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Sample records for fir cunninghamia lanceolata

  1. Chemical composition of decomposing stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhiqun; XU Zhihong; BOYD Sue; WILLIAMS David

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations was studied using a chronosequence approach. The results showed that decomposition rate constant of Chinese fir stump was 0.02695 as calculated from Olson's model. The N content of stump increased during the first two-year decomposition. When the dead stump C/N ratio was 463.2 ± 27.3, the stumps started to release N. The pattern of P release was similar to that for N. However, K content of stumps showed a consistent declining trend over time during the whole decomposition. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with cross polarization and magic-angle spinning (13C CPMAS-NMR) was used to analyse organic carbon (C) components in decomposing stumps. The 13C CPMAS-NMR spectra of stumps displayed that stump was dominated by cellulose and hemicellulose. The spectra also showed the accumulation of intensity in alkyl C, aromatic C, and carboxyl C spectral regions, which was expected as the labile cellulose and hemicellulose components in O-alkyl C spectral region were selectively decomposed first.

  2. Effect of ACQ-D Treatment on the Surface Free Energy of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the contact angles of three different reference liquids (including distilled water, diiodomethane, and formamide) and PF resin on the surfaces of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) samples untreated or treated with different concentrations of ACQ-D (ammoniacal copper quat Type D) solutions were measured. Then, the surface free energy was calculated by two approaches: acid-base approach and geometric mean approach. ACQ-D treatment caused higher contact angles and lower surface free energies at a retention level corresponding to the commodity treated wood products. When wood was treated with much higher concentrations of ACQ-D, the total surface free energy of wood would be higher than the untreated control. Acid-base/polar components related with the hydrogen bonding state in wood were considered to be responsible for the observed changes according to the applied approaches. The hydrophobic properties and also higher contact angles of PF resin drop on wood surfaces after ACQ-D treatment at a reasonable retention level confirms the changes on surface free energy.

  3. Structure and characterization of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood/MMT intercalation nanocomposite (WMNC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua Lü; Guangjie ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    With water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin as an intermediate,Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood/montmorillonite nanocomposite (WMNC) was prepared through vacuum impregnation and character-ized with XRD, SEM, FTIR and TG-DTA analyses. The XRD analysis indicated that the wood crystallinity of WMNC decreased, the MMT exfoliated and some nano silicate layers entered into the non-crystallized micro-fibrillar region of the wood cell wall. Wood structure is anisotropic and its impregnation is anisotropic. Due to the nonuniformity of the MMT organic modification, PF intercalation and wood impregnation, the MMT config-uration and distribution in wood were diverse. The SEM graphs of WMNC showed that some silicate grains were blocked in the wood cell lumen,some silicate layers adhered to the inner surface of the wood cell wall, and some exfoliated MMT layers even penetrated the wood cell wall. The obtained hydroxyl of WMNC increased and its ether linking decreased. It was considered that MMT and wood interacted not only with hydroxyl bonds,but also involved some chemical linking.Compared with untreated wood and the PF-impreg, the pyrolysis process of WMNC changed; its starting decomposing temperature decreased and its pyrolysis weight loss at high temperatures greatly decreased. The WMNC indicated certain nanoeffects of the composition of the inorganic MMT nanolamellae.

  4. The Influence of S_2 Microfibril Angle on Longitudinal and Tangential Shrinkage in China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate the variation of microfibril angle (Mfa), tracheid morphology and shrinkage within China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation tree. The second objective was to discuss the relationship between Mfa and tracheid morphology, and the influence of Mfa on longitudinal and tangential shrinkage. The results showed that the mean value of Mfa decreased from the 2nd (30.8°) to 26th growth ring (7.7°); the radial variation of latewood tracheid length ranged f...

  5. Effects of site management treatments on growth of six-year-old, second-rotation Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zongming; FAN Shaohui; LU Jingming; YANG Xujing; WENG Xianquan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of five different site management treatments on the productivity of a six-year-old and secondrotation Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook.)plantations planted after harvesting a 29-year-old and first-rotation Chinese fir plantation in Xiayang State Forest Farm,Nanping,Fujian Province,were studied.Results showed that the Chinese fir grew best on plots treated with the double slash treatment(BL3),followed by the whole tree harvest(BL1)and the slash burning treatment(SB),and poorest on treatment BL2(normal slash retention)and BL0 (removal of all organic matter aboveground).The site index of the second rotation Chinese fir plantations in BL3 and BL0 treatments increased by 0.56 and 0.27,respectively,compared with the first rotation,and decreased in the rest of the three treatments.Compared with the first rotation,the site index of the second rotation treated with BL1,SB and BL2 treatments decreased by 0.39,0.45 and 0.63,respectively.Differences among the treatments were not statistically significant.

