WorldWideScience

Sample records for fire safety regulations

  1. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  2. Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  3. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  4. Campus Fire Safety Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety. (GR)

  5. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  6. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  7. Fire safety in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and-3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has...... undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever......, materials with non-uniform surfaces will be investigated....

  8. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  9. Fire safety of timber structures

    OpenAIRE

    Štupnik, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this graduation thesis is to show procedures for calculating the fire safety of timber structures. Presented are proposals of improvements of calculations according to standard EN 1995-1-2, based on fire tests and described in European technical guideline. The practical calculations are shown on examples of timber structures of Kindergarten Preddvor.

  10. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    .g. structural and non structural, organizational, human behavior). This is even more truth for the fire safety design of such structures. Fire safety in tunnels is challenging because of the particular environment, bearing in mind also that a fire can occur in different phases of the tunnel’s lifecycle. Plans...... of nonlinear analyses for different fire exposures....

  11. Enforcing fire safety in the catering industry : an economic analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Guido

    2008-01-01

    What is an effective and efficient enforcement policy for fire safety in the catering industry? When and why is an informal, cooperative enforcement style through warnings, persuasion and advice (a so called compliance strategy) effective in inducing compliance with the fire safety regulation? The s

  12. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  13. Parametric study for the fire safety design of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiuti, Riccardo; Giuliani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    and find out the basic collapse mechanisms of structural elements in fire conditions, considering the rest of the construction with appropriate constraints. The analysis is carried out taking into account material and geometrical nonlinearities as well as the degradation of steel properties at high......Despite the increasing knowledge on the behaviour of structures in fire and the development of new design tools for fire safety, current prescriptive regulations and design procedures present several shortcomings. These are mostly due to an oversimplification of the problem, in order to allow...... for a simple integration of the fire design procedures in the common practice. In this view, the structural fire safety of a building can be accomplished by verifying that single elements can resist a standard fire exposure for a required time, without taking into consideration the effect of restrained...

  14. Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Project - USFA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Provides a listing of properties compliant with the requirements of the Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990. Users may search for compliant properties and submit...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  16. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment and select materials which help provide sufficient fire resistance to reasonably ensure adequate.... Factors to consider include potential ignition sources; the type, quantity, and location of the materials... railroad shall complete a new fire safety analysis taking into consideration the change in railroad...

  17. How to increase fire safety in buildings: Fire safety engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van R.A.P. (Ruud)

    2011-01-01

    Fire means beside direct (financial)damage often far more indirect costs caused by interruption of operations and loss in sales, market share, property and,in the worst case people can get injured or even get killed (on average around80 persons a year). Fire in buildings is clearly a disaster and fo

  18. Fire safety challenges of green buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Meacham, Brian; Echeverria, Juan; Cheng, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns and advances in architectural technologies have lead to a greater number of green buildings or buildings with green, eco-friendly elements. However, from a practical standpoint, there is no incident reporting system in the world that tracks data on fire incidents in green buildings. Fire safety objectives are not explicitly considered in most green rating schemes, and green design features have been associated with photovoltaic panels and roof materials, lightweight timber frame buildings, and combustible insulation materials. Fire Safety Challenges of Green Buildings is

  19. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been a major threat for buildings and other structures, leadingto consequences that can affect both the safety of people and the usage or in some cases the very survival of constructions, due to collapse mechanisms induced by fire or fire effects.Aim of this paper is to highlight......-based fire design of the structure(PBFD), where safety goals are explicitly defined and a deeper knowledge of the structural response to fire effects can be achieved, for example with the avail of finite element analyses (FEA). On the other hand, designers can’t follow established procedures when undertaking...... with reference to one frame of the considered car park, outlining the most problematic aspects in the modelling and in the interpretation of the results and making a focus on the collapse mechanisms of steel frames such has catenary action and sway and non-sway collapse....

  20. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    durability provisions, commitment to environmental aspects, issues of sustainability and safety assurance, for their whole lifecycle. The design for safety of tunnel infrastructures is a multifaceted process, since there are many aspects that need to be accounted for, regarding different aspects (e...... for upgrading fire safety provisions and tunnel management are also important for existing tunnels. In this study, following a brief introduction of issues regarding the above mentioned aspects, the structural performance of a steel rib for a tunnel infrastructure subject to fire is assessed by means...

  1. Fire Prevention and Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Open a window and wave a brightly colored cloth or flashlight to signal for help. Use Caution ... fire or any disaster, register on the American Red Cross Safe and Well Web site available through ...

  2. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  3. Nuclear regulation and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  4. Concrete Strength for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2005-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the compressive strength of a number of concretes for fire safety design. The data are derived from the authors own research including test series not published before and from more than 400 other test series comprising approximately 3000 specimens known from...

  5. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of...

  6. Topology optimization for simplified structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Lange, Nis P.; Giuliani, Luisa;

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is applied in an idealized structural fire safety model, where the minimum compliance problem is constrained by temperature-controlled structural degradation. The constraint ensures a certain structural stiffness after a prescribed time. As this time period is extended......, resulting optimized topologies tend to become thicker or introduce redundant members that can take over when structural parts near the origin of the fire lose their load carrying capability. Hence, the structural degradation model acts as an erosion operator on the topology and indirectly enforces a minimum...

  7. Reinforcement Data for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2004-01-01

    for the deterioration of the materials when they are heated and cooled down. A simple expression is established for the description of deterioration curves for fire-exposed materials such as concrete and reinforcement by means of 5 parameters, which may be used as input data for structural fire safety calculations...... instead of the more troublesome application of curves or tables. This new idealized representation is compared with test data and with other idealized curves for the materials presented, and recommended design values are given. Warnings are given for misleading curves and expressions from the structural...

  8. Reinforcement Data for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2004-01-01

    Idealized materials data are derived from a number of test series reported in the literature and made by the author. The data cover a variety of reinforcing steels from mild steel, deformed bars and cold worked bars to cold drawn prestressing steels. Processes are described, which are responsible...... for the deterioration of the materials when they are heated and cooled down. A simple expression is established for the description of deterioration curves for fire-exposed materials such as concrete and reinforcement by means of 5 parameters, which may be used as input data for structural fire safety calculations...

  9. Investigation of Fire Safety Awareness and Management in Mall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of having sufficient fire safety system installed in buildings, the incidence of fire hazard becomes the furthermost and supreme threat to health and safety, as well as property to any community. In order to make sure that the safety of the building and its users, the fundamental features depends on the fire precaution system and equipment which should be according to the standard requirements. Nevertheless, the awareness on fire safety could necessarily alleviate the damages or rate of fatality during the event of fire. This paper presents the results on the investigation of fire safety awareness and management, concentrating on shopping mall. The endeavour of this study is to explore the level of fire safety knowledge of the users in the mall, and to study the effectiveness level of fire safety management in a mall. From the study, public awareness is highly related to understanding human behaviour and their personal background. The respondents’ levels of awareness are rather low, which reflects on their poor action when facing emergency situation during fire. The most effective methods identified to improve the awareness and effectiveness of fire safety level is through involvement in related fire safety programmes, distribution of pamphlets or brochures on fire safety and appointing specific personnel for Emergency Response Team in the mall.

  10. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental...... and respiratory physiology • Combustion and natural fires • Explosion theory • Fire Chemistry • Fire Extinction Chemistry and Physics • Evacuation and human behaviour during a fire • Sensitivity and risk analysis • Fire Models • Emission and Radiation Theory...

  11. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  12. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics... fire statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Cause of fire: The factor or... statistics described in paragraph (c) of this section. (2) A description of each on-campus student...

  13. Reduced Ignition Propensity cigarette regulations and decline in fires, fire injuries and fatalities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky, Konstantin S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available On October 1, 2005, Canada became the first country to implement a nationwide cigarette fire-safety standard for Reduced Ignition Propensity (RIP cigarettes. The aim of the paper is to estimate the impact of the RIP cigarette regulations on the number of smoking-related fires (SRF, fire injuries (SRFI and fatalities (SRFF in Canada. METHODS: As there are no national fire statistics data, the data from Canadian provinces were studied. The data with smoking mentioned as a source of ignition were found for four provinces and grouped into two time periods: pre-implementation (2000-2004 and post-implementation (2005-2009. Average annual indicators for each period were compared. RESULTS: In Alberta, the number of home SRF and SRFF did not change much, while small (14% reduction was observed in SRFI. In British Columbia, the percentage of SRF in all fires decreased by 15% and the number of SRFI and SRFF declined by 41% and 49% respectively. In Ontario, an average number of SRF and SRFI per year slightly decreased; however, the number of SRFF increased. In Saskatchewan, fires caused by smokers’ materials decreased almost by half while the number of fatalities and injuries decreased even to a larger extent. Most prominent was the reduction of fatalities and injuries in fires with cigarettes as the source of ignition: they decreased more than three-fold in Saskatchewan. CONCLUSION: Canadian fire statistics do not allow estimating fire loss reduction as a result of the implemented RIP cigarette regulations for the whole country. Two Canadian provinces (British Columbia and Saskatchewan experienced a substantial reduction in fires ignited by manufactured cigarettes and a corresponding reduction in the associated fire fatalities and injuries. In Alberta, only the number of smoking fire injuries has shown some decrease. No substantial changes were observed in Ontario, probably due to the high level of cigarette smuggling.

  14. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs;

    2012-01-01

    -supply vehicle like the ATV or Orbital’s Cygnus, a series of supporting experiments are being planned and conducted by the team members. In order to answer the appropriate scientific and engineering problems relevant for spacecraft fire safety, a canonical scenario that can improve the understanding of flame...... spread, and thus also the modeling thereof, in realistic conditions is described. Some of the parameters governing the flame spread are also identified and their scaling against the dimensions of the test specimen is briefly questioned. Then several of the current and scheduled efforts are presented...

  15. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    ) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements...... validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being developed by an international topical team that is collaboratively defining the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation...

  16. An investigation into the fire safety management of historic buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Kincaid, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project which considered the issues surrounding fire safety management in historic buildings. The main aim was to establish to what extent having a robust fire safety management regime might stand as an alternative to physical measures in achieving a satisfactory level of fire safety. In order to do this, a research method focusing on qualitative methods and aiming to gain an in-depth understanding of the issues was adopted. Secondary data was ga...

  17. Advanced analysis and design for fire safety of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Analysis and Design for Fire Safety of Steel Structures systematically presents the latest findings on behaviours of steel structural components in a fire, such as the catenary actions of restrained steel beams, the design methods for restrained steel columns, and the membrane actions of concrete floor slabs with steel decks. Using a systematic description of structural fire safety engineering principles, the authors illustrate the important difference between behaviours of an isolated structural element and the restrained component in a complete structure under fire conditions. The book will be an essential resource for structural engineers who wish to improve their understanding of steel buildings exposed to fires. It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in fire safety for master’s degree programs in structural engineering, and is excellent reading material for final-year undergraduate students in civil engineering and fire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges th...

  18. Fire and worker health and safety: an introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard; Levenstein, Charles

    2015-02-01

    One century ago, the landmark fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in New York City claimed the lives of 146 garment workers and helped spur the adoption of fire safety measures and laws targeting dangerous working conditions. Since that time, continuing advances have been made to address the threat of fire-in workplace fire safety practices and regulations, in training and safety requirements for firefighters and first responders, and in hazard communication laws that enhance disaster planning and response. Recent high profile events, including the West, Texas fertilizer plant explosion, derailments of fuel cargo trains, and garment factory fires in Bangladesh, have brought renewed attention to fire as a workplace health and safety issue and to the unevenness of safety standards and regulatory enforcement, in the United States as well as internationally. In this article, we provide an overview of fire as a workplace health and safety hazard and an introduction to the essays included in this special issue of New Solutions on fire and work.

  19. Fuzzy synthetic assessment of building fire safety system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Gao-shang; PENG Li-min

    2005-01-01

    A multistage assessment index set is chosen based on the analysis of building fire safety system, whereby the weight of each index is determined through an analy tie.hierarchy process; a fuzzy synthetic assessment model for the building fire safety system is constructed, and the quantified result was obtained by using hierarchy parameter judgment. This fuzzy synthetic assessment method can quantify assessment result of the building fire safety system, so thatthe fire precautions may be accurately adopted, and the serious potential risk may be avoided. The application shows that this method possesses both objectivity and feasibility.

  20. Human Factors in Fire Safety Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-01-01

    Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. Problems still occurred despite of the adequate fire safety systems installed. For most people in high-risk buildings, not all accidents were caused by ...

  1. Human Factors in Fire Safety Management and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. Problems still occurred despite of the adequate fire safety systems installed. For most people in high-risk buildings, not all accidents were caused by them. They were more likely to be the victims of a fire that occurred. Besides damaging their properties and belongings, some people were burned to death for not knowing what to do if fire happens in their place. This paper will present the human factors in fire safety management and prevention system.

  2. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is being developed to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous...... of the spacecraft fire safety risk. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies who conduct research that is integrated into the overall experiment design. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted in an Orbital Sciences...... Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. The tests will be fully automated...

  3. Risks at bus fires. Recommendations for the improvement of the safety; Gefahren bei Busbraenden. Empfehlungen zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann-Boellinghaus, Anja; Duelsen, Steffen [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The heavy bus fire in 2008 near Hanover, in which 20 of the 32 passengers left their life, has shown that the current fire protections regulations for buses cannot guarantee the self rescue of the passengers. The Federal Highway Research Institute (Bergisch Gladbach, Federal Republic of Germany) sponsored a research project in order to study the current fire protection regulations and developed recommendations to improve the fire safety in buses. Numerous attempts at materials present in buses were performed and compared with the requirements for rail vehicles. Accompanying the experimental investigations fire progressions were calculated in order to identify particularly dangerous scenarios and explore possible measures.

  4. Development of IFC based fire safety assesment tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taciuc, Anca; Karlshøj, Jan; Dederichs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Building Information Models (BIM) to evacuate the safety level in the building during the conceptual design stage. The findings show that the developed tools can be useful in AEC industry. Integrating BIM from conceptual design stage for analyzing the fire safety level can ensure precision in further......Due to the impact that the fire safety design has on the building's layout and on other complementary systems, as installations, it is important during the conceptual design stage to evaluate continuously the safety level in the building. In case that the task is carried out too late, additional...

  5. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  6. CNG buses fire safety : learnings from recent accidents in France and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Perrette, Lionel; Wiedemann, Helmut K.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The use of CNG in bus and private vehicles is growing steadily. Recent fire accidents involving CNG buses have shown that tanks may explode though compliant with current ECE UN R110 regulation. Such a repeated scenario is certainly not acceptable having in mind the tremendous amount of energy released when a compressed tank bursts. Investigation of German and French recent cases detailed in this article highlights potential improvements in current CNG buses fire safety...

  7. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...

  8. Application of Computer Integration Technology for Fire Safety Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jianyong; LI Yinqing; CHEN Huchuan

    2008-01-01

    With the development of information technology, the fire safety assessment of whole structure or region based on the computer simulation has become a hot topic. However, traditionally, the concemed studies are performed separately for different objectives and difficult to perform an overall evaluation. A new multi-dimensional integration model and methodology for fire safety assessment were presented and two newly developed integrated systems were introduced to demonstrate the function of integration simulation technology in this paper. The first one is the analysis on the fire-resistant behaviors of whole structure under real fire loads. The second one is the study on fire evaluation and emergency rescue of campus based on geography information technology (GIS). Some practical examples are presented to illuminate the advan-tages of computer integration technology on fire safety assessment and emphasize some problems in the simulation. The results show that the multi-dimensional integration model offers a new way and platform for the integrating fire safety assessment of whole structure or region, and the integrated software developed is the useful engineering tools for cost-saving and safe design.

  9. Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wickström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained. Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculat...

  10. The Italian National Guidelines for the fire safety of facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Mazziotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the facades' design buildings where once only focused on architectural or aesthetic purposes (in addition, of course, of whether protective issues. Nowadays, thanks to the technological development of the construction works and the use of new types of materials, the facades' design should also address fire safety related aspects. In Europe and especially in Italy – where the types of building façades are built with windows of small surface and natural stone coverings – the green building/sustainability movement has resulted in the development of new concepts in facade or curtain wall design that intended to enhance the energy efficiency of building façades. These new building surfaces are covered by extensive panelling fitted with insulating materials or by wide glass surfaces, capable of carry out the most diverse purposes including, just to name a few: energy reduction, climate comfort, recovery of electricity through photovoltaic panels that convert sunlight into electricity, large space for advertising purpose. One of the main fire safety goal for a building design is to restrict the vertical fire spread so that the smoke and flames are limited to the fire origin floor. The new building façade and curtain wall topologies could overwhelms concerns for fire safety, therefore the Italian National fire service has released a Fire Code Guideline in order to address the fire safety design for an high rise building façade. This paper aims to show the guideline contents and the related fire safety façades concerns.

  11. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and maintained...-type water extinguisher. (g) First aid facilities shall be provided and readily accessible for use...

  12. Environmental justice regulations draw fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Advocates of "environmental justice" say that proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations are necessary to ensure that an unfair share of industrial facilities and waste plants are not sited in poor and minority communities, as they claim has occurred in the past.However, a number of state and local government agencies, business groups, and Democratic and Republican politicians argue that EPA guidelines—written to put some teeth into the Title VI clause of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits discrimination in all federally funded programs and activities—are unworkable and need to be overhauled.

  13. Fire and explosion safety in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 13 presentations in topics on LNG projects nationally and internationally, simulations of gas dispersion due to LNG discharges, transports of pressurized natural gas, technological aspects of fire protection and combat equipment, safety aspects of offshore installations and transportation systems, offshore platform and transportation systems design and various examples of safety design and management. Some experiences within safety engineering in the petroleum exploitation are included.

  14. Fire safety assessment and upgrading of existing traffic tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederichs U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many traffic tunnels in the European Union need records of their conservation and safety status, including fire performance. Besides other countries the German road transport authorities plan to enhance the safety of their tunnels. As an example, the results of investigations performed with a two-tube tunnel in Northern Germany, which has been examined to assess fire safety, is reported. It turned out, that the older tube, which got fire protection boards on the ceilings and the wall crowns, fully fits the demands according to the current rules. The later tube needs an upgrading to avoid catastrophic impairment of air and car traffic in the vicinity of the tunnels. For the retrofitting a number of protection materials are in the market. The execution of the measure requires smart planning as to reach the strived goal.

  15. 76 FR 70885 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... automatic sprinkler requirement of the 2009 edition of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101... nursing home facilities existing as of June 25, 2001, to have an automatic sprinkler system, as required... Regulatory Flexibility Act, 5 U.S.C. 601- 612. The change to part 59 concerning sprinkler systems will...

  16. Archer Fire and Safety - reducing risk in the offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, K.

    2000-06-01

    Protecting the lives and safety of offshore oil and gas workers is the business of Newfoundland-based Archer Fire and Safety. Originally established as a supplier of industrial materials focusing on the oil and gas industry, the company narrowed its focus in 1996 to fire and safety protection, introduced more specialized fire and safety equipment, and began to explore service opportunities to the industry in addition to the usual consumables. After some anxious few years, the company now operates two SCBA service centres in Newfoundland, in addition to sales and servicing a wide range of fire and safety equipment such as gas, flame and heat detection.The company is constantly on the lookout for new opportunities and has developed a computer-based pricing system which enables them to provide quick response to pricing inquiries, a big advantage in an industry with relatively unsophisticated business practices. The company's emphasis on research and quick response capability enabled the company to anticipate future requirements and to land major contracts first at Bull Arm, and later on the Terra Nova Project. Its reputation for best-in-class products, high quality service and a business-like approach helped to attract other clients such as Terra Nova Alliance, Canship and Schlumberger, and offshore drilling companies like Glomar International and TransOcean Sedco-Forex, with further opportunities in the offing with upcoming projects such as the White Rose and Hebron.Today about 60 per cent of the business is offshore related.

  17. Fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection for offshore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, N.K.; Guedes Soares, C.; Thoft-Christensen, P.; Jensen, F.M

    1998-08-01

    The article presents a unified probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology was developed by integrating quantitative risk analysis (QRA) techniques with the modem methods of structural system reliability analysis (SRA) and reliability based design optimisation (RBDO). Reliability analysis methodologies are presented for both plated (e.g. fire and blast walls) and skeletal structures (deck framing), which take into account uncertainties in fire and blast loading, thermal and mechanical properties of the steel and insulation. Probability of component and system failure are evaluated using first- and second-order reliability methods (FORM/SORM). The optimisation of passive fire protection is performed such that the total expected cost of the protection system is minimised while satisfying reliability constraints.

  18. Fire safety design of atria. Valokatteisten tilojen palotekniikkaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J. (eds.) (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    Atria, halls and other large size glass buildings have recently become very popular in public buildings in Finland. Atria are large rooms, and constructed from new type of construction parts which present high demands on their fire protection. This publication consists of three parts. The first parts deals with design of atria according to Finnish and foreign building codes. Especially safety of egress, active fire protection, smoke venting as well as materials and structures are discussed. The second part deals detailed with smoke venting applying a recent NFPA Guide on atrium inside an office building. Additionally, the same object is simulated numerically using a zone model code BRI2. The third part deals with thermal load of structural members of an atrium inside a big office building applying numerical fire simulation using zone model code BRI2. The simulation yields hot layer temperature and smoke layer height inside the building. The report is a review on the fire protection design principles starting from the simple traditional prescriptive calculation rules. The examples of utilization of numerical fire simulation for solving special problems in fire safety design are included.

  19. Fire and rescue service community safety initiatives: measuring impact

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, T.; Wheatley, D; Brunsden, V; Hill, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss methods of capturing the impact of fire and rescue service (FRS) community safety work which directly aims to reduce the occurrence of specific incidents. Design/methodology/approach - The impact assessment method described focuses on addressing one of the major problems with regards to attributing outcomes to FRS community safety work; the influence of external factors. This paper looked to assess the incident trends within a case study UK FR...

  20. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  1. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Jomaas, Grunde

    2013-01-01

    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is under development to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. Future crewed missions are expected to be more complex and longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this gap in knowledge, a project has been established under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program under the Human Exploration and Operations Mission directorate with the goal of substantially advancing our understanding of the spacecraft fire safety risk. Associated with the project is an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies who conduct research that is integrated into the overall experiment design. The experiments are under development to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has undocked from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. The international topical team is collaborating with the NASA team in the definition of the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation and technology development. The status of the overall experiment and the associated international technology development efforts are summarized.

  2. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  3. 75 FR 17641 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... economy of $100 million or more, or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or...; * * * * * (4) Meet the following additional requirements, if the provisions for One and Two-Family...

  4. Enhancement of Fire Safety of an Existing Green Building due to Natural Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural ventilation technology is extensively used in order to improve indoor environment quality and reduce power consumption of air-conditioning systems in green buildings. However, the effect of natural ventilation on fires needs to be evaluated carefully, and how to make these energy-saving buildings safe is a topic worth studying. This study uses Fire Dynamics Simulator on some fire safety enhancement measures for an existing green building without installation of a smoke exhaust system. Since the building is located on a school campus, it does not require a smoke exhaust system according to Taiwan fire regulations. Referential results, obtained after a series of improvement strategies are tested, show that kiln natural ventilation can generate a comfortable air flow. Unfortunately, due to the stack effect, hot air and fatal smoke are blown into the evacuation route area behind the room when a fire occurs. The findings showed that there are two feasible improvement measures, “controlling the off state of each air inlet” and “setting up an exhaust port in the rear of room”, which can effectively resolve the fire safety issues; the construction of which can be undertaken at a reasonable cost.

  5. Fire safety case study of a railway tunnel: Smoke evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maele Karim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When a fire occurs in a tunnel, it is of great importance to assure the safety of the occupants of the tunnel. This is achieved by creating smoke-free spaces in the tunnel through control of the smoke gases. In this paper, results are presented of a study concerning the fire safety in a real scale railway tunnel test case. Numerical simulations are performed in order to examine the possibility of natural ventilation of smoke in inclined tunnels. Several aspects are taken into account: the length of the simulated tunnel section, the slope of the tunnel and the possible effects of external wind at one portal of the tunnel. The Fire Dynamics Simulator of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, is applied to perform the simulations. The simulations show that for the local behavior of the smoke during the early stages of the fire, the slope of the tunnel is of little importance. Secondly, the results show that external wind and/or pressure conditions have a large effect on the smoke gases inside the tunnel. Finally, some idea for the value of the critical ventilation velocity is given. The study also shows that computational fluid dynamics calculations are a valuable tool for large scale, real life complex fire cases. .

  6. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body.

  7. 76 FR 10246 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Register recently informed us that we need to incorporate by reference NFPA 10 because our regulations...) Have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more, or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or...

  8. Unified methodology for fire safety assessment and optimal design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, N.K.; Deaves, D.M.; Gierlinski, J.T. [WS Atkins Consultants Ltd., Epsom (United Kingdom); Dogliani, M. [Registro Italiano Navale, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a unified, fully-probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology has been developed by integrating Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) techniques with the modern methods of Structural System Reliability Analysis (SRA) and Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). The integration has been achieved by using platform-specific extended event-trees which model in detail the escalation paths leading to the failure of Temporary Refuge (TR), Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) systems or structural collapse of the topside. Probabilities of events for which historical data are not generally available are calculated using structural reliability methods. The optimization of fire protection is performed such that the total expected cost of the protection system and the cost of failure of the platform (loss of life, loss of asset, environmental damage) is minimized while satisfying reliability constraints.

  9. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 to 1000 V. The two main factors, i.e., open circuiting of the dc circuit and of the bypass diodes and ground faults that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems, have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as designing the PV array mounting system to minimize the chimney effect, having proper bypass and blocking diodes, and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  10. Regulation of Irregular Neuronal Firing by Autaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Wu, Shengdun; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    The importance of self-feedback autaptic transmission in modulating spike-time irregularity is still poorly understood. By using a biophysical model that incorporates autaptic coupling, we here show that self-innervation of neurons participates in the modulation of irregular neuronal firing, primarily by regulating the occurrence frequency of burst firing. In particular, we find that both excitatory and electrical autapses increase the occurrence of burst firing, thus reducing neuronal firing regularity. In contrast, inhibitory autapses suppress burst firing and therefore tend to improve the regularity of neuronal firing. Importantly, we show that these findings are independent of the firing properties of individual neurons, and as such can be observed for neurons operating in different modes. Our results provide an insightful mechanistic understanding of how different types of autapses shape irregular firing at the single-neuron level, and they highlight the functional importance of autaptic self-innervation in taming and modulating neurodynamics.

  11. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 7. Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Custodial Buildings 136 4.5.5 Retail Stores, Malls, etc. 138 l’ 4.5.6 Restaurants and Nightclubs 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters... auditoria , theaters, exhibition halls, arenas, transportation terminals; educational buildings and indus- trial buildings. Many of the fire safety...usage are developed. 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters, Exhibition Halls, Arenas, Transportation Terminals, Etc. The factors

  12. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  13. Framework to implement a risk-informed performance-based fire safety approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2014-01-01

    The demand of a risk-informed performance-based approach for fire safety in the Netherlands is growing. Various major incidents (pub fire within the city of Volendam with 14 casualties in 2001, fire in the detention centre of Schiphol-East (airport) with 11 casualties in 2005 and the fire in the men

  14. Coupling CFAST fire modeling and SAPHIRE probabilistic assessment software for internal fire safety evaluation of a typical TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Arshi, Saiedeh [School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nematollahi, Mohammadreza, E-mail: nema@shirazu.ac.i [School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safety Research Center of Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Safety Research Center of Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Due to the significant threat of internal fires for the safety operation of nuclear reactors, presumed fire scenarios with potential hazards for loss of typical research reactor safety functions are analyzed by coupling CFAST fire modeling and SAPHIRE probabilistic assessment software. The investigations show that fire hazards associated with electrical cable insulation, lubricating oils, diesel, electrical equipment and carbon filters may lead to unsafe situations called core damage states. Using system-specific event trees, the occurrence frequency of core damage states after the occurrence of each possible fire scenario in critical fire compartments is evaluated. Probability that the fire ignited in the given fire compartment will burn long enough to cause the extent of damage defined by each fire scenario is calculated by means of detection-suppression event tree. As a part of detection-suppression event trees quantification, and also for generating the necessary input data for evaluating the frequency of core damage states by SAPHIRE 7.0 software, CFAST fire modeling software is applied. The results provide a probabilistic measure of the quality of existing fire protection systems in order to maintain the reactor at a reasonable safety level.

  15. Safety analysis of the existing 850 Firing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-06-05

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 850 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives, which was classified as a moderate hazard per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public.

  16. Safety analysis of the existing 851 Firing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-06-05

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 851 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but two of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exceptions were the linear accelerator and explosives, which were classified as moderate hazards per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public.

  17. Firing regulation of fast-spiking interneurons by autaptic inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Wu, Shengdun; Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in the brain are self-innervated by powerful inhibitory GABAergic autaptic connections. By computational modelling, we investigate how autaptic inhibition regulates the firing response of such interneurons. Our results indicate that autaptic inhibition both boosts the current threshold for action potential generation and modulates the input-output gain of FS interneurons. The autaptic transmission delay is identified as a key parameter that controls the firing patterns and determines multistability regions of FS interneurons. Furthermore, we observe that neuronal noise influences the firing regulation of FS interneurons by autaptic inhibition and extends their dynamic range for encoding inputs. Importantly, autaptic inhibition modulates noise-induced irregular firing of FS interneurons, such that coherent firing appears at an optimal autaptic inhibition level. Our results reveal the functional roles of autaptic inhibition in taming the firing dynamics of FS interneurons.

