management practices abandoned over 40 years ago. Our GPP and Re values are generally higher than other broadleaved temperate deciduous woodlands and may represent the influence of the UK's maritime climate, or the particular species composition of this site. The carbon sink value of Wytham Woods

  16. Nest sites selection by sympatric cavity-nesting birds in miombo woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Nyirenda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and habitat fragmentation have long been known as drivers of wildlife depletion but information on their specific impacts on cavity-nesting birds in the miombo woodlands has been lacking. A comparative study of disturbed and undisturbed sites was conducted in miombo woodlands of Zambia to assess impacts of environmental stressors on birds. Foot patrols were employed to locate, identify and count host trees and cavities for cavity-nesting birds on twenty 200 m × 200 m sample plots. Undisturbed forests had three times more cavities (the nesting sites for birds, while there were 24.6% fewer abandoned cavities in undisturbed forests than in disturbed forests. The rate of cavity abandonment was about twice as high in human-dominated forests compared to undisturbed forests (61.3% c.f. 31.9%. Cavity-nesting birds preferred larger (> 36.0 cm diameter at breast height and taller (> 5.0 m trees for nest placement, especially in human-dominated forests. A number of cavity-nesting birds preferred Brachystegia spiciformis (zebrawood, Julbernadia paniculata (munsa, Parinari curatellifolia (mobola-plum and Uapaca kirkiana (mahobohobo as host trees to 14 other miombo tree species. Arnot’s Chat (Myrmecocichla arnoti had a wider selection of host trees for cavity-nesting than the other 40 cavity-nesting birds in the study areas. Anthropogenic activities such as uncontrolled firewood collection, wild fires, logging, and land clearing for agriculture negatively influenced wood abundance and diversity, with potential implications for persistence of cavity-nesting birds. The negative impacts of anthropogenic activities could be counteracted by conservation strategies such as implementation of sound forest policies, integrative land use practices, sustainable livelihood security and stakeholders’ awareness of the need to safeguard forest-dependent avifauna.Conservation implications: This comparative study unravels specific anthropogenic impacts on

  17. High spatial resolution remote sensing imagery improves GPP predictions in disturbed, semi-arid woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Eitel, J.; Vierling, L. A.; Schulthess, U.; Litvak, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate across the globe is changing and consequently the productivity of terrestrial vegetation is changing with it. Gross primary productivity (GPP) is an integral part of the carbon cycle, yet challenging to measure everywhere, all the time. Efforts to estimate GPP in the context of climate change are becoming continually more salient of the need for models sensitive to the heterogeneous nature of drought and pest induced disturbance. Given the increased availability of high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery, their use in ecosystem scale GPP estimation is becoming increasingly viable. We used a simple linear model with inputs derived from RapidEye time series data (5 meter spatial resolution) as compared to MODIS inputs (250 meter spatial resolution) to estimate GPP in intact and girdled PJ woodland to simulate drought and pest induced disturbance. An area equal to the MODIS pixels measured was aggregated using RapidEye data centered on the flux towers for comparison purposes. We generated four model runs, two using only MODIS or RapidEye spectral vegetation indices (VIs) and two using MODIS and RapidEye VIs combined at both the control and disturbed tower site. Our results suggest that for undisturbed regions, MODIS derived VIs perform better than the higher spatial resolution RapidEye VIs when a moisture sensitive index is incorporated into the model (RMSE of 17.51for MODIS vs. 22.71 for RapidEye). Modeling GPP in disturbed regions however benefits from the inclusion of high spatial resolution data (RMSE of 14.83 for MODIS vs. 14.70 for RapidEye). This discrepancy may have to do with the disparate scale of a MODIS pixel and the size of the tower fetch. Our results suggest that the best source of VI's for the modeling GPP in semi-arid woodlands depends on the level of disturbance in the landscape. Given that the rate and extent of drought and insect induced mortality events in terrestrial forests are projected to increase with our changing climate

  18. Carbon dioxide fluxes over an ancient broadleaved deciduous woodland in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study of canopy-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from 2007 to 2009 above a site in Wytham Woods, an ancient temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in southern England. Gap-filled Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE data were partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re and analysed on daily, monthly and annual timescales. Over the continuous 24 month study period annual GPP was estimated at 21.1 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and Re at 19.8 Mg C ha−1 yr−1; Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP was 1.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. These estimates are very consistent with independent bottom-up estimates derived from Net Primary Productivity (NPP and flux chamber measurements in 2008 (GPP=20.3±1.0 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, Re=18.9±1.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, biomass increment =~1.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Interannual variability of seasonal NEP was predominantly driven by changes in ecosystem respiration, whereas GPP remained similar for equivalent months in different years. Although solar radiation was the largest influence on daytime CO2 fluxes (R2=0.53 for the summer months, interannual variation in Re appeared to be driven by temperature. Our findings suggest that this ancient woodland site is currently a substantial sink for carbon, resulting from continued growth that is probably a legacy of past management practices abandoned over 40 years ago. Our GPP and Re values are generally higher than other broadleaved temperate deciduous woodlands and may represent the influence of the UK's maritime climate, or the particular species composition of this site. The carbon sink value of Wytham Woods supports the protection and management of temperate deciduous woodlands (including those

  19. Growing season boundary layer climate and surface exchanges in a subarctic lichen woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.

    1994-01-01

    Between June and August 1990, observations were made at two surface micrometeorological towers near Schefferville Quebec (54 deg 52 min N, 66 deg 40.5 min W), one in a fen and one in the subarctic lichen woodland, and at four surface climatological stations. Data from these surface stations were supplemented by regular radiosonde launches. Supporting measurements of radiative components and soil temperatures allowed heat and moisture balances to be obtained at two sites. The overall surface meteorological experiment design and results of micrometeorological observations made on a 30-m tower in the lichen woodland are presented here. Seasonal variation in the heat and water vapor transport characteristics illustrate the marked effect of the late summer climatological shift in air mass type. During the first half of the summer, average valley sidewalls only 100 m high are sufficient to channel winds along the valley in the entire convective boundary layer. Channeling effects at the surface, known for some time at the long-term climate station in Schefferville, are observed both at ridge top and in the valley, possibly the response of the flow to the NW-SE orientation of valleys in the region. Diurnal surface temperature amplitude at ridge top (approximately equal to 10 C) was found to be half that observed in the valley. Relatively large differences in precipitation among these stations and the climatological station at Schefferville airport were observed and attributed to the local topography. Eddy correlation observations of the heat, moisture and momentum transports were obtained from a 30-m tower above a sparse (approximately equal to 616 stems/ha) black spruce lichen woodland. Properties of the turbulent surface boundary layer agree well with previous wind tunnel studies over idealized rough surfaces. Daytime Bowen ratios of 2.5-3 are larger than those reported in previous studies. Surface layer flux data quality was assessed by looking at the surface layer heat

  20. Growing season boundary layer climate and surface exchanges in a subarctic lichen woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, David R.; Moore, Kathleen E.

    1994-01-01

    Between June and August 1990, observations were made at two surface micrometeorological towers near Schefferville Quebec (54 deg 52 min N, 66 deg 40.5 min W), one in a fen and one in the subarctic lichen woodland, and at four surface climatological stations. Data from these surface stations were supplemented by regular radiosonde launches. Supporting measurements of radiative components and soil temperatures allowed heat and moisture balances to be obtained at two sites. The overall surface meteorological experiment design and results of micrometeorological observations made on a 30-m tower in the lichen woodland are presented here. Seasonal variation in the heat and water vapor transport characteristics illustrate the marked effect of the late summer climatological shift in air mass type. During the first half of the summer, average valley sidewalls only 100 m high are sufficient to channel winds along the valley in the entire convective boundary layer. Channeling effects at the surface, known for some time at the long-term climate station in Schefferville, are observed both at ridge top and in the valley, possibly the response of the flow to the NW-SE orientation of valleys in the region. Diurnal surface temperature amplitude at ridge top (approximately equal to 10 C) was found to be half that observed in the valley. Relatively large differences in precipitation among these stations and the climatological station at Schefferville airport were observed and attributed to the local topography. Eddy correlation observations of the heat, moisture and momentum transports were obtained from a 30-m tower above a sparse (approximately equal to 616 stems/ha) black spruce lichen woodland. Properties of the turbulent surface boundary layer agree well with previous wind tunnel studies over idealized rough surfaces. Daytime Bowen ratios of 2.5-3 are larger than those reported in previous studies. Surface layer flux data quality was assessed by looking at the surface layer heat

  1. Holocene semi-arid oak woodlands in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia: natural or anthropogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asouti, Eleni; Kabukcu, Ceren

    2014-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that, following the end of the Pleistocene, semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands did not spread in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia as quickly as they did in the Levantine Mediterranean littoral, despite the fact that climatic improvement occurred broadly at the same time in both regions. Prehistoric impacts on woodland vegetation (such as woodcutting, burning and clearance for cultivation), the harsh continental climate of inland Southwest Asia and its distance from late Pleistocene arboreal refugia have all been discussed in the literature as likely causes of the delay. In this paper we argue that semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands should not be viewed as part of the “natural” vegetation of the Irano-Anatolian region that has been progressively destroyed by millennia of human activities since the Neolithic. They represent instead one of the earliest anthropogenic vegetation types in Southwest Asia, one that owes its very existence to prehistoric landscape practices other scholars commonly label as “destructive”. Drawing on anthracological, pollen and modern vegetation data from central Anatolia we describe how the post-Pleistocene species-rich and structurally diverse temperate semi-arid savanna grasslands were gradually substituted by low-diversity, even-aged Quercus-dominated parklands and wood pastures in the course of the early Holocene. Economic strategies that encouraged the establishment and spread of deciduous oaks included sheep herding that impacted on grass and forb vegetation, the controlling of competing arboreal vegetation through woodcutting, and woodland management practices such as coppicing, pollarding and shredding that enhanced Quercus vegetative propagation, crown and stem growth. Understanding the origin and evolution of the Irano-Anatolian semi-arid oak woodlands of Southwest Asia is of critical importance for reconstructing the changing ecologies and geographical distributions of the progenitors of

  2. Woodland salamander responses to a shelterwood harvest-prescribed burn silvicultural treatment within Appalachian mixed-oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Mahoney, Kathleen R.; Russell, Kevin R.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Riddle, Jason D.; Schuler, Thomas M.; Adams, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Forest management practices that mimic natural canopy disturbances, including prescribed fire and timber harvests, may reduce competition and facilitate establishment of favorable vegetative species within various ecosystems. Fire suppression in the central Appalachian region for almost a century has contributed to a transition from oak-dominated to more mesophytic, fire-intolerant forest communities. Prescribed fire coupled with timber removal is currently implemented to aid in oak regeneration and establishment but responses of woodland salamanders to this complex silvicultural system is poorly documented. The purpose of our research was to determine how woodland salamanders respond to shelterwood harvests following successive burns in a central Appalachian mixed-oak forest. Woodland salamanders were surveyed using coverboard arrays in May, July, and August–September 2011 and 2012. Surveys were conducted within fenced shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires, shelterwood harvest, and fencing to prevent white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus] herbivory), shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires and shelterwood harvest), and control plots. Relative abundance was modeled in relation to habitat variables measured within treatments for mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus), slimy salamanders (Plethodon glutinosus), and eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). Mountain dusky salamander relative abundance was positively associated with canopy cover and there were significantly more individuals within controls than either shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments. Conversely, habitat variables associated with slimy salamanders and eastern red-backed salamanders did not differ among treatments. Salamander age-class structure within controls did not differ from shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments for any species. Overall, the woodland salamander assemblage remained relatively intact throughout the shelterwoodburn

  3. Effects of breeding habitat (woodland versus urban) and metal pollution on the egg characteristics of great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Nagy, Gergely; Nyiri, Zoltán; Bervoets, Lieven; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2016-02-15

    In an urban environment, birds are exposed to metals, which may accumulate in their tissues and cause oxidative stress. Female birds may eliminate these pollutants through depositing them into eggs, thus eggs become suitable bioindicators of pollution. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether eggshell spotting pattern, egg volume, eggshell thickness and egg yolk antioxidant (lutein, tocopherol, retinol and selenium) levels were related to the breeding area (woodland versus urban) and the metal levels in the eggshell of a small passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). In the urban habitat, soil and eggshells contained higher concentrations of metals, and soil calcium level was also higher than that in the woodland. Eggshell spotting intensity and egg volume did not differ between eggs laid in the woodland and the urban park, and these traits were not related to the metal levels of the eggshell, suggesting that these egg characteristics are not sensitive indicators of metal pollution. A more aggregated eggshell spotting distribution indicated a higher Cu concentration of the eggshell. We found that eggshells were thinner in the less polluted woodland habitat, which is likely due to the limited Ca availability of the woodland area. Great tit eggs laid in the urban environment had lower yolk lutein, retinol and selenium concentrations, however, as a possible compensation for these lower antioxidant levels, urban females deposited more tocopherol into the egg yolk. It appears that females from different breeding habitats may provide similar antioxidant protection for their offspring against oxidative damage by depositing different specific dietary antioxidants. Egg yolk lutein and retinol levels showed a negative relationship with lead concentration of the eggshell, which may suggest that lead had a negative impact on the amount of antioxidants available for embryos during development in great tits.