  6. Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifeng; Gao, Yan; Yang, Liwei; Shi, Jisen

    2007-12-01

    Wood is an important raw material for global industries with rapidly increasing demand. To isolate the genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), we used a novel system. Forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method; for the forward library we used cDNA from the mutant Dugansha as the tester and cDNA from the wild-type clone Jurong 0 as the driver, and for the reverse library we used Jurong 0 cDNA as the tester and Dugansha cDNA as the driver. Transcriptional profiling was performed using a macroarray with 4 digoxigenin-labeled probes. We obtained 618 and 409 clones from the forward and the reverse subtracted library, respectively. A total of 405 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. Forty percent of the ESTs exhibited homologies with proteins of known function and fell into 4 major classes: metabolism, cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, signal transduction, and stress. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm the results. The expression levels of 11 selected ESTs were consistent with both macroarray and real-time PCR results. The systematic analysis of genes involved in wood formation in Chinese fir provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in xylem differentiation and is an important resource for forest research that can be directed toward understanding the genetic control of wood formation and future endeavors to modify wood and fiber properties for industrial use.

  7. Stability of soil organic carbon changes in successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Wang, Qingkui

    2009-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forests in the global carbon cycle depends on the stability of the soil carbon and its availability to soil microbial biomass. We investigated the effects of successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations on the stability of SOC and its availability to microbes by adopting the two-step hydrolysis with H2SO4 and density fractionation. The results showed that successive rotations of Chinese fir decreased the quantity of total SOC, recalcitrant fraction, and carbohydrates in Labile Pool I (LP I), and microbial properties evidently, especially at 0-10 cm horizon. However, cellulose included in Labile Pool II (LP II) and the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio increased in successive rotations of Chinese fir. The non-cellulose of carbohydrates included in LP I maybe highly available to soil microbial biomass. Hence the availability of SOC to microbial biomass declined over the successive rotations. Although there was no significant change in recalcitrance of SOC over the successive rotations of Chinese fir, the percentage of heavy fraction to total SOC increased, suggesting that the degree of physical protection for SOC increased and SOC became more stable over the successive rotations. The degradation of SOC quality in successive rotation soils may be attributed to worse environmental conditions resulted from disturbance that related to "slash and burn" site preparation. Being highly correlated with soil microbial properties, the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio as an effective indicator of changes in availability of SOC to microbial biomass brought by management practices in forest soils.

  8. Stability of soil organic carbon changes in successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; WANG Silong; FENG Zongwei; WANG Qingkui

    2009-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forests in the global carbon cycle depends on the stability of the soil carbon and its availability to soil microbial biomass. We investigated the effects of successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations on the stability of SOC and its availability to microbes by adopting the two-step hydrolysis with H2SO4 and density fractionation. The results showed that successive rotations of Chinese fir decreased the quantity of total SOC, recalcitrant fraction, and carbohydrates in Labile Pool I (LPI), and microbial properties evidently, especially at 0-10 cm horizon. However, cellulose included in Labile Pool II (LP II) and the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio increased in successive rotations of Chinese fir. The non-cellulose of carbohydrates included in LPI maybe highly available to soil microbial biomass. Hence the availability of SOC to microbial biomass declined over the successive rotations. Although there was no significant change in recalcitrance of SOC over the successive rotations of Chinese fir, the percentage of heavy fraction to total SOC increased, suggesting that the degree of physical protection for SOC increased and SOC became more stable over the successive rotations. The degradation of SOC quality in successive rotation soils may be attributed to worse environmental conditions resulted from disturbance that related to "slash and burn" site preparation. Being highly correlated with soil microbial properties, the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio as an effective indicator of changes in availability of SOC to microbial biomass brought by management practices in forest soils.

  9. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata trees in Southeast China.

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    Hao Xu

    Full Text Available An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1] and a compound symmetry structure (CS. The one-level (tree NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models.