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety 1956 to 1999: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of fire safety in spacecraft has resulted from over 50 years of investigation and experience in space flight. Current practices and procedures for the operation of the Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) have been developed from this expertise, much of which has been documented in various reports. Extending manned space exploration from low Earth orbit to lunar or Martian habitats and beyond will require continued research in microgravity combustion and fire protection in low gravity. This descriptive bibliography has been produced to document and summarize significant work in the area of spacecraft fire safety that was published between 1956 and July 1999. Although some important work published in the late 1990s may be missing, these citations as well as work since 2000 can generally be found in Web-based resources that are easily accessed and searched. In addition to the citation, each reference includes a short description of the contents and conclusions of the article. The bibliography contains over 800 citations that are cross-referenced both by topic and the authors and editors. There is a DVD that accompanies this bibliography (available by request from the Center for Aerospace Information) containing the full-text articles of selected citations as well as an electronic version of this report that has these citations as active links to their corresponding full-text article.

  19. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  20. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  1. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  2. Vocabulary of aerospace safety terms pertaining to cryogenic safety, fires, explosions, and structure failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.; Mandel, G.; Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    This vocabulary listing characterizes the contents of over 10,000 documents of the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute's (ASRDI) safety engineering collection. The ASRDI collection is now one of the series accessible on the NASA RECON data base. There are approximately 6,300 postable terms that describe literature in the areas of cryogenic fluid safety, specifically hydrogen, oxygen, liquified natural gas; fire and explosion technology; and the mechanics of structural failure. To facilitate the proper selection of information nonpostable, related and array terms have been included in this listing.

  3. Study on mechanical characteristics and safety evaluation method of steel frame structure after fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical characterization of steel frame structure after fire are analyzed based on fire dynamics, heat transfer theory, structural mechanics, and finite element theory. We study the temperature characteristics and mechanical properties of steel frame structure under different fire locations and propose a safety evaluation method. We also analyze damage level of main frame components, maximum temperature of fire, thermal characteristics of frame components, firing duration, etc. to provide useful information for fire resistance design of the steel frame structure and post-disaster safety evaluation.

  4. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  5. Fire and evacuation drills make the CERN safety plans work

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Regular drills are a way of making sure that we are ready and able to react in the event of a fire or other adverse event. They are also a demanding test of all the technical and organisational measures in place to allow the quick and safe evacuation of buildings. Recently, large-scale drills took place in Building 40 and at Point 5 underground.   Group photo at Point 5, after the common evacuation drill. The ability to react to unexpected, adverse events relies in particular on training. This is why CERN’s safety teams organise regular drills. One of the most recent exercises took place on 26 March in Building 40. “Building 40 is a modern building fully equipped against fire, with two emergency exits in the central atrium. We also have 29 emergency guides distributed on each floor to guide people out of their offices,” says Kate Richardson, Territorial Safety Officer of the building. “The drills are very useful for testing the building's insta...

  6. Home fire safety education for parents of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee; Fahey, Erin; Janes, Erika G; Rengers, Sharon; Williams, Joseph; Scrivener, Drane; Myers, John

    2015-09-01

    In children under 1 year of age, the proportion of unintentional burns increases with infant age and mobility. Infants are not able to avoid burns and are dependent on parental or adult help. Treatment of burns in young children is expensive in terms of the life-long costs. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in home fire safety (HFS) knowledge and practices over time for parents of newborn children and expecting parents. HFS knowledge of 103 parents was assessed at baseline, immediately after watching a DVD on HFS (recall), and at 2-week follow-up (retention). In addition, the United States Fire Administration (USFA)/Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Home Safety Checklist which examines HFS practices in the homes was administered. Seventy percent of the participants were Caucasian, 65% were married, and 81% were first-time parents. HFS knowledge increased significantly from baseline to recall (45±12% vs. 87±17% correct responses, pburns in infants through increasing parent knowledge and HFS practices using a short, inexpensive DVD.

  7. Classification of fire-technical characteristic of roofing materials in European and Russian regulation documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the fire-danger index of building materials (such as roofing materials in European and Russian regulations. The parameters which were obtained during tests in accordance with standard of roofing materials in European and Russian methods of testing were analyzed. Some of the tests to determine the properties of the fire hazard of building materials are identical. Contributors show that the European standardization system has a much wider range of test methods for determining the properties of fire safety of construction materials. In Russia, for some tests is not unique (the test in a corner room, non-flammability tests, etc.. We concluded that the European standards for building materials are more stringent and also that the correlation between the various indicators missing. We demonstrate significant differences in the European and Russian fire hazard classification of identical roofing materials.

  8. Analysis of pressure safety valves for fire protection on offshore oil and gas installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Michael Skov; Eriksen, Jacob; Andreasen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of fire Pressure Safety Valves (PSV) has been investigated when offshore process equipment is exposed to a fire. Simulations of several typical offshore pressure vessels have been performed using the commercial software VessFire. The pressure vessels are exposed to a small jet f...

  9. Fire safety of EPS insulated facades in residential multi-storey buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola Esko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of EPS ETICS system on fire safety has been studied by using fire safety engineering methods for residential multi-storey buildings up to eight floors. The probabilities of fire spread to apartments above the room-of-fire-origin were assessed by calculating heat exposures and consequences caused by the external flaming both for the EPS ETICS facade and for facade made of at least A2-s1, d0 materials. Concerning consequences for life safety, the fire death probability for EPS ETICS system was found to be within tolerable limits of F-N-curve which illustrates the probability of an event and consequences in terms of number of deaths. Special concern should be paid to fire safety during installation phase when EPS is unprotected without reinforced rendering.

  10. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  11. FOOD SAFETY REGULATIONS BASED ON REAL SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Differences in regulations result in needless destruction of safe food and hamper food trade. The differences are not just the result of the history of food safety regulations, often developed in times before global cooperation, but are also built in new regulations. It may be responses to media hypes or for other reasons, but in most cases the differences cannot be justified scientifically. A major difficulty is that, due to the developments in analytical techniques the number of chemicals t...

  12. Neural network regulation driven by autonomous neural firings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Won

    2016-07-01

    Biological neurons naturally fire spontaneously due to the existence of a noisy current. Such autonomous firings may provide a driving force for network formation because synaptic connections can be modified due to neural firings. Here, we study the effect of autonomous firings on network formation. For the temporally asymmetric Hebbian learning, bidirectional connections lose their balance easily and become unidirectional ones. Defining the difference between reciprocal connections as new variables, we could express the learning dynamics as if Ising model spins interact with each other in magnetism. We present a theoretical method to estimate the interaction between the new variables in a neural system. We apply the method to some network systems and find some tendencies of autonomous neural network regulation.

  13. Fire safety analysis of the Crystal palace based on optimized BIM model

    OpenAIRE

    Semič, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    This master's thesis comprehensively explores fire safety in high-rise buildings. A fire safety analysis was performed on a model of the Crystal Palace skyscraper, which, at 89 meters, is the tallest building in Slovenia today (2016). A BIM model of the entire building was generated (Archicad) to be used with the software for fire (PyroSim) and evacuation analysis (Pathfinder). The BIM model of the building was optimized in a way it could be directly imported into the software for fire and...

  14. Rigid performance requirements assure public safety by regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Title 10, Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) provides a set of prescriptive performance test requirements for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste transport packaging containment systems. The hypothetical accident conditions, which involve a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion events, are referred to as rigid because of their extremely prescriptive nature. These hypothetical accident events have now been placed within the context of real transportation accidents, at least for conventional austenitic stainless steel/ lead gamma shielded cask designs. The assurance of public safety, including the issue of safety margin for very severe accident events is discussed in this paper for both conventional and innovative cask design concepts. A particular risk assessment approach that follows from work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is suggested.

  15. Rigid performance requirements assure public safety by regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Title 10, Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) provides a set of prescriptive performance test requirements for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste transport packaging containment systems. The hypothetical accident conditions, which involve a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion events, are referred to as rigid because of their extremely prescriptive nature. These hypothetical accident events have now been placed within the context of real transportation accidents, at least for conventional austenitic stainless steel/lead gamma shielded cask designs. The assurance of public safety, including the issue of safety margin for very severe accident events, is discussed in this paper for both conventional and innovative cask design concepts. A particular risk assessment approach that follows from work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is suggested. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Legal barriers to effective ecosystem management: exploring linkages between liability, regulations, and prescribed fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkka, Carissa L; Rogers, William E; Kreuter, Urs P

    2015-12-01

    Resistance to the use of prescribed fire is strong among many private land managers despite the advantages it offers for maintaining fire-adapted ecosystems. Even managers who are aware of the benefits of using prescribed fire as a management tool avoid using it, citing potential liability as a major reason for their aversion. Recognizing the importance of prescribed fire for ecosystem management and the constraints current statutory schemes impose on its use, several states in the United States have undertaken prescribed burn statutory reform. The stated purpose of these statutory reforms, often called "right to burn" or "prescribed burning" acts, is to encourage prescribed burning for resource protection, public safety, and land management. Our research assessed the consequences of prescribed burn statutory reform by identifying legal incentives and impediments to prescribed fire application for ecosystem restoration and management, as well as fuel reduction. Specifically, we explored the relationship between prescribed burning laws and decisions made by land managers by exploiting a geographic-based natural experiment to compare landowner-prescribed fire use in contiguous counties with different regulations and legal liability standards. Controlling for potentially confounding variables, we found that private landowners in counties with gross negligence liability standards burn significantly more hectares than those in counties with simple negligence standards (F6,72 = 4.16, P = 0.046). There was no difference in hectares burned on private land between counties with additional statutorily mandated regulatory requirements and those requiring only a permit to complete a prescribed burn (F6,72 = 1.42, P = 0.24) or between counties with burn ban exemptions for certified prescribed burn managers and those with no exemptions during burn bans (F6,72 = 1.39, P = 0.24). Lawmakers attempting to develop prescribed burning statutes to promote the safe use of prescribed fire

  17. A Survey of a System of Methods for Fire Safety Design of Traditional Concrete Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    During the years since 1978 the author has been developing a series of calculation methods and sup-porting test methods for the fire safety design of concrete constructions. The basic methods have been adopted in the fire chapters of the Eurocode ENV1992-1-2 and the Danish code for concrete const...

  18. Fire safety practices in the Shuttle and the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-02-01

    The Shuttle reinforces its policy of fire-preventive measures with onboard smoke detectors and Halon 1301 fire extinguishers. The forthcoming Space Station Freedom will have expanded fire protection with photoelectric smoke detectors, radiation flame detectors, and both fixed and portable carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. Many design and operational issues remain to be resolved for Freedom. In particular, the fire-suppression designs must consider the problems of gas leakage in toxic concentrations, alternative systems for single-failure redundancy, and commonality with the corresponding systems of the Freedom international partners. While physical and engineering requirements remain the primary driving forces for spacecraft fire-safety technology, there are, nevertheless, needs and opportunities for the application of microgravity combustion knowledge to improve and optimize the fire-protective systems.

  19. Fire safety assessment of super tall buildings: A case study on Shanghai Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai Tower is an existing super high-rise building composed of mega frame-core-outrigger lateral resisting systems. Its structural safety in fire has been given great attention. This paper presents an independent review of the performance of Shanghai Tower in case of fire. Two fire scenarios: standard fires and parametric fires have been considered. The fire resistance of key component, including the concrete core, mega columns, the composite floor, outrigger trusses and belt trusses were examined first. Their real fire resistance periods proved to be far beyond the design fire resistance. The components with weak fire resistance such as peripheral steel columns and web members of belt trusses were then removed to study the resistance of the residual structure against progressive collapse. The results show that Shanghai Tower has a minimum of 3 h fire resistance against fire-induced progressive collapse. The concrete components have smaller residual displacements compared to the steel components. It is recommended, for the design of other similar structures, that effective fire protection should be provided for the outrigger trusses to guarantee the connection between the core and mega columns.

  20. Using modeling and rehearsal to teach fire safety to children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Dukes, Charles; Brady, Michael P; Scott, Jack; Wilson, Cynthia L

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an instructional procedure to teach young children with autism to evacuate settings and notify an adult during a fire alarm. A multiple baseline design across children showed that an intervention that included modeling, rehearsal, and praise was effective in teaching fire safety skills. Safety skills generalized to novel settings and maintained during a 5-week follow-up in both training and generalization settings.

  1. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  2. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  3. An Assessment of the Fire Safety Hazard Associated with External Fire Spread in Tall Buildings with Combustible Façade Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavard Brogaard, Nicholas; Torero, Jose L.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    External fire spread poses a severe threat to the fire safety of tall buildings with the ensuing risk of multiple simultaneous compartment fires and in the worst case, a complete structural failure. However, it is important to understand every aspect of the causes that leads to external fire spread...... in order to obtain a conclusive assessment of the fire safety hazards associated with combustible facades. Prescriptive fire safety codes are typically not allowing any type of combustible façade in buildings that are taller than 2-3 stories. However, a performance based approach does not contain height...... limitations in many countries. The study within external fire spread has shown that the transition from prescriptive to performance based approach can be cryptic and it is important to keep in mind that a performance based design requires that all aspects are taken into account. Therefore, a method...

  4. Bridging the divide between fire safety research and fighting fire safely: How do we convey research innovation to contribute more effectively to wildland firefighter safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Ted Adams; Bret W. Butler; Sara Brown; Vita Wright; Anne Black

    2017-01-01

    Creating a safe workplace for wildland firefighters has long been at the centre of discussion for researchers and practitioners. The goal of wildland fire safety research has been to protect operational firefighters, yet its contributions often fall short of potential because much is getting lost in the translation of peer-reviewed results to potential and intended...

  5. On the Regulation of Life Safety Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper takes up the issue of appropriate choice of metric for life safety and health related risks in a regulatory context addressing effects of temporal and spatial scales for their consistent quantification and comparison across societal sectors, industries and application areas...... in a regulatory context are highlighted and discussed. It is identified and explained that the principle of decision optimization and conjoint fulfillment of the marginal lifesaving principle does not render the assessment of the individual life safety risks for specific individuals relevant. Nor is the resulting....... Starting point is taken in a short outline of what is considered to comprise the present best practice rationale for life safety and health risk regulation. Thereafter, based on selected principal examples from different application areas, inconsistencies in present best practice risk quantification...

  6. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  7. A macromarketing perspective on food safety regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    ). The analysis is based on reviews of published material and on interviews with food marketers, nutrition experts, and policy makers. It is established that the ban was implemented due to scientific proof of health risks associated with the intake of TFAs but also as a result of aligned interests and efforts......, insights from the analysis are used as a starting point for a discussion of how public authorities, food marketers, and macromarketing researchers can apply the marketing systems perspective when designing, managing, and studying future cases of food safety regulation.......This article discusses the implementation and diffusion of mandatory and voluntary food safety regulations from a marketing systems perspective, and specifically applies this framework to an analysis of the antecedents and implications of the Danish 2003 ban on trans-fatty acids (TFAs...

  8. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 4. Fire Dynamics and Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    fuel 2500 calories per gram of fuel gasified , will reduce extinction. Magee and Reitz (3.7-5) found that for plastic fires, removal at the surface of...from 170 to 450 calories per gram of fuel gasified produced extinction. Water, steam and fogging nozzles are also designed to achieve fire...teakettle at the back of her stove , the loose sleeve of her housecoat brushed the front burner. The garment caught fire. Her screams alerted her husband

  9. Offshore regulators focus on incentives for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2000-11-27

    Strict safety regulations in effect at offshore drilling sites are discussed. The guiding principle in all existing regulation is that while economic or industrial considerations are important, the value and the concern for human life is paramount. Should some tragic event occur at an offshore drilling site that is shown to have been caused by negligence of an operator, there is no question at all that the regulatory authority, in this case the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB), would take the negligent operator to court. Nevertheless, Canadian authorities remain confident that encouragement of maintaining a safe working environment is likely to be more successful in ensuring workplace safety than threats of punishment. Indeed, Canadian regulators have, in recent times, shown a tendency to move towards performance-based systems, as opposed to the more usual prescriptive or rule-bound regulatory regime. This new approach involves setting targets and giving companies the responsibility to implement measures to reach the targets rather than relying on government instructions. Still, performance-based regulation in Canada is relatively new and some regulations remain prescriptive. Examples are the requirement for two immersion suits and two lifeboat seats for every worker on a drilling unit.

  10. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  11. FIRE SAFETY UPGRADING FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS IN BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    building. Specifically, thermal barriers for window openings, automatic smoke detectors with manual response by fire fighting shelter personnel, and environmental seals for shelter areas are recommended as feasible upgrading remedies.

  12. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  13. Different approaches of European regulations for fire design of steel structural elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    Fire has always been a major threat for buildings and other structures, leading to consequences that can affect both the safety of people and the usage or in some cases the very survival of constructions, due to collapse mechanisms induced by fire or fire effects. Aim of this paper is to highlight...... how both safety issues (avoid people injuries and preserve integrity of constructions) are addressed in the framework of European structural fire safety design of steel constructions. Some relevant differences can be found both in the procedures and in the philosophy of national and community...

  14. Work Health & Safety legislation; the fire engineer’s neglected duty?

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. (Tony) Enright

    2014-01-01

    Fire engineers are in general, aware of their duties under Building legislation. However, they are often unfamiliar of separate duties under Work Health and Safety legislation. This paper describes an Australian case-study, but one that is presented generally so as to have applicability in those other jurisdictions where similar Work Health and Safety obligations exist. As society becomes safer, Work Health and Safety has evolved from being solely about the employer–employee relationshi...

  15. [Considering the current state of fire safety in Taiwan's care environment from the perspective of the nation's worst recent hospital fire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Wen; Shih, Chung-Liang; Chien, Shen-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan's worst hospital fire in history on October 23rd, 2012 at Sinying Hospital's Bei-Men Branch resulted in 13 elderly patient deaths and over 70 injuries. The heavy casualties were due in part to the serious condition of patients. Some patients on life-support machines were unable to move or be moved. This disaster highlights the issue of fire safety in small-scale hospitals that have transformed existing hospital space into special care environments for elderly patients. Compared with medical centers and general hospitals, these small-scale health facilities are ill equipped to deal properly with fire safety management and emergency response issues due to inadequate fire protection facilities, fire safety equipment, and human resources. Small-scale facilities that offer health care and medical services to mostly immobile patients face fire risks that differ significantly from general health care facilities. This paper focuses on fire risks in small-scale facilities and suggests a strategy for fire prevention and emergency response procedures, including countermeasures for fire risk assessment, management, and emergency response, in order to improve fire safety at these institutions in Taiwan.

  16. Evaluation of Fire Hazard and Safety Management of Heritage Buildings in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a subject that is always neglected and ignored as far as heritage buildings are concerned. Unlike newly-built buildings, which are required under UBBL to undergo certain fire protection system tests, people are less likely to carry out such tests and detailed assessments for heritage buildings. Thus, this research is significant as it is aimed at accomplishing several objectives including studying the current fire emergency plan, besides identifying and assessing the possible fire hazards in heritage buildings in Penang. Several case studies were carried out at a few premises such as the Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and the Teochew Temple with the aid of the Fire Rescue Department Malaysia (FRDM. The results obtained from this study will be discussed according to several aspects focusing on general health and safety management at the site, the fire-fighting system, fire exit routes and signage at the temples, fire hazards, and fire detection and alarm.

  17. FOOD SAFETY REGULATIONS BASED ON REAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huub LELIEVELD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in regulations result in needless destruction of safe food and hamper food trade. The differences are not just the result of the history of food safety regulations, often developed in times before global cooperation, but are also built in new regulations. It may be responses to media hypes or for other reasons, but in most cases the differences cannot be justified scientifically. A major difficulty is that, due to the developments in analytical techniques the number of chemicals that are found in food is increasing rapidly and chemicals are always suspected to be a safety risk. By far most chemicals are of natural origin but could not be detected in the past because the methods available in the past were not sensitive enough. Demanding the absence of chemicals because the risk they present is unknown, however, would eventually make all food unacceptable. The general public should be shown that everything they eat is chemical, and all food components will be toxic if the amount is too high. It should also be shown that many of these chemicals will also cause illness and death if there is not enough of it as is the case with vitamins and minerals.

  18. Position Paper: The Feasibility of Lowering Oxygen Concentrations Aboard Submarines in Order to Improve Fire Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    judgment. Impaired coordination. (32) 0 114 Intermittent breathing. Rapid fatigue. Loss of muscle control. (21) 10,000 109 COMPENSATED HYPOXIA (25...fire safety; fire retardance; submarines; submersibles; oxygen: aerohypoxia; hypoxia ; hypercapnia; carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; altitude...reduce the partial pressure of atmos- pheric oxygen (P.)2) to the point of causing hypoxia . Since residents of Denver per- form complex tas&s at a P0

  19. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the

  20. Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with phase change materials: A fire safety assessment using experimental and computational techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaitis Dionysios I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials (PCM can be used for thermal energy storage, aiming to enhance building energy efficiency. Recently, gypsum plasterboards with incorporated paraffin-based PCM blends have become commercially available. In the high temperature environment developed during a fire, the paraffins, which exhibit relatively low boiling points, may evaporate and, escaping through the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerge to the fire region, where they may ignite, thus adversely affecting the fire resistance characteristics of the building. Aiming to assess the fire safety behaviour of such building materials, an extensive experimental and computational analysis is performed. The fire behaviour and the main thermo-physical physical properties of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of standard tests and devices (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, Cone Calorimeter. The obtained results are used to develop a dedicated numerical model, which is implemented in a CFD code. CFD simulations are validated using measurements obtained in a cone calorimeter. In addition, the CFD code is used to simulate an ISO 9705 room exposed to fire conditions, demonstrating that PCM addition may indeed adversely affect the fire safety of a gypsum plasterboard clad building.

  1. Application of fire and evacuation models in evaluation of fire safety in railway tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cábová, Kamila; Apeltauer, Tomáš; Okřinová, Petra; Wald, František

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes an application of numerical simulation of fire dynamics and evacuation of people in a tunnel. The software tool Fire Dynamics Simulator is used to simulate temperature resolution and development of smoke in a railway tunnel. Comparing to temperature curves which are usually used in the design stage results of the model show that the numerical model gives lower temperature of hot smoke layer. Outputs of the numerical simulation of fire also enable to improve models of evacuation of people during fires in tunnels. In the presented study the calculated high of smoke layer in the tunnel is in 10 min after the fire ignition lower than the level of 2.2 m which is considered as the maximal limit for safe evacuation. Simulation of the evacuation process in bigger scale together with fire dynamics can provide very valuable information about important security conditions like Available Safe Evacuation Time (ASET) vs Required Safe Evacuation Time (RSET). On given example in software EXODUS the paper summarizes selected results of evacuation model which should be in mind of a designer when preparing an evacuation plan.

  2. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei, E-mail: jiaochm@qust.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fire safety of para-aramid fiber on TPU has been investigated. • Para-aramid fiber has excellent flame retardant abilities and smoke suppression properties on TPU. • A new technique to improve the fire safety polymer is provided in this article. - Abstract: This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0 wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO{sub 2} with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer.

  3. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  4. Neighborhood organization activities: evacuation drills, clusters, and fire safety awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick White

    1995-01-01

    Emergency preparedness activities of one Berkeley-Oakland Hills neighborhood at the wildland/urban interface include establishing clusters that reduce fire hazards and fuel loads, setting aside emergency supplies, and identifying evacuation routes; taking emergency preparedness courses from the Offices of Emergency Services of Berkeley and Oakland (the CERT and CORE...

  5. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire ex-tinguishing, the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine. The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation, namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district, increasing the air pressure of the working face, and filling the ground surface fractures. A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire. When the measures fail to in-crease the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber, the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  6. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire extinguishing,the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine.The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation,namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district,increasing the air pressure of the working face,and filling the ground surface fractures.A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire.When the measures fail to increase the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber,the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  7. Study of safety performance of the 241Am fire alarm source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The safety performance of 241Am fire alarm sources made by using powder metallurgical technology has been preliminarily studied, so as to determine an allowable maximum energy limit value of the alpha particles outgoing from this kind of sources in light of radiation safety and the present technology. The yielded results show that 241Am leak has not been found when the peak energy of the alpha energy spectrum of this kind of sources is less than 4.96 MeV.

  8. Assessment of effects of fires on safety of nuclear power plants. Paloturvallisuuden arviointi ydinvoimalassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1992-01-01

    Experience and probabilistic safety assessments have shown that fires may present a major hazard in a nuclear plant either as initial events or as a factor aggravating the consequences from accidents initiated otherwise. Numerical modelling of fires can be performed in various ways. The oldest approach is based on experimental models where rough correlations are employed. Depending on the type of application more advanced codes are employed in fire analyses. In zone models each compartment is divided into two horizontal layers, which both are at the same temperature. In system models the building to be analyzed is divided into interconnected nodes. The most complicated fire analysis models are field models, which calculate multidimensional fields of temperatures and other quantities by solving numerically the conservation equations for several variables.

  9. FDS Modeling of the Sensitivity of the Smoke Potential Values used in Fire Safety Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corches, Andrei-Mircea; Ulriksen, Lene; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) with respect to the input parameters that are used to define the optical properties of the smoke, a parametric study was performed for relevant fire scenarios in an open plan office building. The parametric study mainly focuses...... on the two key parameters in FDS that define the optical properties of the smoke, namely the smoke potential and the effective heat of combustion. In Denmark, the open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program Fire Dynamics Simulator is commonly used to assess the production and transport...... of the smoke determine the available safe egress time, as defined based on the acceptance visibility criterion defined in the Danish performance-based fire safety design code. Because there is no uniform test method to measure the optical properties of the smoke and due to the absence of a best practice guide...

  10. Fire Management Problem Analysis of Key Unit of Fire Safety%消防安全重点单位消防管理问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧萍

    2013-01-01

    消防安全重点单位一般都是对单位当地或者是国民经济发展有着较大的促进作用,它们也是消防部门的工作需要予以较多关注的对象。本文主要从这些重点单位的消防安全着手,简要的分析这些单位在消防安全方面所做的工作,并指出其存在的缺陷和不足,及时的为其安全管理部门提供相应的解决对策,帮助这些消防安全重点单位综合有效的做好消防的管理和监督工作。%Key unit of fire safety is usually important for the promotion of the local national economic development, so more attention from the fire department should be paid to them. This article mainly starts from the fire safety of these key units, briefly analyzes the fire safety work of these units and points out the defects and deficiencies, offering countermeasures for the safety management department to help these key units of fire safety to go a good job in fire safety management and monitoring comprehensively and effectively.

  11. Fire Management/Suppression Systems/Concepts Relating to Aircraft Cabin Fire Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    windows melted, reticulated , combusted, and burned through within about 1 min. This is much less time than is needed for the fire to penetrate the...generate more smoke in flaming combustion.3 6 3 The reverse is true with cellulosic materials, which reduce 31 ................................. the amount...sometimes by a factor of 100, than that produced by cellulosic materials.3 0 * Higher heating levels of polymeric materials also increase their production of

  12. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-10-05

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca(2+) homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane.

  13. Fire safety in space - Investigating flame spread interaction over wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citerne, Jean-Marie; Dutilleul, Hugo; Kizawa, Koki; Nagachi, Masashi; Fujita, Osamu; Kikuchi, Masao; Jomaas, Grunde; Rouvreau, Sébastien; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    A new rig for microgravity experiments was used for the study flame spread of parallel polyethylene-coated wires in concurrent and opposed airflow. The parabolic flight experiments were conducted at small length- and time scales, i.e. typically over 10 cm long samples for up to 20 s. For the first time, the influence of neighboring spread on the mass burning rate was assessed in microgravity. The observations are contrasted with the influence characterized in normal gravity. The experimental results are expected to deliver meaningful guidelines for future, planned experiments at a larger scale. Arising from the current results, the issue of the potential interaction among spreading flames also needs to be carefully investigated as this interaction plays a major role in realistic fire scenarios, and therefore on the design of the strategies that would allow the control of such a fire. Once buoyancy has been removed, the characteristic length and time scales of the different modes of heat and mass transfer are modified. For this reason, interaction among spreading flames may be revealed in microgravity, while it would not at normal gravity, or vice versa. Furthermore, the interaction may lead to an enhanced spread rate when mutual preheating dominates or, conversely, a reduced spread rate when oxidizer flow vitiation is predominant. In more general terms, the current study supports both the SAFFIRE and the FLARE projects, which are large projects with international scientific teams. First, material samples will be tested in a series of flight experiments (SAFFIRE 1-3) conducted in Cygnus vehicles after they have undocked from the ISS. These experiments will allow the study of ignition and possible flame spread in real spacecraft conditions, i.e. over real length scale samples within real time scales. Second, concomitant research conducted within the FLARE project is dedicated to the assessment of new standard tests for materials that a spacecraft can be composed of

  14. Safety Hazard and Risk in Slovak Aviation Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Slovak Republic as a member state of EASA is bound to adopt aviation regulations. There are some terminology discrepancies when translating EASA regulations and general text from English to Slovak language. Safety hazard and safety risk in Slovak language have different meaning than in English language. The subject of the paper is therefore to explain some peculiarities in definitions according to ICAO Safety Management System, USA FAA and Slovak legislation. Terms “risk” and “hazard” accordi...

  15. INFLUENCE OF CURRENT-TIME CURVE OF PROTECTIVE INSTRUMENTS ON FIRE SAFETY OF CABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Aushev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides results of experimental investigations on determination heating characteristics of ВВГ2x2.5, ВВГ2x4 and ВВГ2x6 cables and individual current-time curves of automatic switch-off series. Joint operation of automatic switch-offs and protected conductors are analyzed from the point of view of fire safety provision.

  16. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    is therefore of interest. Furthermore, the method based on prescriptive procedures is not free of design limitations and does not provide detailed information about the structure’s performance under high temperature, which is often crucial if a disproportionate collapse must be avoided. The more advanced......A provision of an adequate consideration of both the people and structure safety is a crucial goal in a rational fire design. However, only a partial agreement concerning the general structural fire safety approach exists, and several meaningful discrepancies concerning the design and verification...... approach of performance-based fire design (PBFD) becomes therefore more and more popular. A higher design flexibility based on performance objectives constitutes a beneficial and competitive concept within the structural fire safety engineering, ensuring a higher safety level of a design choice. The aim...