  4. Using Landsat 8 imagery in detecting cork oak (Quercus suber L. woodlands: a case study in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Modica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean basin, cork oak (Quercus suber L. woodlands are characteristic and widespread forestry ecosystems. Though presenting significant economic potential as a renewable resource, they are not adequately valorised, in spite of a growing market demand for cork and cork-based products, which are appreciated, today, for their use in sustainable building. In this respect, cork meets the needs of the building industry in responding to the growing demand for quality products, which are eco- and energy-friendly and hygienically safe. Moreover, European cultural and biodiversity value has been attributed to cork oak woodlands and their most significant examples have been included in the Natura 2000 framework. So far, in some countries like Italy, the territorial distribution and characterisation of cork oak woodlands have not been adequately investigated. This study provides a method for mapping the actual presence of cork oak woodlands and for assessing their potential distribution. Special attention was given to the characterisation of cork oak spectral signature. To this end, Landsat 8 satellite images, digital photointerpretation and in situ surveys were implemented. The work carried out allows assessing the effectiveness of GIS and remote sensing techniques coupled with ancillary data and tools, and their applicability for the development of a comprehensive mapping and monitoring system of cork oak woodlands in Mediterranean ecosystems. Such techniques are vital to develop a detailed management strategy and to assist restoration activities and the economic assessment of semi-natural habitats. A case study, carried out in two different locations in Calabria (Italy, is provided.

  5. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    conditions for Pinus palustris seedlings underplanted in Pinus taeda forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46: 902-913. Walker, J.L. and G.G...removal in longleaf pine savannas." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 765-778. Mitchell, R. J., Hiers, J.K., O’Brien, J.J., Jack, S.B...pine forests of the southeastern United States." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 2724-2736. Moser, W.K., Jackson, S.M., Podrazsky, V. and

  6. Estimating Arrival Numbers for Informal Recreation: A Geographical Approach and Case Study of British Woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Schaafsma

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel methodology for generating models of demand for informal outdoor recreation. We analyze visitor data from multiple forest sites across Great Britain. We introduce a wide range of variables typically omitted from most economic demand models of recreation. These include on-site characteristics, and off-site locational drivers of visitation including substitute and complement availability. A Poisson multilevel model is used to model visitor counts, and the methodology is applied to a dataset of more than 10,000 visits to open-access woodland sites. Results confirm it identifies a broader range of demand drivers than previously observed. The use of nationally available explanatory variables enhances the transferability and hence general applicability of the methodology.

  7. Volume and aboveground biomass models for dry Miombo woodland in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward; Meilby, Henrik; Treue, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Tools to accurately estimate tree volume and biomass are scarce for most forest types in East Africa, including Tanzania. Based on a sample of 142 trees and 57 shrubs from a 6,065 ha area of dry miombo woodland in Iringa rural district in Tanzania, regression models were developed for volume...... and biomass of three important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. (n=40), Combretum molle G. Don (n=41), and Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker (n=37) separately, and for broader samples of trees (28 species, n=72), shrubs (16 species, n=31), and trees and shrubs combined (44 species, n=104). Applied...... of the predictions tended to increase from general to species-specific models. Except for a few volume and biomass models developed for shrubs, all models had R2 values of 96–99%. Thus, the models appear robust and should be applicable to forests with similar site conditions, species, and diameter ranges....

  8. How does fire intensity and frequency affect miombo woodland tree populations and biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Casey M; Williams, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Miombo woodlands are the largest savanna in the world and dominate southern Africa. They are strongly influenced by anthropogenic fires and support the livelihoods of over 100 million people. Managing the fire regime of these flammable systems is difficult, but crucial for sustaining biodiversity, ecosystem services, and carbon stocks. Fire intensity is more easily manipulated than fire frequency, because suppression is expensive and ineffective. However, there are important issues relating fire intensity to impacts on woody vegetation that need to be understood to inform management approaches. Such impacts include the links between fire intensity, tree top-kill, resprouting, and regrowth rates. Here we present results from a fire experiment in Mozambican miombo; the results of a 50-year fire experiment in Zimbabwean miombo; and observations of forest structure at a dry-forest site in Mozambique. We synthesize these data with a process-based gap model of stem growth, regeneration, and mortality; this model explicitly considers the effect of different frequencies and intensities of fire. We use the model, tested against the field data, to explore the sensitivity of woodland tree populations and biomass to fire intensity and frequency. The fire experiments show that large (> 5 cm dbh) stems are vulnerable to fire, with top-kill rates of up to 12% in intense fires. In contrast to idealized physical representations of tree mortality, stems of > 10 cm dbh did not gain further protection from fire with increasing dbh. Resprouting was very common and not obviously linked to fire intensity. The modeling showed that miombo tree populations and biomass are very sensitive to fire intensity, offering opportunities for effective management. At any achievable fire return interval (fires are required to maintain observed biomass. Model predictions and field experiments show that no tree biomass can be sustained under annual fires.

  9. Population ecology of two woodland caribou herds in the southern Yukon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Farnell

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1980's, the Aishihik herd of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou declined from approximately 1500 to 583 animals. During the same period a nearby herd, the Wolf Lake Herd increased from approximately 664 to 1249 animals. This paper compares aspects of the ecology of these two herds to determine how these relationships conform to a general model of caribou population ecology described by Seip (1992. Comparisons include caribou demographic characteristics and distribution patterns, predator densities, abundance of alternate prey, human hunting and snow depth on caribou winter range. Ecological differences between herds were apparent in the ratio of prime bulls to cows, the abundance of moose (Alces alces, the occurrence of coyotes (Canis latrans, late winter snow conditions, and access to hunting. We hypothesize that the Wolf Lake herd was able to grow because wolves {Canis lupus preyed mainly on the relatively abundant moose population. A highly clumped winter caribou distribution may have further reduced the impact of wolf predation on the Wolf Lake herd. In contrast, the decline of the Aishihik herd was accompanied by a relative scarcity of moose, few prime aged caribou bulls probably due to a more liberal trophy harvest, and wider late-winter dispersion that offered wolves greater access to caribou. The decline may have been exaggerated by the peak in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus cycle which may have temporarily improved wolf pup survival. We suspect that moose are normally the primary prey of wolves in the Yukon and that a decline in moose eventually results in their being too scarce to offer an economical prey choice, prompting a prey switch to caribou. Results of our analyses conform incompletely to Seip's (1992 model for woodland caribou population ecology, particularly because the Wolf Lake herd prospered where moose were relatively abundant.

  10. Decreased summer drought affects plant productivity and soil carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Cotrufo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation patterns are expected to change in the Mediterranean region within the next decades, with projected decreases in total rainfall and increases in extreme events. We manipulated precipitation patterns in a Mediterranean woodland, dominated by Arbutus unedo L., to study the effects of changing precipitation regimes on above-ground net primary production (ANPP and soil C dynamics, specifically plant-derived C input to soil and soil respiration (SR. Experimental plots were exposed to either a 20 % reduction of throughfall or to water addition targeted at maintaining soil water content above a minimum of 10 % v/v. Treatments were compared to control plots which received ambient precipitation. Enhanced soil moisture during summer months highly stimulated annual stem primary production, litter fall, SR and net annual plant-derived C input to soil which on average increased by 130 %, 26 %, 58 % and 220 %, respectively, as compared to the control. In contrast, the 20 % reduction in throughfall (equivalent to 10 % reduction in precipitation did not significantly change soil moisture at the site, and therefore did not significantly affect ANPP or SR. We conclude that minor changes (around 10 % reduction in precipitation amount are not likely to significantly affect ANPP or soil C dynamics in Mediterranean woodlands. However, if summer rain increases, C cycling will significantly accelerate but soil C stocks are not likely to be changed in the short-term. More studies involving modelling of long-term C dynamics are needed to predict if the estimated increases in soil C input under wet conditions is going to be sustained and if labile C is being substituted to stable C, with a negative effect on long-term soil C stocks.

  11. [Spatial patterns of seed dispersal in Hemiptelea davidii woodland in Keerqin sandy land, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Fei; Bai, Yun-Peng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Li

    2010-08-01

    In order to reveal the space expansion potential of Hemiptelea davidii woodland in Keerqin sandy land in China, the quantitative spatial characteristics of the seed rain in the understory and at the woodsides, as well as the seed dispersal patterns at the woodsides and of the isolating trees, were analyzed through survey on sequential sampling away from seed source in different directions at the woodsides and isolating trees and random sampling in the understory. The results showed that among three sampling plots, the average density of the seed rain in the understory was the highest (13732.5 +/- 3106.2 seeds x m(-2)). For isolating trees, the seed rain had the highest density (5449.4 +/- 1429.3 seeds x m(-2)) in southeast transect, being significantly higher than that in other directions, and the lowest one (650.2 +/- 631.6 seeds x m(-2)) in the northwest transect, being significantly lower than that in other directions. At the woodsides, the seed rain density was significantly higher in the east and south transects than in the west and north transects. The variation of the seed density was greater, with the variation coefficient being 25.7%-106.3% in different directions in the two plots of isolating trees and woodsides. Same as other anemochorous plants, H. davidii had the characteristics of seed dispersal away from the seed source. In the eight sampling transects, there existed diversity in the patterns of the seed dispersal away from the seed source in per unit area and in accumulated area, including linear, power, exponential, quadratic parabola, and logarithmic functions. It was suggested that the space expansion potential of H. davidii woodland in Keerqin sandy land would be greater in more frequency down wind directions such as the south, southeast, and east than in more frequency upwind directions such as the north, northwest, and west.

  12. Population ecology of vervet monkeys in a high latitude, semi-arid riparian woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pasternak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Narrow riparian woodlands along non-perennial streams have made it possible for vervet monkeys to penetrate the semi-arid karoo ecosystem of South Africa, whilst artificial water points have more recently allowed these populations to colonize much more marginal habitat away from natural water sources. In order to better understand the sequelae of life in these narrow, linear woodlands for historically ‘natural’ populations and to test the prediction that they are ecologically stressed, we determined the size of troops in relation to their reliance on natural and artificial water sources and collected detailed data from two river-centred troops on activity, diet and ranging behaviour over an annual cycle. In comparison to other populations, our data indicate that river-centred troops in the karoo were distinctive primarily both for their large group sizes and, consequently, their large adult cohorts, and in the extent of home range overlap in what is regarded as a territorial species. Whilst large group size carried the corollary of increased day journey length and longer estimated interbirth intervals, there was little other indication of the effects of ecological stress on factors such as body weight and foraging effort. We argue that this was a consequence of the high density of Acacia karroo, which accounted for a third of annual foraging effort in what was a relatively depauperate floristic habitat. We ascribed the large group size and home range overlap to constraints on group fission.Conservation implications: The distribution of group sizes, sampled appropriately across habitats within a conservation area, will be of more relevance to management than average values, which may be nothing more than a statistical artefact, especially when troop sizes are bimodally distributed.

  13. Sympatric woodland Myotis bats form tight-knit social groups with exclusive roost home ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A August

    Full Text Available The structuring of wild animal populations can influence population dynamics, disease spread, and information transfer. Social network analysis potentially offers insights into these processes but is rarely, if ever, used to investigate more than one species in a community. We therefore compared the social, temporal and spatial networks of sympatric Myotis bats (M. nattereri (Natterer's bats and M. daubentonii (Daubenton's bats, and asked: (1 are there long-lasting social associations within species? (2 do the ranges occupied by roosting social groups overlap within or between species? (3 are M. daubentonii bachelor colonies excluded from roosting in areas used by maternity groups?Using data on 490 ringed M. nattereri and 978 M. daubentonii from 379 colonies, we found that both species formed stable social groups encompassing multiple colonies. M. nattereri formed 11 mixed-sex social groups with few (4.3% inter-group associations. Approximately half of all M. nattereri were associated with the same individuals when recaptured, with many associations being long-term (>100 days. In contrast, M. daubentonii were sexually segregated; only a quarter of pairs were associated at recapture after a few days, and inter-sex associations were not long-lasting. Social groups of M. nattereri and female M. daubentonii had small roost home ranges (mean 0.2 km2 in each case. Intra-specific overlap was low, but inter-specific overlap was high, suggesting territoriality within but not between species. M. daubentonii bachelor colonies did not appear to be excluded from roosting areas used by females.Our data suggest marked species- and sex-specific patterns of disease and information transmission are likely between bats of the same genus despite sharing a common habitat. The clear partitioning of the woodland amongst social groups, and their apparent reliance on small patches of habitat for roosting, means that localised woodland management may be more important to

  14. Severe dry winter affects plant phenology and carbon balance of a cork oak woodland understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A. C.; Costa-e-Silva, F.; Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Pereira, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Mediterranean climates are prone to a great variation in yearly precipitation. The effects on ecosystem will depend on the severity and timing of droughts. In this study we questioned how an extreme dry winter affects the carbon flux in the understorey of a cork oak woodland? What is the seasonal contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem productivity? We used closed-system portable chambers to measure CO2 exchange of the dominant shrub species (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus crispus and Ulex airensis), of the herbaceous layer and on bare soil in a cork oak woodland in central Portugal during the dry winter year of 2012. Shoot growth, leaf shedding, flower and fruit setting, above and belowground plant biomass were measured as well as seasonal leaf water potential. Eddy-covariance and micrometeorological data together with CO2 exchange measurements were used to access the understorey species contribution to ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). The herbaceous layer productivity was severely affected by the dry winter, with half of the yearly maximum aboveground biomass in comparison with the 6 years site average. The semi-deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed desynchronized phenophases and lagged carbon uptake maxima. Whereas shallow-root shrubs exhibited opportunistic characteristics in exploiting the understorey light and water resources, deep rooted shrubs showed better water status but considerably lower assimilation rates. The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP was lower during summer with 14% and maximum during late spring, concomitantly with the lowest tree productivity due to tree canopy renewal. The herbaceous vegetation contribution to ecosystem GPP never exceeded 6% during this dry year stressing its sensitivity to winter and spring precipitation. Although shrubs are more resilient to precipitation variability when compared with the herbaceous vegetation, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP can