  10. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration an...

  11. Transcriptome characteristics and six alternative expressed genes positively correlated with the phase transition of annual cambial activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook.

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    Zhanjun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook, a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22 gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on previous studies, the four stage-specific cambial tissues of Chinese fir were defined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In total, 20 million sequencing reads (3.6 Gb were obtained using Illumina sequencing from Chinese fir cambium tissue collected at active growth stage, with a mean length of 131 bp and a N50 of 90 bp. SOAPdenovo software was used to assemble 62,895 unigenes. These unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to public protein databases. Expression analysis revealed that the altered expression of six homologous genes (ClWOX1, ClWOX4, ClCLV1-like, ClCLV-like, ClCLE12, and ClPIN1-like correlated positively with changes in cambial activities; moreover, these six genes might be directly involved in cambial function in Chinese fir. Further, the full-length cDNAs and DNAs for ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 were cloned and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a large number of tissue/stage-specific unigene sequences were generated from the active growth stage of Chinese fir cambium. Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese fir not only provides extensive genetic resources for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cambial activities in Chinese fir, but also is expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of Chinese fir. This study indicates that ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 could be possible reverse genetic target genes for revealing the molecular mechanisms of cambial activities in

  12. Height-diameter Models of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Based on Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models in Southeast China

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    Hao Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tree height and diameter at breast height are two important forest factors. The best model from 23 height-diameter equations was selected as the basic model to fit the height-diameter relationships of Chinese fir with one level (sites or plots effects and nested two levels (nested effects of sites and plots Nonlinear Mixed Effects (NLME models. The best model was chosen by smaller Bias, RMSE and larger Radj2. Then the best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were determined by AIC, BIC and -2LL. The results showed that the basic model with three random effects parameters &Phi &Phi &Phi1 &Phi2 and &Phi3 was considered the best mixed model. The nested two levels NLME model considering heteroscedasticity structure (power function possessed with higher predictable accuracy and significantly improved model performance (LRT = 469.43, p<0.0001. The NLME model would be allowed for estimating accuracy the height-diameter relationships of Chinese fir and provided better height predictions than the models using only fixed-effects parameters.

  13. Litterfall production and nutrient return in different-aged Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Zhou; Addo-Danso Daniel Shalom; Pengfei Wu; Shubin Li; Yayun Jia; Xiangqing Ma

    2015-01-01

    The amounts of litter produced and nutrients returned play a fundamental role in the productivity and biogeochemical and nutrient cycling of forest ecosystems. We monitored annual litterfall production, nutrient return, and monthly dynamics over a one-year period in Chinese fir plantations aged 10, 22, and 34 years. Our objective was to quantify litterfall and nutrient return over a complete harvest rotation of Chinese fir. Annual litterfall production increased with stand age and was recorded as (3,294.6 ± 360.4), (3,733.9 ± 211.2), and (4,876.1 ± 212.8) kg ha-1 a-1 in stands aged 10, 22 and 34 years, respectively. Total litter production was significantly greater in the stand aged 34 years than in the stand aged 10 years (pN (39.32–62.04 kg ha-1 a-1)>K (15.95–22.44 kg ha-1 a-1)>P (1.30–1.63 kg ha-1 a-1). C, N, K and P input to soil was significantly lower in the 10-year-old stand in comparison to the 22-and 34-year-old stands (p<0.05). Litterfall production and nutrient return (C, N and K) followed similar patterns, and C and N input to soil was significantly related to litterfall production (needle, branch and total litterfall). C, N, P and K input to soil and total litterfall production were mainly driven by needle litterfall.

  14. Study on the Retention and Distributions of the Copper-Based Preservative in Standing Tree Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata

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    Youhua Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of some studies about the wood permeability and its improving measures, some progress has been made to study the diffusion and transmission of preservative solutions in standing trees. In the present study, copper- (Cu- based preservative with other reagents is injected into the standing tree Chinese fir using sap-flow method. The chemical compositions of the retreated woods are analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The samples from different height positions are analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS to obtain microstructures and preservative retention, respectively. The results indicate that the preservative solutions with lower concentrations are more conducive to diffusion and transmission in the wood. Moreover, the preservative retention at different height position has a greater concentration gradient for composite preservative solutions than those of the single preservative solutions. Solidified preservative particles are observed in xylem rays with SEM. The results of the present study provide some useful information for the functional design of the target wood products.