  17. Fire Safety Consideration in the Pre-conceptual Design State of Pyro-Facillity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hong Rae; Seo, Seok Jun; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The government, in order to solve this problem, has organized a public engagement committee and is searching for a solution. To use sustainable nuclear energy, our country is also pursuing research and development of fast breeder reactor and pyroprocessing technology in accordance with the international movement of spent fuel recycling and efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation which is centered on the development and demonstration of recycling spent fuel and fast breeder reactors. Pyro-facility has different features with nuclear power plant. In the pyroprocess, chemical and electrochemical separation were took place in the hot cells and material at risk (MAR) is distributed in many working areas. In this paper, we conducted the fire modeling of hot cells to see the stability of pyrophoric materials which is considered as one of the potential hazardous materials in the main process cell. Based on modeling results, consideration of fire safety pyrofacility will be discussed. We performed preliminary hazard analysis for pyrofacility and summarized potential fire hazard. Pyrophoric material fire is the dominant hazard in the main process hot cell and fire modeling of cable tray in the cell was analyzed to see the stability of pyrophoric materials. Analysis results clearly shows that pyrophoric materials are prone to be affected.

  18. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S.N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; De Giglio, L.; D. Murdiyarso; W. Peters; Morton, D. C.; COLLATZ, G.J.; DOLMAN, A.J.; DeFries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000–2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 ± 51 (1σ) Tg carbon (C) year−1, T = 1012] were comparable to fo...

  19. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte... specified waters of the James River to protect mariners from the hazards associated with live fire and... use of weapons. This training is necessary to ensure that Navy personnel located within the...

  20. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  2. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  3. Regulations and Practice on Flue Gas Denitrification for Coal-Fired Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Zhao Guohua

    2008-01-01

    @@ In China, according to the relative up-to-date regulations and standards, the maincontrol measure for Nox emission of coal-fired power plants is, in principle, low Noxcombustion. However, in recent years, more and more newly approved coal-fired plantswere required to install flue gas denitrification equipment.

  4. Home Fire Safety Practices and Smoke Detector Program Awareness in an Urban Pediatric Emergency Department Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rachel Lynn; Teach, Stephen J; Rucker, Alexandra; Lall, Ambika; Chamberlain, James M; Ryan, Leticia Manning

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for residential fire death (young age, minority race/ethnicity, and low socioeconomic status) are common among urban pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Community-based resources are available in our region to provide free smoke detector installation. The objective of our study was to describe awareness of these resources and home fire safety practices in this vulnerable population. In this cross-sectional study, a brief survey was administered to a convenience sample of caregivers accompanying patients 19 years of age or younger in an urban pediatric ED in Washington, DC. Survey contents focused on participant knowledge of available community-based resources and risk factors for residential fire injury. Five hundred eleven eligible caregivers were approached, and 401 (78.5%) agreed to participate. Patients accompanying the caregivers were 48% male, 77% African American, and had a mean (SD) age of 6.5 (5.9) years. Of study participants, 256 (63.8%) lived with children younger than 5 years. When asked about available community-based resources for smoke detectors, 240 (59.9%) were unaware of these programs, 319 (79.6%) were interested in participating, and 221 (55.1%) enrolled. Presence of a home smoke detector was reported by 396 respondents (98.7%); however, 346 (86.3%) reported testing these less often than monthly. Two hundred fifty-six 256 (63.8%) lacked a carbon monoxide detector, and 202 (50.4%) had no fire escape plan. Sixty-five (16%) reported indoor smoking, and 92 (22.9%) reported space heater use. In this urban pediatric ED population, there is limited awareness of community-based resources but high rates of interest in participating once informed. Whereas the self-reported prevalence of home smoke detectors is high in our study population, other fire safety practices are suboptimal.

  5. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  6. Engineering Safety : With applications to fire safety design of buildings and road tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelland, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A continuously changing and increasingly complex society leads to new challenges in safety design. Modern buildings and road tunnels are being packed with new technology that creates new failure modes, multiple subsystem interactions and tight couplings between different socio-technical systems. Meanwhile, safety is largely designed into these systems using prescriptive design rules that have evolved through reactions to accidents in systems with limited resemblance to moder...

  7. Fire safety of historical buildings traditional versus innovative “behavioural design” solutions by using wayfinding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    This book applies a behavioral point of view to individuals’ fire safety in historic buildings. It outlines theoretical and operative issues, based on recent studies and international guidelines. Firstly, critical issues for Building Heritage fire safety are widely discussed, by including the modelling of human factor and man-environment-fire interference in these architectural spaces. A significant part of the book includes a discussion on emergency modeling and simulation. A source code for representing the fire evacuation process (including man-evacuation facilities interactions) is offered to the reader. Methods for effectiveness assessment of risk-reducing solutions are provided and tested in a case-study. Being a structured approach to occupants-related problems during a fire in heritage buildings, it offers an innovative methodology and practical examples that researchers and designers can use as a guide when proposing and testing solutions. Evaluation indexes for effectiveness assessment (also usefu...

  8. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G R; Dempewolf, J; Trigg, S N; Randerson, J T; Kasibhatla, P S; Giglio, L; Murdiyarso, D; Peters, W; Morton, D C; Collatz, G J; Dolman, A J; DeFries, R S

    2008-12-23

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000-2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 +/- 51 (1sigma) Tg carbon (C) year(-1), T = 10(12)] were comparable to fossil fuel emissions. In Borneo, carbon emissions from fires were highly variable, fluxes during the moderate 2006 El Niño more than 30 times greater than those during the 2000 La Niña (and with a 2000-2006 mean of 74 +/- 33 Tg C yr(-1)). Higher rates of forest loss and larger areas of peatland becoming vulnerable to fire in drought years caused a strong nonlinear relation between drought and fire emissions in southern Borneo. Fire emissions from Sumatra showed a positive linear trend, increasing at a rate of 8 Tg C year(-2) (approximately doubling during 2000-2006). These results highlight the importance of including deforestation in future climate agreements. They also imply that land manager responses to expected shifts in tropical precipitation may critically determine the strength of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks during the 21st century.

  9. Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project Parameters in ... This paper seeks to assess the views of consultants and contractors about the impact ... than the traditional project parameters in the form of cost, time and quality.

  10. 浅谈森林防火安全管理%Brief Talk about on Forest Fire Safety Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华

    2012-01-01

    Strengthening forest fire safety management is essential to protecting forest and developing forestry. At present, there still exist some weak links and problems in forest fire prevention work. With foreign forest fire safety management experience used for reference, it is necessary to take measures to strengthen forest fire safety management.%加强森林防火安全管理对保护森林、发展林业至关重要。当前,森林防火工作还存在一些薄弱环节和问题,在借鉴国外森林防火安全管理经验的基础上,需要制定森林防火安全管理的应对策略。

  11. Public opinion poll on safety and regulations of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M. I.; Park, B. I.; Lee, S. M. [Gallup Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The purpose of this poll is not only to research understanding on safety and regulations of nuclear energy and to compare the result by time series followed 2003 to 2002 years, also to establish the public relations strategies and to offer information for developing long-term policies. The contents of the study are on the general perception, safety, management of nuclear power station, regulations and surroundings about nuclear energy.

  12. Proceedings of the NASA Conference on Materials for Improved Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    The Manned Spacecraft Center was pleased to host the NASA Conference on Materials for Improved Fire Safety which was held on May 6 and 7, 1970. This document is a compilation of papers presented at the conference and represents the culmination of several years of effort by NASA and industry which was directed toward the common objective of minimizing the fire hazard in manned spacecraft and in some other related areas. One of the more serious problem areas in the Apollo program was the flammability of nonmetallic materials. The effective and timely solution of this problem area resulted from much of the effort reported herein and contributed greatly toward the successful achievement of landing men on the moon and returning them safely to earth.

  13. On the Regulation of Life Safety Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.H.; Sorensen, J.D.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper takes up the issue of appropriate choice of metric for life safety and health related risks in a regulatory context addressing effects of temporal and spatial scales for their consistent quantification and comparison across societal sectors, industries and application areas. Starti

  14. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards. (1) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.352 Section 1926.352 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.352 Fire prevention. (a... prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire...

  16. Loose Regulation Worsens Food Safety Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Economic Weekly

    2011-01-01

    @@ Do not misunderstand food additives From milk powder tainted with melamine to hams with clen-buterol to beef extract with amino acids, food safety issues are a growing concern among the public.These chemical terms became catch words only because they are adulterated in the most often eaten food.Food additives are now synony mous with pursuit of profit, offense against the law, and even poison.

  17. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 8. Land Transportation Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    f LAND TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES The polyesters considered here are the linear thermoplastics; polylethylene terephthalate ), ( PET ...Polyvinyl Chloride 4.5.4 Acrylics 4.5.5 Nylons 4.5.6 Cellulosics 4.5.7 Polyacetals 4.5.8 Polyesters 4.5.9 Polycarbonates 4.5.10 Chlorinated and...Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene 4.6 Thermosetting Resins 4.6.1 Phenolic Resins and Molding Compounds 4.6.1.1 Resoles 4.6.1.2 Novolaks 4.6.1.3 Fire Safety

  18. A comparison of some Mexican/U.S. safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunner, W.R. [Training Associates, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In the US, safety and hygiene began to be enforced broadly with the formation of the US Department of Labor`s, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1970. In Mexico, the 1917 Constitution required companies to protect their workers against safety and hygiene hazards in the workplace. Additional requirements were added with the Federal Labor Law of 1931. General safety and hygiene regulations were added in 1934. Modern-day federal labor law in Mexico requires the creation of mixed safety and hygiene commissions in all industries. However, only about 114,000 workplaces have registered mixed commissions. In a similar vein, the most favored OSHA reform bill in the US proposes to require safety and health committees in all work places. At this time such committees are common in larger companies but not in smaller ones.

  19. Legal principles of regulatory administration and nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyeong Hui; Cheong, Sang Kee [Hannam Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    This research presents a critical analysis and evaluation of principles of administrative laws in order to provide framework of structural reform on the nuclear safety regulation system. The focus of this analysis and evaluation is centered around the area of origin of regulatory administrative laws; authorities of regulation; procedures of regulatory actions; regulatory enforcement; and administrative relief system. In chapter 2 the concept of regulatory administration is analysed. Chapter 3 identifies the origin of regulatory administration and the principles of administration laws. It also examines legal nature of the nuclear safety standard. In relation to regulatory authorities. Chapter 4 identifies role and responsibility of administration authorities and institutions. It also examines fundamental principles of delegation of power. Then the chapter discusses the nuclear safety regulation authorities and their roles and responsibilities. Chapter 5 classifies and examines regulatory administration actions. Chapter 6 evaluates enforcement measure for effectiveness of regulation. Finally, chapter 7 discusses the administrative relief system for reviewing unreasonable regulatory acts.

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.H.; Levine, D.L.; Eversole, R.E.; Mouring, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    The ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the transport of cylinders filled with radioactive gases. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the results are reported herein. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations.

  1. Accord on “Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh”: A Breakthrough Agreement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zillur Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This discussion aims to review the emergence of the “Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh” signed on May 13, 2013, and evaluate if it is an international agreement “breakthrough”. The Accord is signed not only by the global clothing brands and national garment unions but also by international trade union organizations, which is a new development. This raises a question: could this agreement set a new international negotiating precedence in industrial relations between transnational corporations and international trade union organizations? In Bangladesh, globalization has played an important role for booming garment industries. Yet, lack of workers’ rights, weak safety situations, and poor working conditions have continuously been reported. Local and international solidarity movements and garment workers’ welfare associations have been emphasizing workers’ rights and better and safer working environments in workplaces since the beginning of the 1990s. However, their voices were not highly considered even there were some initiatives. Following the ‘Rana Plaza’ garment factory building collapse in April 2013, one of the world’s worst industrial accidents, with more than 1,100 dead workers, some strong measures have been taken—one of these, signing the ‘Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh’. This is a strong achievement of a long struggle to take collective action for improving the safety in garment factories in Bangladesh. Although the Accord is understood as a game changer or breakthrough in relation to national and international agreements, do we really know yet if it is a breakthrough or not when it comes to its implementation?

  2. Comparison of state dental radiography safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Parashar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and provide an overview of state policies on occupational exposure, dosimetry, collimation, patient protection, and the use of portable handheld X-ray machines in dentistry. State government webpages containing radiation protection rules and regulations were scanned. The contents were compared against current federal regulations established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They were further evaluated in light of current recommendations from the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the American Dental Association (ADA). Most states' regulations mirror the exposure limits set forth by the NRC and FDA. Nonregulatory recommendations regarding use of dental radiography are periodically put forth by the NCRP and the ADA. State and federal agencies often follow recommendations from these scientific organizations when creating regulations. Clinicians must be aware of their state's radiation protection rules, as variations among states exist. In addition, recommendations published by organizations such as the NCRP and the ADA, while not legally binding, contribute significantly to the reduction of radiation risks for operators and patients alike.

  3. The new EU regulations for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Comodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The inspirational principles of the norms known as the “Hygiene package”: the framework of new perspectives on food safety. At the beginning of the 1980s, all member states of the World Trade Organisation (WTO subscribed to international agreements regarding strategies for food production and its marketing. These agreements, known as TRIPS (Agreement on Trade- Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services and TRIMS (Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures [1] signalled the beginning of a new, globalized, commercial strategy on food products which has also caused importantrepercussions within the European boundaries, but with some fundamental differences.

  4. Regulator Loss Functions and Hierarchical Modeling for Safety Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Laura A; Baugh, Christine M; Azzone, Vanessa; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2017-07-01

    Regulators must act to protect the public when evidence indicates safety problems with medical devices. This requires complex tradeoffs among risks and benefits, which conventional safety surveillance methods do not incorporate. To combine explicit regulator loss functions with statistical evidence on medical device safety signals to improve decision making. In the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample, we select pediatric inpatient admissions and identify adverse medical device events (AMDEs). We fit hierarchical Bayesian models to the annual hospital-level AMDE rates, accounting for patient and hospital characteristics. These models produce expected AMDE rates (a safety target), against which we compare the observed rates in a test year to compute a safety signal. We specify a set of loss functions that quantify the costs and benefits of each action as a function of the safety signal. We integrate the loss functions over the posterior distribution of the safety signal to obtain the posterior (Bayes) risk; the preferred action has the smallest Bayes risk. Using simulation and an analysis of AMDE data, we compare our minimum-risk decisions to a conventional Z score approach for classifying safety signals. The 2 rules produced different actions for nearly half of hospitals (45%). In the simulation, decisions that minimize Bayes risk outperform Z score-based decisions, even when the loss functions or hierarchical models are misspecified. Our method is sensitive to the choice of loss functions; eliciting quantitative inputs to the loss functions from regulators is challenging. A decision-theoretic approach to acting on safety signals is potentially promising but requires careful specification of loss functions in consultation with subject matter experts.

  5. 77 FR 4897 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James... live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners from the hazards associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This rule...

  6. 76 FR 31848 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James... the live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners from the hazards associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This rule...

  7. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P framing was associated with increased odds of self-efficacy for both behaviors (burn: AOR = 1.77 and smoke: AOR = 1.77). Messages that show positive outcomes combined with scripted parental mediation appear most effective in communicating safety behaviors, but the overall effectiveness of video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.

  8. Mining dams safety regulations : where does Canada stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, C. [AMEC, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lupo, J. [AMEC, Englewood, CO (United States); Diaz, M. [AMEC, Ashford, Kent (United Kingdom); Davies, M. [AMEC, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Musse, M. [AMEC, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    While many jurisdictions in Canada use the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines, their applicability to the safety of mining dams is limited. Mining dams are some of the largest containment structures in the world, and impound millions of cubic meters of mine process residues in both solid and liquid form. This study presented a review of dam safety regulatory frameworks for mining dams located in various countries. The aim of the study was to compare the Canadian framework with various dam safety legislations in order to evaluate Canada's current status and recommend best practices in dam safety regulations. The study reviewed incremental consequence classifications; best practices in operation, surveillance and maintenance manuals and procedures; emergency preparedness plans; and dam safety inspections. The study showed that Canada has limited documentation regulating the safe management of tailings facilities, and does not have an all-encompassing national guideline for mining dams. It was concluded that an incremental consequence classification (ICC) system should be developed specifically for mining dams. 12 refs.

  9. 36 CFR 1234.32 - What does an agency have to do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency have to do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system? (a) Content of documentation. The agency must submit documentation to the Director, Space and Security Management Division (NAS... do to certify a fire-safety detection and suppression system? 1234.32 Section 1234.32 Parks,...

  10. 城镇消防安全机制的完善建议%The Improvement Suggestions of Urban Fire Safety Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜利文

    2014-01-01

    The urban fire safety management constitutes an important content of the urban management and the fire cont-rol safety mechanism is the core part of fire safety manage-ment. This article starts from the urban fire safety situation, analyzes the existing problems in the urban fire safety mecha-nism and puts forward reasonable suggestions to perfect them.%城镇消防安全管理构成了城镇管理的一个重要内容,而消防安全机制又是消防安全管理的核心部分。本文将从城镇消防安全现状着手,对城镇消防安全机制中存在的问题进行分析并就其完善提出较为合理的建议。

  11. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia You; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release. PMID:27877775

  12. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (GB)); Mumford, G. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (FR))

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  13. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase I: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes the development and pilot testing of a fire safety certification system for board and care operators and staff who serve clients with developmental disabilities. During Phase 1, training materials were developed, including a trainer's manual, a participant's coursebook a videotape, an audiotape, and a pre-/post test which was…

  14. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase II: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes Phase II of a project which developed a system for delivering fire safety training to board and care providers who serve adults with developmental disabilities. Phase II focused on developing and pilot testing a "train the trainers" workshop for instructors and field testing the provider's workshop. Evaluation of the 2-day…

  15. Safety climate in the federal fire management community: Influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Baldauf McBride; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organizational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate in the US federal fire management community (HRO Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity). Multiple analyses of variance revealed that all types of characteristics had a significant effect on...

  16. Safety climate in the US federal wildland fire management community: influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf. McBride

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate (High Reliability Organising Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity) in the US federal wildland fire management community. Of particular interest were differences between perceptions based on...

  17. Safety issues in PV systems: Design choices for a secure fault detection and for preventing fire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Falvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems have played a key role over the last decade in the evolution of the electricity sector. In terms of safety design, it’s important to consider that a PV plant constitutes a special system of generation, where the Direct Current (DC presence results in changes to the technical rules. Moreover, if certain electrical faults occur, the plant is a possible source of fire. Choices regarding the grounding of the generator and its protection devices are fundamental for a design that evaluates fire risk. The subject of the article is the analysis of the relation between electrical phenomena in PV systems and the fire risk related to ensuring appropriate fault detection by the electrical protection system. A description of a grid-connected PV system is followed firstly by a comparison of the design solutions provided by International Standards, and secondly by an analysis of electrical phenomena which may trigger a fire. A study of two existing PV systems, where electrical faults have resulted in fires, is then presented. The study highlights the importance of checking all possible failure modes in a PV system design phase, to assess fire risk in advance. Some guidelines for the mitigation of electrical faults that may result in a fire are finally provided.

  18. Safety regulation: the lessons of workplace safety rule management for managing the regulatory burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, A.R.; Borys, D.; Adams, M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong political consensus in a number of countries that occupational safety and health regulation is stifling industrial innovation and development and is feeding a culture of damaging risk aversion and petty bureaucracy. In a number of countries this has led to proposals to repeal

  19. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  20. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON REGULATIONS AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR QUADRICYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a new class of compact vehicles has been emerging and wide-spreading all around Europe: the quadricycle. These four-wheeled motor vehicles, originally derived from motorcycles, are a small and fuel-efficient mean of transportation used in rural or urban areas as an alternative to motorbikes or city cars. In some countries, they are also endorsed by local authorities and institutions which support small and environmentally-friendly vehicles. In this paper, several general considerations on quadricycles will be provided including the vehicle classification, evolution of regulations (as homologation, driver licence, emissions, etc, technical characteristics, safety requirements, most relevant investigations, and other additional useful information (e.g. references, links. It represents an important and actual topic of investigation for designers and manufacturers considering that the new EU regulation on the approval and market surveillance of quadricycles will soon enter in force providing conclusive requirements for functional safety environmental protection of these promising vehicles.

  1. The CharXive Challenge. Regulation of global carbon cycles by vegetation fires

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R

    2010-01-01

    It is an open, but not unanswerable, question as to how much atmospheric CO2 is sequestered globally by vegetation fires. In this work I conceptualise the question in terms of the general CharXive Challenge, discuss a mechanism by which thermoconversion of biomass may regulate the global distribution of carbon between reservoirs, show how suppression of vegetation fires by human activities may increase the fraction of carbon in the atmospheric pool, and pose three specific CharXive Challenges of crucial strategic significance to our management of global carbon cycles.

  2. Analysis of pressure safety valves for fire protection on offshore oil and gas installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Michael Skov; Eriksen, Jacob; Andreasen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    to see the effect of the installed PSV. It is found that when a fire affects the unwetted part of a vessel, the PSV offers only minor or no additional protection. When a fire affects the wetted part of a vessel, the PSV relieve the inventory as designed. It is argued that PSVs provide insufficient fire...... fire, large jet fire, and a pool fire on both the wetted and unwetted part of the vessels. Rupture times of the vessels are calculated by comparing the pressure in the vessel with the tensile strength of the material. Rupture times are then compared for the vessels, with and without a PSV, in order...

  3. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  4. Reconstruction of an inn fire scene using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    An inn fire occurring in the middle of the night usually causes a great deal more injuries and deaths. This article examines the case study of an inn fire accident that resulted in the most serious casualties in Taiwan's history. Data based on the official fire investigation report and NFPA921 regulations are used, and the fire scenes are reconstructed using the latest Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program from NIST. The personnel evacuation time and time variants for various fire hazard factors of reconstructive analysis clarify the reason for such a high number of casualties. It reveals that the FDS program has come to play an essential role in fire investigation. The close comparison between simulation result and the actual fire scene also provides fire prevention engineers, a possible utilization of FDS to examine the effects of improved schemes for fire safety of buildings.

  5. Study on Probabilistic Fire Safety Analysis Procedures%概率火灾安全分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贤生; 陈驰; 刘英学

    2012-01-01

    为分析和评估火灾对设备、建筑物等敏感目标结构安全的影响,结合化工定量风险评估方法和气体爆炸概率安全分析方法,提出概率火灾安全分析策略和实施流程.该方法包括火灾危害辨识、泄漏速率计算、火灾后果模拟、频率分析、绘制频率超越热载荷曲线、结构响应分析等关键步骤.以某柴油罐区为例,通过频率分析和火灾模拟,绘制出频率超越热载荷曲线,假定火灾风险可接受准则为10 -4/a,求得对应的可信热载荷为21 kW/m2,并以此值作为结构热响应分析的输入参数.火灾概率安全分析方法侧重于描述火灾热辐射强度及其对应的发生可能性,判定敏感目标遭遇的可信火灾热载荷强度和结构热响应行为,评估消防减灾措施效果,确保结构完整性和可用性,不评价工艺系统潜在火灾风险的高低.%In order to analyze and evaluate fire impact on structural safety of equipment, building and other sensitive objects, strategies and implementation procedures of probabilistic fire safety analysis were proposed with reference to chemical process quantitative risk analysis approach and probabilistic gas explosion study approach. Such procedures included fire hazard identification of key components, leak calculation , consequence simulation, frequency analysis, frequency of exceedance heat load curve establishment and structure response analysis. Probabilistic fire safety study of a diesel tank farm was exemplified, in which frequency analysis and fire scenario simulation with FDS software were completed and frequency of exceedance heat load curve was plotted. If the assumed Risk Acceptance Criteria was lO'Vyr, the corresponding fire thermal flux level should be 21 kW/m2, which could be as input value for further structural thermal response analysis. Probabilistic fire safety analysis emphasizes describing fire thermal load and associated likelihood of occurrence, rather than

  6. Mathematical-logical modeling of regulations on mining safety. [Boolean algebra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajkos, A.; Suchan, L.

    1979-09-01

    Complexity of the logical structure of mine safety regulations results from the complexity of mining problems. This complexity sometimes makes it difficult to precisely formulate mining safety regulations and to monitor their observance by the miners. It is suggested that mathematical- logical modeling can be an efficient tool in analyzing mine safety regulations. A short description of the method based on Boolean algebra, and three examples of its use in the field of mine safety regulations are presented. (2 refs.) (In Czech)

  7. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    susceptibility of 'Gala' scions, and rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns could be correlated with differences in susceptibility. The results suggest a relationship between rootstock-regulated fire blight susceptibility and sorbitol dehydrogenase, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and endocytosis, among others. This study illustrates the utility of our rootstock-regulated gene expression data sets for candidate trait-associated gene data mining.

  8. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    approach of performance-based fire design (PBFD) becomes therefore more and more popular. A higher design flexibility based on performance objectives constitutes a beneficial and competitive concept within the structural fire safety engineering, ensuring a higher safety level of a design choice. The aim...... of this paper is to present the diversity in fundamentals, procedures and solutions of the two foregoing approaches. The aim is primarily accomplished through the detailed case-study analysis of an open car-park in compliance with the European and Scandinavian prescriptive regulations. Furthermore, the advanced...... methodology of the performance-based fire design approach is considered, with the avail of computer-aided simulations of the main frame of the car-park. Nonlinear analyses, with respect to thermally induced effects and emphasis laid to the collapse modality, are carried out on a frame of the considered...

  9. Hungarian Accounting Regulations: Exposed to the Cross-Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight two factors influencing Hungarian accounting regulations: the legislation of accounting in the last 25 years and the most important features of the taxation system. Both of them can influence the main requirement of the Hungarian Act on Accounting, the true and fair view. The research methods are based on a synthesis of the national and international literature. The authors examine the regulation system embedded in the legal and economic environment. The paper shows the accounting legislation in Hungary after the changing of the regime, its asymmetry, the attitude of the legislators and the current situation. The analysis of the tax system is connected to the provisions of accounting, highlighting the problems of the tax administration, the relation between corporate tax and the resultsof accounting and the intention to simplify it. The main conclusion is to make the system more flexible, in line with the legal and fiscal institutions, to fulfil its important requirements.

  10. Fire Protection Safety Evaluations of Hydro-Treated Renewable Jet (HRJ) and Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    first responder must be established. The objective of this study was to measure alternative fuel safety parameters. Flame propagation tests documented the flame spread rate on liquid fuel surfaces. Flame visible spectrum emissions were measured in normal and elevated oxygen concentration environments. Commercial optical flame detectors (OFDs) and commercial combustible gas detectors (CGDs) were evaluated for their relative response to and ability to detect bio-oil derived hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) and synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel fires and vapors as

  11. Research and Analysis of the Fire Prevention Countermeasures and Fire Safety Characteristics of Ancient Buildings%古建筑消防安全特性及防火对策研析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连加民; 李振华

    2014-01-01

    古建筑多为木质结构,并且年代久远,极易发生火灾,存在着特别重大的消防安全隐患。本文从古建筑的消防安全特性出发,探讨了如何运用现代的消防手段,并提出了新形势下古建筑防火对策和措施。%The ancient buildings are mostly of wooden str- ucture; and they are liable to catch fire for aging on this basis. So these buildings are with the potential serious dangers of fire safety accidents. This paper started with the fire safety charac- teristics of ancient building, discussing how to apply modern fire protection means under the new situation and puting fo- rward the countermeasures against fire accidents of ancient buildings.

  12. Role of fire safety design in building design%防火疏散设计在建筑设计中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾江美

    2011-01-01

    结合建筑规范中条文总结了高层建筑与商业建筑的防火疏散设计应注意的问题,阐述了防火疏散设计理念,并指出多层商业建筑及高层建筑防火疏散设计应注意事项,以期提高人们对建筑设计中防火疏散设计意识。%Integrating with building norms,it summarizes the matters needing attention in fire safety design for high-rise building and commercial buildings,describes fire safety design concept,and points out matters needing attention in multi-layer commercial building and high-rise building fire safety design,with a view to improve people's fire safety design consciousness in building design.

  13. Implementation of Computer Vision Based Industrial Fire Safety Automation by Using Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha K.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer vision-based automated fire detection and suppression system for manufacturing industries is presented in this paper. Automated fire suppression system plays a very significant role in Onsite Emergency System (OES as it can prevent accidents and losses to the industry. A rule based generic collective model for fire pixel classification is proposed for a single camera with multiple fire suppression chemical control valves. Neuro-Fuzzy algorithm is used to identify the exact location of fire pixels in the image frame. Again the fuzzy logic is proposed to identify the valve to be controlled based on the area of the fire and intensity values of the fire pixels. The fuzzy output is given to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system to generate suitable analog values for the control valve operation based on fire characteristics. Results with both fire identification and suppression systems have been presented. The proposed method achieves up to 99% of accuracy in fire detection and automated suppression.

  14. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  15. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  16. KV7 Channels Regulate Firing during Synaptic Integration in GABAergic Striatal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belén Pérez-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projection neurons (SPNs process motor and cognitive information. Their activity is affected by Parkinson’s disease, in which dopamine concentration is decreased and acetylcholine concentration is increased. Acetylcholine activates muscarinic receptors in SPNs. Its main source is the cholinergic interneuron that responds with a briefer latency than SPNs during a cortical command. Therefore, an important question is whether muscarinic G-protein coupled receptors and their signaling cascades are fast enough to intervene during synaptic responses to regulate synaptic integration and firing. One of the most known voltage dependent channels regulated by muscarinic receptors is the KV7/KCNQ channel. It is not known whether these channels regulate the integration of suprathreshold corticostriatal responses. Here, we study the impact of cholinergic muscarinic modulation on the synaptic response of SPNs by regulating KV7 channels. We found that KV7 channels regulate corticostriatal synaptic integration and that this modulation occurs in the dendritic/spines compartment. In contrast, it is negligible in the somatic compartment. This modulation occurs on sub- and suprathreshold responses and lasts during the whole duration of the responses, hundreds of milliseconds, greatly altering SPNs firing properties. This modulation affected the behavior of the striatal microcircuit.