  15. Simulation of soil water dynamics in a Caragana intermedia woodland in Huangfuchuan watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Haikun; LIU Yinghui; XU Xia; WANG Kun; GAO Qiong

    2007-01-01

    As vegetation coverage increases,soil water content can decrease due to water uptake and evapotranspiration.At a very high level of plant density,poor growth and even mortality can occur due to the decrease of soil water content.Hence,a better understanding of the relationship between soil water content and the density of plants is important to design effective restoration projects.To study these relationships,we developed a soil water dynamic simulation model of a Caragana intermedia woodland under different slope gradient and slope aspect conditions in the Huangfuchuan watershed on the basis of the previous studies and field experiments.The model took into account the major processes that address the relationships of plants and the environment,including soil characteristics,precipitation,infiltration,vegetation transpiration,and soil evaporation.Daily changes in soil water content,transpiration,and evaporation of the Caragana intermedia woodland with different vegetation coverage,slope gradient,and slope aspect were simulated from 1971 to 2000.Based on the model simulations,we determined the functional relationships among soil water content,plant coverage and slope as well as the optimal plant density on flat slopes.We also determined the effects of slope gradient and slope aspect on soil water content.When slope gradient was less than l0~,the optimal plant density was sensitive to slope gradient.In the slope range from 10° to 30°,plant density was not sensitive to slope gradient.Therefore,it is important to consider planting densities on the hillsides with slope gradients less than 10° for reconstructing vegetation.

  16. Effect of pine foliage damage on the incidence of larval diapause in the pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus(Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Huang; Guo-Hong Wang; Zhong He; Feng Ge

    2008-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker) with a larval facultative diapause is one of the most destructive insect pests of the pine tree Pinus massoniana in China. The larvae feeding on pine trees with different damage levels were studied to determine the induction of diapause under both laboratory and field conditions. Developmental duration of larvae before the third instar was the longest when fed with 75%-90%damaged needles, followed by 25%-40% damaged needles and intact pine needles, whereas mortalities did not differ among different treatments under the conditions of 25℃ and critical photoperiod 13.5:10.5 L:D. At 25℃, no diapause was induced under 15:9 L:D, whereas 100% diapause occurred under 12:12 L:D regardless of the levels of needle damage.Incidences of larvae entering diapause when they were fed with intact, 25%-40% and 75%90% damaged pine needles were 51.7%, 70.8% and 81% under 13.5:10.5 L:D, respectively.Similar results were obtained in the field experiment. Incidence of diapause was significantly different among the pine needle damage levels of pine trees when the photoperiod was close to the critical day length, indicating that the effect of host plants on diapause induction was dependent on the range of photoperiod. The content of amino acid and sugar decreased and tannin increased in pine needles after feeding by the pine caterpillars, suggesting that changed levels of nutrients in damaged needles or a particular substance emitted by damaged pine trees was perhaps involved in the diapause induction of the pine caterpillar.

  17. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  18. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  19. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  20. Interacting genes in the pine-fusiform rust forest pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.V. Amerson; T.L. Kubisiak; S.A. Garcia; G.C. Kuhlman; C.D. Nelson; S.E. McKeand; T.J. Mullin; B. Li

    2005-01-01

    Fusiform rust (FR) disease of pines, caused by Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf), is the most destructive disease in pine plantations of the southern U. S. The NCSU fusiform rust program, in conjunction with the USDA-Forest Service in Saucier, MS and Athens, GA, has research underway to elucidate some of the genetic interactions in this...

  1. Virginia pine seed viable two months before natural cone opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Edward I. Sucoff

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) seed used in nurseries and for forest seeding ordinarily is collected from standing or felled trees in autumn. Some questions that concern the seed collector are: How early in the season does Virginia pine seed ripen? How does seed viability change if the cones are left on the felled trees?

  2. Photosynthesis and growth of selected scotch pine seed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gordon; Gordon E. Gatherum

    1968-01-01

    A number of problems related to the culture of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) arose following the increased planting of this species in Iowa. Therefore, a program of controlled-environment experiments to determine the effects of genetic and environmental factors on physiological processes important to the culture of Scotch pine was begun by the...

  3. 78 FR 30847 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. ] SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka,...

  4. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  5. 76 FR 41451 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  6. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  7. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in...

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  9. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  10. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...

  11. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  12. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  13. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  14. Modelling above-ground carbon dynamics using multi-temporal airborne lidar: insights from a Mediterranean woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Simonson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodlands represent highly significant carbon sinks globally, though could lose this function under future climatic change. Effective large-scale monitoring of these woodlands has a critical role to play in mitigating for, and adapting to, climate change. Mediterranean woodlands have low carbon densities, but represent important global carbon stocks due to their extensiveness and are particularly vulnerable because the region is predicted to become much hotter and drier over the coming century. Airborne lidar is already recognized as an excellent approach for high-fidelity carbon mapping, but few studies have used multi-temporal lidar surveys to measure carbon fluxes in forests and none have worked with Mediterranean woodlands. We use a multi-temporal (five year interval airborne lidar dataset for a region of central Spain to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB and carbon dynamics in typical mixed broadleaved/coniferous Mediterranean woodlands. Field calibration of the lidar data enabled the generation of grid-based maps of AGB for 2006 and 2011, and the resulting AGB change were estimated. There was a close agreement between the lidar-based AGB growth estimate (1.22 Mg ha−1 year−1 and those derived from two independent sources: the Spanish National Forest Inventory, and a~tree-ring based analysis (1.19 and 1.13 Mg ha−1 year−1, respectively. We parameterised a simple simulator of forest dynamics using the lidar carbon flux measurements, and used it to explore four scenarios of fire occurrence. Under undisturbed conditions (no fire occurrence an accelerating accumulation of biomass and carbon is evident over the next 100 years with an average carbon sequestration rate of 1.95 Mg C ha−1 year−1. This rate reduces by almost a third when fire probability is increased to 0.01, as has been predicted under climate change. Our work shows the power of multi-temporal lidar surveying to map woodland carbon fluxes and provide parameters for carbon

  15. Modelling above-ground carbon dynamics using multi-temporal airborne lidar: insights from a Mediterranean woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, W.; Ruiz-Benito, P.; Valladares, F.; Coomes, D.

    2016-02-01

    Woodlands represent highly significant carbon sinks globally, though could lose this function under future climatic change. Effective large-scale monitoring of these woodlands has a critical role to play in mitigating for, and adapting to, climate change. Mediterranean woodlands have low carbon densities, but represent important global carbon stocks due to their extensiveness and are particularly vulnerable because the region is predicted to become much hotter and drier over the coming century. Airborne lidar is already recognized as an excellent approach for high-fidelity carbon mapping, but few studies have used multi-temporal lidar surveys to measure carbon fluxes in forests and none have worked with Mediterranean woodlands. We use a multi-temporal (5-year interval) airborne lidar data set for a region of central Spain to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) and carbon dynamics in typical mixed broadleaved and/or coniferous Mediterranean woodlands. Field calibration of the lidar data enabled the generation of grid-based maps of AGB for 2006 and 2011, and the resulting AGB change was estimated. There was a close agreement between the lidar-based AGB growth estimate (1.22 Mg ha-1 yr-1) and those derived from two independent sources: the Spanish National Forest Inventory, and a tree-ring based analysis (1.19 and 1.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1, respectively). We parameterised a simple simulator of forest dynamics using the lidar carbon flux measurements, and used it to explore four scenarios of fire occurrence. Under undisturbed conditions (no fire) an accelerating accumulation of biomass and carbon is evident over the next 100 years with an average carbon sequestration rate of 1.95 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This rate reduces by almost a third when fire probability is increased to 0.01 (fire return rate of 100 years), as has been predicted under climate change. Our work shows the power of multi-temporal lidar surveying to map woodland carbon fluxes and provide parameters for carbon

  16. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  17. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  18. Native ectomycorrhizal fungi of limber and whitebark pine: Necessary for forest sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps; Robert K. Antibus

    2011-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important component of northern coniferous forests, including those of Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. albicaulis (whitebark pine) which are being decimated by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to promote seedling establishment, tree health, and may play a role in forest sustainability....

  19. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich

    2008-01-01

    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  20. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  1. A method for estimating white pine blister rust canker age on limber pine in the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Brian W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of white pine blister rust on limber pine require a temporal component to explain variations in incidence of infection and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not known how long the pathogen has been present at various sites in the central Rocky Mountains of North America. Canker age, computed from canker length and average expansion rate, can be...

  2. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson

    1998-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  3. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  4. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  5. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.

    2007-07-01

    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  6. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  7. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  8. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  9. Importance of soil solution chemistry and land use to growth and distribution of four woodland grasses in south Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J.

    1994-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soil solution chemistry on growth and distribution of the grasses Festuca altissima, Hordelymus europaeus, Bromus benekenii and Bromus ramosus in south Swedish deciduous woodlands. Laboratory experiments were combined with sampling of soil chemical field data. Particularly emphasized was the simulation of natural soil solution conditions in the experiments. To achieve this, a range of methods were adopted: Initially, woodland soils were used in growth experiments. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation of fresh woodland soil. Element concentrations and the share of free cationic Al out of the total Al concentration were measured. Based on these results, synthetic soil solutions were composed for growth experiments in flowing solution culture. I conclude from the results obtained, that high soil solution concentrations of H- or Al-ions are probably the most important factors which exclude the studied grasses from highly acidic solution. The degree H- and Al-toxicity, however, depended on the base cation concentrations of the solution. The results confirm the concept of ion antagonism at uptake sites of the roots as a key mechanism of H- and Al-toxicity. Some additional factors which influence growth and distribution of the grasses were also considered. Historical studies indicate that their restricted distribution even in areas with favourable soil chemical conditions may be related to a negative influence of former land use as wood-pasture or wood-meadow. Observations on permanent plots show that flowering, shoot production and seedling establishment are influenced by both rainfall and woodland management

  10. Is cork oak (Quercus suber L. woodland loss driven by eucalyptus plantation? A case-study in southwestern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean landscapes with open cork oak (Quercus suber L. woodlands have recently experienced drastic changes in southwestern Portugal. Changes in agricultural activities, the traditional driver of the economy in this region, led to new land uses, such as long-term set aside (shrublands and eucalyptus plantations. A study was conducted on the oak woodland landscape dynamics over a 50-year period (from 1958 to 2007 in order to assess the effect of different biophysical conditions on landscape spatial changes, and to identify the resilience of lanscape composition to different disturbances (e.g., socio-economic changes and wildfires. Land use changes over two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007 were inferred by spatial analysis of land cover data (aerial photographs and related to landscape physical attributes (slope and soil type. A transition matrix of four vegetation land-cover classes was obtained, allowing the assessment of the landscape composition changes bewteen the two above periods. Results showed that lansdcape in 1958 was largely occupied by open farmland, with large patches of open oak woodlands on steep slopes surrounding watercourses. Open farmland and shrubland drastically declined from 1958 to 1995, while eucalyptus plantation exhibited a dramatic expansion. Although large areas of cork oak forest turned into eucalyptus plantation, the net loss of oak forest was low and counterbalanced by its increment on former open farmland. The occurrence of a wildfire in 2003 promoted a dramatic decrease in cork oak woodlands, which mostly turned into shrubland. However, shrubland may be considered “safe sites” for ecological succession, ensuring natural cork oak regeneration and the colonisation of neighboring areas.

  11. Estimating Size and Trend of the North Interlake Woodland Caribou Population Using Fecal-DNA and Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Peter N; Arnason, Arni Neil; Manseau, Micheline; Cross, Dale; Whaley, Kent; Wilson, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    A critical step in recovery efforts for endangered and threatened species is the monitoring of population demographic parameters. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the use of fecal-DNA based capture-recapture methods to estimate population sizes and population rate of change for the North Interlake woodland caribou herd (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Manitoba, Canada. This herd is part of the boreal population of woodland caribou, listed as threatened under the federal Species at Risk Act (2003) and the provincial Manitoba Endangered Species Act (2006). Between 2004 and 2009 (9 surveys), we collected 1,080 fecal samples and identified 180 unique genotypes (102 females and 78 males). We used a robust design survey plan with 2 surveys in most years and analysed the data with Program MARK to estimate encounter rates (p), apparent survival rates (ϕ), rates of population change (λ), and population sizes (N). We estimated these demographic parameters for males and females and for 2 genetic clusters within the North Interlake. The population size estimates were larger for the Lower than the Upper North Interlake area and the proportion of males was lower in the Lower (33%) than the Upper North Interlake (49%). Population rate of change for the entire North Interlake area (2005-2009) using the robust design Pradel model was significantly trends, which correspond to trends observed in other fragmented populations of woodland caribou along the southern part of their range. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the applicability and success of non-invasive genetic sampling in monitoring populations of woodland caribou. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  12. Are the long-term effects of mesobrowsers on woodland dynamics substitutive or additive to those of elephants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Christopher A. J.; Duffy, Kevin J.; Page, Bruce R.; Macdonald, David W.