  15. Overexpression of two cambium-abundant Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) α-expansin genes ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 affect growth and development in transgenic tobacco and increase the amount of cellulose in stem cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifeng; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jinjun; Yang, Liwei; Song, Rentao; Li, Xiaorong; Shi, Jisen

    2011-05-01

    Expansins are unique plant cell wall proteins that possess the ability to induce immediately cell wall extension in vitro and cell expansion in vivo. To investigate the biological functions of expansins that are abundant in wood-forming tissues, we cloned two expansin genes from the differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that they belong to α-expansin (EXPA), named ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that they are preferentially expressed in the cambium region. Overexpression of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 in tobacco plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of plant height, stem diameter, leaf number and seed pod. The height and diameter growth of the 35S(pro) :ClEXPA1 and 35S(pro) :ClEXPA2 transgenic plants were increased drastically, exhibiting an enlargement of pith parenchyma cell size. Isolated cell walls of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 overexpressors contained 30%-50% higher cellulose contents than the wild type, accompanied by a thickening of the cell walls in the xylem region. Both ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 are involved in plant growth and development, with a partially functional overlap. Expansins are not only able to induce cell expansion in different tissues/organs in vivo, but they also can act as a potential activator during secondary wall formation by directly or indirectly affecting cellulose metabolism, probably in a cell type-dependent manner.

  16. 阔叶和杉木人工林对土壤碳氮库的影响比较%Effects of broadleaf plantation and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晓华; 黄志群; 何宗明; 胡振宏; 杨靖宇; 余再鹏; 王民煌

    2013-01-01

    通过比较我国亚热带地区19年生阔叶人工林和杉木人工林土壤碳氮储量,探讨树种对土壤碳氮库的影响.结果表明:阔叶人工林0 ~40 cm土层碳储量平均为99.41Mg·hm-2,比杉木人工林增加33.1%;土壤氮储量为6.18 Mg·hm-2,比杉木人工林增加22.6%.阔叶人工林林地枯枝落叶层现存量、碳和氮储量分别是杉木人工林的1.60、1.49和1.52倍,两个树种的枯落叶生物量、碳和氮储量均有显著差异.枯枝落叶层碳氮比值与土壤碳、氮储量之间呈显著负相关.阔叶人工林细根生物量(0~80 cm)是杉木林的1.28倍,其中0~10 cm土壤层细根生物量占48.2%;阔叶人工林细根碳、氮储量均高于杉木人工林.在0~10 cm土层,细根碳储量与土壤碳储量具有显著正相关关系.阔叶树种比杉木的土壤有机碳储存能力更大.%A comparative study was conducted on the soil C and N pools in a 19-year-old broadleaf plantation and a Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation in subtropical China, aimed to understand the effects of tree species on the soil C and N pools. In the broadleaf plantation, the C and N stocks in 0-40 cm soil layer were 99.41 Mg·hm-2 and 6.18 Mg·hm-2, being 33.1 % and 22.6 % larger than those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The standing biomass and the C and N stocks of forest floor in the broadleaf plantation were 1.60, 1.49, and 1.52 times of those in Chinese fir plantation, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant. There was a significant negative relationship between the forest floor C/N ratio and the soil C and N stocks. In the broadleaf plantation, the fine root biomass in 0-80 cm soil layer was 1. 28 times of that in the Chinese fir plantation, and the fine root biomass in 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for 48. 2 % of the total fine root biomass. The C and N stocks in the fine roots in the broadleaf plantation were also higher than those in the Chinese fir

  17. Study on Cultivation Nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations with Multi-generation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the previous study on cultivation nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations of first generation, the cultivation nutrition of C. lanceolata plantations with multi-generation was studied. The results show that there are significant differences in the growth, development and nutrient assimilation among C. lanceolata plantations with different generations and nutrition conditions. These differences are closely related to the land fertility decline of C. lanceolata plantations. This paper de...

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz

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    Weiwei Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437 and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the “basal” position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Shi, Jisen

    2016-07-07

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437) and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the "basal" position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research.