  17. KV7 Channels Regulate Firing during Synaptic Integration in GABAergic Striatal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, M. Belén; Laville, Antonio; Tapia, Dagoberto; Lara-González, Esther; Bargas, José; Galarraga, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Striatal projection neurons (SPNs) process motor and cognitive information. Their activity is affected by Parkinson's disease, in which dopamine concentration is decreased and acetylcholine concentration is increased. Acetylcholine activates muscarinic receptors in SPNs. Its main source is the cholinergic interneuron that responds with a briefer latency than SPNs during a cortical command. Therefore, an important question is whether muscarinic G-protein coupled receptors and their signaling cascades are fast enough to intervene during synaptic responses to regulate synaptic integration and firing. One of the most known voltage dependent channels regulated by muscarinic receptors is the KV7/KCNQ channel. It is not known whether these channels regulate the integration of suprathreshold corticostriatal responses. Here, we study the impact of cholinergic muscarinic modulation on the synaptic response of SPNs by regulating KV7 channels. We found that KV7 channels regulate corticostriatal synaptic integration and that this modulation occurs in the dendritic/spines compartment. In contrast, it is negligible in the somatic compartment. This modulation occurs on sub- and suprathreshold responses and lasts during the whole duration of the responses, hundreds of milliseconds, greatly altering SPNs firing properties. This modulation affected the behavior of the striatal microcircuit. PMID:26113994

  18. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  19. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 11 on Aircraft Fire Safety. Volume 2. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Figure 4.1, this volume is subjected to: (1) Intrusion of flames to act as an ignition source in A; (2) A heat flux due to the external fire around...where there could be a risk of fire or explosion. (e) the risk of explosion resulting from penetration of the vapour space of fuel tanks. (f) damage

  20. Fire safety in space – Investigating flame spread interaction over wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citerne, Jean-Marie; Dutilleul, Hugo; Kizawa, Koki;

    2016-01-01

    . Arising from the current results, the issue of the potential interaction among spreading flames also needs to be carefully investigated as this interaction plays a major role in realistic fire scenarios, and therefore on the design of the strategies that would allow the control of such a fire. Once...

  1. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  2. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  3. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  4. FDS Modeling of the Sensitivity of the Smoke Potential Values Used in Fire Safety Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corches, Andrei-Mircea; Ulriksen, Lene; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    both from a geometrical and functional point of view, this type of comparison typically rely on numerical simulation methods, such as, computation fluid dynamics (CFD), to assess the amount of heat and smoke produced during fires and to estimate the transport of the combustion products. After...... the numerical simulation methods were adopted to simulate fires in buildings in Denmark, it has been observed that, for a majority of fire strategy reports, the optical properties of the smoke determine the available safe egress time. These critical times are most often defined by the visibility criteria...... defined in the Danish performance-based fire design code [1]. As there is no uniform test method to measure the optical properties of the smoke, values from different experiments are used in engineering analysis to express the properties that determine the decrease of visibility through smoke [2...

  5. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS-30 on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS-30 del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peco, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS-30 is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized. (Author)

  6. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  7. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  8. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Heon Jin; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Since the present nuclear safety regulation has some legal problems that refer to special issues and contents of regulatory provisions, this report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation to solve the problems. In addition, this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation.

  9. Enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations in Nigeria: An exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Umeokafor, Nnedinma; Isaac, David; Jones, Keith; Umeadi, Boniface

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the enforcement of occupational safety and health (OSH) regulations; it validates the state of enforcement of OSH regulations by extracting the salient issues that influence enforcement of OSH regulations in Nigeria. It’s the duty of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (Inspectorate Division) to enforce the Factories Act of 1990, while the Labour, Safety, Health and Welfare Bill of 2012 empowers the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health of Nigeria...

  10. Fire Safety Tests Comparing Synthetic Jet and Diesel Fuels with JP-8 (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    extinguishment and burnback time for experimental test fires using AFFF on unleaded gasoline. The test fire standards outlined in the mil-spec are more...natural gas , followed by a Fischer–Tropsch process using a low-temperature cobalt catalyst to obtain 499% saturated (mainly n- or iso-paraffin) hydrocarbons...natural gas followed by a Fischer–Tropsch process, but different refining is used to obtain the desired fuel composition with an average molecular

  11. Protein Phosphatase 1 Recruitment by Rif1 Regulates DNA Replication Origin Firing by Counteracting DDK Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoushka Davé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The firing of eukaryotic origins of DNA replication requires CDK and DDK kinase activities. DDK, in particular, is involved in setting the temporal program of origin activation, a conserved feature of eukaryotes. Rif1, originally identified as a telomeric protein, was recently implicated in specifying replication timing in yeast and mammals. We show that this function of Rif1 depends on its interaction with PP1 phosphatases. Mutations of two PP1 docking motifs in Rif1 lead to early replication of telomeres in budding yeast and misregulation of origin firing in fission yeast. Several lines of evidence indicate that Rif1/PP1 counteract DDK activity on the replicative MCM helicase. Our data suggest that the PP1/Rif1 interaction is downregulated by the phosphorylation of Rif1, most likely by CDK/DDK. These findings elucidate the mechanism of action of Rif1 in the control of DNA replication and demonstrate a role of PP1 phosphatases in the regulation of origin firing.

  12. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  13. Study on countermeasures of logistics warehouse fire safety%物流仓库消防安全对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓哲

    2011-01-01

    Through fire for logistics warehouse buildings, this paper analyzed the classification of the logistics warehouse fire hazard, put forward the logistics warehouse in fire control safety layout, architecture fireproof rank and fire zoning, safe evacuation export setup, fire hydrant system, automatic sprinkler system, automatic fire alarm system, smoke exhaust hot facilities design, fire fighting equipment configuration and strengthen day - to - day fire safety management countermeasures.%通过对物流仓库建筑进行防火类别划分,具体分析了物流仓库的火灾危险性,提出了物流仓库在消防安全布局、建筑耐火等级及防火分区划分、安全疏散出口设置、消火栓系统、自动喷水灭火系统、火灾自动报警系统、排烟排热设施设计、灭火器材配置以及加强日常消防安全管理等方面的对策.

  14. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  15. Circadian- and Light-Dependent Regulation of Resting Membrane Potential and Spontaneous Action Potential Firing of Drosophila Circadian Pacemaker Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeba, Vasu; Gu, Huaiyu; Sharma, Vijay K.; O'Dowd, Diane K.; Holmes, Todd C

    2007-01-01

    The ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) of adult Drosophila brain express oscillating clock proteins and regulate circadian behavior. Whole cell current-clamp recordings of large LNvs in freshly dissected Drosophila whole brain preparations reveal two spontaneous activity patterns that correlate with two underlying patterns of oscillating membrane potential: tonic and burst firing of sodium-dependent action potentials. Resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing are rapidly ...

  16. Discussion on Fire Safety Problems of Oil-immersed Transformers%油浸式变压器消防安全问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟毅

    2015-01-01

    Fire features and fire reasons of oil-immersed transformers are analyzed, and the fire safety problems of oil-immersed transformers are studied from three main aspects, i. e. fire prevention technologies such as gas relays and pressure relief valves, fire detection technologies such as heat detectors and smoke detectors, and firefighting systems such as stationary water-spray fire extinguishing system, water-mist fire extinguishing system, oil-drainage & nitrogen-filling fire extinguishing system and SP synthetic foam-spray fire extinguishing.%分析油浸式变压器火灾特点及原因,从气体继电器、 压力释放阀等火灾预防技术, 感温探测器、 感烟探测器等火灾探测技术, 固定水喷雾灭火、 细水雾、 排油注氮和 "SP" 速灭合成型低泡喷淋等灭火系统三大方面对油浸式变压器的消防安全问题进行探讨.

  17. Specification of materials Data for Fire Safety Calculations based on ENV 1992-1-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1997-01-01

    of constructions of any concrete exposed to any time of any fire exposure can be calculated.Chapter 4.4 provides information on what should be observed if more general calculation methods are used.Annex A provides some additional information on materials data. This chapter is not a part of the code......The part 1-2 of the Eurocode on Concrete deals with Structural Fire Design.In chapter 3, which is partly written by the author of this paper, some data are given for the development of a few material parameters at high temperatures. These data are intended to represent the worst possible concrete...... to experience form tests on structural specimens based on German siliceous concrete subjected to Standard fire exposure until the time of maximum gas temperature.Chapter 4.3, which is written by the author of this paper, provides a simplified calculation method by means of which the load bearing capacity...

  18. Fire Control Safety Management Strategies in Machinery Manufacturing Industry%机械制造业消防安全管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵兵

    2014-01-01

    The paper objectively analyzes the fire risk in machinery manufacturing, points out many problems existing in the management of fire safety and provides the specific guiding opinions.%文章客观地分析了机械制造存在的火灾危险性,指出了消防安全管理中存在的诸多问题,并针对具体问题提出了指导性意见。

  19. Fire Burning Characteristics, Attacking Techniques and Safety Precautions in Pinus pumila Scrubs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In China, Pinus pumila is mainly distributed in Daxing’anling, while those growing in the eastern Daxing’anling are primarily covered under the jurisdiction of Huzhong Forest Bureau. P. pumila is an evergreen shrub, 3-6 m high, and always grows vigorously. Its trunks creep along the ground, usually 10 m long or more. It is easily flammable because of the large amounts of resins and volatile oils in its body. Attacking forest fires is a dangerous work, especially in P. pumila scrubs. The fires in P. pumila s...

  20. Irradiated ignition of solid materials in reduced pressure atmosphere with various oxygen concentrations for fire safety in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Aoki, A.

    Effects of sub-atmospheric ambient pressure and oxygen content on irradiated ignition characteristics of solid combustibles were examined experimentally in order to elucidate the flammability and chance of fire in depressurized systems and give ideas for the fire safety and fire fighting strategies for such environments. Thin cellulosic paper was used as the solid combustible since cellulose is one of major organic compounds and flammables in the nature. Applied atmospheres consisted of inert gases (either CO 2 or N 2) and oxygen at various mixture ratios. Total ambient pressure ( P) was varied from 101 kPa (standard atmospheric pressure, P0) to 20 kPa. Ignition was initiated by external thermal radiation with CO 2 laser (10 W total; 21.3 W/cm 2 of the corresponding peak flux) onto the solid surface. Thermal degradation of the solid produced combustible gaseous products (e.g. CO, H 2, or other low weight of HCs) and these products mixed with ambient oxygen to form the combustible mixture over the solid. Heat transfer from the irradiated surface into the mixture accelerated the exothermic reaction in the gas phase and finally thermal runaway (ignition) was achieved. A digital video camera was used to analyze the ignition characteristics. Flammability maps in partial pressure of oxygen (ppO 2) and normalized ambient pressure ( P/ P0) plane were made to reveal the fire hazard in depressurized environments. Results showed that a wider flammable range was obtained in sub-atmospherics conditions. In middle pressure range (101-40 kPa), the required ppO 2 for ignition decreased almost linearly as the total pressure decreased, indicating that higher fire risk is expected. In lower pressure range (plant growth in depressurized environments. Our results imply that there is an optimum pressure level to achieve less fire chance with acceptable plant growth. An increase of the flammable range in middle pressure level might be explained by following two effects: one is a physical

  1. Investigations of the performance of facades made of ETICS with polystyrene under external fire exposure and fire safety measures for their improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotthoff Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to flames of a fully developed room fire venting out of an external wall opening after flash-over is most commonly used as the reference fire scenario for assessing the fire performance of external wall cladding systems. This is reflected by various testing standards (e.g. ISO 13785-2 [1], E DIN 4102-20 [2]. The impact of other fire scenarios had been judged as less critical or most similar in the past. Hence, there was a widespread opinion that other scenarios were covered by these fire tests (cf. [3]. This assumption has also underlain assessment of ETICS fire performance.

  2. Some Thoughts on Regulating Food Safety in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2006-01-01

    The article analyses the current situation of food safety supervision in China, summarizes the deep reason behind the food safety and puts forward some suggestions to strengthen the supervision by using foreign references and advance operations from the legislation, the food safety supervision system and other aspects.

  3. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  4. Assessment of policy issues in nuclear safety regulation according to circumstantial changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Lee, Kwang Gu; Huh, Gyun Young; Hahn, Young Tae [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of the work is to assess various issues in nuclear safety regulation in consideration of circumstantial changes. Emphasis is given to the safety of operating NPPs. It is concluded that the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) should be implemented in Korea as soon as possible, in harmonization with the regulation for life extension of NPPs. The IAEA guidelines, including 10 year intervals and 11 safety factors, should be used as the basic guidelines. The approach to improve regulatory effectiveness is also reviewed and a transition to 'knowledge-based regulation' is suggested.

  5. Using GIS to evaluate a fire safety program in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Thomas; Creppage, Kathleen; Shanahan, Meghan; Proescholdbell, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating program impact is a critical aspect of public health. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a novel way to evaluate programs which try to reduce residential fire injuries and deaths. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of GIS within the evaluation of a smoke alarm installation program in North Carolina. This approach incorporates national fire incident data which, when linked with program data, provides a clear depiction of the 10 years impact of the Get Alarmed, NC! program and estimates the number of potential lives saved. We overlapped Get Alarmed, NC! program installation data with national information on fires using GIS to identify homes that experienced a fire after an alarm was installed and calculated potential lives saved based on program documentation and average housing occupancy. We found that using GIS was an efficient and quick way to match addresses from two distinct sources. From this approach we estimated that between 221 and 384 residents were potentially saved due to alarms installed in their homes by Get Alarmed, NC!. Compared with other program evaluations that require intensive and costly participant telephone surveys and/or in-person interviews, the GIS approach is inexpensive, quick, and can easily analyze large disparate datasets. In addition, it can be used to help target the areas most at risk from the onset. These benefits suggest that by incorporating previously unutilized data, the GIS approach has the potential for broader applications within public health program evaluation.

  6. “Use of fire extinguishers” course: A hot tip for your safety!

    CERN Document Server

    The Safety Training Team

    2013-01-01

    The “Use of fire extinguishers – live exercises” course was introduced in conjunction with the Fire and Rescue Service and the HSE Unit at the start of 2012. Since then, more than 800 people have been trained in the use of fire extinguishers.   Photo: Vanessa Bandier. This course is aimed at all members of the CERN personnel. It takes place at the Prévessin training centre, lasts an hour and a half and consists of a theoretical part and a practical part with a role-play exercise in the simulator. The course can be taken in French or English. Here are some examples of comments received from people who have taken the course: “Excellent training session, very useful, especially the practical part. I’m no longer afraid to use a fire extinguisher.” “I was impressed with the quality of the installations used for the training. I didn’t expect every participant to be able to practise dealing with an emergency...

  7. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 3. Smoke and Toxicity (Combustion Toxicology of Polymers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Possible Cancer Hazards.i’ Science. 195, pp 17 - 23. 1977. S K Brauman, N Fishman. A S. Broliy, and D. L Chamberlain, "Smoke Generation from the...Sidor and J. M. Peters, "Fire Fighting and Pulmon .ry Fun.tiin An Epidemiologic Study," American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 109, pp. 249-254

  8. Increase of Ecological Safety, Reliability and Efficiency of Coal-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov E.P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of environmental legislation of the Russian Federation will lead to a drastic increase of the ecological payments for environmental pollution in excess of technological standards. Significant excess in relative emissions of nitrogen oxides take place in burning solid fuel with liquid slag-tap removal. The purpose of this article was to develop technical solutions for low-cost reconstruction of the boilers to ensure efficient combustion of the fuel and technological standards of emissions of nitrogen oxides. As shown the use of straight-flow burners with compulsory optimization of the aerodynamics of the furnace and the organization of staged combustion of fuel will provide low nitrogen oxide emissions and efficient fuel combustion. Research on physical models has demonstrated the feasibility of increasing the angle of the pulverized coal burners down to 65-70o, and also achieved a more uniform distribution and increase the speed of the jets coming from upper and lower tertiary air vertical compartments of nozzles through the installation of the vertical extra sheets, which guide the flow in a space between jets. The results obtained allow the transfer of existing boilers with slag-tag removal to a solid with the installation of direct-flow burners and optimization of the aerodynamics of the furnace, which provides regulations for energy efficiency and ecological safety corresponding to the best, achieved technologies, and dramatically reduces environmental payments. The proposed technology in boiler BKZ-210-140F allowed reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides by more than 2 times when burning highly reactive Kuznetsk coal, as shown as an example.

  9. Comparison of regulated passive membrane conductance in action potential-firing fast- and slow-twitch muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Macdonald, William Alexander; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; de Paoli, Frank Vinzenco; Gurung, Iman Singh; Nielsen, Ole Baekgaard

    2009-10-01

    In several pathological and experimental conditions, the passive membrane conductance of muscle fibers (G(m)) and their excitability are inversely related. Despite this capacity of G(m) to determine muscle excitability, its regulation in active muscle fibers is largely unexplored. In this issue, our previous study (Pedersen et al. 2009. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.200910291) established a technique with which biphasic regulation of G(m) in action potential (AP)-firing fast-twitch fibers of rat extensor digitorum longus muscles was identified and characterized with temporal resolution of seconds. This showed that AP firing initially reduced G(m) via ClC-1 channel inhibition but after approximately 1,800 APs, G(m) rose substantially, causing AP excitation failure. This late increase of G(m) reflected activation of ClC-1 and K(ATP) channels. The present study has explored regulation of G(m) in AP-firing slow-twitch fibers of soleus muscle and compared it to G(m) dynamics in fast-twitch fibers. It further explored aspects of the cellular signaling that conveyed regulation of G(m) in AP-firing fibers. Thus, in both fiber types, AP firing first triggered protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ClC-1 channel inhibition that reduced G(m) by approximately 50%. Experiments with dantrolene showed that AP-triggered SR Ca(2+) release activated this PKC-mediated ClC-1 channel inhibition that was associated with reduced rheobase current and improved function of depolarized muscles, indicating that the reduced G(m) enhanced muscle fiber excitability. In fast-twitch fibers, the late rise in G(m) was accelerated by glucose-free conditions, whereas it was postponed when intermittent resting periods were introduced during AP firing. Remarkably, elevation of G(m) was never encountered in AP-firing slow-twitch fibers, even after 15,000 APs. These observations implicate metabolic depression in the elevation of G(m) in AP-firing fast-twitch fibers. It is concluded that regulation of G(m) is

  10. 高校学生宿舍消防安全工作的思考%Reflections on the Fire Fight Safety Work in University Student Dormitories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2014-01-01

    消防安全是高校学生宿舍消防安全工作的重中之重,关系到学生的生命安全和财产利益。学生宿舍消防安全工作还存在着许多薄弱环节,必须警钟长鸣。本文通过案例并结合自身工作经验,分析和探讨高校学生宿舍的消防安全工作存在的普遍问题,以期引起广泛的关注。%Fire fight safety is a top priority of the fire fight safety work in university student dormitories, as it is related to students' life safety and property interests. There are still many weak links in the fire fight safety work in university student dormitories, which should attract our attention. Based on practical cases and the writer's own experience, this paper analyzed and explored the common problems existing in the fire fight safety work in univer-sity student dormitories, hoping to arouse wide attention.

  11. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 1. Materials. State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Encyclopedia (1973-1974) and in the textbooks by Billmeyer (1971) and Srydson (1975). The Polymer Handbook (Brandrup and Immergut, 1374) and the Handbook of...formulation variables. Their chemistry is too involved to be described in detail here. More information may be found in Bydsen (1975), Billmeyer ...1973). Bhatnagar, V. M., "Fire Retardant Formulations Handbook," Vol. 1, p. 1, Technomic PuW. Co., Inc., Westport, Conn. (1972). Billmeyer , F. W

  12. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 2. Test Methods, Specifications and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Research and Development Center Budd Corporation 356 Executive Drive Troy, Ml 48084 Dr. Larry L. Hench Professor and Head Ceramics Division...data at frequent intervals over a 15 minute period ( Alpert et al., 1975)) and detailed analysis of the data aimed at developing a theoretical...in the characteristics scale length of the experiment over the atmospheric pressure prototype ( Alpert , 1975). Not all aspects of the fire are modeled

  13. Artificial lighting for green or sustainable buildings and their fire safety concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.L.CHOW; W.K.CHOW

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, environmental aspects of artificial lighting including incandescent lamps and compact fluorescent lamps are reviewed. The impact on green or sustainable buildings is discussed from the energy use viewpoint, As there are complaints on the falling down of plastic components, and the long ignition time required for compact fluorescents, the fire environment is simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics. Results indicated that combustibles placed adjacent to a lamp with the possibility of igniting should be watched carefully.

  14. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  15. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  16. Effectiveness of Direct Safety Regulations on Manufacturers and Users of Industrial Machines: Its Implications on Industrial Safety Policies in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Heung Choi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Industrial safety policies and regulations associated with industrial machines must be directed towards eliminating the sources of danger at the stage of danger creation, thereby securing the safe industrial machines. Safety inspection further secures the safety of workers at the stage of danger use. The overall balance between such safety regulations is achieved by proper distribution of industrial machines subject to such regulations and the intensity of each regulation. Rearrangement of industrial machines subject to safety certification and self-declaration of conformity to include more movable industrial machines and other industrial machines with a high level of danger is also suggested.

  17. 大空间内封闭喷漆作业的火灾危险性及消防安全对策研究%Research on fire hazard analysis and fire safety measures of a large paint shop with enclosed paint-spraying operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝爱玲; 王宗存; 石宗维; 刘庭全

    2011-01-01

    Taken a large paint shop which has paint-spraying chambers inside as an example, fire hazard risk in the chamber and the open space of the paint shop was analyzed. TNO Multi-Energy method was used to calculate the blast wave overpressure of the paint-spraying chamber explosion. The results showed that explosion happened during the spray painting operation would produce different degrees of damage to the enclosure structure of the paint shop.Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the fire safety measures to protect the large paint shop that has enclosed paint-spraying operations. Based on the quantitatively and qualitatively fire hazard analysis and the requirement of the relevant codes, corresponding safety measures were proposed. The measures include installation of fire extinguishing systems, automatic fire alarm systems, ventilation systems, and practice of the safety management regulations. These measures will help to provide technical support to ensure the fire safety of this kind of paint shop.%以采用封闭喷漆工艺的某喷漆车间为研究对象,分别分析了车间内封闭喷漆室以及敞开空间的火灾危险性.采用多能法进行了喷漆室爆炸冲击波超压计算,发现封闭喷漆作业的火灾爆炸事故会对车间置护结构产生不同程度破坏作用.因此,对大空间内采用封闭喷漆作业的情况,加强消防安全措施十分必要.结合上述火灾危险性定性、定量分析结果和相关标准规范要求,从设置灭火系统、火灾自动报警系统、通风系统、明确安全管理规定等角度提出了相应的消防安全措施建议,为确保此类场所的消防安全提供了技术支持.

  18. Overview of the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-xue; LI Jia-jie; LI Cui-ping; LIU Shuang-yue

    2008-01-01

    Outlined the South African mine health and safety regulatory framework, including the roles of government, tripartite council, service agencies, mine enterprises,rescue stations and workers unions, analyzed the institutional structures of South African mine health and safety standardization, including the South African standard and specification systems and standard development processes, and characterized the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems. Intended to provide some suggestions for the transformation and improvement of mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems in China or in similar situations.

  19. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  20. Adaptive regulation or governmentality: patient safety and the changing regulation of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores how current 'patient safety' reforms offer to change the regulation of medicine. Drawing on existing literature, it is argued that this policy agenda represents a new frontier in medical/managerial relations, introducing a disciplinary expertise within the health service that provides managers with the knowledge and legitimacy to survey and scrutinise medical performance, made real through procedures for incident reporting and root-cause analysis. The extent of regulatory change is investigated, drawing on an ethnographic case study of one hospital. It is shown that, as with other organisational and managerial reforms, doctors are resisting managerial prerogatives through seeking to subvert and 'capture' components of reform. I describe this as 'adaptive regulation' to account for how doctors seek to maintain their regulatory monopoly and limit managerial encroachment. It is speculated, however, that this process could signal the future 'modernisation' of medical professionalism where emerging managerial discourses, within the wider context of public sector reform, are increasingly internalised with medical practice and culture. This leads to new and rearticulated forms of self-surveillance, self-management or 'governmentality', ultimately negating the need for external groups to explicitly manage or regulate professional practice.

  1. Fire safety of ETICS with wood fibreboards for multi-storey buildings – first research and development results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küppers Judith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood fibreboards can serve as alternative sustainable insulation material for external thermal insulation component systems (ETICS. In Germany, the application of ETICS with wood fibreboards is restricted to low buildings. The restrictions are mainly caused by the smouldering tendency of the wood fibreboards. Thus, the development of an ETICS with wood fibreboards for multi-storey buildings complying with the requirements would provide a new scope of application for this sustainable insulation material. This paper presents first results of standardised and innovative investigation methods as basis for the development. These investigations and analyses concern the fire behaviour, especially smouldering processes, the plaster system, other constructive protection measures as well as risk and safety analyses.

  2. Targeting adequate thermal stability and fire safety in selecting ionic liquid-based electrolytes for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancelier, L; Diallo, A O; Santini, C C; Marlair, G; Gutel, T; Mailley, S; Len, C

    2014-02-07

    The energy storage market relating to lithium based systems regularly grows in size and expands in terms of a portfolio of energy and power demanding applications. Thus safety focused research must more than ever accompany related technological breakthroughs regarding performance of cells, resulting in intensive research on the chemistry and materials science to design more reliable batteries. Formulating electrolyte solutions with nonvolatile and hardly flammable ionic liquids instead of actual carbonate mixtures could be safer. However, few definitions of thermal stability of electrolytes based on ionic liquids have been reported in the case of abuse conditions (fire, shortcut, overcharge or overdischarge). This work investigates thermal stability up to combustion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C1C4Im][NTf2]) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([PYR14][NTf2]) ionic liquids, and their corresponding electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide LiNTf2. Their possible routes of degradation during thermal abuse testings were investigated by thermodynamic studies under several experimental conditions. Their behaviours under fire were also tested, including the analysis of emitted compounds.

  3. Research on Fire Safety Advocacy and Precaution in In-dependent Colleges%独立学院消防安全宣传及防范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳玉玲

    2016-01-01

    为使独立学院全体师生提高消防安全防范意识,防止消防安全事故发生,独立学院综合管理部门有效地实施了消防安全宣传及防范等方面工作。本论文针对当前独立学院师生消防安全的防范意识及宣传方面等现状进行分析研究,对如何进一步完善消防安全宣传工作方面以及防范的方法与途径进行探讨。%To improve independent college teachers and students' awareness of safety and precaution and prevent the occurrence of fire accidents, the comprehensive administrators of independent colleges have effectively implemented fire safety advocacy and precaution. This paper analyzes and researches the current situa-tion of independent college teachers and students' awareness and publicity of fire safety and precaution, and explores how to further improve fire safety advocacy and how to improve precaution.

  4. A study in improvement of administrative system in the nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Kuk, Doe Hyeong; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Sam; Hwang, Sun Ho [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    One of the most important tasks to improve nuclear safety regulation system is to separate nuclear regulatory institutes from public agencies which promote the development nuclear power. Moreover, nuclear safety regulation should be not only specialized but optimized to be adapted for new environments such as high-tech information age. Especially, it is necessary to reform the current nuclear safety regulation systems both to be effective under the local self-administration which began to operate in recent years and to be supported by local residents.

  5. Fire Safety Analysis of the Polar Icebreaker Replacement Design. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    stove was last used at 0130. An omelet pan isn’t that large, therefore, it could not hold much grease. 0530 15 The fire was detected when the...watchstander entered the galley and observed smoke and flames coming from the omelet pan on the galley stove . He attempted to extinguish the flames by throwing...phenomena appears to be the result 1 of Tanaka’s combustion algorithm (how much of the gasified fuel will actually be burned); the model predicts a zero

  6. Regulations on Meat Hygiene and Safety in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety concerns physical, chemical and biological aspects. With regard to these aspects it is important that the slaughterhouse and processing industry implement a HACCP programme. By implementing such a programme all hazards, which could affect human safety, will have to be identified, monitored when considered as critical and eliminated, reduced or prevented. With regard to preventing physical hazards, a metal detector should be a regular piece of equipment in the meat processing industry.

  7. 黄岛石化区消防安全初评估%Preliminary assessment of the fire safety in HuangDao petrochemical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林宏; 余浩

    2011-01-01

    黄岛石化区是一个集油品储运、原油炼制、芳烃加工为一体的大型石油化工基地.目前,区域内拥有原油炼制能力达到1000多万吨,危险化学品存储能力接近1000万吨,危化品码头吞吐能力接近6000万吨,并且危化品项目的规模还在不断扩大中.鉴于危化品项目的危险性较高,石化区域的消防安全就成了企业生产安全的重要保障,而消防安全是否有保证则与区域内企业的生产存储装置的危险程度、安全设施配置、消防设施的配置以及消防队伍和车辆的配置等有直接的关系.笔者通过对区域内上述各方面信息的详细了解,并在参阅了大量技术文献资料的基础上,分别以生产装置火灾和存储装置火灾为对象进行了消防安全的初步评估,同时对区域内消防方面存在的问题提出改进建议.%HuangDao Petrochemical Zone is a very important base of oil storage and transportation, crude oil refining, aromatics processing in Shandong Province. Currently, the region has a crude oil refining capacity of more than 10 million tons, hazardous chemicals storage capacity of close to 10 million tons, hazardous chemicals terminal throughput capacity approaching 60 million tons, and the scale of hazardous chemicals is still growing in. View of the hazardous chemicals higher risk projects, the fire safety in petrochemical zone is the very important safeguards,but the fire safety associated with a lot of tings, such as the dangerous degree of hazardous chemicals process plant and hazardous chemicals storage tanks, the security devices allocation, the fire control facilities allocation, the fire department and the vehicle allocation. How about the fire safety in HuangDao Petrochemical Zone? By way of collecting lots of detailed information of petrochemical enterprise related to fire safety in HuangDao Petrochemical Zone, and seeing a lot of technical literature associated with the fire safety, fire

  8. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  9. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  10. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... changes to drawbridge schedules to accommodate bridge repairs, seasonal vessel traffic, and local public... Bridge.... Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 11/9/2009 USCG-2008-0700 Portland, OR Safety Zones (Part 165.../4/2009 USCG-2009-0640 Brooklyn/Queens, NY...... Drawbridge Operations 8/1/2009 Regulation (Part 117...