    2011-09-01

    The large spectrum of existing literature on browser-woodland dynamics, both from savanna and temperate biomes, converges towards concluding that all browsers importantly impact woody plants. In this context a crucial question in the current debate about reintroducing elephant culling, is whether the long-term effects of elephants and mesobrowsers are similar. If the two groups impact the same woody species in the same habitats, sufficiently high biomass-densities of mesobrowsers may, following removal of elephants, continue to heavily impact earlier life-history stages of the same suite of woody plants that elephant impacted, preventing these species from maturing. Thus, as existing mature trees die from natural causes and fade from the system, a similar end-point for woodland structure and composition is achieved. We reviewed 49 years of literature on the savanna browser guild, performing a meta-analysis on the disparate data on the guild's woody plant species use (3677 records) and habitat use (894 records). Mesobrowsers' and elephants' extensive overlap in habitat use and staple woody species diet, together with evidence of their influencing each others' abundance and of their dietary separation increasing with resource depletion, implies that the two groups impact the same core woody species in the same habitats. It therefore seems probable that high biomass-density mesobrowsers may have a long-term substitutive effect to that of elephant on woodland dynamics. Consequently management wanting a particular state of savanna woodland, should consider the biomass-density of both groups, rather than just focus on the system's perceived keystone species. Such principles may also apply to temperate and other systems.

  13. Inferring parturition and neonate survival from movement patterns of female ungulates: a case study using woodland caribou

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of animal movement data have primarily focused on understanding patterns of space use and the behavioural processes driving them. Here, we analyzed animal movement data to infer components of individual fitness, specifically parturition and neonate survival. We predicted that parturition and neonate loss events could be identified by sudden and marked changes in female movement patterns. Using GPS radio-telemetry data from female woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), we devel...

  14. Woodland recovery after suppression of deer: cascade effects for small mammals, wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus and bank voles (Myodes glareolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Bush

    Full Text Available Over the past century, increases in both density and distribution of deer species in the Northern Hemisphere have resulted in major changes in ground flora and undergrowth vegetation of woodland habitats, and consequentially the animal communities that inhabit them. In this study, we tested whether recovery in the vegetative habitat of a woodland due to effective deer management (from a peak of 0.4-1.5 to <0.17 deer per ha had translated to the small mammal community as an example of a higher order cascade effect. We compared deer-free exclosures with neighboring open woodland using capture-mark-recapture (CMR methods to see if the significant difference in bank vole (Myodes glareolus and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus numbers between these environments from 2001-2003 persisted in 2010. Using the multi-state Robust Design method in program MARK we found survival and abundance of both voles and mice to be equivalent between the open woodland and the experimental exclosures with no differences in various metrics of population structure (age structure, sex composition, reproductive activity and individual fitness (weight, although the vole population showed variation both locally and temporally. This suggests that the vegetative habitat--having passed some threshold of complexity due to lowered deer density--has allowed recovery of the small mammal community, although patch dynamics associated with vegetation complexity still remain. We conclude that the response of small mammal communities to environmental disturbance such as intense browsing pressure can be rapidly reversed once the disturbing agent has been removed and the vegetative habitat is allowed to increase in density and complexity, although we encourage caution, as a source/sink dynamic may emerge between old growth patches and the recently disturbed habitat under harsh conditions.

  15. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  16. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  17. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

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    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  18. Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyckens, G. A. E.; Christie, D. A.; Domic, A. I.; Malizia, L. R.; Renison, D.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species' future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, there will be a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana's potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

  19. Quantifying Grassland-to-Woodland Transitions and the Implications for Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Carol A.; Archer, Steven R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Bateson, C. Ann

    2004-01-01

    Replacement of grasslands and savannas by shrublands and woodlands has been widely reported in tropical, temperate and high-latitude rangelands worldwide (Archer 1994). These changes in vegetation structure may reflect historical shifts in climate and land use; and are likely to influence biodiversity, productivity, above- and below ground carbon and nitrogen sequestration and biophysical aspects of land surface-atmosphere interactions. The goal of our proposed research is to investigate how changes in the relative abundance of herbaceous and woody vegetation affect carbon and nitrogen dynamics across heterogeneous savannas and shrub/woodlands. By linking actual land-cover composition (derived through spectral mixture analysis of AVIRIS, TM, and AVHRR imagery) with a process-based ecosystem model, we will generate explicit predictions of the C and N storage in plants and soils resulting from changes in vegetation structure. Our specific objectives will be to (1) continue development and test applications of spectral mixture analysis across grassland-to-woodland transitions; (2) quantify temporal changes in plant and soil C and N storage and turnover for remote sensing and process model parameterization and verification; and (3) couple landscape fraction maps to an ecosystem simulation model to observe biogeochemical dynamics under changing landscape structure and climatological forcings.

  20. Genetic structure in populations of an ancient woodland sedge, Carex sylvatica Hudson, at a regional and local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, P; Bijlsma, R-J; van't Westende, W; van Os, B; Smulders, M J M; Vosman, B

    2005-07-01

    Wood sedge (Carex sylvatica) is a well-known ancient woodland species with a long-term persistent seed bank and a caespitose growth habit. All thirteen isolated Carex sylvatica populations in the Dutch Rhine floodplain (including the river branches Waal and IJssel) were mapped in detail and analysed for genetic variation at a large number of AFLP loci and one microsatellite locus. Across all populations, only 40 % of the sampled individuals (n=216) represented a unique genotype. A high number of the studied patches (spatial clusters of tussocks, 2-10 m in diameter) within populations contained only one or a few genotypes. Identical plants (tussocks) were also found 20-500 m apart and in one case even 1000 m apart. Observed heterozygosity levels (H(O)=0.029) were low, indicating low levels of gene flow, which is in agreement with the selfing nature of other caespitose sedges. Although the number of genotypes in populations is low, these genotypes are genetically very distinct and variation within populations accounted for 55% of the total variation. The absence of a correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations, and the scattered distribution of genotypes among patches within woodlands, support our hypothesis of rare establishments and subsequent local dispersal within woodlands in this forest floor species, which may benefit from and partly depend on human land use and forest management activities.

  1. Fragmented habitats of traditional fruit orchards are important for dead wood-dependent beetles associated with open canopy deciduous woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The conservation of traditional fruit orchards might be considered to be a fashion, and many people might find it difficult to accept that these artificial habitats can be significant for overall biodiversity. The main aim of this study was to identify possible roles of traditional fruit orchards for dead wood-dependent (saproxylic) beetles. The study was performed in the Central European landscape in the Czech Republic, which was historically covered by lowland sparse deciduous woodlands. Window traps were used to catch saproxylic beetles in 25 traditional fruit orchards. The species richness, as one of the best indicators of biodiversity, was positively driven by very high canopy openness and the rising proportion of deciduous woodlands in the matrix of the surrounding landscape. Due to the disappearance of natural and semi-natural habitats (i.e., sparse deciduous woodlands) of saproxylic beetles, orchards might complement the functions of suitable habitat fragments as the last biotic islands in the matrix of the cultural Central European landscape.

  2. A Paleoenvironmental Perspective on Hydroclimatic Variability and Forest and Woodland Ecosystem Response in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Lukas, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Paleoenvironmental data provide insights on both past climate variability and tree response to climate variability over the past millennium. Here we focus on records of past climate variability primarily from tree rings in the central and southern Rockies and the southwestern United States, and woodland ecosystem responses to periods of drought and wet conditions over decadal and multidecadal time scales. Tree-ring data for this region are excellent proxies of past hydroclimatic variability and have been used to reconstruct precipitation, drought, and streamflow. These records have been used with stand history data from coniferous forests to identify the timing of expansion, regeneration, and mortality pulses and assess the relationship of these episodes to climate. Multidecadal droughts have been linked to mortality, absence of recruitment, and ecotone shifts while multidecadal pluvials appear to cause regeneration pulses and woodland expansion. In many cases, the climatic modulation of fire regimes has been found to enhance the direct effects of climate variability on tree demography. Changes in forest cover due to mortality or recruitment can alter local and regional water balance and climate, but it is difficult to separate this effect from overall climate variability using paleoenvironmental data. This presentation will synthesize prior and new research that has investigated the role of climate variability in woodland dynamics and possible hydrologic cycle feedbacks in this region.

  3. A Cooperative Industry - Government Woodland Caribou Research Program in Northeastern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Rippin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of large scale logging and increasingly intensive petroleum exploration and development in northeastern Alberta prompted the establishment of a cooperative research program to investigate various aspects of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou biology. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop an effective plan that will ensure the long term survival of caribou while allowing for renewable and non-renewable resource development. There are three parts to the program. Part I began early in 1991 and makes use of conventional radio telemetry as a means of recording various parameters of general caribou biology. The study area encompasses approximately 4000 km2 of low relief, boreal mixedwood forest. Preliminary results from 2500 radio locations (involving 50 individuals indicate that woodland caribou inhabiting the study area are non-migratory and are strongly associated with some of the more scarce peatland forest types present in the area. Investigations to document the basic biology and ecology will continue for another two years. Part II began in early 1993 as a part of a two-year investigation into the disturbance effects of petroleum exploration and development on caribou movements and behaviour. One objective of this study is to develop a predictive model useful in determining the cumulative effects of varying intensities of disturbance on caribou. Part III began in early 1994 with a proposed three-year investigation to determine the mechanism of spatial and temporal separation of caribou and moose in the study area. These relationships may indicate the means by which caribou minimize the impact of wolf predation on their populations in northeastern Alberta. Results will be applied to industrial land use and specifically to large scale forest harvesting planned for the area. The research program is supported through cooperative funding contributed by 24 petroleum companies, 1 forest company, 2 peat companies and

  4. Landscape dynamics in aspen and western juniper woodlands on the Owyhee Plateau, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Eva K.

    will continue to occur over the next centuries as a result of conifer expansion. Spatially explicit modeling results using the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Analyses (TELSA) show that a return to historic fire regimes that burn 12-14% of the modeled landscape per decade would minimize aspen loss by keeping the majority of aspen stands in early and mid seral woodland stages where conifers are subdominant. Furthermore, conifer dominance and aspen loss could be prevented by implementation of prescribed burning programs treating aspen and young conifer woodlands according to historic fire occurrence probabilities.

  5. Conversion of woodlands changes soil related ecosystem services in Subsaharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groengroeft, Alexander; Landschreiber, Lars; Luther-Mosebach, Jona; Masamba, Wellington; Zimmermann, Ibo; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    In remote areas of Subsaharan Africa, growing population, changes in consumption patterns and increasing global influences are leading to a strong pressure on the land resources. Smallholders convert woodlands by fire, grazing and clearing in different intensities thus changing soil properties and their ecosystem functioning. As the extraction of ecosystem services forms the basis of local wellbeing for many communities, the role of soils in providing ecosystem services is of high importance. Since 2010, "The Future Okavango" project investigates the quantification of ecosystem functions and services at four core research sites along the Okavango river basin (Angola, Namibia, Botswana, see http://www.future-okavango.org/). These research sites have an extent of 100 km2 each. Within our subproject the soil functions underlying ecosystem services are studied: The amount and spatial variation of soil nutrient reserves in woodland and their changes by land use activities, the water storage function as a basis for plant growth, and their effect on groundwater recharge and the carbon storage function. The scientific framework consists of four major parts including soil survey and mapping, lab analysis, field measurements and modeling approaches on different scales. A detailed soil survey leads to a measure of the spatial distribution, extent and heterogeneity of soil types for each research site. For generalization purposes, geomorphological and pedological characteristics are merged to derive landscape units. These landscape units have been overlaid by recent land use types to stratify the research site for subsequent soil sampling. On the basis of field and laboratory analysis, spatial distribution of soil properties as well as boundaries between neighboring landscape units are derived. The parameters analysed describe properties according to grain size distribution, organic carbon content, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity as well as pore space

  6. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  7. 1100 years of human impact on woodland and soils in Kjarardalur, West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Lal, Rattan

    2013-04-01

    Prior to the Norse settlement of Iceland around AD 874 climate was the principal control of ecosystem variability. Since then, drastic changes have been imposed on the island's ecosystem through human activities. Unsustainable land use has reduced vegetation coverage, altered floral composition and accelerated soil erosion, especially in conjunction with harsh climate. Healthy ecosystem, soil and vegetation, is not only an important resource to meet human demands but also a prominent sink of atmospheric CO2. In contrast, soil erosion and land degradation are major sources of atmospheric CO2. This study discusses the impact of human activities and climate change on vegetation, soil erosion, and soil organic carbon (SOC) in West Iceland. Analyses conducted include pollen in Histosols, soil properties, soil accumulation rates and SOC in Histosols and Andosols. Our data demonstrate a pre-settlement landscape that was not entirely stable, where relatively small differences in climate may have caused subtle changes to the terrestrial environment. However, the early colonists and subsequent occupants altered the environment significantly. The magnitude of alteration was spatially variable depending on land management. The vegetation and soil data demonstrate a swift transformation of environmental conditions across AD 874. The most profound impacts include reduction in birch woodland and concurrent decline of important habitat for fragile understory, which facilitated soil exposure and reduced soil quality. After about 300 years, land degradation-anticipated management towards enhanced sustainability was probably adopted at one of the farming properties in the study area, allowing for soil recovery after a period of drastic decline. At other properties unsustainable land use continued to degrade the terrestrial ecosystem. The late-Medieval climatic change and introduction of the Little-Ice age exerted added strain on the environments over the entire area, resulting in

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Storage in Glomalin-Related Soil Protein During Grassland-to- Woodland Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, M. C.; Boutton, T. W.; Gonzalez-Chavez, M. C.; Filley, T. R.