  20. Development of the photosynthetic apparatus of Cunninghamia lanceolata in light and darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian; Wang, Qi; Qu, Yanli; Wu, Hongyang; Dong, Fengqin; Cao, Haoyan; Wang, Hou-Ling; Xiao, Jianwei; Shen, Yingbai; Wan, Yinglang

    2017-01-01

    Here, we compared the development of dark- and light-grown Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) cotyledons, which synthesize chlorophyll in the dark, representing a different phenomenon from angiosperm model plants. We determined that the grana lamellar membranes were well developed in both chloroplasts and etiochloroplasts. The accumulation of thylakoid membrane protein complexes was similar between chloroplasts and etiochloroplasts. Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters indicated that photosystem II (PSII) had low photosynthetic activities, whereas the photosystem I (PSI)-driven cyclic electron flow (CEF) rate exceeded the rate of PSII-mediated photon harvesting in etiochloroplasts. Analysis of the protein contents in etiochloroplasts indicated that the light-harvesting complex II remained mostly in its monomeric conformation. The ferredoxin NADP(+) oxidoreductase and NADH dehydrogenase-like complexes were relatively abundantly expressed in etiochloroplasts for Chinese fir. Our transcriptome analysis contributes a global expression database for Chinese fir cotyledons, providing background information on the regulatory mechanisms of different genes involved in the development of dark- and light-grown cotyledons. In conclusion, we provide a novel description of the early developmental status of the light-dependent and light-independent photosynthetic apparatuses in gymnosperms.

  1. Identification and characterization of genic microsatellites in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook (Taxodiaceae

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    Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic resources for conventional breeding programs are extremely limited for coniferous trees, and existing simple sequence repeat markers are usually identified through the laborious process of hybridization screening. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gene-based microsatellites in the Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook by screening transcript data. We identified 5200 microsatellites. Trinucleotide motifs were most common (47.94% and were followed by tetranucleotide motifs (24.92%. The AG/CT motif (43.93% was the most abundant dinucleotide repeat, whereas AAG/CTT (25.07% was the most common trinucleotide repeat. A total of 411 microsatellite primer pairs were designed and 97 polymorphic loci were identified by 8 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus (Na in these polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 2.640, the Ho values were 0.000-1.000 (mean, 0.479, and the HE values were 0.125-0.775 (mean, 0.462. The polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.110-0.715 (mean, 0.383. Seventy-two of the 97 polymorphic markers (74.23% were present within genes with predicted functions. In addition, in genetic diversity and segregation analyses of 16 genotypes, only 5.88% of the polymorphic loci displayed segregation distortion at the p<0.05 level. Transferable amplification of a randomly selected set of 30 genic microsatellites showed that transferability decreased with increasing evolutionary distance between C. lanceolata and target conifers. Thus, these 97 genic markers will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization, genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding in C. lanceolata, and evolutionary genetic analysis in Taxodiaceae.

  2. 杉木混农模式综合评价方法的研究%A STUDY ON THE COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION IN THE DIFFERENT INTERPLANTING PATTERNS OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东进; 洪伟; 吴承祯

    2001-01-01

    The principles and steps of osculating value methods were introduced and the feasibleness and superiority weretestified by two examples in this paper. Furthermore, the benefits of economic, ecological, growth of Cunninghamia lanceola-ta and social of six different interplanting patterns: Cunninghamia lanceolata-Lit sea cubeba, Cunninghamia lanceolata-Litsea cuba - soybean, Cunninghamia lanceolata- Litsea cuba- tobacco, Cunninghamia lanceolata- Aleurites fordii ,Cunninghamia lanceolata-Aleurites fordii-Mesona chinensis and pure Cunninghamia lanceolata were comprehensivelyevaluated by the methods of osculating value. The results showed that the Cunninghamia lanceolata-Aleuritesfordii-Mes-ona chinensis had the best comprehensive benefits and the Cunninghamia lanceolata-Li tsea cubeba was the second in thesix different interplanting patterns. The osculating value methods was a good mult- objective comprehensive methods whichnot only simple and convenient, but also effective and practical, and it worthy being further popularized and applied in theresearch field of forestry.