  11. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  12. Solving the Problem of Multiple-Criteria Building Design Decisions with respect to the Fire Safety of Occupants: An Approach Based on Probabilistic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Rytas Vaidogas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of buildings may include a comparison of alternative architectural and structural solutions. They can be developed at different levels of design process. The alternative design solutions are compared and ranked by applying methods of multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM. Each design is characterised by a number of criteria used in a MCDM problem. The paper discusses how to choose MCDM criteria expressing fire safety related to alternative designs. Probability of a successful evacuation of occupants from a building fire and difference between evacuation time and time to untenable conditions are suggested as the most important criteria related to fire safety. These two criteria are treated as uncertain quantities expressed by probability distributions. Monte Carlo simulation of fire and evacuation processes is natural means for an estimation of these distributions. The presence of uncertain criteria requires applying stochastic MCDM methods for ranking alternative designs. An application of the safety-related criteria is illustrated by an example which analyses three alternative architectural floor plans prepared for a reconstruction of a medical building. A MCDM method based on stochastic simulation is used to solve the example problem.

  13. 76 FR 73570 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... incident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) found that the growth of a fatigue crack....565 and 195.573(d). (3) In Sec. 195.2, to amend the definition of ``Alarm'' to correct an error in the...

  14. Perspective of regulation on software safety analysis: experience of software safety analysis activity of Lungmen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuan Chung [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei TW (China)

    2005-11-15

    Software Safety Analysis is one of the essential tasks must be performed in the design work of digital computer software used in safety system of Nuclear Power Station. While there is more experience in Software Verification and Validation and Configuration Management in software industry, Software Safety Analysis (SSA) is a new task. What is the scope of SSA? What should be done in SSA? Various SSA related code and Standards were reviewed and from the evolvement of code and standards, it was concluded that Abnormal Condition and Events should be treated as part of SSA activities and SSA activities could be one of the activities in Software V and V SSA case study on NUMAC as Pervious Developed System was presented and a new method on SSA - 'Hazard Analysis and Defense in Depth for Software Safety Analysis' to enhance the confidence in SSA activities in Lungmen project was introduced.

  15. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  16. 某体育馆消防安全问题的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of fire safety in a gym

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继仓; 王耀民; 刘亚东

    2012-01-01

    体育馆类建筑往往由于功能需要,其防火分区面积远超我国现行消防规范要求,引发一系列诸如火灾蔓延特征改变、烟气扩散规律变更等问题,可能导致疏散距离过长、人员疏散时间延长的问题.以某典型体育馆为研究对象,研究比赛区域防火分区扩大对其消防安全性的影响.运用计算机数值模拟手段,建立模型,设定场景,结果验证了该场馆在发生火灾时的安全性.%The area of fire apartment of the gyms often far surpassed Fire Code requirements due to feature requirements such as the change of fire and smoke spread characteristic, too long evacuation distance and evacuation time. Take a gym as example, the effect of over-large fire apartment area on fire safety was analyzed. Using FDS. Mode was founded, scenes setted. And the results showed that people would he safe in a gym fire.

  17. Regulation of ClC-1 and KATP channels in action potential-firing fast-twitch muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; de Paoli, Frank Vinzenco; Flatman, John A; Nielsen, Ole Baekgaard

    2009-10-01

    Action potential (AP) excitation requires a transient dominance of depolarizing membrane currents over the repolarizing membrane currents that stabilize the resting membrane potential. Such stabilizing currents, in turn, depend on passive membrane conductance (G(m)), which in skeletal muscle fibers covers membrane conductances for K(+) (G(K)) and Cl(-) (G(Cl)). Myotonic disorders and studies with metabolically poisoned muscle have revealed capacities of G(K) and G(Cl) to inversely interfere with muscle excitability. However, whether regulation of G(K) and G(Cl) occur in AP-firing muscle under normal physiological conditions is unknown. This study establishes a technique that allows the determination of G(Cl) and G(K) with a temporal resolution of seconds in AP-firing muscle fibers. With this approach, we have identified and quantified a biphasic regulation of G(m) in active fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus fibers of the rat. Thus, at the onset of AP firing, a reduction in G(Cl) of approximately 70% caused G(m) to decline by approximately 55% in a manner that is well described by a single exponential function characterized by a time constant of approximately 200 APs (phase 1). When stimulation was continued beyond approximately 1,800 APs, synchronized elevations in G(K) ( approximately 14-fold) and G(Cl) ( approximately 3-fold) caused G(m) to rise sigmoidally to approximately 400% of its level before AP firing (phase 2). Phase 2 was often associated with a failure to excite APs. When AP firing was ceased during phase 2, G(m) recovered to its level before AP firing in approximately 1 min. Experiments with glibenclamide (K(ATP) channel inhibitor) and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (ClC-1 Cl(-) channel inhibitor) revealed that the decreased G(m) during phase 1 reflected ClC-1 channel inhibition, whereas the massively elevated G(m) during phase 2 reflected synchronized openings of ClC-1 and K(ATP) channels. In conclusion, G(Cl) and G(K) are acutely regulated in AP-firing

  18. Complying with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations: a guide for compounding pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Bill; Nain, John

    2013-01-01

    In the compounding pharmacy, compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations is essential to protect employees and customers from exposure to hazardous substances and a dangerous environment, to avert heavy fines and penalties levied for noncompliance, and to fulfill the moral obligation of pharmacists to do no harm. Without adequate vigilance, compounders are vulnerable to lapses in adherence to Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the results of which can be dire in a climate of increased scrutiny about the safety and integrity of pharmaceutical compounding. Proactively addressing necessary compliance with essential safety regulations can only benefit compounders and their staff and clients, and guidance from an expert in Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements can be a key factor in accomplishing that goal.

  19. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  20. roposal on the Method of Regulating Ascending Kidney Water and Descending Heart Fire -through pharmacopuncture technique-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is aimed at diagnosing and suggesting treatment plans for commonly seen clinical manifestation of heat symptom in the upper body and coldness in the lower body, also known as hot above, cold below syndrome. Methods : Various reasons attribute to the presence of hot above, cold below syndrome, but mainly contributed by blockage of normal Qi flow by abnormality of heart-kidney root, spleen-stomach axis, and liver-lung axis. Diagnosing these abnormalities and timely alleviation to the healthy state is presented in the study. Results : 1For heat in the upper body, Huang Lian Jie Du Tang(黃連解毒湯, CF, or JsD pharmacopuctures are injected on GB21, GB20. Qi stagnation in the thoracic area is treated with BUM injection on CV17. For impairment of transportation and transformation in the middle energizer, BUM pharmacopuncture is injected on CV12. Coldness in the lower energizer was relieved by bee venom or Sweet BV(Bee Venom free from enzymes on CV6. Conclusion : Above proposed methods of regulating water-fire were effective in treating hot above, cold below syndrome in clinical manifestations. But once the symptom subsides, treatment focused on eliminating innate cause should be rendered to achieve more successful results.

  1. Growth regulators in reducing the size of orchid Fire-of-Star for commercialization in vase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reiners Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire-of-star (Epidendrum radicans Pav. ex Lindl. is a terrestrial orchid, native to Brazil, tussocks with leafy stems, always with many adventitious roots, releasing its long inflorescence with about 1.0 m from the apex of the stem, showing great potential in floriculture, but long flowering stem complicates their marketing vase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ and mepiquat chloride (CLM the reduction of the size of the orchid E. radicans. Plants with an average height of 15 cm were cultivated in a greenhouse with 50% shading. The growth regulators used were PBZ at doses of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20 mg L-1, and the CLM at doses of 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5 mg L-1. The frequency of application was fortnightly, totaling ten applications. The experiment was installed on a randomized complete blocks, one block to the PBZ with 5 treatments and 10 replications and another block to the CLM, with 6 treatments and 10 replications. Data were submitted to analysis of variance at 5% probability and significance when seen performed regression analysis. The variables evaluated were number shoots, plant height (cm, number of flower stems and leaf area. The results indicated that E. radicans treated with 5 mg L-1 PBZ were 50% lower in height than the control plants. When CLM treated with a dose of 1 mg L-1 plants were 25% lower in height than the control plants, maintaining its aesthetic characteristics suitable for marketing in vases. Growth regulators in the applied doses did not affect the number of shoots and flower stems. PBZ treated plants had 50% of their leaf area compared to control while those treated with CLM doses remained with the same average leaf area of control.

  2. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Sun; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The scope of this study consists of : in relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A., a determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material, a tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  3. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engineer that describes the design intent of the fire detection and suppression system, detailing the... maintain the same rating as the wall. (g) Roof support structures that cross or penetrate fire barrier... be fully enclosed in a drywall containment constructed of metal studs with fire retardant...

  4. Safety Issues, Considerations, Evaluation and Extrication of Electrical Vehicles Involving Fire Incidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padigala SCSS Shiva Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In today s fast paced era as we see the innovations are taking place in a larger amount, at past passenger vehicles had been introduced by using petrol and diesel as a fuel intakes, but today in addition to a Hybrid vehicle even Electrical vehicles had been existed which reduces the effort of travelling and expenditure on fuels but rescue personnel in being exposed to hazardous chemicals such as corrosive chemicals, toxic fumes, fire and electric shock in the event of a crash. Because of these high risk factors manufacturers are understood to develop appropriate procedure for dealing with these crashes.Several evaluation programme s had been carried out by different countries like Australia, Japan for a purpose of evaluating the involvement of crashes. New car Assessment programs have subjected several petrol-electric hybrid vehicles to the 64km/hr frontal offset crash, 50km/hr barrier side impact test and the 29km/hr side pole test. None problems with the electrical systems and batteries were encountered., these tests even involved vehicles with lead acid or NiMH batteries. Lithium – ion batteries which are becoming popular for movement in electrical vehicles and these might introduce different hazards for crash test and rescue personnel.A crash test of an electrical car with a lithium – ion battery was carried out by Australian NCAP and Japan NCAP in a month of October 2010. And euro NCAP has also evaluated a number of vehicles with Li-ion battery . This paper reviews those potential hazards and provides advice for minimizing risks and provides the advices for the crash test.

  5. Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-10

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ΔycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection.

  6. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-24

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  7. The fire safety analysis of a semi-underground public building%某半地下公共建筑消防设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴钢

    2012-01-01

    Taking the problem of the negative layer of conference center, Shaanxi hotel that the safety exit does not meet the specification requirements, and the evacuation distance exceeds the criterion as an example, performance based design solutions for semi- underground public building were given, which is quasi safety zone. FDS was used to simulate the fire develop-ment in the building, and calculate the available safety egress lime. Software of people evacuation simulation Pathfinder was used to simulate the evacuation in the building, and get the re-quired safety egress time. Simulation result showed that the quasi safety zone can be the temporary shelter for evacuation, and when the design exceeds the standard, after strengthening the fire management, both the design requirement and fire safe-ty can be satisfied.%以陕西宾馆会议中心负一层安全出口不符合规范要求、疏散距离超标的问题为例,提出半地下公共建筑消防设计的性能化解决方法,即设置亚安全区.借助FDS模拟建筑内假定的火灾过程,得出火灾到达危险状态的时间,同时借助人员疏散模拟软件Pathfinder对模拟建筑内人员疏散情况,得出人员疏散所需时间.模拟结果表明,亚安全区可以做为人员安全疏散暂时避难场所,在超出规范要求的条件下,经过消防措施的加强提高其安全性能,既能满足设计需要,又能保障消防安全.

  8. Grassland fire and cattle grazing regulate reptile and amphibian assembly among patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches (ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing (ε ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  9. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  10. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study is to develop the technical criteria and regulatory system for establishing the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally. Up to this point, domestically, though many byproduct materials are distributed and used already, it seems that there are no related technical criteria and regulatory system and it becomes an obstacle in the development of relating industry. Since this kind of situation may give negative impact on the proper recognizance of the radiation to public, it is very urgent to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material. In relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A. A determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material. A tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  11. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  12. Education of mining engineers with the specialization in Rescue, fire and safety technique at the BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlatý Václav

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available After the separation of Czechoslovakia, in 1993, the Mining Faculty (now BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice started a teaching program with the specialization in mining rescue, fire guard and safety technique at the Detachment in Prievidza, because of all the needs and conditions related to the education of engineers in the mentioned areas. During the last 10 years, the Detachment in Prievidza has been growing in terms of number of students. From the beginning of this period to present days 75 students graduated. The full-time studies last five years and the academic years are divided into two semesters of 15 weeks each. The semesters are finished by examination sessions. The first 2 years, in principle, include basic studies in mathematics, scientific subjects and some subjects related to earth sciences. The third and fourth year are generally devoted to basic technical subjects of mining and underground works, and then to rescue, fire and safety subjects. A practical work experience has to be gained by students in a mine or fire and safety stations. The practical training term is scheduled after the third academic year. During the last two semesters the students are preparing their Master’s degree thesis using a stay in the mine company or other firms to receive the necessary information and data.

  13. On the Problems of the Municipal Gas Fire Safety Management%城市燃气消防安全管理存在问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高臣勇

    2012-01-01

    对目前燃气消防安全管理方面存在的问题进行了深入的研究、分析,指出当前我国燃气消防安全管理主要存在安全管理机制不适应燃气产业市场经济发展,相关法制建设滞后,规范、标准不健全,设计、建审和验收可操作性不强,日常运行管理不完善,应急处置能力不强,从业人员素质不高,保险行业未介入安全管理等问题,应引起重视。%This paper analyzes the problems with the municipal gas fire safety management, pointing out that the gas fire safety manangement is inadequate with the development of gas consumption markets. The standard and regula- tions are fall behind the fas fire safety management. The design and building check are impractical. The routine management is poor and unable to deal with emergencies.

  14. Violations of pesticide use and worker safety regulations in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, W G; Langley, R L; Luginbuhl, R C; Jones, J P; Burnette, J W

    2007-04-01

    In North Carolina, responsibility for providing training and enforcing various regulations related to pesticide use and agricultural worker safety rests with three state agencies. This article summarizes an 11-year history of enforcement procedures concerning agricultural pesticide use, the Worker Protection Standard, the Hazard Communication Standard, the Migrant Housing Act of North Carolina, and field sanitation standards. The difficulty of linking specific types of violations with worker safety is discussed.

  15. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  16. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Residential Buildings Used for Fire Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos and guidance from the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards that clarify how the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants applies to residential buildings used for fire training, also known as acquired structures.

  17. 76 FR 71831 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Fire-Resistant Fiber for Production of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... slurry before fiber extrusion, such as acetate, rayon, lyocell, etc. The respondents recommended that the... solicitation in such a way as to exclude categories of fire-resistant fiber (such as polymers)...

  18. Challenges in developing competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Thippaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Food Safety and Standards Act have redefined the roles and responsibilities of food regulatory workforce and calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Aims: 1 Identify the competencies needed among the food regulatory workforce in India. 2 Develop a competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in the country. 3 Develop training materials for use to train the food regulatory workforce. Settings and Design: The Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, led the development of training curriculum on food safety with technical assistance from the Royal Society for Public Health, UK and the National Institute of Nutrition, India. The exercise was to facilitate the implementation of new Act by undertaking capacity building through a comprehensive training program. Materials and Methods: A competency-based training needs assessment was conducted before undertaking the development of the training materials. Results: The training program for Food Safety Officers was designed to comprise of five modules to include: Food science and technology, Food safety management systems, Food safety legislation, Enforcement of food safety regulations, and Administrative functions. Each module has a facilitator guide for the tutor and a handbook for the participant. Essentials of Food Hygiene-I (Basic level, II and III (Retail/ Catering/ Manufacturing were primarily designed for training of food handlers and are part of essential reading for food safety regulators. Conclusion: The Food Safety and Standards Act calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Despite having developed a comprehensive competency-based training curriculum by joint efforts by the local, national, and international agencies, implementation remains a challenge in resource-limited setting.

  19. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hwa Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry.

  20. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  1. 某影院消防安全分析与改进措施%Fire safety analysis and improvement of a theater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晨

    2012-01-01

    分析影院建筑结构特点,总结影院防火设计现状.使用FDS计算火灾烟气温度、能见度,用EXODUS计算人员安全疏散所需的时间,对某影院进行消防工程设计和安全分析.对影院消防安全提出如下建议:影院建筑消防设计的改进方案,必须建立在最大限度满足条文规范要求的基础上;建筑规模超出规范要求的影院放映厅,最大容纳人数不应超过400人;建筑规模超出规范要求的影院放映厅应采用独立的防火分区.%The theater structure characteristics was analyzed, and the fire safety design situation was summarized. Using FDS to simulate the fire smoke temperature and visibility, and using EXODUS to calculate the evacuation time, the fire safety design of a theater was analyzed. The recommendations are as follows; the improvement of theater fire protection program must be established to meet the regulatory requirements to maximize; the theater whose size exceeds regulatory requirements should strictly control the maximum capacity under 400 peoples the theater whose building size exceeding regulatory requirements, should be set in an independent fire district.

  2. The third-party regulation on food safety in China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Man; QIAO Hui; WANG Xu; PU Ming-zhe; YU Zhi-jun; ZHENG Feng-tian

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholders in the ifeld of food safety management in China can be classiifed into three categories, government, food producers (farmers and enterprises), and the third-party regulatory bodies. The third-party regulation has experienced rapid development in past twenty years, and recently received considerable attention from consumers and the central government. This paper provides a review about the development, problems and future trend of the third-party regulation on food safety in China. To be speciifc, ifve forms of the third-party regulation are assessed, including media exposure, the third-party certiifcation, regulation by consumer associations, social movements promoted by non-governmental organiza-tions (NGOs), and regulation by industry associations. The study concludes that media and consumer associations are the major players in the third-party regulation and are highly repudiated among customers. The food certiifcation industry has developed rapidly, but is now facing crises of conifdence among consumers because of its lack of self-regulation. NGOs and industry associations stil remain in the early development stages of food safety management, and therefore, are of little importance in current regulatory bodies.

  3. Inconsistencies among European Union pharmaceutical regulator safety communications: a cross-country comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Zeitoun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency (EMA and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6% medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%, three of the four for 25 (47.2%, two of the four for 6 (11.3%, and one of the four for 5 (9.4%. Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1% were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9% by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2% by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8% by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined.

  4. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  5. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  6. Safety regulation for the design approval of special form radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Woon-Kap [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Guseong-dong 19, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: wkcho@kins.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Several kinds of special form radioactive sources for industrial, medical applications are being produced in Korea. Special form radioactive sources should meet strict safety requirements specified in the domestic safety regulations and the design of the sources should be certified by the regulatory authority, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Several safety tests such as impact, percussion, heating, and leak tests are performed on the sources according to the domestic regulations and the international safety standards such as ANSI N542-1977 and ISO 2919-1999(E). As a regulatory expert body, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) assesses various types of application documents, such as safety analysis report, quality assurance program, and other documents evidencing fulfillment of requirements for design approval of the special form radioactive sources, submitted by a legal person who intends to produce special form radioactive sources and then reports the assessment result to MEST. A design approval certificate is issued to the applicant by MEST on the basis of a technical evaluation report presented by KINS.

  7. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-28

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  8. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are ...

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.120 - What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety, NEPA 101A) should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation. If fire modeling is... empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation? 102-80.120 Section 102-80...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and...

  10. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section 971.804... to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at... resources, protection of the environment, or the safety of life and property at sea. The amended...

  11. 76 FR 33307 - Strengthen and Promote the Role of Local Health Departments in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... support of a cooperative agreement between the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and.... Salsbury, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-320), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...

  12. A Novel Modulator of Kv3 Potassium Channels Regulates the Firing of Parvalbumin-Positive Cortical Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato-Siri, Marcelo D; Zambello, Erika; Mutinelli, Chiara; Garbati, Nicoletta; Benedetti, Roberto; Aldegheri, Laura; Graziani, Francesca; Virginio, Caterina; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Large, Charles H

    2015-09-01

    Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 high voltage-activated potassium channels, which display fast activation and deactivation kinetics, are known to make a crucial contribution to the fast-spiking phenotype of certain neurons. Pharmacological experiments show that the blockade of native Kv3 currents with low concentrations of tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine impairs the expression of this firing phenotype. In particular, Kv3 channels are highly expressed by fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive interneurons in corticolimbic brain circuits, which modulate the synchronization of cortical circuits and the generation of brain rhythms. Here, we describe a novel small molecule, (5R)-5-ethyl-3-(6-{[4-methyl-3-(methyloxy)phenyl]oxy}-3-pyridinyl)-2,4-imidazolidinedione (AUT1), which modulates Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels in human recombinant and rodent native neurons. AUT1 increased whole currents mediated by human Kv3.1b and Kv3.2a channels, with a concomitant leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation. A less potent effect was observed on hKv3.3 currents. In mouse somatosensory cortex slices in vitro, AUT1 rescued the fast-spiking phenotype of parvalbumin-positive-fast-spiking interneurons following an impairment of their firing capacity by blocking a proportion of Kv3 channels with a low concentration of tetraethylammonium. Notably, AUT1 had no effect on interneuron firing when applied alone. Together, these data confirm the role played by Kv3 channels in the regulation of the firing phenotype of somatosensory interneurons and suggest that AUT1 and other Kv3 modulators could represent a new and promising therapeutic approach to the treatment of disorders associated with dysfunction of inhibitory feedback in corticolimbic circuits, such as schizophrenia.

  13. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  14. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  15. Fire safety in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian

    2015-01-01

    undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever...... experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped...

  16. Wild Fire Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outside smoke from getting in. Ë Use the recycle or re-circulate mode on the air conditioner ... Hidden embers and hot spots could burn your pets’ paws or hooves. Ë Follow public health guidance ...

  17. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    feel of the fabric, the ability of the fabric to absorb or pull water away from the skin and evaporate it on the surface of the fabric, the suppleness... Polymeric Materials. Polymer , vol. 16, 1975, p. 615. 13. Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; and Hilado, C. J.: Thermuchemical Characterization of Some...foam on the energy used to foam the solution 250- k ExPonstonratho 69 E 00 - !: L it Water i" x. Syntetic foam monufocture A ’ w ot Syntetic foam

  18. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... curtains and furniture, and extinguish them before you go to bed. Make sure candles are in sturdy holders made of non-flammable material that won't tip over. Don't let older kids and teens use candles unsupervised in ...

  19. Moving beyond command-and-control: reflexivity in the regulation of occupational safety and health and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, M.V.C.; Wilthagen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Direct or "command-and-control" regulation has had limited success in dealing with occupational health and safety and with environmental regulation. This lack of success has led policymakers to experiment with self-regulation as an alternative means of achieving the goals of social regulation. The e

  20. Research on Fire Safety Design of Thermal Insulation Materials Covering on Exterior Wall of Building%建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全的选型设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏朝晖

    2011-01-01

    近年来,我国因建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全问题而导致特大火灾事故频发,尤其是上海胶州路教师公寓火灾、沈阳皇朝万鑫大厦火灾和北京央视大楼火灾,造成重大人员伤亡和财产损失,使得建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全成为人们关注的焦点.该文针对目前建筑外墙外保温材料选型设计中不注重防火安全的实际问题,分析了各种建筑外墙外保温材料防火性能,探讨其不同的使用局限性和优缺点,为建筑外墙外保温材料的选型设计提供参考.%In recent years the thermal insulation materials covering on the exterior wall for building fire safety problems caused the serious fire accidents, especially in the teacher apartment fire at Jiaozhou Road in Shanghai, the Dynasty wan Xin building fire in Shenyang and the CCTV building fire in Beijing, which caused the heavy casualties and the property losses, Therefore, the fire safety of the thermal insulation materials covering on the exterior wall has been a focus of attention.For solving the problem of the current moterials selection not paying attention to fire safety design, This paper analyzes the various fire performances of thermal insulation material covering on exterior wall, and their advantages and disadvantages, as a reference of selecting the thermal insulation material in the fire safety design.

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  2. Nonequilibrium calcium dynamics regulate the autonomous firing pattern of rat striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joshua A; Teagarden, Mark A; Foehring, Robert C; Wilson, Charles J

    2009-07-01

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons discharge rhythmically in two patterns associated with different afterhyperpolarization timescales, each dictated by a different calcium-dependent potassium current. Single spiking depends on a medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) generated by rapid SK currents that are associated with N-type calcium channels. Periodic bursting is driven by a delayed and slowly decaying afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) current associated with L-type channels. Using calcium imaging we show that the calcium transients underlying these currents exhibit two corresponding timescales throughout the somatodendritic tree. This result is not consistent with spatial compartmentalization of calcium entering through the two calcium channels and acting on the two potassium currents, or with differences in channel gating kinetics of the calcium dependent potassium currents. Instead, we show that nonequilibrium dynamics of calcium redistribution among cytoplasmic binding sites with different calcium binding kinetics can give rise to multiple timescales within the same cytoplasmic volume. The resulting independence of mAHP and sAHP currents allows cytoplasmic calcium to control two different and incompatible firing patterns (single spiking or bursting and pausing), depending on whether calcium influx is pulsatile or sustained. During irregular firing, calcium entry at both timescales can be detected, suggesting that an interaction between the medium and slow calcium-dependent afterhyperpolarizations may underlie this firing pattern.

  3. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markarov, Valentin G

    1999-07-01

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented.

  4. Discuss the Fire Safety Problems and Management Countermeasures in Urban Village%浅谈城中村消防安全问题及治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏小冬

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了“5·10”昆明市官渡区万德村3号商铺火灾及“1·14”浙江台州大东鞋业有限公司火灾,通过分析火灾原因,在深入调查、工作实践、筛查分类的基础上,引出当前城市发展建设中城中村存在的消防安全问题。%The “5·10” fire of shop No.3 in Wandu vil age of Guandu district, Kunming city and the “1·14”fire of Taizhou Dadong Shoes Co., Ltd in Zhejiang are introduced in this ar-ticle. Based on deep investigation, work practice and classify-cation, fire safety problems of urban vil age existing in current urban development and construction are discussed by anal-yzing the cause.

  5. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  6. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  7. BK channels regulate sinoatrial node firing rate and cardiac pacing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Michael H; Wu, Yuejin; Gao, Zhan; Anderson, Mark E; Dalziel, Julie E; Meredith, Andrea L

    2014-11-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels play prominent roles in shaping muscle and neuronal excitability. In the cardiovascular system, BK channels promote vascular relaxation and protect against ischemic injury. Recently, inhibition of BK channels has been shown to lower heart rate in intact rodents and isolated hearts, suggesting a novel role in heart function. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we recorded ECGs from mice injected with paxilline (PAX), a membrane-permeable BK channel antagonist, and examined changes in cardiac conduction. ECGs revealed a 19 ± 4% PAX-induced reduction in heart rate in wild-type but not BK channel knockout (Kcnma1(-/-)) mice. The heart rate decrease was associated with slowed cardiac pacing due to elongation of the sinus interval. Action potential firing recorded from isolated sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) was reduced by 55 ± 15% and 28 ± 9% by application of PAX (3 μM) and iberiotoxin (230 nM), respectively. Furthermore, baseline firing rates from Kcnma1(-/-) SANCs were 33% lower than wild-type SANCs. The slowed firing upon BK current inhibition or genetic deletion was due to lengthening of the diastolic depolarization phase of the SANC action potential. Finally, BK channel immunoreactivity and PAX-sensitive currents were identified in SANCs with HCN4 expression and pacemaker current, respectively, and BK channels cloned from SANCs recapitulated similar activation as the PAX-sensitive current. Together, these data localize BK channels to SANCs and demonstrate that loss of BK current decreases SANC automaticity, consistent with slowed sinus pacing after PAX injection in vivo. Furthermore, these findings suggest BK channels are potential therapeutic targets for disorders of heart rate.

  8. The impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina

    2012-12-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review.

  9. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Patterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4 containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review.

  10. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  11. Development of technology-neutral safety requirements for the regulation of future nuclear power reactors: Back to basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronea, Madalina, E-mail: madalina.tronea@gmail.co [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-03-15

    This paper explores the current trends as regards the development of technology-neutral safety requirements to be used in the regulation of future nuclear power reactors and the role of the quantitative safety goals in the design of reactor safety systems. The use of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on protection against potential exposure could form the basis of a technology-neutral framework for safety requirements on new reactor designs and could contribute to international harmonisation of nuclear safety assessment practices as part of the licensing processes for future nuclear power plants.

  12. Integrating environmental management into food safety and food packaging in Malaysia: review of the food regulation 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. H.; Hara, H.; Kaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Food safety is an important issue that is related to public safety to prevent the toxicity threats of the food. Management through legal approach has been used in Malaysia as one of the predominant approaches to manage the environment. In this regard, the Food Regulation 1985 has been one of the mechanisms of environmental management through legal approach in controlling the safety of packaged food in food packaging industry in Malaysia. The present study aims to analyse and to explain the implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food in Malaysia and to integrate the concept of environmental management into the food safety issue. Qualitative analysis on the regulation document revealed that there are two main themes, general and specific, while their seven sub themes are included harmful packages, safety packages, reuse packages, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), alcoholic bottle, toys, money and others and iron powder. The implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food should not be regarded solely for regulation purposes but should be further developed for a broader sense of food safety from overcoming the food poisoning.