    2008-12-01

    Glomalin is a hyphal glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that has been found to make a significant contribution to soil organic matter and to play a key role in the process of soil aggregation. However, little is known regarding the effects of land cover changes on glomalin storage in soil. To evaluate this, we quantified glomalin in soils along a grassland-to-woodland chronosequence in a subtropical mesquite savanna located in southern Texas. Soil cores (0-10 cm) were collected from remnant grasslands (age 0) and from adjacent woody plant stands (ages 14 to 86 yr). Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), operationally defined as Bradford reactive soil protein was extracted from soil as easily extractable glomalin (EE-GRSP) and as total glomalin (T-GRSP). EE-GRSP was extracted from 1 g soil with 8 ml of 20 mM citrate-buffer, pH 7.0 at 121 °C for 30 minutes. T-GRSP was extracted from 1 g soil with 8 ml of 50 mM citrate-buffer, pH 8.0 at 121 °C for 60 minutes; extractions were repeated up to 4 times. Extracts were purified by precipitation at pH 2.5, reconstituted in 0.1 NaOH, dialyzed against dH2O, freeze-dried, and analyzed for %C and N. EE-GRSP concentrations ranged from 1.0-1.4 mg/g in remnant grasslands, and from 1.7-2.3 mg/g in wooded areas. Similarly, T-GRSP concentrations ranged from 1.2-2.6 mg/g in remnant grasslands, and from 2.8-4.3 mg/g. Both GRSP fractions increased linearly during the first 40 years of woody plant encroachment, and then remained relatively constant at approximately 4 mg/g in woody clusters ranging in age from 50-90 years. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in T-GRSP (C = 10-25%; N = 1-3%) were similar in both remnant grasslands and woody plant stands. C and N in T-GRSP accounted for 6% of total soil organic carbon (SOC) and 5% of soil total N in remnant grasslands, and 4% of both SOC and total N in wooded areas. Our results show that woody plant cover significantly affects GRSP concentrations, likely due to increased

  9. The influence of vegetation on bird distribution in dry forests and oak woodlands of western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corcuera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The bird species distribution along a dry forest-oak woodland vegetation gradient was studied in autumn and spring in two consecutive years. Intra-seasonal comparisons showed that bird species had similar distributions in each of the two years. Inter-seasonal changes were mainly due to compositional differences even though resident species generally used similar habitats in both seasons. Ordination analyses, based on the first year bird species abundances, showed a clearly segregated distribution between forest and woodland birds. Within these two vegetation types, the distribution tended to be more individualistic. Nevertheless further habitats could be identified according to groups of birds having similar distributions. These habitats did not correspond to the plant associations which resulted from a previous classification of the vegetation. Observations of the plant use by the birds during the study period showed that, in most cases, the plant variables associated with ordination analyses are unlikely to be very important for the bird species life cycles. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 657-672. Epub 2005 Jun 01.Se estudió la distribución de especies de aves a lo largo de un gradiente de vegetación bosque seco - bosque de encino en el otoño y primavera de dos años consecutivos. Las comparaciones intra-estacionales mostraron distribuciones similares de las especies de aves en ambos años. Los cambios inter-estacionales se debieron principalmente a diferencias en la composición, aunque las especies residentes normalmente usan hábitats similares en ambas estaciones. Los análisis de ordenación, basados en las abundancias de las aves en el primer año de muestreo, mostraron una distribución claramente segregada entre aves del bosque seco y del bosque de encino. Aunque la distribución de las especies fue más azarosa dentro de cada tipo de vegetación, se pudieron identificar ciertos hábitats en base a grupos de aves con distribuciones

  10. Estimation of Tree Height, Biomass, and Standing Carbon in Miombo Woodlands Using Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribiero, N. S.; Washington-Allen, R. A.; Simard, M.; Shugart, H. H.

    2007-12-01

    Savannas and woodlands are a major component of the world's vegetation covering one-sixth of the global land surface and one-half of the African continent. They account for about 30% of the primary production of all terrestrial vegetation. The southern African savannas cover 54% of the sub-continent with a plant diversity of approximately 8500 species and approximately 50% endemism. Miombo covers about two thirds of Mozambique and estimations of its biomass are critical because ecosystem services provided include food, fiber, and fuel for 39 million rural peoples and another 15 million urban dwellers in southern Africa. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) C-band derived digital terrain model (DTM) can be used to estimate tree height by subtracting a base-level digital elevation model (DEM) from the calibrated SRTM. SRTM C-band's wavelength is such that there is partial penetration of the tree canopy before scattering which results in an underestimate of tree height. Consequently, mean tree height data from 50 30-m x 30-m random-stratified field plots in Niassa Reserve were used to bias the SRTM data up to average tree height and thus calibrate. However, DEMs in developing countries, particularly Africa, are not usually present and have to be developed either from field survey, orthophotography, or topographic maps. We derived a bare-ground binary mask from a land cover map of Niassa Reserve in northern Mozambique. The land cover map was generated from a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) scene and the binary mask was overlaid against the SRTM to derive ground elevations from the SRTM. The resulting point map of elevations was spatially interpolated using thin plate spines with tension to derive a base-level DEM. The DEM was then subtracted from the calibrated SRTM to get tree heights. Secondly we explored the derivation of an independent base elevation DEM using the last return of the NASA Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) and compared this to

  11. Will elevated CO2 alter fuel characteristics and flammability of eucalypt woodlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke; Resco, Victor; Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross; Sawyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 may enhance forest productivity via CO2 fertilisation and increased soil moisture associated with water savings, potentially resulting in increased woody plant abundance i.e. woody thickening. Changes to vegetation structure via woody thickening, as well as changes to vegetation properties (e.g. leaf characteristics and moisture content), may have important implications for ecosystem flammability and fire regimes. Understanding how elevated CO2 alters flammability and fire regimes will have implications for ecosystem dynamics, particularly carbon sequestration and emissions. We present data from Free Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) and whole tree growth chamber (WTC) experiments to assess the effect of elevated CO2 on fuel properties and flammability of eucalypt woodlands. Experiments involved ambient (˜400 ppm) and elevated CO2treatments, with elevated treatments being +150 ppm and +240 ppm at EucFACE and the WTCs respectively. We examined the response of vegetation parameters known to influence ecosystem flammability, namely (i) understorey vegetation characteristics (ii) understorey fuel moisture and (iii) leaf flammability. Understorey growth experiments at EucFACE using seedlings of two common woody species (Hakea sericia, Eucalyptus tereticornis) indicate that elevated CO2 did not influence stem and leaf biomass, height or crown dimensions of seedlings after 12 months exposure to experimental treatments. Temporal changes to understorey live fuel moisture were assessed at EucFACE over an 18 month period using time lapse cameras. Understorey vegetation greenness was measured daily from digital photos using the green chromatic coordinate (GCC), an index that is highly correlated with live fuel moisture (R2 = 0.90). GCC and rates of greening and browning were not affected by elevated CO2, though they were highly responsive to soil moisture availability and temperature. This suggests that there is limited potential for elevated CO2 to alter

  12. Quantifying tree mortality in a mixed species woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray tree canopies during and shortly after tree damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting trees in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for tree mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed species woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead trees had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-tree image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead tree classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of tree mortality across areas with differences in tree species composition. We found that 38% of tree crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of tree mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the tree canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas

  13. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  14. Oceanic heat sources to Pine Island Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Gilroy, A. R.; Gille, S. T.; Subramanian, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica has been attributed to increased basal melting of its grounded ice-shelf. Recent work suggests that an increased ocean heat supply to Pine Island Bay (PIB) is responsible for this increased melting. There is no consensus, however, on the origin of this increased ocean heat. We use a 2008-2010 state estimate of the Southern Ocean to diagnose the heat budget on the PIB continental shelf. In times of minimal sea-ice coverage, air-sea fluxes dominate the budget. Sea-ice is present over much of the year, however, and on average advection and parameterized small-scale mixing are equally important. The average air-sea fluxes and small scale mixing both act to cool the continental shelf waters, while advection by the large-scale circulation tends to warm these waters. The warmest waters are found on the eastern PIB continental shelf where bathymetric features cause increased advective fluxes and mixing. The average circulation along the PIB continental shelf is eastward consisting of approximately 1 Sv along shelf flow augmented by 1 Sv of across shelf flow to be balanced by a 2 Sv outflow along the eastern PIB shelf. Numerical simulations of passive tracer releases reveal the advective pathways of these waters that reach the continental shelf.

  15. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  16. Sessile Animals on an Artificial Fish Reef with Pine Tree

    OpenAIRE

    吉永, 圭輔; ヨシナガ, ケイスケ; YOSHINAGA, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the sessile animals attached to a pine tree reef. The artificial reef was placed off the coast of Ibusuki City in Kagoshima Bay on 21 December 1995. A piece of pine log was recovered from this reef on 30 October 1998, and animal community attached to the pine log was examined. Abundant ship-worms, Teredo navalis japonica, burrowed their ways from the cut end to the core. Sessile animals clung to the bark. There were also observed many other animals within ...

  17. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  18. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  19. Host deception: predaceous fungus, Esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of pine tree for nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease.

  20. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  1. Impacts of climate change on plant productivity in the Cajander larch woodlands of northeastern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L. T.; Beck, P.; Bunn, A. G.; Goetz, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change in Northern Eurasia is driving shifts in the productivity and extent of forest ecosystems, which can in turn feedback on the climate system. Few studies have examined plant response to climate change near latitudinal treeline in northeastern Siberia. We therefore quantified trends in climate and plant productivity, as well as productivity-climate relationships, in the Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma River watershed using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring measurements, and climate data. Averaged across the watershed there was a 1.0°C increase in mean summer temperature (T) from 1938 to 2009, but no systematic change in precipitation or climate moisture index (CMI). Plant productivity, as indicated by mean summer NDVI (NDVIs), was widely correlated with T and exhibited positive trends across 20% of the watershed, primarily in the climatically coolest area. In the climatically warmest areas NDVIs was positively associated with CMI instead of T and positive trends in NDVIs were uncommon. Annual larch basal area increment was positively correlated with NDVIs (r=0.44, Plimited increases in productivity. Unless there is a concomitant increase in moisture availability with future warming, it is possible that increased moisture stress could progressively limit forest productivity and perhaps slow the rate of forest expansion into the tundra, which could have significant climate feedback implications dues to impacts on carbon storage and surface energy balance.

  2. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development.

  3. Live substrate positively affects root growth and stolon direction in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marie Waters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of clonal plant foraging generally focus on growth responses to patch quality once rooted. Here we explore the possibility of true plant foraging; the ability to detect and respond to patch resource status prior to rooting. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the morphological changes that occur when individual daughter ramets of Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry were exposed to air above live (non-sterilized or dead (sterilized substrates. Contact between daughter ramets and substrate was prohibited. Daughter ramet root biomass was significantly larger over live versus dead substrate. Root:shoot ratio also increased over live substrate, a morphological response we interpret as indicative of active nutrient foraging. Daughter ramet root biomass was positively correlated with mother ramet size over live but not dead substrate. Given the choice between a live versus a dead substrate, primary stolons extended preferentially toward live substrates. We conclude that exposure to live substrate drives positive nutrient foraging responses in Fragaria vesca. We propose that volatiles emitted from by the substrates might be effecting the morphological changes that occur during true nutrient foraging.

  4. Palaeobotanical studies from tropical Africa: relevance to the evolution of forest, woodland and savannah biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bonnie F

    2004-10-29

    Fossil plants provide data on climate, community composition and structure, all of which are relevant to the definition and recognition of biomes. Macrofossils reflect local vegetation, whereas pollen assemblages sample a larger area. The earliest solid evidence for angiosperm tropical rainforest in Africa is based primarily on Late Eocene to Late Oligocene (ca. 39-26 Myr ago) pollen assemblages from Cameroon, which are rich in forest families. Plant macrofossil assemblages from elsewhere in interior Africa for this time interval are rare, but new work at Chilga in the northwestern Ethiopian Highlands documents forest communities at 28 Myr ago. Initial results indicate botanical affinities with lowland West African forest. The earliest known woodland community in tropical Africa is dated at 46 Myr ago in northern Tanzania, as documented by leaves and fruits from lake deposits. The community around the lake was dominated by caesalpinioid legumes, but included Acacia, for which this, to my knowledge, is the earliest record. This community is structurally similar to modern miombo, although it is different at the generic level. The grass-dominated savannah biome began to expand in the Middle Miocene (16 Myr ago), and became widespread in the Late Miocene (ca. 8 Myr ago), as documented by pollen and carbon isotopes from both West and East Africa.