  3. Research on the Relationship of Ground and Breast Diamters of Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)in Natural Forests-A Case Study of Wuyi State Farm in Fujian%杉木天然林林木地径与胸径的关系研究--以福建五一国有林场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金荣

    2015-01-01

    对福建省五一国有林场杉木天然林地径与胸径进行回归分析,建立了回归模型。结果表明:地径与胸径间存在着密切、显著的线性关系,回归模型的拟合优度和误差均很理想。研究结果为计算杉木材积提供了一个方便可行的方法。%Regression model for ground diameter and diameter at breast height (DBH)of Fir (Cunning-hamia lanceolata)in natural forests in Wuyi State Farm was built and the results showed that there was a close straight regression between the ground diameter and DBH.Goodness of fit and error of the estab-lished regression model were very ideal.This provides a simple and feasible method to estimate volume of single tree.

  4. Organic acid exudation from the roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana seedlings under low phosphorus stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanchun YU; Jian YU; Qihua SHAN; Li FANG; Defeng JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) seedlings under low phosphorus stress was studied using the solution culture method. The results revealed that organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir and Masson pine seedlings under low phosphorus stress increased. Compared with P3 (KH2PO4, 0.5 mmol/L), the average organic acid exuda-tion from the root of Masson pine seedlings under P0 (KH2PO4, 0 mmol/L), P1 (KH2PO4, 0.03 mmol/L) and P2(KH2PO4, 0.09 mmol/L) increased by 328.6%, 267.9% and 126.4% respectively. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province in China had the highest organic acid exuda-tion. Under low phosphorus stress, the increase in organic acid exudation from the different provinces of Chinese fir and Masson pine varied. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid exudation, that from Guangxi Province mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation, and that from Guizhou Province, China mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid and malic acid exudation. Chinese fir mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation.

  5. Continuous planting under a high density enhances the competition for nutrients among young Cunninghamia lanceolata saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Tingfa; Zhang, Yunxiang; Zhang,Yuanbin; Zhang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractKey messageA high-density plantation inhibited growth and biomass accumulation of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook. saplings, as well as their photosynthesis. This inhibition was enhanced in a soil that had been previously planted with the same species. The main factors limiting photosynthesis and growth were leaf-level irradiance and nutrient availability, mainly of P and Mg.ContextThe planting density and continuous planting greatly affect the photosynthes...

  6. Characteristics of carbon and nitrogen of soil microbial biomass and their relationships with soil nutrients in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Youjun; WANG Qingkui; WANG Silong; YU Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    The soil microbial biomass and nutrient status under the native broadleaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations at the Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem (in Hunan Province,midland of China) were examined in this study.The results showed that after the native broadleaved forest was replaced by mono-cultured C.lanceolata or C.lanceolata,soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool decreased significantly.In the 0-10cm soil layer,the concentrations of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen in the broadleaved forest were 800.5 and 84.5 mg/kg,respectively.These were 1.90 and 1.03 times as much as those in the first rotation of the C.lanceolata plantation,and 2.16 and 1.27 times as much as those in the second rotation of the plantation,respectively.While in the 10-20 cm soil layer,the microbial carbon and nitrogen in the broadleaved forest were 475.4 and 63.3 mg/kg,respectively.These were 1.86 and 1.60 times as much as those in the first rotation,and 2.11 and 1.76times as much as those in the second rotation,respectively.Soil nutrient pools,such as total nitrogen,total potassium,NH,+-N,and available potassium,also declined after the C.lanceolata plantation replaced the native broadleaved forest,or Chinese fir was planted continuously.Less litter and slower decay rate in pure Chinese fir plantation were the crucial factors leading to the decrease of soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool in this area.Human disturbance,especially slash-burning and site preparation,was another factor leading to the decrease.There were significant positive correlations between soil microbial carbon and nitrogen and soil nutrients.To improve soil quality and maintain sustainable productivity, some measures,including planting mixed conifer with hardwood,preserving residues after harvest,and adopting scientific site preparation,should be taken.

  7. Improving the assessment method of seed vigor in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana based on oxygen sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guang-wu; ZHONG Tai-lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen sensing technology was employed to study the rapid methods for seed vigor assessment of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana).Firstly,seeds of five lots were performed using accelerated aging (AA) into three vigor levels.Then,four oxygen sensing indices,including increased metabolism time (IMT),oxygen metabolism rate (OMR),critical oxygen pressure (COP),relative germination time (RGT) and the control indices such as laboratory germination indices,dehydrogenase activity (DA),and electrical conductivity (EC) were analyzed by the tests of 15 samples.The results of correlation analysis between these indices and field emergence performances based on two-year and two-spot data showed that RGT and OMR should be indicated as the optimal oxygen sensing indices to rapidly and automatically evaluate seed vigor of Chinese fir and Masson pine,respectively.On the basis,one-variable linear regression equations were built to forecast their field emergence performances by the two oxygen sensing indices.