  13. Design of Reinforced Concrete Elements Under Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mihai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire safety regulations can have a major impact on many aspects of the overall design of a building, including layout, aesthetics, function, and cost. Rapid developments in modern building technology in the last decades often have resulted in unconventional structures and design solutions. Because the world is developed continuously, the physical size of buildings increases continually; there is a tendency to build large underground car parks, warehouses, and shopping complexes. As a result, we have a worldwide movement to replace prescriptive building codes with ones based on performance. The paper presents the basic principles for the designing process of reinforced concrete elements under fire.

  14. Molecular variation at a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of fire ant social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gotzek

    Full Text Available The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives display an important social polymorphism involving differences in colony queen number. Colonies are headed by either a single reproductive queen (monogyne form or multiple queens (polygyne form. This variation in social organization is associated with variation at the gene Gp-9, with monogyne colonies harboring only B-like allelic variants and polygyne colonies always containing b-like variants as well. We describe naturally occurring variation at Gp-9 in fire ants based on 185 full-length sequences, 136 of which were obtained from S. invicta collected over much of its native range. While there is little overall differentiation between most of the numerous alleles observed, a surprising amount is found in the coding regions of the gene, with such substitutions usually causing amino acid replacements. This elevated coding-region variation may result from a lack of negative selection acting to constrain amino acid replacements over much of the protein, different mutation rates or biases in coding and non-coding sequences, negative selection acting with greater strength on non-coding than coding regions, and/or positive selection acting on the protein. Formal selection analyses provide evidence that the latter force played an important role in the basal b-like lineages coincident with the emergence of polygyny. While our data set reveals considerable paraphyly and polyphyly of S. invicta sequences with respect to those of other fire ant species, the b-like alleles of the socially polymorphic species are monophyletic. An expanded analysis of colonies containing alleles of this clade confirmed the invariant link between their presence and expression of polygyny. Finally, our discovery of several unique alleles bearing various combinations of b-like and B-like codons allows us to conclude that no single b-like residue is completely predictive of polygyne behavior and, thus, potentially causally

  15. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels regulate firing properties and excitability in parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Hatcher, Jeff T; Chen, Qin-Hui; Wurster, Robert D; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2010-12-01

    Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK) regulate action potential (AP) firing properties and excitability in many central neurons. However, the functional roles of SK channels of parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons (PCMNs) in the nucleus ambiguus have not yet been well characterized. In this study, the tracer X-rhodamine-5 (and 6)-isothiocyanate (XRITC) was injected into the pericardial sac to retrogradely label PCMNs in FVB mice at postnatal days 7-9. Two days later, XRITC-labeled PCMNs in brain stem slices were identified. With the use of whole cell current clamp, single APs and spike trains of different frequencies were evoked by current injections. We found that 1) PCMNs have two different firing patterns: the majority of PCMNs (90%) exhibited spike frequency adaptation (SFA) and the rest (10%) showed less or no adaptation; 2) application of the specific SK channel blocker apamin significantly increased spike half-width in single APs and trains and reduced the spike frequency-dependent AP broadening in trains; 3) SK channel blockade suppressed afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude following single APs and trains and abolished spike-frequency dependence of AHP in trains; and 4) SK channel blockade increased the spike frequency but did not alter the pattern of SFA. Using whole cell voltage clamp, we measured outward currents and afterhyperpolarization current (I(AHP)). SK channel blockade revealed that SK-mediated outward currents had both transient and persistent components. After bath application of apamin and Ca(2+)-free solution, we found that apamin-sensitive and Ca(2+)-sensitive I(AHP) were comparable, confirming that SK channels may contribute to a major portion of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel-mediated I(AHP). These results suggest that PCMNs have SK channels that significantly regulate AP repolarization, AHP, and spike frequency but do not affect SFA. We conclude that activation of SK channels underlies one of the mechanisms for negative

  17. Regulation of Boreal soil respiration: evidence from a Swedish forest fire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kelly; Oakley, Simon; Ostle, Nicholas; DeLuca, Thomas; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Jones, Davey

    2014-05-01

    Globally, boreal forests occupy 14% of total land surface and are important regions for biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)1. They are recognised as stores of terrestrial C and reservoirs of uniquely adapted biodiversity. Like many forest biomes, boreal forests are under pressure from climate change and growing populations. C and N cycling in the boreal region is strongly influenced by the occurrence of forest fires, which return large amounts of stored N back into an otherwise N limited system2. The frequency and intensity of boreal forest fires is expected to increase in the next century as the global atmosphere warms and N deposition continues to increase due to human activities3,4. Despite the importance of these ecosystems, there is limited knowledge of the effects of interactions between climate and N limitation on soil respiration and feedbacks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. In this research we aimed to improve understanding of how changes in the frequency and intensity of fires might alter N and C dynamics in the boreal region. Specifically, we examined the degree of N limitation and the temperature sensitivity of GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) fluxes from soils underlying carpets of Pleurozium schreberi, a feather moss known to form important symbiotic relationships with N-fixing cyanobacteria1, from a fire chronosequence of Swedish boreal forest stands. We hypothesised that: (1) soil respiration in late succession ecosystems is most N limited due to high soil C:N ratios and high microbial biomass; and (2) early succession forest soil respiration is most temperature sensitive due to higher N availability and higher bacterial biomass. To test these hypotheses, we took soil cores from a chronosequence of six sites in the northern boreal region of Sweden, including two early, two mid, and two late succession stands. These sites are dominated by mixed Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies, with an understory

  18. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  19. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  20. Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Sarah B; Gutman, Abraham; Allen, Leslie; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott

    2017-07-11

    (1) To describe open source legal data sets, created for research use, that capture the key provisions of US state medical marijuana laws. The data document how state lawmakers have regulated a medicine that remains, under federal law, a Schedule I illegal drug with no legitimate medical use. (2) To demonstrate the variability that exists across states in rules governing patient access, product safety and dispensary practice. Two legal researchers collected and coded state laws governing marijuana patients, product safety and dispensaries in effect on 1 February 2017, creating three empirical legal data sets. We used summary tables to identify the variation in specific statutory provisions specified in each state's medical marijuana law as it existed on 1 February 2017. We compared aspects of these laws to the traditional Federal approach to regulating medicine. Full data sets, codebooks and protocols are available through the Prescription Drug Abuse Policy System (http://www.pdaps.org/; Archived at http://www.webcitation.org/6qv5CZNaZ on 2 June 2017). Twenty-eight states (including the District of Columbia) have authorized medical marijuana. Twenty-seven specify qualifying diseases, which differ across states. All states protect patient privacy; only 14 protect patients against discrimination. Eighteen states have mandatory product safety testing before any sale. While the majority have package/label regulations, states have a wide range of specific requirements. Most regulate dispensaries (25 states), with considerable variation in specific provisions such as permitted product supply sources number of dispensaries per state and restricting proximity to various types of location. The federal ban in the United States on marijuana has resulted in a patchwork of regulatory strategies that are not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and whose effectiveness remains unknown. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  2. 76 FR 38077 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... following methods: (1) Federal e-Rulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . (2) Fax: 202-493-2251. (3... through these safety zones during this time frame if authorized by the COTP New York or the...

  3. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Search Email subscriptions Training & Professional Development Fire Prevention & Public Education Operations Management & Safety Data Publications & Library Grants & Funding About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Email subscriptions Disaster sheltering ...

  4. Home Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... October 2015) Preventing accidental injuries to children in India. Video Changing the News with Neal McDonough: Fire ... Our Mailing List Global Road Safety Sponsors Recalls Media Center Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest ...

  5. Discussion on fire safety management in public place of entertainment%论公共娱乐场所的消防安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈剑

    2014-01-01

    公共娱乐场所的出现,很好的满足了人们的娱乐需求。人们在享受娱乐场所带给人们快乐的同时,也要警惕各种消防事故。文章首先阐述了公共娱乐场所存在的安全隐患,然后,针对这些安全隐患提出了相应的应对策略,将安全隐患消灭在萌芽之中。%People desires better spiritual life to meet their entertainment needs.When they enjoy the happiness of the entertainment,fire accidents of public place of entertainment must be on guard against.The paper describes the safety hidden trouble in public place of en-tertainment and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures based on the safety hidden trouble.So the safety hidden trouble can be nipped in the bud.

  6. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  7. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  8. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  9. Fuzzy multi-factor decision-making model for fire safety based on synergistic theory%基于协同理论的模糊多因素消防安全决策模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹奇; 管佳林; 肖修昆; 况凯骞

    2014-01-01

    为了选择降低火灾风险的消防安全隐患治理方案,针对消防安全决策具有多因素制约的特征,结合协同理论和模糊数学方法,构建了消防安全隐患治理方案的多因素决策模型。通过确定消防安全隐患治理方案的评选因素及各评选因素的权重,采用消防安全隐患治理方案决策模型获得最优的消防安全隐患治理方案。以苏州市古城区为研究对象,提出了三种消防安全隐患治理方案,采用构建的决策模型进行消防安全决策。结果表明:该决策模型能够反映消防安全隐患治理方案的效果、投资和工期。采用该决策模型优选获得的消防安全隐患治理方案符合古城区区域火灾风险实际,验证了其实用性。%To choose a fire safety hidden trouble control scheme to reduce fire risks, a decision-making model for fire safety hidden trouble control schemes is established here according to the char-acteristics of fire safety decision-making of multi-factor constraint and based on synergistic theory and fuzzy mathematics. By choosing reasonable evaluation factors and confirming the factors’ weights,an optimal fire safety hidden trouble control scheme can be obtained by using the fire safety hidden trouble control scheme decision-making model. The Old Town district of Suzhou city is taken as an object. Three fire safety hidden trouble control schemes are proposed,and fire safety decision is made by the decision-making model. The results show that,the decision-making model can reveal not only the safety performances but also the investments and time limits of the fire safety hidden trouble control schemes. The fire safety hidden trouble control scheme selected by the decision-making model proposed here can meet the actual fire risk of the Old Town district,and its practicability is verified.

  10. Food safety regulatory systems in Europe and China:A study of how co-regulation can improve regulatory effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Chen; WANG Xin-xin; SONG Hai-ying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety has received a great deal of attention in both developed and developing countries in recent years. In China, the numerous food scandals and scares that have struck over the past decade have spurred signiifcant food safety regulatory reform, which has been increasingly oriented towards the public-private partnership model adopted by the Europe Union’s (EU) food safety regulatory system. This paper analyzes the development of both the EU’s and China’s food safety regu-latory systems, identiifes the current chalenges for China and additionaly considers the role of public-private partnership. The success of co-regulation in the food regulatory system would bring signiifcant beneifts and opportunities for China. Finaly, this paper recommends additional measures like training and grants to improve the private’s sector effectiveness in co-regulating China’s food safety issues.

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING FIRE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PREPAREDNESS: A CASE OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN MAKUENI COUNTY, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Ndetu; Veronica Kaluyu

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to establish the factors influencing fire disaster preparedness in primary schools in Makueni County in Kenya. Using multiple regression analysis, the findings showed that fire safety policy knowledge had a beta (), fire safety guidelines implementation practices  and fire safety resources provision. This infers that fire safety support resources provision affects fire disaster management preparedness in primary schools to a great extent followed by safety policy knowledge wh...

  12. Analysis on the Quality Problems and Potential Safety Hazards of Building Construction Fire Protection Engineering%房屋建筑消防工程施工存在的质量问题和安全隐患

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡琼

    2015-01-01

    对近年来房屋建筑消防工程施工存在的质量问题和安全隐患进行总结,分析了施工现场消火栓系统、自动喷淋灭火系统施工和建筑灭火器设置存在质量问题和安全隐患的主要原因,并提出了改进措施.%The article summarized the quality problems and potential safety hazards of building construction fire protection engineering in recent years,analyzed the main reasons about the quality problems and potential safety hazards of fire hydrant systems automatic sprinkler system construction and fire extinguishers installation,and proposes some improvement measures.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Search Email subscriptions Training & Professional Development Fire Prevention & Public Education Operations Management & Safety Data Publications & Library Grants & Funding About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Email subscriptions Home / Fire ...

  14. 谈亡人火灾事故调查工作的规范%On the Regulation of Fire Investigations Involving Fire Casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩

    2012-01-01

    Fire accidents with casualties concern the interest of victims. The identification of fire causes is crucial in properly handling the fire accidents of this kind. This paper focuses on specific steps, investigation standards and requirements for reference to the fire investigation of the accidents with casualties.%亡人火灾涉及当事人的切身利益,规范做好亡人火灾的调查工作,准确认定火灾原因,是妥善处理亡人火灾事故的重要基础和前提,对维护社会和谐稳定具有十分重要的意义。结合实践经验,重点针对亡人火灾调查中一些容易忽视的环节,提出工作的标准和要求,以期对规范亡人火灾的调查工作提供实际指导。

  15. Research Building Fire Performance in Smoke Control Design Methods of Safety Assessment Methods%建筑防火性能化设计方法中烟气控制安全评估方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓嵘

    2014-01-01

    火灾是无穷无尽变量的组合,火灾给人类带来的危害有目共睹。在现实生活中,要想预防火灾的发生,就必须对火灾的发生原理和发展过程有全面的了解。只有采取科学、合理的防火、灭火措施,才能减少或降低火灾造成危害性。现就建筑防火性能化设计方法中烟气控制安全评估方法进行简要探讨。%The fires are endless combinations of variables, fire obvious harm to human beings. In real life, in order to prevent fires, they must be the principle of fire occurrence and development of a comprehensive understanding. Only by taking a scientific and rational fire extinguishing measures to reduce the harm caused by fire or lower. Now briefly discuss performance on building fire smoke control design methods in safety assessment methods.

  16. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  17. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  18. Dynamics of EU Transport Safety Regulation in the European Policy Process: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Fragola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Community (EC and subsequently, the European Union (EU, have been central to an impressive development of regulation at the European level. In this ‘regulatory age’ (Majone 1994, product safety has become one of the first issues to be dealt with, in order to overcome barriers to trade, and should be regarded as a first step to be taken in order to integrate European markets. Transport industries have experienced distinct levels, forms and timing of EU safety regulation. While the automotive industry has undergone a standardisation process since the 1970s, such questions were only addressed in the context of railways in the 2000s. Thus, it is interesting to question and analyse the various interplays of actors and/or events which have characterised the European policy process in each transport sector. In addition, a trans-sectoral comparison will help in explaining such differences and their impact on the validity of traditional EU decision-making theories, such as that developed by Héritier in 1996.

  19. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  20. The replication domain model: regulating replicon firing in the context of large-scale chromosome architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Benjamin D; Gilbert, David M

    2013-11-29

    The "Replicon Theory" of Jacob, Brenner, and Cuzin has reliably served as the paradigm for regulating the sites where individual replicons initiate replication. Concurrent with the replicon model was Taylor's demonstration that plant and animal chromosomes replicate segmentally in a defined temporal sequence, via cytologically defined units too large to be accounted for by a single replicon. Instead, there seemed to be a program to choreograph when chromosome units replicate during S phase, executed by initiation at clusters of individual replicons within each segment. Here, we summarize recent molecular evidence for the existence of such units, now known as "replication domains", and discuss how the organization of large chromosomes into structural units has added additional layers of regulation to the original replicon model.

  1. Upholding science in health, safety and environmental risk assessments and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Autrup, Herman N; Berry, Sir Colin L; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Creppy, Edmond E; Dekant, Wolfgang; Doull, John; Galli, Corrado L; Goodman, Jay I; Gori, Gio B; Greim, Helmut A; Joudrier, Philippe; Kaminski, Norbert E; Klaassen, Curtis D; Klaunig, James E; Lotti, Marcello; Marquardt, Hans W J; Pelkonen, Olavi; Sipes, I Glenn; Wallace, Kendall B; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-14

    A public appeal has been advanced by a large group of scientists, concerned that science has been misused in attempting to quantify and regulate unmeasurable hazards and risks.(1) The appeal recalls that science is unable to evaluate hazards that cannot be measured, and that science in such cases should not be invoked to justify risk assessments in health, safety and environmental regulations. The appeal also notes that most national and international statutes delineating the discretion of regulators are ambiguous about what rules of evidence ought to apply. Those statutes should be revised to ensure that the evidence for regulatory action is grounded on the standards of the scientific method, whenever feasible. When independent scientific evidence is not possible, policies and regulations should be informed by publicly debated trade-offs between socially desirable uses and social perceptions of affordable precaution. This article explores the premises, implications and actions supporting the appeal and its objectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Revocation of General Safety Test Regulations That Are Duplicative of Requirements in Biologics License Applications. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the biologics regulations by removing the general safety test (GST) requirements for biological products. FDA is finalizing this action because the existing codified GST regulations are duplicative of requirements that are also specified in biologics license applications (BLAs), or are no longer necessary or appropriate to help ensure the safety, purity, and potency of licensed biological products. FDA is taking this action as part of its retrospective review of its regulations to promote improvement and innovation, in response to the Executive order.

  3. Fire Risk Assessment of Adaptive Re-Use of Historic Shop Houses for Sleeping Accommodations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mydin M.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heritage buildings were generally constructed without regard for fire risks or the requirements for fire protection, as are obligatory in new constructions. When a heritage building undergoes a change to its original function, improvements to the building’s fire safety are necessary to meet the needs of possible increases in occupancy loads and to account for fire risks related to the new usage. This research focuses on fire safety risks, fire protection and safety systems as well as the rules and regulations that an adaptive reuse heritage shop house is bound to when transitioning to a sleeping accommodation, which, in this case, means becoming a hotel. In this research, six heritage shop houses were chosen as case studies. The objectives of this research were to evaluate current fire emergency plans as well as to identify and assess possible fire hazards created by adaptive reuse of heritage shop houses to sleeping accommodations in Penang through a series of observations and interviews. The results of the research show that most of the buildings were provided with inadequate fire safety systems.

  4. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Therese

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects in Japan and Korea, and global greenhouse gas warming impacts. The valuation is used to identify efficient abatement policy for Chinese plants over time; evaluate benefits of differentiated policies; and consider the importance of dynamic policy. Potential annual damages of operating a 600-MW power plant without controls in China today would be 43-45 million (U.S. 1995). Annual local damages of 37-40 million far exceed transboundary or greenhouse gas damages (1.4 million and $4.6 million respectively). The largest component of damages is the risk of human mortality and chronic morbidity from long-term exposure to fine particles. Efficient pollution control minimizes the sum of abatement costs and residual unabated damages. Because monetary damages reflect sufferers' willingness to pay to avoid environmental risks, the choice of efficient controls is fundamentally tied to societal values and preferences. The optimal path for Chinese abatement moves from modest dispersion measures at present to combined dispersion and emission controls approaching those of current-day United States, by 2050. The inclusion of transboundary and greenhouse damages does not substantively alter local policies. Welfare benefits are gained by differentiating abatement policy by pollutant, meteorological parameters, and by population density. An analysis of optimal one-time investment in abatement for a plant in a growing economy suggests that some investment is optimal at all incomes but no single level of abatement is suitable for all economies. Forward-looking policy

  5. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  6. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  7. 天然气净化厂安全防火防爆系统的应用分析%Application and analysis of the safety and fire protection and explosion protection system of natural gas purification plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都永昌

    2016-01-01

    本文就天然气净化厂安全防火防爆系统的应用进行分析,以促进天然气净化厂对安全工作的重视程度,提升安全管理水平。%In this paper, the application of natural gas purification plant safety fire and explosion protection system is analyzed, in order to promote the natural gas purification plant to the safety work of attention, improve the level of safety management.

  8. 77 FR 32394 - Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Memorial Day Fireworks event, the event known as ``Racing for Recovery, Half & Sprint,'' and for the two... & Sprint triathlon will take place on the waters of Lake Erie in the vicinity of Sterling State Park... May 27, 2012. The Racing for Recovery Half & Sprint safety zone will include all waters of Lake...

  9. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...

  10. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  11. Risk regulation in environment, health and safety : Decision in the face of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettlinger, L.A. [The Oxford Group, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1999-12-01

    relationship are unlikely to be resolved solely by administrative reform, reliance on experts, or risk education because, generally, these reforms are focused strictly on narrowing the risk uncertainty. From economic principles, however, we recognize that the value of efforts to minimize this risk uncertainty (or to maximize the technical and scientific information about risks) is subject to 'diminishing marginal utility'. Thus, these efforts ultimately can be expected to become unpopular with both citizens and elected officials. We expect, therefore, that the outcome of the risk regulation debate, and ultimately environment, health and safety policy decisions, will primarily be determined by the values of the proponents and opponents as to the relative ranking of efficiency and equity. Most likely, the best means available for reforming risk regulation and making it more coherent and to avoid some of the costly mistakes of the past is to: 1. increase the resources available for identifying risks and effective responses to them, 2. build in mechanisms for informing the public that policy decisions using these regulations are value laden, and 3. publicize both the process and the outcomes of risk regulations and policy decisions.

  12. Understanding environmental drivers in the regulation of soil respiration dynamics after fire in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Erickson, Todd E.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Merritt, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Pilbara, soil CO2 efflux, soil C, soil moisture, soil temperature Introduction Soil respiration (Rs) has become a major research focus given the increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and the large contribution of these CO2 fluxes from soils (Van Groenigen et al., 2014). In addition to its importance in the global C cycle, Rs is a fundamental indicator of soil health and quality that reflects the level of microbial activity and provides an indication of the ability of soils to support plant growth (Oyonarte et al., 2012; Munoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Wildfires can have a significant impact on Rs rates, with the scale of the impact depending on environmental factors such as temperature and moisture, and organic C content in the soil. Vegetation cover can have a significant effect on regulating organic C contents; and while advances are made into understanding the effects of fire on organic C contents and CO2 fluxes (Granged et al., 2011; Willaarts et al., 2015; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016), there is limited knowledge of the variability of Rs across ecosystem types, vegetation communities, and responses to fire. In this research we aimed to assess the impacts of a wildfire on the soil CO2 fluxes and soil respiration in a semi-arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara biogeographical region), and to understand the main environmental drivers controlling these fluxes in different vegetation types. The study has application for other arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Methods The study area was selected following a wildfire that affected 25 ha in February 2014. Twelve plots were established in the burnt site (B) within a 400 m2 area, and 12 plots in an adjacent unburnt control site. At each site, three plots were installed below the canopy of each of the most representative vegetation types of the areas: Eucalyptus trees, Acacia shrubs and Triodia grasses, and three on bare soil. Soil sampling and measurement of soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were

  13. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  14. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  15. Economic and safety analysis of unconventional peak regulation on power unit of peak shifting start-stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Zhao, J. F.; Duan, X. Q.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tthe capacity difference of peak regulation between the power gird and the actual demand has become a serious problem considering the growth in the difference between electricity supply and demand. Therefore, peak regulation of power grid needs to be deeply studied. Unconventional peak regulation on unit of peak shifting start-stop is a way that can broaden the range of power regulation, as well as benefit safe operation of the power grid. However, it requires frequent and fast unit start-stop, complex operation, and more staff labor. By carrying out unconventional thermal power unit load test, the start-stop mode of peak auxiliary equipment is studied in this paper, indicating that it has a positive effect on safety and economic of load-peaking operation. The best working conditions of the peak units is found by analysing consumption cost, safety specifications, and life lost of the start-stop peak regulation mode.

  16. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  17. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community...... pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects...... no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation...

  18. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community...... pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects...... no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation...

  19. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  20. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination.

  1. Self-Regulative Nanogelator Solid Electrolyte: A New Option to Improve the Safety of Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Nan; Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Qizhen; Tan, Guoqiang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable nonflammable electrolytes has delayed battery application in electric vehicles. A new approach to improve the safety performance for lithium battery is proposed here. This technology is based on a nanogelator-based solid electrolyte made of porous oxides and an ionic liquid. The electrolyte is fabricated using an in situ method and the porous oxides serve as a nonflammable "nanogelator" that spontaneously immobilizes the ionic liquid. The electrolyte exhibits a high liquid-like apparent ionic conductivity of 2.93 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The results show that the nanogelator, which possess self-regulating ability, is able to immobilize imidazolium-, pyrrolidinium-, or piperidinium-based ionic liquids, simply by adjusting the ion transport channels. Our prototype batteries made of Ti-nanogeltor solid electrolyte outperform conventional lithium batteries made using ionic liquid and commercial organic liquid electrolytes.

  2. Towards a High Reliable Enforcement of Safety Regulations - A Workflow Meta Data Model and Probabilistic Failure Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Henning Thimm

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s companies are able to automate the enforcement of Environmental, Health and Safety (EH&S duties through the use of workflow management technology. This approach requires to specify activities that are combined to workflow models for EH&S enforcement duties. In order to meet given safety regulations these activities are to be completed correctly and within given deadlines. Otherwise, activity failures emerge which may lead to breaches against safety regulations. A novel domain-specific workflow meta data model is proposed. The model enables a system to detect and predict activity failures through the use of data about the company, failure statistics, and activity proxies. Since the detection and prediction methods are based on the evaluation of constraints specified on EH&S regulations, a system approach is proposed that builds on the integration of a Workflow Management System (WMS with an EH&S Compliance Information System. Main principles of the failure detection and prediction are described. For EH&S managers the system shall provide insights into the current failure situation. This can help to prevent and mitigate critical situations such as safety enforcement measures that are behind their deadlines. As a result a more reliable enforcement of safety regulations can be achieved.

  3. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  4. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  5. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall not...

  6. Encouraging Maternal Sacrifice: How Regulations Governing the Consumption of Pharmaceuticals During Pregnancy Prioritize Fetal Safety over Maternal Health and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Greer

    Pregnant women are routinely faced with the stressful decision of whether to consume needed medications during their pregnancies. Because the risks associated with pharmaceutical drug consumption during pregnancy are largely unknown, pregnant women both inadvertently consume dangerous medications and avoid needed drugs. Both outcomes are harmful to pregnant women and their fetuses. This unparalleled lack of drug safety information is a result of ill-conceived, paternalistic regulations in two areas of the law: regulations governing ethical research in human subjects and regulations that dictate the required labels on drugs. The former categorizes pregnant women as "vulnerable" and thus precludes them from most medical research. The result is that ninety-one percent of drugs lack any reliable safety information for pregnant consumers. The latter currently requires all drug labels to encourage drug avoidance during pregnancy, despite ample evidence that avoiding needed medications can harm pregnant women. On June 30, 2015, new pregnancy labeling regulations took effect. Though these regulations make important improvements, they continue to treat pregnant women unlike any population, including other unique subpopulations, such as children. As a result, the new regulations do not fix the problem of over-warning pregnant women about the risks of drug consumption. This article questions the legitimacy of both regulations and suggests three reforms for how to improve access to vital safety information: (1) amend the regulations governing ethical research in human subjects to reclassify pregnant women as non-vulnerable adults; (2) create incentives to generate safety data in pregnant women by granting a period of market exclusivity for drug companies that invest in this research; and (3) make the FDA pregnancy labeling regulations consistent with the routine FDA practice of requiring the display of balanced, human data on risk.

  7. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies.

  8. Safety distance for bearing members of long-span suspension bridge in highway fire%大跨径悬索桥承重构件公路火灾安全距离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利军; 董晓明; 胡兆同

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence of highway fire on long-span suspension bridges and fill in the blank of suspension bridge fire research, combining structure fire analysis, an indirect coupling method was chosen to carry out the thermal-structure coupling analysis. Taking a 300 MW vehicle fire as an example, ANSYS was used to build the fire coordinate model of different section of a typi-cal suspension bridge. On the basis of fire research domestic and abroad, basing on the Ingason H. square growth model and taking the safety distance for cable bearing component of the long-span sus-pension bridge in highway fire as a research object, a numerical simulation for the safety distance of suspender cable and main cable was performed to reduce project risk and ensure the safety and sta-bility of the bridge. A thermal release rate mathematical model which suits highway fire study was put forward; The safety distance model in highway fire was established, and the size of combustion heat source and heat release rate of unit area were determined; With the thermal-structure coupling analysis, the fire safety distance for suspender cable and main cable of different diameters (0. 4 ~1. 0 m) were determined. The research results can provide some scientific basis for the fire resist-ance design of long-span suspension bridges.%为研究公路火灾对大跨径悬索桥带来的影响,弥补悬索桥火灾研究的空白,结合结构火灾分析的特点,确定选择间接耦合法进行热-结构耦合分析。以300 MW 车辆火灾为例,运用 ANSYS 有限元程序,建立了悬索桥不同断面的火灾坐标模型,在总结国内外火灾研究工作的基础上,基于 Ingason H.平方增长模型,以典型的大跨径悬索桥缆索承重构件的公路火灾安全距离为研究对象,以降低工程风险、保证大跨径悬索桥结构的安全性和稳定性为研究目标,对大跨径悬索桥吊索和主缆安全距离进行数值模拟,提出

  9. Trends in pharmacy staff's perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-10-01

    All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions.