  5. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kent Brown

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis of habitat availability, we examined patterns of habitat selection by 16 individual female caribou during five seasons annually over two years. We did not detect significant differences in habitat selection patterns among seasons. Caribou showed significant preferences for both bogs and fens with low to moderate tree cover relative to marshes, uplands, heavily forested wetlands, water, and areas of human use. The wetland classification system appears to have value for broad-scale planning of industrial activity on caribou range. More-detailed descriptions of vegetation, especially understory species, are required to refine this system for operational-level forest harvest planning.

  6. Hydrologic control of the oxygen isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration in a semi-arid woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted high frequency measurements of the δ18O value of atmospheric CO2 from a juniper (Juniperus monosperma woodland in New Mexico, USA, over a four-year period to investigate climatic and physiological regulation of the δ18O value of ecosystem respiration (δR. Rain pulses reset δR with the dominant water source isotope composition, followed by progressive enrichment of δR. Transpiration (ET was significantly related to post-pulse δR enrichment because the leaf water δ18O value showed strong enrichment with increasing vapor pressure deficit that occurs following rain. Post-pulse δR enrichment was correlated with both ET and the ratio of ET to soil evaporation (ET/ES. In contrast, the soil water δ18O value was relatively stable and δR enrichment was not correlated with ES. Model simulations captured the large post-pulse δR enrichments only when the offset between xylem and leaf water δ18O value was modeled explicitly and when a gross flux model for CO2 retro-diffusion was included. Drought impacts δR through the balance between evaporative demand, which enriches δR, and low soil moisture availability, which attenuates δR enrichment through reduced ET. The net result, observed throughout all four years of our study, was a negative correlation of post-precipitation δR enrichment with increasing drought.

  7. More than carbon sequestration: Biophysical climate benefits of restored savanna woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syktus, Jozef I.; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2016-07-01

    Deforestation and climate change are interconnected and represent major environmental challenges. Here, we explore the capacity of regional-scale restoration of marginal agricultural lands to savanna woodlands in Australia to reduce warming and drying resulting from increased concentration of greenhouse gases. We show that restoration triggers a positive feedback loop between the land surface and the atmosphere, characterised by increased evaporative fraction, eddy dissipation and turbulent mixing in the boundary-layer resulting in enhanced cloud formation and precipitation over the restored regions. The increased evapotranspiration results from the capacity deep-rooted woody vegetation to access soil moisture. As a consequence, the increase in precipitation provides additional moisture to soil and trees, thus reinforcing the positive feedback loop. Restoration reduced the rate of warming and drying under the transient increase in the radiative forcing of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP8.5). At the continental scale, average summer warming for all land areas was reduced by 0.18 oC from 4.1 oC for the period 2056–2075 compared to 1986–2005. For the restored regions (representing 20% of Australia), the averaged surface temperature increase was 3.2 °C which is 0.82 °C cooler compared to agricultural landscapes. Further, there was reduction of 12% in the summer drying of the near-surface soil for the restored regions.

  8. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover.

  9. Disruptive coloration in woodland camouflage: evaluation of camouflage effectiveness due to minor disruptive patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, Gorm K.; Heinrich, Daniela H.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from an observer based photosimulation study of generic camouflage patterns, intended for military uniforms, where three near-identical patterns have been compared. All the patterns were prepared with similar effective color, but were different in how the individual pattern patches were distributed throughout the target. We did this in order to test if high contrast (black) patches along the outline of the target would enhance the survivability when exposed to human observers. In the recent years it has been shown that disruptive coloration in the form of high contrast patches are capable of disturbing an observer by creating false edges of the target and consequently enhance target survivability. This effect has been shown in different forms in the Animal Kingdom, but not to the same extent in camouflaged military targets. The three patterns in this study were i) with no disruptive preference, ii) with a disruptive patch along the outline of the head and iii) with a disruptive patch on the outline of one of the shoulders. We used a high number of human observers to assess the three targets in 16 natural (woodland) backgrounds by showing images of one of the targets at the time on a high definition pc screen. We found that the two patterns that were thought to have a minor disruptive preference to the remaining pattern were more difficult to detect in some (though not all) of the 16 scenes and were also better in overall performance when all the scenes were accounted for.

  10. Volume and Aboveground Biomass Models for Dry Miombo Woodland in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Edward Mwakalukwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tools to accurately estimate tree volume and biomass are scarce for most forest types in East Africa, including Tanzania. Based on a sample of 142 trees and 57 shrubs from a 6,065 ha area of dry miombo woodland in Iringa rural district in Tanzania, regression models were developed for volume and biomass of three important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. (n = 40, Combretum molle G. Don (n = 41, and Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker (n = 37 separately, and for broader samples of trees (28 species, n = 72, shrubs (16 species, n = 32, and trees and shrubs combined (44 species, n = 104. Applied independent variables were log-transformed diameter, height, and wood basic density, and in each case a range of different models were tested. The general tendency among the final models is that the fit improved when height and wood basic density were included. Also the precision and accuracy of the predictions tended to increase from general to species-specific models. Except for a few volume and biomass models developed for shrubs, all models had R2 values of 96–99%. Thus, the models appear robust and should be applicable to forests with similar site conditions, species, and diameter ranges.

  11. Selection of woody species for wastewater enhancement and restoration of riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover, M; Forss, A L; Ramon, G; Vadell, J; Moya, G; Taberner, A Martinez

    2008-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of seven tree species were evaluated with the goal of selecting the species that can be used for wastewater enhancement by dendro-purification, or green tree filtering, and for restoration of riparian woodlands. Trees were grown in pots with an inert mixture of perlite and vermiculite and irrigated with either nutrient solution or treated wastewater We measured the effects of species and irrigation water on biomass and nutrient content of leaves, stems and roots. For most of the species, treated wastewater had a positive effect on final biomass and above ground: below ground ratio compared to that of nutrient solution. However, growth of Cupressus sempervirens and Populus nigra were inhibited by water sodium concentration. Nerium oleander, Tamarix africana and Vitex agnus-castus were the species with the greatest final biomass. Pistacia terebinthus had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus content in leaves, stems and roots, while N. oleander and V. agnus-castus showed the best potassium accumulation. In general, P. terebinthus, N. oleander, T. africana and V. agnus-castus were the best qualified species for purification of wastewater.

  12. Caribou-induced changes in species dominance of lichen woodlands: an analysis ofplant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Stéphane; Payette, Serge

    2004-03-01

    Plant communities in northern Quebec-Labrador, Canada have been severely grazed and trampled since the early 1980s by the increasingly large George River caribou herd (GRCH). To evaluate changes in species dominance associated with caribou disturbance, we compared past and present ground vegetation from 14 lichen woodlands. Plant remains from superficial organic horizons indicate that ground vegetation was largely dominated by lichens (especially Cladina) before the onset of caribou disturbance. In enlargments of aerial photos taken before 1975 (i.e., prior to maximum size of the GRCH), all sites were free of caribou trails and were dominated by a continuous lichen (Cladina) carpet. Principal components analysis showed that partial or complete destruction of the Cladina-dominated lichen carpet was the most striking change in ground vegetation. Severe trampling degraded superficial organic horizons, subsequently exposing mineral soil in heavily used sites. With reduced caribou activity in the 1990s, exposed ground was colonized by crustose lichens and Cladonia. Sites that faced severe grazing but light trampling were recolonized mainly by small podetia of Cladina stellaris sprouting from the lichen litter. However, patterns of post-caribou disturbance lichen succession differed from those of post-fire succession, because species from different successional stages are present at the same time in a stand and also because caribou can modify the successional trajectory at any time.

  13. Feeding site selection by woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Johnson

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the foraging habits of the northern woodland caribou ecotype {Rangifer tarandus caribou at the scale of the individual feeding site. Field data were collected in north-central British Columbia over two winters (Dec 1996-Apr 1998. We trailed caribou and measured vegetation characteristics (species composition and percent cover, snow conditions (depth, density, and hardness, and canopy closure at terrestrial and arboreal feeding sites, and at random sites where feeding had not occurred. Logistic regression was used to determine the attributes of feeding sites that were important to predicting fine scale habitat selection in forested and alpine areas. In the forest, caribou selected feeding sites that had a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis and Cladonia spp, lower snow depths, and a lower percentage of debris and moss. Biomass of Bryoria spp. at the 1-2 m stratum above the snow significantly contributed to predicting what trees caribou chose as arboreal feeding sites. In the alpine, caribou selected feeding sites with a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria nivalis, Thamnolia spp., and Stereocaulon alpinum as well as lower snow depths.

  14. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  15. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  16. Ecology of whitebark pine populations in relation to white pine blister rust infection in subalpine forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin: Implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Camille E. Jensen; Annette. Delfino Mix

    2012-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., has affected white pine (Subgenus Strobus) individuals, populations, and associated forest communities in North America. We surveyed eight populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) across a range of environmental conditions in...

  17. Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi), with comparisons to other selected colubrid snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Toni Trees; C. Michael Duran; Marc Ealy; John G. Himes

    2002-01-01

    Diet and prey handling behavior were determined for Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi). Louisiana pine snakes prey heavily on Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys breviceps), with which they are sympatric, and exhibit specialized behaviors that facilitate...

  18. Carbon stocks, greenhouse gas emissions and water balance of Sudanese savannah woodlands in relation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the carbon (C) sequestration potential of drylands requires knowledge of the stocks of C in soils and biomass and on the factors affecting them. The overall aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the variation in the C stocks and water balance of Acacia savannah woodlands across the dryland (arid and semi-arid) region (10-16 deg N; 21-36 deg E) of the former Sudan (now mainly in the Republic of the Sudan) and how they are related to climatic factors and may be affected by climate change. The role played by small but numerous brick making industries on woodland deforestation in the region and greenhouse gas production was also investigated. The study region is often referred to as the gum belt because it is the world's major source of gum Arabic, which is harvested from Acacia trees. The soils in the centre and west of the region are mainly Arenosols (sandy soils) and those in the eastern part are mainly Vertisols (clay soils). The soils are C poor and often in a degraded state. This dissertation consists of a summary section and four articles (Study I, II, III and IV). Study I focuses on fuelwood consumption by the brick making industries (BMIs) and associated deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Study II the C densities (g C m-2) of the woodland tree biomass and soil (1 m) for 39 map sheets covering the study region were determined from national forest inventory data and global soil databases and the dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) determined. The water balance of savannah woodlands for the same 39 map sheets was modelled in Study III and the variation in water balance components across the region evaluated. The potential impacts of climate change on woodland biomass C density and water-use (actual evapotranspiration, AET) was analysed for eight of the map sheets in Study IV. Sudanese BMIs consume a considerable amount of fuelwood that mainly comes from unsustainably managed

  19. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  20. Examining pine spectral separability using hyperspectral data from an airborne sensor : an extension of field-based results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three southern USA forestry species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), were previously shown to be spectrally separable (83% accuracy) using data from a full-range spectro...

  1. Interim Report - Assess Wet Pine Savanna Response to Refuge Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim report provides the summary of plant inventory within a pine savanna on the MS Sandhill Crane NWR in 2011. 136 species of plants were noted in the survey.

  2. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  3. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  4. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  5. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  6. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  7. Wild Pigs: inciting factor in southern pine decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori G. Eckhardt; Roger D. Menard; Stephen S. Ditchkoff

    2016-01-01

    During an investigation into southern pine decline at Fort Benning Georgia, the possibility of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) as an inciting factor became evident. Their rooting activity caused significant root damage on sites showing symptoms of pine decline. It was thought that perhaps the pigs may be moving around pathogenic fungi during their rooting activity in Pinus...

  8. Evaluating first-year pine seedling survival plateau in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar N. Khana; Thomas J. Dean; Scott D. Roberts; Donald L. Grebner

    2016-01-01

    First-year seeding survival has been a continuing problem since the start of commercial pine plantation forestry in the 1950s. First-year survival of bare-root loblolly pine seedlings on intensively prepared sites in Louisiana has maintained a survival plateau between 79 to 89 percent with an average of about 82 percent. The specific objectives of this study were to...

  9. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    1996-10-01

    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  10. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  11. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  12. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in pine needles from Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowska, A.; Falandysz, J.; Bochentin, I. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Gdansk (Poland); Hanari, N.; Wyrzykowska, B.; Yamashita, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of 75 compounds, which have been commercially produced and used in a wide range of industrial applications for the sake of their specific chemical properties. They are recognized as good electrical insulators and also as water and flame resistant materials. Technical PCNs formulations were mainly used as capacitor dielectrics, engine oil additives, electroplating stop-off compounds, in wire insulations and as paper, wood and fabric preservatives. Moreover, they have been formed during production of PCBs formulations. Although recently most countries have stopped synthesis of PCNs, they still are widely distributed in the environment. Nowadays the principal sources of these compounds are municipal solid wastes incineration, metallurgical and chloro-alkali processes. In last years PCNs concentrations in the environment have posed the cynosure of big group of scientists in the whole world. The relatively high concentrations are regarded as an environmental problem. Because they are persistent, toxic and lipophilic they might be bioaccumulated in living organisms and generate the danger for animals and humans. It is essentially to monitor their levels in air, regional transport, as well as estimate specific sources. It is possible by using as a biomonitors pine tree needles. These trees are considered as the very suitable passive indicators for monitoring of PCNs concentrations in the troposphere. This is because the surface wax layer of the needles poses an ability to absorb these lipophilic compounds from the surrounding air. In the current study pine needles were employed as biomonitors of PCNs concentrations in the ambient air of Poland. This country with its past history of production and use of different applications including these compounds, as well as with its location in the centre of Europe, presents the interesting region to these researches.