  8. Edge effect between Cunninghamia lanceolata forest and broadleaf trees forest, and age-related of Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉-阔林间边缘效应与杉木林龄的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文俊; 李际平; 李建军; 郑柳

    2011-01-01

    运用Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数、Simpson生态优势度指数和边缘效应强度指数,对桃源县的10组不同龄级杉木林与阔叶林间的边缘效应进行研究,并对杉木林生长情况和蓄积量变化情况进行了分析。结果表明:杉木幼龄林、中龄林及成熟林与阔叶林间的边缘效应均有增大物种多样性的趋势;随着杉木林龄的增大,灌木层、草本层边缘效应强度ED表现出不同的变化趋势;边缘效应对杉木幼龄林和中龄林的平均胸径、平均树高以及蓄积量均有增大的趋势,而杉木成熟林的变化却不明显。%The edge effects between 10 groups of different age-graded Cunninghamia lanceolata forest and broadleaf trees forest were studied by using Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson ecology dominance index and the index of edge effect At the same time, we analyzed the growth and the volume changes of the Cunninghamia lanceolata forest were analyzed. The results indicate that: no matter which stage Cunninghamia lanceolata forest stayed (young, half-mature or mature), the edge effect between Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaf trees had a tendency to increase species diversity; with the stand age of Cunninghamia lanceolata increasing, the edge effect intensity Ed about shrub and herb showed different changing trend. The edge effect can increase the average DBH of young Cunninghamia lanceolata forest and middle-aged forest, as well as the average height and volume, but had no significance effect on mature Cunninghamia lanceolata forest

  9. 利用误差变量联立方程组建立南方杉木一元立木材积模型和胸径地径回归模型%Using Error-in-Variable Simultaneous Equations Approach to Construct One-way Tree Volume Models and Diameter at Breast Height-Diameter on Root Collar Regression Model for Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟生

    2012-01-01

    利用我国南方的杉木实测数据,采用误差变量联立方程组方法,同时建立了胸径一元材积模型、地径一元材积模型和胸径一地径回归模型。结果表明:地径与胸径之间相关紧密,其回归模型的确定系数可以达到0.96以上;地径一元材积模型的预估精度要明显低于胸径一元材积模型。%Based on the data of Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) in southern China, three models, DBH (Diameter at Breast Height ) -based volume model, DRC (Diameter on Root Collar)-based volume model, and DBH-DRC regression model, were constructed using the error-in-variabl~ simultaneous equations approach. The results showed that DBH is closely related to DRC, determination coefficient of the regression is more than 0. 96 ; and the prediction precision of DRC-based volume model is clearly lower than that of DBH-based volume model.

  10. Compatible Models of Carbon Content of Individual Trees on a Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lin; Tao, Hong; Wei, Hong; Chengzhen, Wu

    2016-01-01

    We tried to establish compatible carbon content models of individual trees for a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantation from Fujian province in southeast China. In general, compatibility requires that the sum of components equal the whole tree, meaning that the sum of percentages calculated from component equations should equal 100%. Thus, we used multiple approaches to simulate carbon content in boles, branches, foliage leaves, roots and the whole individual trees. The approaches included (i) single optimal fitting (SOF), (ii) nonlinear adjustment in proportion (NAP) and (iii) nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (NSUR). These approaches were used in combination with variables relating diameter at breast height (D) and tree height (H), such as D, D2H, DH and D&H (where D&H means two separate variables in bivariate model). Power, exponential and polynomial functions were tested as well as a new general function model was proposed by this study. Weighted least squares regression models were employed to eliminate heteroscedasticity. Model performances were evaluated by using mean residuals, residual variance, mean square error and the determination coefficient. The results indicated that models with two dimensional variables (DH, D2H and D&H) were always superior to those with a single variable (D). The D&H variable combination was found to be the most useful predictor. Of all the approaches, SOF could establish a single optimal model separately, but there were deviations in estimating results due to existing incompatibilities, while NAP and NSUR could ensure predictions compatibility. Simultaneously, we found that the new general model had better accuracy than others. In conclusion, we recommend that the new general model be used to estimate carbon content for Chinese fir and considered for other vegetation types as well.