  10. Discussion on Fire Safety of Energy Conservation Material in Building%建筑节能材料防火安全探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽红; 刘晓涛

    2012-01-01

    Analyzes the wide range application of building energy conservation and thermal insulation material about the aspect of building energy conservation and thermal insulation.Through comparing those with foreign current situation indicate that EPS and XPS exit serious problems in fire safety.Puts forward Suggestions to improve the energy conservation system of the building and building energy conservation and thermal insulation material flame retardant property specifications,puts forward the research objective of new PU composite insulation wall.%对国内应用较为广泛的建筑节能保温材料,在节能保温以及防火安全方面进行了分析,与国外建筑保温材料应用现状进行了比较,指出了EPS及XPS在防火安全方面存在的问题,提出了建筑节能体系的建立和建筑节能保温材料阻燃性能规范制定的建议,提出新型PU复合保温墙体的研究目标。

  11. Means of regulating combustible materials and products in external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola Esko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents proposals for defining means of regulating the use of combustible materials and products in external walls. Required protections are based on the quantities of fire loads and their contribution to fire development. The study is based on life safety and protection of property priorities taking into account reaction to fire classes related to different types of fire loads and fire compartmentation requirements of the adjacent spaces of concern. The proposals include the following main principles in relation to fire-separation requirements: In case of internal fire exposure the protective structure for combustible building parts needs to meet at least half of the fire-separating requirement for the compartment of concern. In case of external fire exposure the protection time requirement can be 15 minutes less than for the internal protection. The proposals are applicable for residential buildings and offices. In case of buildings with longer evacuation times more stringent requirement levels may be considered. For verification of protection performance of fire loads it is proposed to use existing standardized test methods (fire protection ability (K classes and fire-separating function (EI classes validated methods of calculation and/or large scale fire testing.

  12. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  13. Fire behaviour of EPS ETICS on concrete or masonry facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afipeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In France, fire safety of facades for establishments open to the public has been governed by the Technical Instruction n∘249 since 1982; its current version was made regulatory on May 24th, 2010. Considering this revision, the Ministry of Interior requested industrials firms to revalidate the fire behaviour of their external insulation systems through testing. AFIPEB, SIPEV and SNMI decided therefore to launch a test campaign. After a preliminary analysis of Single Burning Item (SBI data related to EPS ETICS and some full-scale orientation tests, the polyvalent, representative and reliable LEPIR 2 test protocol was implemented. Three EPS ETICS configurations under various renders were tested: one under thick hydraulic renders, another under thin mixed renders and a third under thin organic renders. These tests were successful. For the first 30 minutes of each test: there was no ignition nor vertical spread of fire to the facade at its second level, there was also no lateral spread of fire along the facade width. Moreover, after 60 minutes, the outer skin above the horizontal line at 5.2 m was not damaged. The campaign confirms that EPS ETICS under thin, thick or mixed renders perfectly comply with fire safety regulations. AFIPEB, SIPEV and SNMI wrote a recommendation guide based on approved laboratories assessment. It describes construction solutions limiting fire propagation on a concrete or masonry facade insulated by EPS ETICS. This guide currently supplements IT 249 (2010.

  14. 76 FR 39292 - Special Local Regulations & Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; 1625-AA00 Special Local Regulations & Safety... reschedule their event to a later date because the town expended funds on advertising the current event date. Changing the date would require the town to spend more of their limited funds on advertising. The town...

  15. 78 FR 41300 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; 1625-AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety... Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LIS Long Island... unable to reschedule the event because of its previous history and present advertising of the...

  16. A fire safety engineering perspective on crowd evacuation dynamics. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The review presented by Bellomo et al. [1] addresses the modelling approaches employed to represent human behaviour in evacuation in a comprehensive manner. The authors discuss crowd evacuation modelling in light of crisis management, a relevant and current topic given the recent escalation of terrorist threats all over the world. The need for designing buildings for rapid evacuation using crowd evacuation models has been recently raised in important forums [2]. This research area is strictly linked to the field of Fire Safety Engineering.

  17. 我国安全生产规制体制及其运行模式%Regulation System of Work Safety in China and Its Operating Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗金明

    2011-01-01

    为健全我国安全生产法律制度体系,提高安全监管效率,采用规制理论,提出安全生产规制范畴并分析其构成要素.结合当前实际情况,将我国安全生产规制按规制主体的不同可划分为3种类型即立法规制、行政规制和司法规制,并按内容的不同总结归纳为6个方面的规制,即作业场所安全条件及安全健康标准规制、安全投入及工伤保险规制、安全生产管理及责任规制、安全生产市场准入规制、安全生产监管规制、事故责任追究规制.在此基础上,绘制出我国现行安全生产规制体制的运行模式图,认为安全生产监管规制和事故责任追究规制是保障其他各种规制得到有效落实和确保规制目标得以实现的关键.%In order to perfect the legal system of work safety and to improve the efficiency of safety supervision, the category of work safety regulation is put forward by use of regulation theory and its composition elements were analyzed. With current laws and regulations of work safety in China, work safety regulations can be divided into three different types according to regulatory body, which include legislation, administrative regulations and judicial rules. According to different content, China's work safety regulation may be grouped into six areas of regulation, namely, regulations on safety conditions at workplace, safety and health standards, regulations on safety inputs and industrial injury insurance, regulations on safety management and responsibilities, regulations on market safety access, regulations on supervision of work safety, regulations on accident accountability. On this basis, a figure for the operating mode of the current system of work safety regulations is draw. It is found out that regulations on supervision of work safety and accident accountability are the institutional arrangements to promote effective implementation of other types of regulation, and also are the key to

  18. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  19. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regula

  20. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regula

  1. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes.

  2. Adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents' attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from California (63.21% females; mean age=16.10years [SD=1.6]; 26.61% White, 21.98% Asian/Pacific Islander, 29.82% Hispanic, and 21.59% other). Results indicated that 19.05% of participants believed smoke from e-cigarettes is water; 23.03% believed e-cigarettes aren't a tobacco product; 40.36% considered e-cigarettes to be for cessation, and 43.13% felt they were safer than cigarettes. Participants felt it was more acceptable to use e-cigarettes indoors and outdoors compared to cigarettes (pe-cigarette taxes is a bad idea, 63.95% thought e-cigarettes were easier to get than cigarettes, 54.42% felt e-cigarettes cost too much, 64.33% felt the age for buying e-cigarettes should be raised, and 64.37% favored e-cigarette regulation. Adolescents who used e-cigarettes and/or cigarettes had significantly more favorable e-cigarette attitudes than non-users. This study indicates that adolescents are aware of some of the risks of e-cigarettes, although many harbor misperceptions and hold more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Of concern is the relationship between favorable e-cigarette attitudes and use. Findings suggest the need to provide adolescents with correct information about e-cigarette ingredients, risks, and the insufficient evidence of their role in cigarette cessation.

  3. Can Fire and Rescue Services and the National Health Service work together to improve the safety and wellbeing of vulnerable older people? Design of a proof of concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whiting David G

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults are at increased risk both of falling and of experiencing accidental domestic fire. In addition to advanced age, these adverse events share the risk factors of balance or mobility problems, cognitive impairment and socioeconomic deprivation. For both events, the consequences include significant injury and death, and considerable socioeconomic costs for the individual and informal carers, as well as for emergency services, health and social care agencies. Secondary prevention services for older people who have fallen or who are identifiable as being at high risk of falling include NHS Falls clinics, where a multidisciplinary team offers an individualised multifactorial targeted intervention including strength and balance exercise programmes, medication changes and home hazard modification. A similar preventative approach is employed by most Fire and Rescue Services who conduct Home Fire Safety Visits to assess and, if necessary, remedy domestic fire risk, fit free smoke alarms with instruction for use and maintenance, and plan an escape route. We propose that the similarity of population at risk, location, specific risk factors and the commonality of preventative approaches employed could offer net gains in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and acceptability if activities within these two preventative approaches were to be combined. Methods/Design This prospective proof of concept study, currently being conducted in two London boroughs, (Southwark and Lambeth aims to reduce the incidence of both fires and falls in community-dwelling older adults. It comprises two concurrent 12-month interventions: the integration of 1 fall risk assessments into the Brigade's Home Fire Safety Visit and 2 fire risk assessments into Falls services by inviting older clinic attendees to book a Visit. Our primary objective is to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of these interventions. Furthermore, we are evaluating their

  4. Effective regulation under conditions of scientific uncertainty: how collaborative networks contribute to occupational health and safety regulation for nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichow, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This thesis seeks to understand, and evaluate, the contribution of business associations within the United States (US) and German chemical sector, to the effective regulation of nanomaterials. In the effective regulation of new technologies characterized by high scientific uncertainty, with

  5. A Brief Discussion on Fire Prevention and Safety Management of Museums%谈博物馆的防火措施及安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永武

    2012-01-01

    Museums have become an important part of cultural facilities in a city, and the main purpose of the con- trol system of its fire design is not only for fire prevention but also for fire control. In addition to the indoor fire hy- drant system and automatic water - spouting fire extinguishing system, there are also special fire control measures such as water spray extinguishing system and gas fire extinguishing system. This paper analyzes the problems with museum fire risk, and promotes some measures for museum fire protection.%博物馆已成为城市文化设施的重要组成部分,其消防系统的设计不但要重在防,而且要重在灭。除应设有普通的消火栓系统和自动喷水灭火系统外,还应设有水喷雾灭火系统、气体灭火系统等特殊的消防措施。分析了博物馆的火灾危险性和我国博物馆消防安全管理方面存在的问题,针对性的提出了博物馆的消防安全管理对策。

  6. Fire in a contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-08

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  7. Simulating Building Fires for Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.

    1987-01-01

    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  8. Transposition of the basic safety standards. Potential impact on French laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.M.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The new proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation is about to be adopted. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. As far as France is concerned, these evolutions will mainly impact the labour code (for occupational issues) and the public health code for both legal and regulatory requirements. The most significant improvements of the current version of the project are the introduction of graded approach to regulatory control and the enhancement of requirements for protection against natural radiation sources (in particular exposure to radon and naturally occurring radioactive material). This project also aims at achieving a better harmonisation between Member States for topics such as the organization of radiation protection for workers, the justification of medical devices and non-medical imaging exposure situations. ASN has already identified major issues for the transposition of the Directive concerning both French laws and regulations. Main topics should concern the impact of ICRP terminology (planned exposure situation, existing exposure situation versus lasting exposure situation, reference level versus maximum activity level for exposure to radon..) and the extension of both justification and optimisation principles to new activities involving natural radiation sources, such as industries processing naturally occurring radioactive material. Furthermore, France will have to decide whether it will adjust some positions about the prohibition of nonmedical imaging exposures and the release of materials from regulatory control according to generic values. Indeed, the project mentions the possibility to introduce derogations to those major principles. Finally, and according to the graded approach, the project introduces a new

  9. Safety assessment of a novel active ingredient, acetyl aspartic acid, according to the EU Cosmetics Regulation and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P; Moran, G

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was proposed as a new novel active ingredient for use in cosmetics. The safety of A-A-A was assessed by following an in-house-developed 'New Ingredient Testing Strategy', which was designed in accordance with the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) notes of guidance and the requirements of Annex I of the EU Cosmetics Regulation. The aim of the project was to determine whether A-A-A was safe for use in cosmetics and to determine a maximum permitted safe level in the formulations. A literature review was conducted, consulting over 40 different information sources. This highlighted a number of gaps which required testing data. A-A-A was tested for phototoxicity according to OECD test guideline 432, skin irritation according to OECD test guideline 439 and eye irritation according to OECD test guideline 437. Dermal absorption of A-A-A was measured according to OECD test guideline 428 and was used to calculate the margin of safety (MoS). Finally, A-A-A was tested in a human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) and a 14-day in-use tolerance study. A-A-A was non-phototoxic and was non-irritating to skin and eyes in in vitro testing. Dermal absorption was calculated to be 5%. The MoS for A-A-A was 351, at a level of 5%, for all cosmetic product types, indicating no systemic safety toxicity concern. A-A-A at 5% under occlusive patch on a panel of 50 adult volunteers induced no skin irritation or allergic reaction in the HRIPT study. Finally, repeated application of A-A-A to the periocular area, twice per day for 14 days, in 21 female volunteers, demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated following dermatological and ophthalmological assessment in a cosmetic formulation. A-A-A was assessed as safe by the cosmetic safety assessor for use in cosmetics at a level of 5% in all cosmetic product types, in line with the requirements of the EU Cosmetics Regulation and in accordance with the SCCS notes of guidance. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic

  10. 消防安全与经济发展的关系研究%A Study on the Relationship between the Fire Protection Safety and the Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉

    2012-01-01

    从火灾事故数、死亡人数、受伤人数和经济损失等方面,研究了消防安全和经济发展之间的关系。结果表明,火灾事故数、死亡人数和受伤人数与经济发展显著负相关,而经济损失与经济发展的关系不显著。在此基础上,提出加强消防安全水平的六项措施。%This study investigates the relationship between the fire protection safety and the economic development. The results indicate that the number of fire incidents, death toll and the number of injury are negatively related to the economic development, while the relationship between economic losses and the economic development is insignifi- cant. It puts forward some measures to improve the fire safety.

  11. 塑料加工企业聚集区消防安全对策探讨%Discussion on the fire safety countermeasures of plastics industry gathering area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅胜兰; 黄冷雨

    2011-01-01

    Taking a plastics industry gathering anea at the fringe of Fuzhou as an example, the main fire hazards of plastics industry at the fringe such as water scarcity, narrow road, poor construction safety, high fire load, serious phenomenon of "3 in 1", lack of fixed fire facilities, chaotic management, and lack of fire consciousness, were analyzed. Solutions and countermeas-ures were put forward.%以福州市某城乡结合部塑料加工企业聚集区为例,分析城乡结合部塑料加工企业存在的主要火灾隐患,如水源匮乏,道路狭窄;建筑安全性差,火灾荷载高;"三合一"现象严重;缺少固定消防设施;管理混乱;消防意识淡薄等.并提出解决方案和对策措施.

  12. Study of fire safety distance between color steel sandwich panel houses and tents%彩钢夹芯板房和帐篷的防火间距研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓勇

    2011-01-01

    Structure and fire performance of color steel polystyrene (EPS) and polyurethane (PU) sandwich panels, commonly used to build up board rooms in transitional settlements of disaster areas, has been analyzed. The materials and combustion performance of tents in transitional settlements has also been described. Based on fire experiments of color steel sandwich panel houses which results were analyzed and verified by using fire cased and FDS simulation methods, fire safety distance of color steel sandwich panel houses and tents was determined.%对灾区过渡安置点搭设板房常用的彩钢聚苯乙烯(EPS)夹芯板和聚氨酯(PU)夹芯板结构、防火性能进行分析,同时对安置点内帐篷材质、燃烧性能进行介绍.在彩钢夹芯板房火灾实验基础上,用火灾案例和FDS模拟方法验证分析实验结论,研究确定彩钢夹芯板房和帐篷的防火间距.

  13. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  14. 76 FR 77121 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... reaching the Great Lakes and devastating the Great Lakes commercial and sport fishing industries, the U.S... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children...

  15. 77 FR 59818 - Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... definition for the word ``Advertisement.'' Section 375.209(b). The paragraph is amended to reflect that there... 382 Administrative practice and procedure, Alcohol abuse, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Highway safety..., Alcohol abuse, Drug abuse, Highway safety and motor carriers. 49 CFR Part 384 Administrative practice...

  16. Offshore safety regulations in Norway: from model to system in erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryggvik, H

    2000-01-01

    There are indications that the Norwegian oil province has experienced a decrease in incidents since the introduction of its external control system, which gives industry an important role in setting and maintaining safety standards. This article argues that much of the veneration of the Norwegian model is based on a misreading of the Norwegian offshore health and safety system. The author suggests that improvements in offshore safety in Norway were not caused by the adoption of the internal control system alone, but rather by a number of factors which included the introduction of the stringent Norwegian Work Environment Act, which gives union representatives the right to stop work when they feel safety is jeopardized, as well as the maintenance of strong offshore unions with a comprehensive network of trade union-appointed safety representatives.

  17. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  18. 公共建筑火灾风险评估及安全管理方法研究%Research on Fire Risk Assessment and Safety Management Method of Public Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄守飞

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced relevant basic theoretical kn-owledge in the premise, studying the Fire Risk Assessment and Safety Management Method starting from the three parts of the design, construction, and use of public buildings. The research provided certain effective measures to prevent fire in public building.%本文在介绍相关基础理论知识的前提下,从公共建筑的设计、施工、使用三个环节出发,分别对公共建筑火灾风险评估及安全管理方法进行了初步研究,为有效地采取措施预防公共建筑火灾提供了一定的借鉴。

  19. SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottuk, Daniel; Jr, John; Harada, Kazunori; Kuligowski, Erica; Puchovsky, Milosh; Torero, Jose´; Jr, John; WIECZOREK, CHRISTOPHER

    2016-01-01

    Revised and significantly expanded, the fifth edition of this classic work offers both new and substantially updated information. As the definitive reference on fire protection engineering, this book provides thorough treatment of the current best practices in fire protection engineering and performance-based fire safety. Over 130 eminent fire engineers and researchers contributed chapters to the book, representing universities and professional organizations around the world. It remains the indispensible source for reliable coverage of fire safety engineering fundamentals, fire dynamics, hazard calculations, fire risk analysis, modeling and more. With seventeen new chapters and over 1,800 figures, the this new edition contains: • Step-by-step equations that explain engineering calculations • Comprehensive revision of the coverage of human behavior in fire, including several new chapters on egress system design, occupant evacuation scenarios, combustion toxicity and data for human behavior analysis • Rev...

  20. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

  1. On the Hidden Trouble of Fire Safety in the Villages within the City and Countermeasures%论“城中村”消防安全隐患及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付斌

    2012-01-01

    随着城市的快速发展和城市化进程的不断加快,大量外来流动人员涌入城市并聚居在‘‘城中村”,其消防现状令人担忧。因此,如何加强和改进城中村消防安全隐患问题已成为消防工作不容忽视的一个方面,文章就如何加强城中村区域的消防安全工作提出一些意见和建议,以期增强广大人民群众和社会单位的消防安全主体意识,进一步改善城中村的消防安全环境。%With the rapid development of the city and accelerating urbanization,a large number of floating staff come into the city and live in the villages within the city. The fire situation is worrying. So how to strengthen and improve the fire safety has become impor- tant part of firefighting work. The paper puts forward some opinions and suggestions on strengthening the fire safety in the villages within the city in order to enhance the subject consciousness of the people and social units and further improve the fire satiety environment in the villages within the city.

  2. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  3. 46 CFR 109.329 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 109.329 Section 109.329 Shipping COAST GUARD... of Safety Equipment § 109.329 Fire pumps. The master or person in charge shall insure that at least one of the fire pumps required in § 108.415 is ready for use on the fire main system at all times....

  4. Ethicolegal Analysis of Safety Assesor Aspect on the Application of Ministry of Health of Cosmetic Notification Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia is a last country implemented Asean notification of cosmetic which was declared by Permenkes Nomor 1176/Menkes/Per/VIII/2010 about notification of cosmetic started at 1st January 2011. The consequance is every industry has to prepare a safety assessor that to be responsible for quality, beneficial and safety of cosmetic producted. The aims of this research are to analyse ethicolegal aspect of profesionalism of safety assessor, to investigate the willingness of producer in the utility of safety assessor, and to investigate the availability of the safety assessor in implementing notification of cosmetic. Method: Design of this research is cross sectional qualitative approach. Sampling is selected purposively in four provinces namely DKI Jakarta, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, and Bali. In every province 9 industries are choosen (clasified by 2 big industries, 3 middle industries, and 4 small industries. Collecting data was conducted by indepth interview, document analyze, and round table discussion. Result: Research results are firstly all producer confessed the notification registering system are easier and faster than the old registration system. Secondly the qualification and profesionalism or independency of safety assessor has not been mentioned clearly by goverment so it may create etico legal conflict in every side. Thirdly the ministry of health cq health regional offices side do not have roles in applying the Permenkes (exp.in capacity building and controlling. Conclusion: Notification cosmetic regulation has been implemented and the method iseasier compare to registration prosedure. Recommendation: The mechanism of controlling by BPOM and Balai POM have to be informed transparancy to the industries, and the role of Ministry of Health and Health Regional Offices in notificationof cosmetic should be arranged and implemented clearly.

  5. US Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Medical Devices and Radiation Oncology: Can Reform Improve Safety?

    OpenAIRE

    Hattangadi, Jona A.; O'Reilly, James T.; Recht, Abram

    2011-01-01

    A review of the issues involved in medical device regulation in radiation oncology, including a general review of federal medical device regulation and explanations of the legal and regulatory framework.

  6. Fire and explosion security in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference has 12 presentations on topics regarding fire fighting, explosions and development scenarios, safety and security aspects, management of safety issues and measures and preparedness. Some accidents and fires are discussed. Some important problems with LNG with respects to plants, transport, fires and risk assessment are presented.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-1 - Automatic fire sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors. 75.1103-1 Section 75.1103-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... fire sensors. A fire sensor system shall be installed on each underground belt conveyor. Sensors so...

  8. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  9. Reshaping the carcinogenic risk assessment of medicines: international harmonisation for drug safety, industry/regulator efficiency or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2003-07-01

    The most significant institutional entity involved in the harmonisation of drug testing standards worldwide is the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), which comprises the three pharmaceutical industry associations and regulatory agencies of the EU, US and Japan. It is often claimed that such harmonisation will both accelerate the development and approval of new drugs and preserve safety standards, if not strengthen safety regimes. Drawing on extensive documentary research and interviews, this paper systematically examines whether the efforts by the ICH to improve industrial and regulatory efficiency by harmonising drug testing requirements is likely to raise, maintain or compromise safety standards in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. The evidence suggests that, in the field of carcinogenicity testing, the ICH management of international harmonisation of medicines regulation is not achieving simultaneous improvements in safety standards and acceleration of drug development. Rather, the latter is being achieved at the expense of the former. Indeed, the ICH may be converting permissive regulatory practices of the past into new scientific standards for the future. These findings are significant as many expert scientific advisers to drug regulatory agencies seem to have accepted uncritically the conclusions reached by the ICH, which may affect a potential patient population of half a billion and tens of thousands of clinical trials.

  10. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  11. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  12. 75 FR 4305 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    .... SUMMARY: The FMCSA announces regulatory guidance concerning texting while driving a commercial motor... operators engaged in ``texting'' on an electronic device while driving a CMV in interstate commerce... safety-critical event is 23.2 times greater for drivers who are texting while driving than for those...

  13. EXTENDED CONFISCATION – SAFETY MEASURE REGULATED IN THE NEW CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Adrian HOTCA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extended confiscation is a safety measure introduced in Romanian criminal law in 2012. Romania's Constitutional Court has ruled several decisions in which a question has been raised of whether the legal provisions on extended confiscation are constitutional or not. In the present paper we analyze the extended confiscation in relation to the decisions of the Constitutional Court.

  14. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  15. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  16. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  17. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility.

  18. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  19. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  20. 75 FR 51374 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... infrastructure within 1,000 meters of Neptune's STL buoys, and will prohibit vessels from commercial fishing or... regulation to safeguard vessels, harbors, ports, or waterfront facilities from destruction, loss, or injury.... The purpose of these regulated areas is to protect vessels and mariners from the potential...

  1. Special Report on Lessons Learned (1985-2011). Volume 2: Handbook of Recommended Design Practices (Fire Protection and Life Safety Design Guidelines for Special Purpose Underground Structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    corrode any ferrous material that it contacts. Even if the generator is not physically damaged by fire, it may not be operable if AFFF came in contact with...problem becomes obvious. The range of melting temperatures for typical tin-lead (Sn-Pb) solder alloys is around 300 0 -420 0 F (182 0 -215 0 C); Pb...silver-copper (Ag-Cu) alloys is still below, but closer to room fire temperatures and there is a risk that they too can melt. Brazing alloys melt

  2. Development of the CELVA-1D code to evaluate the safety of an air-ventilation system during postulated fire and explosion in the reprocessing plant. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Gunji; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kouno, Kouji; Yamazaki, Noboru; Mukaide, Shigeo; Yoshioka, Itsuo

    1998-03-01

    The CELVA-1D computer code was developed to evaluate the confinement of radioactive materials during postulated fire and explosion in a cell of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The CELVA-1D code calculates a response of temperature, pressure, flow velocity of fluid in an air-ventilation system of the plants by one-dimensional thermofluid analysis and calculates an ability to confine radioactive aerosol particles by transport, deposition, and HEPA filtration. The mathematical models in CELVA-1D were verified by comparison of the calculation with the result of JAERI`s demonstration tests simulating hypothetical fire and explosion accidents in the cell. (author)

  3. AraC/XylS family stress response regulators Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Daniel; Schweizer, Gabriel; Weingart, Helge

    2014-09-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the AraC/XylS family have been associated with multidrug resistance, organic solvent tolerance, oxidative stress, and virulence in clinically relevant enterobacteria. In the present study, we identified four homologous AraC/XylS regulators, Rob, SoxS, PliA, and OpiA, from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea1189. Previous studies have shown that the regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS from Escherichia coli mediate multiple-antibiotic resistance, primarily by upregulating the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. However, none of the four AraC/XylS regulators from E. amylovora was able to induce a multidrug resistance phenotype in the plant pathogen. Overexpression of rob led to a 2-fold increased expression of the acrA gene. However, the rob-overexpressing strain showed increased resistance to only a limited number of antibiotics. Furthermore, Rob was able to induce tolerance to organic solvents in E. amylovora by mechanisms other than efflux. We demonstrated that SoxS from E. amylovora is involved in superoxide resistance. A soxS-deficient mutant of Ea1189 was not able to grow on agar plates supplemented with the superoxide-generating agent paraquat. Furthermore, expression of soxS was induced by redox cycling agents. We identified two novel members of the AraC/XylS family in E. amylovora. PliA was highly upregulated during the early infection phase in apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. Multiple compounds were able to induce the expression of pliA, including apple leaf extracts, phenolic compounds, redox cycling agents, heavy metals, and decanoate. OpiA was shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic and alkaline pH stress responses.

  4. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  5. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Volume 8, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission`s rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance.

  6. Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Zhu, Guoqing; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-08-30

    With the Government of China's proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

  7. Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007, the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS software. Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel, such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

  8. Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Zhu, Guoqing; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies. PMID:27589774

  9. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out `blind` without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.). 12 refs.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  11. Study on prevention of spread of vertical fire along finishing materials for external wall of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Yong Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there are laws in the Korea Building Act relating to exterior finishing materials, fireproof structures and fire-stop of curtain wall structures, the standards relating to and test methods on securing detailed fire safety functions for exterior materials of all buildings including high-rise buildings have not been prepared. This is due to the fact that test methods and standards to quantitatively evaluate the vertical fire spread of the exterior material of buildings do not exist. In addition, while semi non-combustible materials or non-combustible materials are required to be used to prevent fire spread in buildings which exceed 30-stories, it is necessary to review the standards and regulations in cases where fire blocking systems, capable of preventing the vertical fire spread within the curtain wall, are installed to consider permitting the utilization of fire retardant material following an assessment of the construction characteristics of high-rise buildings. The functional evaluation standards and test methods on the vertical fire spread introduced in this study will be a more effective method for performing evaluations to prevent fire spread compared to the currently utilized method of performing small scale tests.

  12. An Examination of Commercial Motor Vehicle Hours of Service Safety Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    but not fatigue itself, it makes more sense why this regulation is continually changed. This regulation substantially changed on average every 7.09...method utilizing the theoretical foundation of perishable inventory theory , and 3) a statistical analysis on accidents caused by or involving truck...truck driving industry. Perishable inventory theory is used to understand how companies and truck drivers operate within this regulatory

  13. OECD activities in fire protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufer, B. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-05-01

    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. Therefore, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook a study among the Countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the focus on some special issues such as fire simulation, fire spreading, and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics. The results of this study are reported here. (orig.) [German] Eine Reihe von Probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalysen (PSA) haben gezeigt, dass Braende ein wesentlicher Risikofaktor bei Kernkraftwerken sind. Es gibt jedoch betraechtliche Unsicherheiten bei diesen Analysen. Gruende hierfuer sind Probleme bei der Abschaetzung der Wahrscheinlichkeit wichtiger Brandszenarien, bei der Modellierung der Brandausbreitung bzw. -unterdrueckung, bei der Vorhersage Feuer-bedingter Schaeden an Geraeten (einschliesslich der Einwirkung von Rauch) sowie bei der Einschaetzung der Brandbekaempfung durch Betriebspersonal. Deshalb hat die Kernenergieagentur (NEA) eine Studie in den Laendern der Organisation fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) durchgefuehrt mit den Schwerpunkten Brandsimulation, Feuerausbreitung und Einfluss von Rauch und Hitze auf elektronische Geraete. Ueber die Ergebnisse dieser Studie wird in dem vorliegenden Beitrag berichtet. (orig.)

  14. Comparative Study on Fire Safety Standards of Exterior Insulation System%外墙外保温系统防火标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春玲

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了国外外墙外保温系统防火的主要要求,对比分析了我国规范的不足与差异.在此基础上,提出保温材料的燃烧性能不是评价外保温系统防火性能的唯一指标,应从材料的燃烧性能和系统的防火性能两方面提出要求,全面评价外墙外保温系统的火灾风险和隐患.对于外墙外保温系统的防火问题,应秉承科学、严谨的态度合理解决,建立开放性的、性能化的外墙外保温防火技术标准要求.%In this paper, the main requirements of exterior insulation system in foreign countries were described, and the deficiencies and differences in standards between China and foreign countries were comparatively analyzed. And then,it was pointed out that combustion properties was not the only indicator to evaluate the fire performance of exterior insulation system. To comprehensively evaluate the fire risks and hazards of the external insulation system, the requirements shoud be proposed from the combustion performance of insulation materials and fire performance of the insulation system. As a conclusion,for the fire issue of external thermal insulation system, it should be reasonably solved with the scientific and rigorous attitude. In addition, the open and performance-based standards of fire requirements on the external thermal insulation system should be established.