  13. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  14. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  15. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podruzny, Shannon; Reinhart, D.P.; Mattson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) habitats are important to Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) as refugia and sources of food. Ecological relationships between whitebark pine, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and grizzly bear use of pine seeds on Mt. Washburn in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were examined during 1984-86. Following large-scale fires in 1988, we repeated the study in 1995-97 to examine the effects of fire on availability of whitebark pine seed in red squirrel middens and on bear use of middens. Half of the total length of the original line transects burned. We found no red squirrel middens in burned areas. Post-fire linear-abundance (no./km) of active squirrel middens that were pooled from burned and unburned areas decreased 27% compared to pre-fire abundance, but increased in unburned portions of some habitat types. Mean size of active middens decreased 54% post-fire. Use of pine seeds by bears (linear abundance of excavated middens) in pooled burned and unburned habitats decreased by 64%, likely due to the combined effects of reduced midden availability and smaller midden size. We discourage any further large-scale losses of seed producing trees from management-prescribed fires or timber harvesting until the effects of fire on ecological relationships in the whitebark pine zone are better understood.

  16. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  17. Mapping Decadal Land Cover Changes in the Woodlands of North Eastern Namibia from 1975 to 2014 Using the Landsat Satellite Archived Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir R. Wingate

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Woodlands and savannahs provide essential ecosystem functions and services to communities. On the African continent, they are widely utilized and converted to subsistence and intensive agriculture or urbanized. This study investigates changes in land cover over four administrative regions of North Eastern Namibia within the Kalahari woodland savannah biome, covering a total of 107,994 km2. Land cover is mapped using multi-sensor Landsat imagery at decadal intervals from 1975 to 2014, with a post-classification change detection method. The dominant change observed was a reduction in the area of woodland savannah due to the expansion of agriculture, primarily in the form of small-scale cereal and pastoral production. More specifically, woodland savannah area decreased from 90% of the study area in 1975 to 83% in 2004, and then increased to 86% in 2014, while agricultural land increased from 6% to 12% between 1975 and 2014. We assess land cover changes in relation to towns, villages, rivers and roads and find most changes occurred in proximity to these. In addition, we find that most land cover changes occur within land designated as communally held, followed by state protected land. With widespread changes occurring across the African continent, this study provides important data for understanding drivers of change in the region and their impacts on the distribution of woodland savannahs.

  18. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lupala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.

  19. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    OpenAIRE

    Finér, Leena

    1989-01-01

    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  20. Study on the Sustainable Management of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilis) in Old Epidemic Areas%老疫区松材线虫病持续控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范军祥; 黄焕华; 钱明惠; 黄咏槐; 武海卫

    2011-01-01

    2005~2009年在广州市松材线虫病老疫区系统开展了疑似病死松树的早期诊断、应用引诱剂和林间释放花绒寄甲控制松褐天牛、清理病死木套袋熏蒸和疫区松林植物群落结构改造等持续控制技术研究.结果表明:疫区内松树枯死木松材线虫的检出率为22.1%~55.4%.诱到松褐天牛成虫19 853头,每个诱捕器的诱虫量为14.06~24.80头/年.释放花绒寄甲成虫1 115头,寄生率为9.21%~60.00%.清理枯死木14 769株,熏蒸袋内的松褐天牛死亡率达到99.5%以上.在松林内套种39种阔叶树共112 000株,改善了松林的植物群落结构,提高了松林对松褐天牛及松材线虫病的抗性.%The sustainable control technology research on pine wood nematode ( Bursaphelenchus xylophilis)and pine sawyer beetle ( Monochamus alternatus) have been carried out in Guangzhou old epidemic areas from 2005 to 2009. The main technical measures including ( 1 ) Early diagnosis of pine wilt disease; (2) Control and monitor the adults M. alternatus by attractant; (3) Control pine sawyer beetles by releasing Dastarcus helophoroides; (4)Clean up dead trees and extinguish pests in woodlands; (5) Modification on the plant community structure in pine forest. The results showed that the detection rate of B. xylophilis from dead trees is 22.1% ~55.4%; 19 583 adults of M. alternatus have been trap in the test area, and 14.06 ~24.80 adults per trap set in a year; 1 115 D.helophoroides were released in the pine forest, and the parasitism rate is 9.21% ~ 60.00%; 14 769 dead trees have been clean up, the mortality rate of M. alternatus larva or pupae is up to 99.5%; 112 000 broadleaf trees (39 species) were planted in the pine forests, the plant community gets higher resistance to pine sawyer and pine wood nematode disease.

  1. Effects of declining oak vitality on ecosystem functions: Lessons from a Spanish oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Bareth, Georg; Bolten, Andreas; Linstädter, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean oak woodlands have a great ecological and socio-economic importance. Today, these fragile ecosystems are facing unprecedented degradation threats from Novel Oak Diseases (NODs). Among NOD drivers, maladapted land management practices and climate change are most important. Although it is generally believed that NOD-related declines in tree vitality will have detrimental effects on ecosystem functions, little is known on the magnitude of change, and whether different functions are affected in a similar way. Here we analyzed effects of tree vitality on various ecosystem functions, comparing subcanopy and intercanopy habitats across two oak species (Quercus ilex and Q. suber) in a Spanish oak woodland. We asked how functions - including aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), taxonomic diversity, and litter decomposition rates - were affected by oak trees' size and vitality. We also combined measurements in the ecosystem function habitat index (MEFHI), a proxy of ecosystem multifunctionality. Field research was carried out in 2016 on a dehesa in southern Spain. We used a stratified random sampling to contrast trees of different species affiliation, size and vitality. Tree vitality was estimated as crown density (assessed via hemispherical photography), and as tree vigor, which combines the grade of canopy defoliation with proxies for tree size (dbh, height, crown height and crown radius). For each tree (n = 34), two plots (50 x 50 cm) were located; one in the subcanopy habitat, and the other in the intercanopy area beyond the tree crown's influence. On all 68 plots, moveable cages were placed during the main growth period (March to May) to estimate ANPP under grazed conditions. Litter decomposition rates were assessed via the tea bag index. ANPP and the biomass of grasses, forbs and legumes were recorded via destructive sampling. To take plots' highly variable environmental conditions into account, we recorded a suite of abiotic and biotic

  2. Identification and Transcript Analysis of the TCP Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Cui, Meng-Yuan; Han, Yong-Tao; Gao, Kuan; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple processes of plant growth and development. However, no systematic study has been performed in strawberry. In this study, 19 FvTCP genes were identified in the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) accession Heilongjiang-3. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FvTCP genes were classified into two main classes, with the second class further divided into two subclasses, which was supported by the exon-intron organizations and the conserved motif structures. Promoter analysis revealed various cis-acting elements related to growth and development, hormone and/or stress responses. We analyzed FvTCP gene transcript accumulation patterns in different tissues and fruit developmental stages. Among them, 12 FvTCP genes exhibited distinct tissue-specific transcript accumulation patterns. Eleven FvTCP genes were down-regulated in different fruit developmental stages, while five FvTCP genes were up-regulated. Transcripts of FvTCP genes also varied with different subcultural propagation periods and were induced by hormone treatments and biotic and abiotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that six FvTCP-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Notably, transient over-expression of FvTCP9 in strawberry fruits dramatically affected the expression of a series of genes implicated in fruit development and ripening. Taken together, the present study may provide the basis for functional studies to reveal the role of this gene family in strawberry growth and development. PMID:28066489

  3. Disentangling woodland caribou movements in response to clearcuts and roads across temporal scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beauchesne

    Full Text Available Although prey species typically respond to the most limiting factors at coarse spatiotemporal scales while addressing biological requirements at finer scales, such behaviour may become challenging for species inhabiting human altered landscapes. We investigated how woodland caribou, a threatened species inhabiting North-American boreal forests, modified their fine-scale movements when confronted with forest management features (i.e. clearcuts and roads. We used GPS telemetry data collected between 2004 and 2010 on 49 female caribou in a managed area in Québec, Canada. Movements were studied using a use--availability design contrasting observed steps (i.e. line connecting two consecutive locations with random steps (i.e. proxy of immediate habitat availability. Although caribou mostly avoided disturbances, individuals nonetheless modulated their fine-scale response to disturbances on a daily and annual basis, potentially compromising between risk avoidance in periods of higher vulnerability (i.e. calving, early and late winter during the day and foraging activities in periods of higher energy requirements (i.e. spring, summer and rut during dusk/dawn and at night. The local context in which females moved was shown to influence their decision to cross clearcut edges and roads. Indeed, although females typically avoided crossing clearcut edges and roads at low densities, crossing rates were found to rapidly increase in greater disturbance densities. In some instance, however, females were less likely to cross edges and roads as densities increased. Females may then be trapped and forced to use disturbed habitats, known to be associated with higher predation risk. We believe that further increases in anthropogenic disturbances could exacerbate such behavioural responses and ultimately lead to population level consequences.

  4. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  5. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  6. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands

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    Yelenik, Stephanie G.; DiManno, Nicole; D’Antonio, Carla M.

    2015-01-01

    Harsh habitats dominated by invasive species are difficult to restore. Invasive grasses in arid environments slow succession toward more desired composition, yet grass removal exacerbates high light and temperature, making the use of “nurse plants” an appealing strategy. In this study of degraded subtropical woodlands dominated by alien grasses in Hawai'i, we evaluated whether individuals of two native (Dodonaea viscosa, Leptocophylla tameiameia) and one non-native (Morella faya) woody species (1) act as natural nodes of recruitment for native woody species and (2) can be used to enhance survivorship of outplanted native woody species. To address these questions, we quantified the presence and persistence of seedlings naturally recruiting beneath adult nurse shrubs and compared survival and growth of experimentally outplanted seedlings of seven native woody species under the nurse species compared to intact and cleared alien-grass plots. We found that the two native nurse shrubs recruit their own offspring, but do not act as establishment nodes for other species. Morella faya recruited even fewer seedlings than native shrubs. Thus, outplanting will be necessary to increase abundance and diversity of native woody species. Outplant survival was the highest under shrubs compared to away from them with few differences between nurse species. The worst habitat for native seedling survival and growth was within the unmanaged invasive grass matrix. Although the two native nurse species did not differentially affect outplant survival, D. viscosa is the most widespread and easily propagated and is thus more likely to be useful as an initial nurse species. The outplanted species showed variable responses to nurse habitats that we attribute to resource requirements resulting from their typical successional stage and nitrogen fixation capability.

  7. Responses of a Federally Endangered Songbird to Understory Thinning in Oak-Juniper Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ashley M.; Marshall, Mike E.; Morrison, Michael L.; Hays, K. Brian; Farrell, Shannon L.

    2017-04-01

    Wildlife conservation and management on military lands must be accomplished in the context of military readiness, which often includes ground-based training that is perceived to conflict with wildlife needs and environmental regulations. From 2008‒2012, we examined territory density, pairing success, and fledging success of the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler ( Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter warbler) in relation to removal of small-diameter trees from the understory of mature oak-juniper ( Quercus-Juniperus) woodland at the 87,890 ha Fort Hood Military Reservation in central Texas. Understory thinning created troop maneuver lanes, but left canopy vegetation intact. Warbler density, pairing success, and fledging success were similar across thinned and control sites. We found that warbler pairing and fledging success were best predicted by Ecological site (hereafter Ecosite), an indicator of hardwood tree species composition. Warbler pairing and fledging success were about 1.5 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, for territories dominated by the Low Stony Hill Ecosite than territories dominated by the Redlands Ecosite. Our results indicate that understory thinning for military training purposes did not have a negative effect on warblers at Fort Hood in the manner tested, and suggest that removal of smaller trees from the understory in a way that replicates historic conditions may elicit neutral responses from this forest-dependent songbird. Quantifying wildlife responses to military activities provides the Department of Defense and US Fish and Wildlife Service with data to guide conservation of threatened and endangered species on Department of Defense facilities while maintaining the military mission, and supports wildlife management efforts on other public and private lands.

  8. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  9. Ecohydrological and Socioeconomic Relationships in Disturbed Woodland Ecosystems of the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Guldan, S. J.; Tidwell, V. C.; Deboodt, T.

    2016-12-01

    In many areas of the western U.S., the significant encroachment of juniper (Juniperus spp.) into grassland and sage steppe ecosystems has disrupted important ecological and hydrological functions. Striking landscape changes attributed to high levels of encroachment have raised considerable concerns about the negative impacts of juniper expansion on multiple ecosystem functions and services. Juniper encroachment can limit the growth of understory vegetation, reduce biodiversity, modify hydrologic processes, and alter soil nutrient cycling. Many producers, agency staff, and scientists have indicated the need for an integrated approach to manage juniper woodlands for multiple ecosystem benefits (e.g., water, forage, and wildlife habitat). Using a systems approach, we are investigating biophysical and socioeconomic linkages in very dense juniper-dominated landscapes of Oregon and New Mexico. Ongoing study results in the biophysical component in Oregon show that increases in perennial grass cover are positively correlated with soil moisture, whereas increases in juniper cover are negatively correlated. Winter precipitation infiltrates relatively rapidly through the soil profile and into the aquifer. Greater springflow and runoff rates are observed in a watershed where juniper was removed (90%). Shallow groundwater response observed in watershed and valley monitoring wells show there are temporary hydrologic connections between upland and lowland locations during the winter precipitation season. Study findings indicate that in similar, highly encroached landscapes, reducing juniper tree density may improve overall watershed function and enhance ecosystems services such as forage and water provisioning. In the socioeconomic component, we are in constant communication with different stakeholders to enhance our understanding of current management practices and perceptions related to juniper control. Also, we are gathering economic data from secondary sources that will

  10. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  11. Assessment of carbon in woody plants and soil across a vineyard-woodland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John N; Hollander, Allan D; O'Geen, A Toby; Thrupp, L Ann; Hanifin, Robert; Steenwerth, Kerri; McGourty, Glenn; Jackson, Louise E

    2011-11-09

    Quantification of ecosystem services, such as carbon (C) storage, can demonstrate the benefits of managing for both production and habitat conservation in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we evaluated C stocks and woody plant diversity across vineyard blocks and adjoining woodland ecosystems (wildlands) for an organic vineyard in northern California. Carbon was measured in soil from 44 one m deep pits, and in aboveground woody biomass from 93 vegetation plots. These data were combined with physical landscape variables to model C stocks using a geographic information system and multivariate linear regression. Field data showed wildlands to be heterogeneous in both C stocks and woody tree diversity, reflecting the mosaic of several different vegetation types, and storing on average 36.8 Mg C/ha in aboveground woody biomass and 89.3 Mg C/ha in soil. Not surprisingly, vineyard blocks showed less variation in above- and belowground C, with an average of 3.0 and 84.1 Mg C/ha, respectively. This research demonstrates that vineyards managed with practices that conserve some fraction of adjoining wildlands yield benefits for increasing overall C stocks and species and habitat diversity in integrated agricultural landscapes. For such complex landscapes, high resolution spatial modeling is challenging and requires accurate characterization of the landscape by vegetation type, physical structure, sufficient sampling, and allometric equations that relate tree species to each landscape. Geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques are useful for integrating the above variables into an analysis platform to estimate C stocks in these working landscapes, thereby helping land managers qualify for greenhouse gas mitigation credits. Carbon policy in California, however, shows a lack of focus on C stocks compared to emissions, and on agriculture compared to other sectors. Correcting these policy shortcomings could create incentives for ecosystem service provision

  12. Dynamics of the leaf-litter arthropod fauna following fire in a neotropical woodland savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo L Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover. Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire

  13. Estimating aboveground biomass in Kalahari woodlands: inferring soil erosional and distributional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    Maps which accurately quantify vegetation carbon, or above ground biomass (AGB) and its changes, are not only essential for ecosystem monitoring, but also for understanding controls on ecosystem carbon, associated soil organic carbon (SOC) and the global carbon cycle. Throughout the rangelands of Namibia, two vegetation cover change processes are widespread, firstly, deforestation and forest degradation, and secondly, the encroachment of the herbaceous and grassy layers by woody strata. Both processes effect a range of key ecosystem services, including SOC dynamics by facilitating erosion and altering soil re-distributional processes. Yet, the spatial and temporal intensity of these vegetation change processes and hence their effect on SOC, remain poorly quantified. This study therefore aims to distinguish and map the extent of both deforestation and woody thickening and associated AGB changes, and gain an understanding of the spatial distribution of land degradation risk areas. We map AGB at two periods (2007 and 2015) for part of the Namibian Kalahari woodland savannah, by modelling forest inventory measurements as a function of a fusion of radar and optical satellite imagery. We then process a change detection and validate both individual and change maps using independent field and satellite data. Results show widespread increases and declines in both areal extent and quantity of AGB, suggesting (i) important vegetation change processes (i.e. both deforestation and woody thickening), and (ii) associated changes in soil quality. Indeed, woody thickening has been found to mask land degradation, through the replacement of herbaceous layers with hardy shrubs, leading to increases in erosional processes. These results are in agreement with previous studies, which identify both extensive greening and small-scale deforestation. Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon, Erosion, deposition, Above Ground Biomass; Savannah; Rangeland; Carbon; Remote Sensing; Change detection

  14. Extreme divergence in floral scent among woodland star species (Lithophragma spp.) pollinated by floral parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Magne; Schwind, Christopher; Raguso, Robert A; Thompson, John N

    2013-04-01

    A current challenge in coevolutionary biology is to understand how suites of traits vary as coevolving lineages diverge. Floral scent is often a complex, variable trait that attracts a suite of generalized pollinators, but may be highly specific in plants specialized on attracting coevolved pollinating floral parasites. In this study, floral scent variation was investigated in four species of woodland stars (Lithophragma spp.) that share the same major pollinator (the moth Greya politella, a floral parasite). Three specific hypotheses were tested: (1) sharing the same specific major pollinator favours conservation of floral scent among close relatives; (2) selection favours 'private channels' of rare compounds particularly aimed at the specialist pollinator; or (3) selection from rare, less-specialized co-pollinators mitigates the conservation of floral scent and occurrence of private channels. Dynamic headspace sampling and solid-phase microextraction were applied to greenhouse-grown plants from a common garden as well as to field samples from natural populations in a series of experiments aiming to disentangle the genetic and environmental basis of floral scent variation. Striking floral scent divergence was discovered among species. Only one of 69 compounds was shared among all four species. Scent variation was largely genetically based, because it was consistent across field and greenhouse treatments, and was not affected by visits from the pollinating floral parasite. The strong divergence in floral scents among Lithophragma species contrasts with the pattern of conserved floral scent composition found in other plant genera involved in mutualisms with pollinating floral parasites. Unlike some of these other obligate pollination mutualisms, Lithophragma plants in some populations are occasionally visited by generalist pollinators from other insect taxa. This additional complexity may contribute to the diversification in floral scent found among the Lithophragma

  15. Calcareous forest seepages acting as biodiversity hotspots and refugia for woodland snail faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Tajovská, Eva; Horsáková, Veronika

    2017-07-01

    Land-snail species richness has repeatedly been found to increase with the increasing site calcium content and humidity. These two factors, reported as the main drivers of land-snail assemblage diversity, are also among the main habitat characteristics of calcareous seepages. Here we explore local species richness and compositional variation of forest spring-fed patches (i.e. seepages), to test the hypothesis that these habitats might act as biodiversity hotspots and refugia of regional snail faunas. In contrast to treeless spring fens, only little is known about land snail faunas inhabiting forest seepages. Studying 25 isolated calcareous forest seepages, evenly distributed across the White Carpathians Protected Landscape Area (SE Czech Republic), we found that these sites, albeit spatially very limited, can harbour up to 66% of the shelled land-snail species known to occur in this well-explored protected area (in total 83 species). By comparing land snail assemblages of the studied seepages with those occurring in the woodland surroundings of each site as well as those previously sampled in 28 preserved forest sites within the study area, we found the seepages to be among the most species rich sites. Although the numbers of species did not statistically differ among these three systems, we found highly significant differences in species composition. Seepage faunas were composed of many species significantly associated with spring sites, in contrast to the assemblages of both surrounding and preserved forest sites. Our results highly support the hypothesis that calcareous forest seepages might serve as refugia and biodiversity hotspots of regional land snail faunas. Protection of these unique habitats challenges both conservation plans and forest management guidelines as they might act as sources for the recolonization and restoration of forest snail assemblages particularly in areas impoverished by harvesting and clearcutting.

  16. Does nest site availability limit the density of hole nesting birds in small woodland patches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Loman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available By providing nest boxes, previous studies have shown that nest sites are in short supply and limit the populations of several small passerines, including the Great Tit Parus major, the Blue Tit P. caeruleus, and the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. Can this influence their distribution over a range of small woodland patch sizes in a heterogeneous landscape? To investigate this, a study was conducted in a heterogeneous agricultural landscape, with a mixture of wooded patches and cropped fields, in southern Sweden. The descriptive part of the study involved mapping territories of the three species in 135 patches. These species avoided small (<1 ha, Pied Flycatcher or very small (<0.2 ha, the two tit species forest patches in this landscape. In an experimental part, a subset of 34 patches, 0.01 to 24 ha in size was used. Territories were mapped in a first year as a control. In a second year, patches were matched by size and vegetation and nest-boxes were provided in one patch of each pair. Territories were again mapped. Providing nestboxes increased the density of breeding Great Tits in patches of all sizes and expanded their use of very small patches. The nest-boxes increased the density of Pied Flycatchers in large patches but not in small patches. So, is the lack of territories in small patches due to shortage of nest sites? The outcome of the experiment suggests nest site limitation as a cause of the observed Great Tit discrimination against very small habitat patches. The lack of Pied Flycatchers in small patches must however have another basis than lack of nest sites. The effect of providing nest-boxes on Blue Tit distribution was inconclusive.

  17. The influence of soil resources and plant traits on invasion and restoration in a subtropical woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelenik, Stephanie G.; D'Antonio, Carla M; August-Schmidt, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown in some cases that nitrogen (N) addition to soil will increase abundance of plant invaders because many invaders have traits that promote rapid growth in response to high resource supply. Similarly, it has been suggested, and sometimes shown, that decreasing soil N via carbon (C) additions can facilitate native species recovery. Yet all species are unlikely to respond to resource supply in the same way. We asked how soil nutrients and competition affect native and exotic woody species in a restoration experiment where we added N or C, and crossed soil manipulation with the manipulation of dominant exotic grass abundance in a Hawaiian subtropical woodland. We related changes in survival and growth of outplanted individuals to native/exotic status and plant traits. As a group, N-fixers showed reduced survival compared to non-fixers in response to added N, with Morella faya (exotic) and Acacia koa (native) having dramatic negative responses. Among non-fixers, species with greater foliar %N had more positive survival responses to increasing soil N. Specific leaf area was not predictive of responses to nutrients or competition. In general, responses to carbon addition were weak, although reducing competition from existing exotic grasses was beneficial for all outplanted species, with N-fixers showing the most positive response. We conclude that commonly used restoration strategies to clear exotic species or lower soil resources with C addition will most greatly benefit N-fixing species, which themselves may be unwanted invaders. Thus statements about the influence of increased soil N on invasions should be carefully dissected by considering the traits (such as N-fixation status) of the regional species pool.

  18. Litter dominates surface fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a Californian oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Lett, Céline; Seibt, Ulli

    2016-02-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a promising tracer for partitioning terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration from net carbon fluxes, based on its daytime co-uptake alongside CO2 through leaf stomata. Because ecosystem COS fluxes are the sum of plant and soil fluxes, using COS as a photosynthesis tracer requires accurate knowledge of soil COS fluxes. At an oak woodland in Southern California, we monitored below-canopy surface (soil + litter) COS and CO2 fluxes for 40 days using chambers and laser spectroscopy. We also measured litter fluxes separately and used a depth-resolved diffusion-reaction model to quantify the role of litter uptake in surface COS fluxes. Soil and litter were primarily COS sinks, and mean surface COS uptake was small (˜1 pmol m-2 s-1). After rainfall, uptake rates were higher (6-8 pmol m-2 s-1), and litter contributed a significant fraction (up to 90%) to surface fluxes. We observed rapid concurrent increases in COS uptake and CO2 efflux following the onset of rain. The patterns were similar to the Birch effect widely documented for soils; however, both COS and CO2 flux increases originated mainly in the litter. The synchronous COS-CO2 litter Birch effect indicates that it results from a rapid increase in litter microbial activity after rainfall. We expect that the drying-rewetting cycles typical for mediterranean and other semiarid ecosystems create a pronounced seasonality in surface COS fluxes. Our results highlight that litter uptake is an important component of surface COS exchange that needs to be taken into account in ecosystem COS budgets and model simulations.

  19. Cumulative effects of developed road network on woodland--a landscape approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Vardei, Mahla; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrasoul; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, Mir Masoud

    2014-11-01

    Population growth, during the twentieth century, has increased demand for new farmlands. Accordingly, road networks have rapidly been developed to facilitate and accelerate human access to the essential resources resulted in extensive land use changes. The present study aims at assessing cumulative effects of developed road network on tree cover of Golestan Province in northern Iran. In order to detect changes over the study period of 1987-2002, the LULC map of the study area was initially prepared from the satellite images of Landsat TM (1987) and ETM+ (2002) using maximum likelihood supervised classification method. Afterwards, a total number of seven landscape matrices were selected to detect cumulative effects of the developed road network on woodland cover. The obtained results indicated that the fragile patches are mainly located at a distance of 171-342 m from the roadside. Furthermore, the majority of the patches affected by cumulative effects of development activities are situated at a distance of 342-684 m from the roadside, over an approximate area of 55 ha. The analysis of landscape metrics revealed that the developed road network has increased the landscape metrics of "the number of patches" and "patches perimeter-area ratio". It has also followed by a decrease in metrics such as "patches area", "Euclidean nearest neighbor distance", "patches proximity", "shape index", "contiguity", and "mean patches fractal dimension". The road network has also increased the "number of patches" and decreased the "mean patches area" representing further fragmentation of the landscape. With identification of highly affected wooldland cover patches, it would be possible to apply adaptive environmental management strategies to preserve and rehabilitate high-priority patches.

  20. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.