  15. City Public Safety -Fire Risk of Underground spaces%城市公共安全--地下场所火灾危险性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小龙; 张冬; 郑洁舲

    2015-01-01

    采用层次分析方法分析了地下场所的火灾危险性。按地下场所功能不同分为地下商城、停车场、地铁站和娱乐场所,以火灾载荷、火源、人流量、财产损失及疏散和救援为评价因子,建立了地下场所火灾危险性的递阶层次结构模型,建立各层次的判断矩阵,通过计算得到不同功能地下场所的总权重值并进行排序,得到地下场所火灾危险性严重程度为商场>娱乐场所>地铁站>停车场的结论。%AHP( Analytic Hierarchy Process ) was used to Analyze the fire risk of underground spaces.According to different functions , underground spaces was divided in four places as underground mall , parking area , subway stations and entertainment place.By evaluation factors of the fire load, the fire source, the flow of people, property damage and evacuation and rescue , the fire risk of hierarchical struc-tural model was established with various levels of judgment matrix for underground spaces .Then, the total weights of underground places of different functions can be obtained and sorted by calculating.The results show that the severity of fire risk in underground spaces was that underground mall >entertainment>subway station>parking area.

  16. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  17. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  18. Interactions among wildland fires in a long-established Sierra Nevada natural fire area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.M.; Miller, J.D.; Thode, A.E.; Kelly, M.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Stephens, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate interactions between successive naturally occurring fires, and assess to what extent the environments in which fires burn influence these interactions. Using mapped fire perimeters and satellite-based estimates of post-fire effects (referred to hereafter as fire severity) for 19 fires burning relatively freely over a 31-year period, we demonstrate that fire as a landscape process can exhibit self-limiting characteristics in an upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. We use the term 'self-limiting' to refer to recurring fire as a process over time (that is, fire regime) consuming fuel and ultimately constraining the spatial extent and lessening fire-induced effects of subsequent fires. When the amount of time between successive adjacent fires is under 9 years, and when fire weather is not extreme (burning index classes (unchanged, low, moderate, high). This is in contrast to a recent study demonstrating increasing high-severity burning throughout the Sierra Nevada from 1984 to 2006, which suggests freely burning fires over time in upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests can regulate fire-induced effects across the landscape. This information can help managers better anticipate short- and long-term effects of allowing naturally ignited fires to burn, and ultimately, improve their ability to implement Wildland Fire Use programs in similar forest types. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  20. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  1. Risk Analysis of Dichloropropane and Fire Control and Safety Design of Storage Tank%二氯丙烷的危险特性分析与罐区存储消防安全设计评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢飞; 宋文华; 王以革; 徐昕; 丁旭东

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis, of physical and chemical properties and fire and explosion danger of dichloropropane, the corresponding disaster modes were given in different environmental temperature conditions. Accordance with the standard, fire control and safety design status was analysed and evaluated. In summer explosion hazard mode, TNT equivalent method, steam cloud fire and explosion model and the explosion of pressure wave damage standards were used to analyse and evaluate the consequences of the explosion of the explosive mixture in upper space of storage tank and the explosion of spread steam cloud. Some fire safety measures were given.%针对易燃液体储存罐区火灾危险因素和事故类型多而复杂、事故后果严重且难以有效防控的特点,通过实例,对二氯丙烷的理化特性和火灾爆炸危险性进行分析,得出了在不同环境温度条件下所对应的灾害模式;依据规范,对其消防安全设计的现状进行了分析与评价.针对夏季环境温度条件下的爆炸灾害模式,利用TNT当量法、蒸气云火灾爆炸模型和爆炸波超压伤害准则,分析评估了储罐上部空间爆炸性混合物爆炸和因爆炸导致大面积泄漏并形成扩散蒸气云爆炸的事故后果,给出了爆炸环境消除和潜在点火源控制、设置固定式与大流量消防冷却水系统、提升防火堤在储罐首次爆炸时的防爆能力和增加防火堤内固定灭火设施等应进一步采取或加强的消防安全防控措施.

  2. Bubble-seq analysis of the human genome reveals distinct chromatin-mediated mechanisms for regulating early- and late-firing origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesner, Larry D; Valsakumar, Veena; Cieslik, Marcin; Pickin, Rebecca; Hamlin, Joyce L; Bekiranov, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    We have devised a method for isolating virtually pure and comprehensive libraries of restriction fragments that contained replication initiation sites (bubbles) in vivo. We have now sequenced and mapped the bubble-containing fragments from GM06990, a near-normal EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line, and have compared origin distributions with a comprehensive replication timing study recently published for this cell line. We find that early-firing origins, which represent ∼32% of all origins, overwhelmingly represent zones, associate only marginally with active transcription units, are localized within large domains of open chromatin, and are significantly associated with DNase I hypersensitivity. Origin "density" falls from early- to mid-S-phase, but rises again in late S-phase to levels only 17% lower than in early S-phase. Unexpectedly, late origin density calculated on the 1-Mb scale increases as a function of increasing chromatin compaction. Furthermore, the median efficiency of origins in late-replicating, heterochromatic domains is only 25% lower than in early-replicating euchromatic loci. Thus, the activation of early- and late-firing origins must be regulated by quintessentially different mechanisms. The aggregate data can be unified into a model in which initiation site selection is driven almost entirely by epigenetic factors that fashion both the long-range and local chromatin environments, with underlying DNA sequence and local transcriptional activity playing only minor roles. Importantly, the comprehensive origin map we have prepared for GM06990 overlaps moderately well with origin maps recently reported for the genomes of four different human cell lines based on the distributions of small nascent strands.

  3. FIRE DESIGN: DIRECT COMPARISON BETWEEN FIRE CURVES. THE CASE STUDY OF A NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lombardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to fire safety engineering, the present study analyzes fire design settings for simulation of fire in a nursery and proposes to compare simulations developed with a natural fire curve and nominal fire curve. Comparative analysis was developed according to thermo-fluid dynamic parameters that are relevant to the safety of the exposed and for the representative period of the danger flow to the exposed, which are mainly children between 0 and 3 years of age, helpless under ordinary conditions and even more so in case of emergency. Defined conditions of structure and ventilation, Two fire simulations, differentiated by fire curve, have been implemented: First simulation: the parameters have been derived from the simulation of a fire, characterized by analytic function of Heat Release Rate (HRR Second simulation: the HRR function was obtained ex post by making a simulation of natural fire in realistically furnished room by imposing a minimum effective primer. The simulated HRR curve, appropriately linearized, allows to estimate a Likely Fire Curve (LFC. The simulations have been developed for a time of about 15 min, starting from the ignition of fire whereas the flow of the danger is serious for exposed mainly in this first phase of fire. The comparison between the parameters of fire involved the Temperature-Time Curve and HRR-Time Curve of both simulations and the ISO 834 Curve, which is a consolidated benchmark in Fire Safety Engineering (FSE. The nominal curves have been introduced for the purpose of checking whether the structural strength and integrity: the adoption of these curves in the fire safety engineering was made by analogy, on the assumption that the phenomena of major intensity, that these curves represent, ensure a safe approach on the choice of the fire design. The study showed indeed that the analytical curve, adopted in order to verify the structural strength, produces fields of both temperature and toxic concentrations

  4. 天然气管道输送工程消防设计及火灾预防对策%On the Fire-prevention Design for Natural Gas Transportation Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凤祥

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests some fire safety measures in terms of rigid fire prevention regulations,critical fire prevention measures,check and control measures and fire safety management.These measures are based on the analysis of fire risk in the second-stage project of Western-to eastern natural gas transportation.%通过分析西气东输二线工程天然气管道输送过程的火灾危险性,从严格按规范要求进行消防设计、关键部位的火灾预防措施、检测及监控措施、消防安全管理等方面提出了消防安全防范对策。

  5. How compliant are beverage employees to occupational health and safety regulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chetty

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This observational study was undertaken to identify thehealth and safety violations of employees at a specific beverage manufac-turing company.  A  site inspection and observation of all employees employedat this specific beverage company was conducted by the researcher over 2 days. Employees were observed for 12 hours per day with the morningshift on Day 1 and the afternoon shift on Day 2. A  sample of conveniencewas used in that every employee who was present on those days was included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data set. There were a total of 212 employees and 332 behaviours observed during thisstudy period. Unsafe handling and behaviour was observed in 55% of observations. Incorrect manual lifting techniques was the most frequent health and safety violation observed. In the 48 manual lifting behaviours observed, correct practice was observed in only three cases.  It is clear thatmore healthcare education and practical training is required in the area of manual lifting techniques. It is clear that more practical training is required in the area of manual handling.

  6. Safety Note

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/475438/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  7. 新疆准东煤炭产业带消防安全问题思考%Study on fire safety condition in Xinjiang Zhundong coal industry area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴博

    2012-01-01

    As the 14th strategic energy store base of China, Cangji Zhundong coal industry in Xinjiang is very broad, and the task of construction is very pressure. Aiming at current problems which included the difficulty of unified leadership and the safety program ming , complicated rescue type, large quantities shanty and the difficulty of fire administration of large coal industry area forepart, the basic principle and idea were put forward which included distinguishing the layer and standard to drew up a fire fight programming according to different function area construction progress, analyzing the fire development situation, strengthening fire fight publicity education and administration management, providing the fire technique service, integrating social resource sufficient, and paying attention to district comprehensive emergency rescue strength come into being ensurely.%新疆准东煤炭产业带作为国家第十四个战略能源储备基地,地域辽阔,建设任务紧迫.针对该大型煤炭产业带在建设初期出现的难于统一领导、安全规划编制困难、救援类型复杂、棚户区大量存在和消防行政管理难度大的现状和问题,提出了按矿区产业带功能区的不同及建设进度实际状况区分层次和标准进行消防规划编制、分析火灾发展形势、加强消防宣传教育、加强消防行政管理,积极提供消防技术服务、充分整合社会资源,注重区域综合应急救援力量生成和保障的基本原则和思路.

  8. 浅谈如何做好医院消防工作%On Hospital Fire Control Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉国

    2014-01-01

    消防安全工作事关重大,尤其是医院作为公众场所,涉及到职工和病人的安危,要进一步提高认识,强化责任意识,大力宣传消防法律法规和火灾防范知识,动员全体职工从我做起、从身边做起,积极发现和举报火灾隐患,形成人人关心维护消防安全、人人参与整治火灾隐患的良好社会风尚。%Fire safety is very important, especially for hospital, which is public place and concerns the safety of workers and patients. We need to further raise awareness, strengthen the responsibility consciousness, and advocate publicity of fire control laws and regulations and fire prevention knowledge. All staff should start from themselves, notice and report fire hazard, and form a good social custom where everybody cares fire safety and takes part in the control of fire hazard.

  9. The Politics of Systematization in EU Product Safety Regulation: Market, State, Collectivity, and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the increasing role of the legal method of systematisation in European Union (EU) law. It argues that the legal method of systematisation that has been developed in a welfare-state context is increasingly used as a regulative tool to functionally integrate the market. The book use

  10. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY IN THE PRODUCTION OF RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Danilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian industry of synthetic rubber, is one of the most competitive and occupies a prominent place in the global petrochemical industry. However, the company production of synthetic rubber are among the most hazardous industrial facilities. The main operational risks are to fire and explosion hazards of raw materials used. Accidents in such establishments can damage not only the equipment, materials or buildings, but also cause serious environmental and economic consequences for the region. For the prevention of accidents, mitigation and elimination of losses, it is necessary to apply a set of measures aimed at the management and control of industrial safety. The legal basis of industrial safety in the Russian Federation is the Federal Law № 116-FZ dated 21.07.97 "On industrial safety of hazardous production facilities." Industrial Safety at work an important part of its normal functioning. The most important condition of industrial safety of hazardous production facilities is the examination of industrial safety. Federal rules and regulations in the field of industrial safety "rules of examination of industrial safety", approved by Order of RTN on November 14, 2013 N 538 established: the procedure of examination of industrial safety requirements for the design of expert opinions and requirements for experts.

  11. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  12. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  13. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  14. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  15. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  16. Development of the safety regulation technology for digital instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Hwan; Ahn, Sang Phil; Yuh, Sang Min; Kang, Yoon Sik; Ahn, Sang Min; Kim, In Su; Kim, Dong Su; Kang, Jin Su [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    A general nuclear power stations desire to continue operating for as long as possible. But, cable in nuclear power stations can be subjected to energetic radiation to various degrees as well as other environmental stimuli. It is of major importance to know how these materials will respond and how any resulting aging phenomena can be monitored. From the point of view of nuclear safety the interest in these cables derives from the fact that they are of vital importance. Many researches on cable condition monitoring have been conducting for many years and various techniques of condition monitoring have been suggested until now. We will develop the combination of CM methods using merits of preliminary methods and CM methods using signal processing technique.

  17. Influence of fire barriers on fire performance of facades with combustible insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjegovic Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's modern society sustainability has become a key driver for innovation. Sustainability in buildings is, or at least it should be, strongly interconnected with energy efficiency and fire safety. Unfortunately, cases of fires in buildings all over the world are a wakeup call to start thinking of fire safety as an inevitable part of energy efficiency in buildings. Thermally enhanced building envelopes, due to materials used, can represent significantly increased fire load on façades. To determine their fire performance, it is necessary to move on from material level to the whole building level, i.e. full scale tests. This paper presents findings from comprehensive research on influence of fire barrier on fire performance of External Thermal Insulation Composite System – ETICS with combustible thermal insulation. To confirm findings, tests on identical ETICS systems were conducted in March 2014 and May 2014.

  18. Heat Transfer Principles in Thermal Calculation of Structures in Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Usmani, Asif

    2015-11-01

    Structural fire engineering (SFE) is a relatively new interdisciplinary subject, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of heat transfer, fire dynamics and structural analysis. It is predominantly the community of structural engineers who currently carry out most of the structural fire engineering research and design work. The structural engineering curriculum in universities and colleges do not usually include courses in heat transfer and fire dynamics. In some institutions of higher education, there are graduate courses for fire resistant design which focus on the design approaches in codes. As a result, structural engineers who are responsible for structural fire safety and are competent to do their jobs by following the rules specified in prescriptive codes may find it difficult to move toward performance-based fire safety design which requires a deep understanding of both fire and heat. Fire safety engineers, on the other hand, are usually focused on fire development and smoke control, and may not be familiar with the heat transfer principles used in structural fire analysis, or structural failure analysis. This paper discusses the fundamental heat transfer principles in thermal calculation of structures in fire, which might serve as an educational guide for students, engineers and researchers. Insights on problems which are commonly ignored in performance based fire safety design are also presented.

  19. Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

  20. 航空燃油罐区火灾风险分析与消防安全设计%Fire Hazard Analysis and Safety Design of Aviation Oil Storage Tank Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国军

    2012-01-01

    基于航空燃油物化性质与储存过程特点,分析了航空燃油罐区潜在的火灾危险性及火灾特点,如油品燃烧过程热值高,辐射热强,以及燃烧与爆炸相互转化等。并对某国内航空公司航空燃油罐区进行了消防安全核算。%Based on the physical and chemical properties of aviation oil and the characteristics of storage process,the potential of fire hazard and its features are analyzed,e.g.higher combustion heat value,larger radiation heat and mutual transformation of combustion and explosion,etc.A safety design for a domestic jet fuel tank farm is proposed.

  1. 公众聚集场所办理开业前消防安全检查行政许可法律问题探析%On Licencing the Certification of Fire Safety Permission for the Public Places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴曼萍

    2012-01-01

    从某小型商场未办理公众聚集场所开业前消防安全检查行政许可手续擅自投入使用开业,受到消防行政处罚这一普通而又具有代表性的案件出发,重点对“个体工商户”、“单位”和“公众聚集场所”等几个法律概念问题作了进一步分析,并给出了几点建议。%This paper explains some legal concepts and offers some suggestions about the definitions of "private busi- ness", "units" and "public places". The definitions are based on a typical case in which, a private business opens without being licenced by fire safety management department.

  2. Fire and EMS Districts, Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attribute is fire district name. Published to scfiredia.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is...

  3. Calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Wickström, U.

    1996-01-01

    On behalf of CEN/TC 127 "Fire Safety in Buildings", a series of tests has been carried out to evaluate and complete the draft calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces [4]. Fourteen laboratories in nine European countries participated in the test series, each carrying out one calibration te

  4. Calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Wickström, U.

    1996-01-01

    On behalf of CEN/TC 127 "Fire Safety in Buildings", a series of tests has been carried out to evaluate and complete the draft calibration procedure for fire resistance furnaces [4]. Fourteen laboratories in nine European countries participated in the test series, each carrying out one calibration

  5. Reliability Based Optimization of Fire Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    fire protection (PFP) of firewalls and structural members. The paper is partly based on research performed within the EU supported research project B/E-4359 "Optimized Fire Safety of Offshore Structures" and partly on research supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (see Thoft-Christensen [1...

  6. Development of the core safety regulation technology for the SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Zin; Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Kyeong Taek; Park, Young Ryoung; Lee, Gil Soo; Kim, Jong Woon; Yun, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Myung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    As the SMART-P is different from existing general reactors, new regulation technology is required to understand and assess the SMART-P for its regulatory reviews. One of the these technologies is related to the core design analysis. Because the SMART-P used metallic fuels, this study also collects general metallic nuclear fuel data and SMART-P's metallic fuel data from the materials studied by KAERI. The core design methodologies of KWU, ABB-CE, Westinghouse, Studsvik, Scandpower, US NRC and domestic research centers were investigated. Specially, The Hellios lattice core was studied for hexagonal nuclear fuel assembly calculation. Also, the VVER-1000 benchmark problem was analyzed by the PARCS code which has been developed by U.S. NRC. In this study, a AFEN-based computing code KORDAX os developed for the regulatory review of the SMART-P. KORDAX which is a nodal code using AFEN method dose not use transverse integration and this it can give higher accuracy results. Also, Because KORDAX is useful for hexagonal core and uses a method different with the core design code of the SMART-P developed by KAERI, it is judged that KORDAX can be an independent and reliable regulation verification code. In the next year study, HELIOS will be further studied as a core lattice code, and a hexagonal kinetics code which is based on AFEN method will be developed more systematically.

  7. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  8. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  9. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  10. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  11. 46 CFR 109.333 - Fire main cutoff valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire main cutoff valves. 109.333 Section 109.333... OPERATIONS Operation and Stowage of Safety Equipment § 109.333 Fire main cutoff valves. The master or person in charge shall insure that each fire main cutoff valve is open and sealed to prevent closing,...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.39 - Fire prevention plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention plans. 1910.39 Section 1910.39 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Means of Egress § 1910.39 Fire prevention plans. (a) Application. An employer must have a fire prevention plan when an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The...

  13. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  14. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  15. No country is an island in regulating food safety:How the WTO monitors Chinese food safety laws through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francis Snyder

    2015-01-01

    Established within the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) reviews periodicaly the trade policies of al WTO Members. The review includes many aspects of food safety regulation. China’s trade policy is reviewed every two years. This paper analyses in detail the reviews of China’s trade policy in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014. It focuses in particular on food safety laws and types of standards, alignment of domestic standards with international standards, the role of different domestic institutions, transparency and notiifcation of food safety measures under the WTO agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement), import and export, and geographical indications (GIs). It concludes that the WTO TPRM can contribute, within its mandate, to reform of Chinese food safety laws and improvement of food safety in China. It notes that China has already undertaken substantial reforms of its system for regulating food safety. It recommends that China should continue to participate actively in the TPRM, follow its own path with regard to alignment and learn selectively from other WTO Members.

  16. Europe's progress towards joint regulation of nuclear safety; Le cheminement de l'Europe vers une reglementation commune sur la surete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennenhofer, G. [surete des installations nucleaires et la radioprotection, Ministere de l' Environnement, de la Protection de la nature et de la securite nucleaire (BMU) (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Following the end of the Second World War, there was great hope for the use of nuclear energy for peaceful applications. In the beginning, the different approaches adopted by East and West led to the design of different types of reactors, with priority being given to rapid development of the reactor fleet. Cooperation between safety regulators only came about very gradually. The Chernobyl disaster was in this respect the trigger event, as it clearly showed that the effects of nuclear events do not stop at borders and that collaboration by the safety regulators in this field was essential. Texts such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, requiring the creation of a regulatory body independent of economic interests, the other work done by IAEA on the issue of nuclear safety and, within the European context, the creation of WENRA, are all milestones along the path to close cooperation. The recently adopted European directive on the safety of nuclear installations is the natural successor to these achievements. The road to a common European vision of nuclear safety is now mapped out. Germany will be joining this movement and making its own contribution. (author)

  17. CERN's new safety policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The documents below, published on 29 September 2014 on the HSE website, together replace the document SAPOCO 42 as well as Safety Codes A1, A5, A9, A10, which are no longer in force. As from the publication date of these documents any reference made to the document SAPOCO 42 or to Safety Codes A1, A5, A9 and A10 in contractual documents or CERN rules and regulations shall be deemed to constitute a reference to the corresponding provisions of the documents listed below.   "The CERN Safety Policy" "Safety Regulation SR-SO - Responsibilities and organisational structure in matters of Safety at CERN" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-1 - Departmental Safety Officer (DSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-2 - Territorial Safety Officer (TSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-3 - Safety Linkperson (SLP)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-4 - Large Experiment Group Leader In Matters of Safety (LEXGLI...

  18. The lipid-regulating effect and safety of combined statin and bezafibrate therapy in acute coronary syndrome patients complicating with dyslipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the lipid-regulating effectand safety of combined statin and bezafibrate therapy in acute coronary syndrome(ACS)patients complicating with dyslipedemia.Methods One hundred and four hospitalized patients with established ACS and increased serum triglycerides(TG)levels and/or low serum levels of high density

  19. TWRS safety program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, L.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their

  20. 国际法规制食品安全的发展趋势%The development trend of international law regulating food safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞

    2014-01-01

    With the frequent outbreaks of food contamination events all around the world , the international reg-ulation of food safety has been paid more and more attention in the international society .At present , regulations of in-ternational law on food safety showed the following trends .Firstly, international law regulates food safety in three di-rections, which are in the directions of market surveillance human rights and public health .Secondly, both interna-tional hard law and international soft law play equal role in regulating food safety at the same time .Thirdly, Multina-tional Companies,Non-governmental organizations ,the public and the media have responsibility and play a more and more important role in the governance of food safety .Fourthly , a global governance framework and network of food safety is coming into being .%随着食品污染事件在全球各地频繁爆发,食品安全的国际法规制越来越受到重视。目前,国际法规制食品安全呈现出如下的发展趋势:公共卫生安全、人权保障和市场监管三种进路齐头并进;国际硬法与国际软法并重;跨国公司、非政府组织、社会公众和新闻媒体在食品安全治理中负有责任,并日益发挥重要作用;食品安全的全球治理框架与治理网络正在形成。

  1. Fire Control Safety Inspection Management of Power Lines and Electrical Equipment in Chemical Plant%化工厂电力线路和电气设备的消防安全检查管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小洁; 马龙; 彭涛

    2013-01-01

      三大危险行业之一就是化工企业,易燃、易爆、有毒有害气体众多是化工行业的重要特点。化工厂设备众多,因此电力线路和电气设备随处可见,因此,做好化工企业的电力线路以及电气设备的消防安全检查是预防化工厂安全事故的必要措施,是保证企业安全生产的重要手段。本文针对化工厂电力线路、电缆线路、车间配电线路的安全检查,变压器、高、低压配电柜、发电机等电气设备的安全检查管理,阐述了具体要检查记录哪些数据,有哪些判断方法等。%  One of the three dangerous industry is the chemical enterprise, flammable, explosive, toxic and harmful gas is an important feature of many chemical industry. Chemical plant equipment is numerous, so the power lines and electrical equipment can be seen everywhere, therefore, fire safety inspection of power lines and electrical equipment in chemical enterprises are necessary measures to prevent accidents in chemical plant, and they are important means to ensure safety in production enterprises. According to the security check of workshop distribution power line, cable line, chemical plant, safety inspection management of high and low voltage power distribution cabinet, transformer, generator, electrical equipment, this paper expounds the concrete to check the record which data, what judgment method.

  2. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  3. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  4. Functionality Inspection of Interconnected Fire Protection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærup, René; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    systems, such as a smoke detection system, sprinkler system, warning system and fire ventilation system. However, only smoke detections systems and sprinkler systems require inspection from an independent accredited company, whereas the other systems’ functionality is entirely up to the professionals...... that install them and the owner’s maintenance schedule, both of which do not require any supervision from the authorities. Herein, 12 complex buildings, in which all fire protections systems were inspected by an independent accredited company, were studied to see whether or not the buildings adhere to the fire...... safety design in their operational phase. The results showed that the functionality of the interconnected fire protection systems was not as designed in the performance-based analysis. Furthermore, due to the lack of this functionality the fire safety level is not at high as the authorities’ demand...

  5. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  6. 30 CFR 57.6502 - Safety fuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... to be fired, electric initiation systems, igniter cord and connectors, or other nonelectric initiation systems shall be used. Extraneous Electricity—Surface and Underground ...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    R. GUOBYS; V. Vekteris; V. MOKSHIN

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm) combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm) with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2) insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for spe...

  8. Review of UCN 5,6 Fire PSA Model based on ANS Fire PRA Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Yoon Hwan

    2006-12-15

    Recently, under the de-regulation environment, nuclear industry has attempted various approaches to improve the economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). This approach uses the fire risk and performance information to manage the resources effectively and efficiently that are used in the operation of NPP. In fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation, fire PSA quality is one of the most important things. The nuclear industry and regulatory body of U.S.A have developed a measure to evaluate the quality of fire PSA. ANS (American Nuclear Society) has developed a guidance called 'ANS Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. However, in Korea, there have been no attempts to evaluate the quality of fire PSA model itself. Therefore, we cannot be sure about the quality of fire PSA whether or not the present fire PSA model can be used for the risk-informed applications such as mentioned above. We can say that the evaluation of fire PSA model quality is the basis for the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation. In this report, we have evaluated the quality of fire PSA model for Ulchin 5 and 6 units based on the ANS Fire PRA Standard. We, also, have derived what items are to be improved to upgrade the quality of fire PSA model and how it can be improved. This report can be used as the base of the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation work in Korea.

  9. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  10. Fire Fighting Organization and Its Efficacy Problem in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Ömer; Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2015-01-01

    Fire fighting which used to be performed by volunteers thanks to the efforts of citizens in the Ottoman Empire has been organized in various ways from the beginning of the 18th century onwards, when the first fire fighting organization was established. Fire fighting services offered by local and central governments across the world is de-centralized in Turkey, in other words conducted by local administrations. An effective fire fighting service directly affecting the safety of those who make ...

  11. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  12. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  13. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  14. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  15. Analysis of Food Safety Regulation Based on Revolutionary Game%基于演化博弈的食品安全监管分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 施亚能

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that food safety problem is quite serious in China,the government regulation must be strengthened. The evolutionary game theory was utilized to construct the food safety regulation model. In - depth discussion on the food safety regulation model was carried on through the dynamic tendency of duplicator dynamic equation and stability analysis. The analysis indicates that food safety regulation game can evolve toward favorable direction if we can reduce the production cost,increase enterprise income,strengthen the punishment for substandard goods,control of regulation costs,and improve the effectiveness of regulation supervision and so on.%鉴于当前我国食品安全问题比较突出,政府监管必须加强.运用演化博弈理论构建了食品安全监管模型,通过复制动态方程的动态趋势和稳定性分析对食品安全监管模型进行了深入讨论.研究结果表明:降低食品企业成本,增加企业收入,加大对不合格品的处罚力度,控制监管费用,提高监管部门的监管效益等都将使食品安全监管博弈向着更有利于食品安全的方向演化.

  16. Avaliação das condições de trabalho, treinamento, saúde e segurança de brigadistas de combate a incêndios florestais em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal: estudo de caso Evaluation of job conditions and aspects related to training, health and safety of the forest fire crew members at Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as condições de trabalho, treinamento, saúde e segurança dos brigadistas de combate a incêndios florestais no Distrito Federal. A pesquisa foi realizada nas Unidades de Conservação da Fazenda Água Limpa, Reserva Ecológica do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e Instituto Jardim Botânico de Brasília. A coleta de dados foi feita com a aplicação de um questionário em forma de entrevista individual. Participaram da avaliação todos os 53 brigadistas das Unidades de Conservação. De acordo com os resultados, a brigada do Jardim Botânico de Brasília tinha significativo porcentual de treinados (92,8%, todos com cursos de primeiros socorros, e um alto porcentual de trabalhadores com problemas de saúde (33,3%. Os brigadistas da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE exerciam, em sua grande maioria, o trabalho por gosto pela atividade (84,6%, eram bem treinados (92,3% e todos participaram de cursos de primeiros socorros, sendo o porcentual de acidentes o mais baixo (7,7%. Na brigada da Fazenda Água Limpa foram encontrados os menores porcentuais de treinados (39,1%, maiores porcentuais de acidentes (17,4%, menores porcentuais de pessoas que exerciam a função por gosto pela atividade (30,4% e menores porcentuais de pessoas com problemas de saúde (8,7%. A grande maioria dos brigadistas nas três Unidades de Conservação ressaltou a questão da necessidade de regulamentação das brigadas e atentou para a insatisfação quanto aos equipamentos de proteção individual utilizados e inadequada reposição.The objective of this work was to evaluate the job conditions and aspects related to training, health and safety of forest fire crew members at Distrito Federal. The work was carried out in some Protected Areas including Água Limpa Farm, Ecological Reserve of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE and Brasília Botanical Garden. The data was collected through individual interviews

  17. Classification for Safety Classified Fire Damper in EPR Power Plant%EPR核电厂安全级防火阀分级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司恒远; 商昌忠; 李新志

    2012-01-01

    Functional Classification is used to direct item classification in EPR power plant. Equip-ment classification includes equipment body classification and equipment I&C classification. For fire damp-er, functional classification is identified firstly according to the functional analysis on the relevant system, and then equipment body classification and equipment I&C classification are identified on the basis of the functional classification combined with system operation analysis.%EPR核电厂的安全分级采用功能分级指导物项分级的理念。对于具体设备,其分级包括设备的本体分级和仪控分级。通过对防火阀所属系统的功能分析确定其功能分级,再以功能分级为基础并结合系统运行工况确定防火阀的设备本体分级和仪控分级。

  18. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  19. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  20. Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.