  11. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Bao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants.

  12. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  13. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Niu; Silong, Wang; Zhiyun, Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range. To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species, we measured the above- and below-ground biomass accumulation in 22 years, as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation. Results indicated that M. macclurei plantation significantly stored more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C. lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2). Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M. macclurei plantation, 55.2% in C. lanceolata plantation). Tree and soil component of M. macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of C. lanceolata plantation (p <0.05). No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor. These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M. macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C. lanceolata) in southern China.

  14. Comparisons of carbon storages in Cunninghamia lanceolata and Michelia macclurei plantations during a 22-year period in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Dong; WANG Silong; OUYANG Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    Tree species composition was important for carbon storage within the same climate range.To quantify the dynamics of ecosystem carbon allocation as affected by different tree species,we measured the above- and belowground biomass accumulation in 22 years,as well as the tissue carbon concentrations of trees in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation and Michelia macclurei plantation.Results indicated that M.macclurei plantation stored significantly more carbon (174.8 tons/hm2) than C.lanceolata plantation (154.3 tons/hm2).Most of the carbon was found in the soil pool (57.1% in M.macclurei plantation,55.2% in C.lanceolata plantation).Tree and soil component of M.macclurei plantation possessed significantly higher carbon storage than that of the C.lanceolata plantation (p<0.05).No significant difference was found in the carbon storage of understory and forest floor.These results suggest that the broadleaved species (M.macclurei) possesses greater carbon sequestration potential than the coniferous species (C.lanceolata) in southern China.

  15. [Characteristics of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and their relationships with soil nutrients in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Youjun; Wang, Qingkui; Wang, Silong; Yu, Xiaojun

    2006-12-01

    The study on the soil microbial biomass and nutrient status under native broadleaved forest and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations at the Huitong National Research Station of Forest Ecosystem showed that after the native broadleaved forest was replaced by mono-cultured C. lanceolata or C. lanceolata was planted continuously, soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool decreased greatly. In 0 - 10 cm soil layer, the concentrations of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen in broadleaved forest were 800.5 and 84.5 mg x kg(-1) , being 1.90 and 1.03 times as much as those in the first rotation of C. lanceolata plantation, and 2.16 and 1.27 times as much as those in the second rotation of the plantation, respectively, while in 10 - 20 cm soil layer, the microbial carbon and nitrogen in broad-leaved forest were 475.4 and 63.3 mg x kg(-1), being 1.86 and 1.60 times as much as those in the first rotation, and 2.11 and 1.76 times as much as those in the second rotation, respectively. Soil nutrient pools such as total nitrogen, total potassium, NH4(+) -N, and available potassium also declined after the C. lanceolata plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest, or C. lanceolata was planted continuously. Less litter and its slower decay rate in pure C. lanceolata plantation were the crucial factors leading to the decrease of soil microbial biomass and nutrient pool in this area, and human disturbance, especially slash-burning and site preparation, was the another factor leading to the decrease. There were significant positive correlations between soil microbial carbon and nitrogen and soil nutrients. To improve soil quality and maintain sustainable productivity, some measures including planting mixed conifer with hardwood, preserving residues after harvest, and adopting scientific site preparation should be taken.

  16. Community Diversity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.%三峡库区杉木林群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文发; 程瑞梅; 李建文; 马娟; 韩景军

    2001-01-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is located in the moist sub-tropical region. Cunninghamia lanceolata forest is one of its important vegetation types. According to the investigation, there are 8 kinds of community type of Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in the area. The vertical structure of this community is complicated, it can be divided into tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The diversity variation among the communities is: shrub layer>herb layer>tree layer. The trend is “mid-altitude bulge” in community diversity along altitude. It might relate to the environmental factor and artificial disturbance in the research area.

  17. Natural thinning and structural patterns of intermediate cutting intensity in a Cunninghamia lanceolata stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuisong ZHANG; Changfa CHEN; Shouqing HE; Kexuan WU; Yousheng ZHAN

    2008-01-01

    In the intermediate cutting intensity experi-ment of a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation for 20 years, the changing pattern of natural thinning in these stands, with different intermediate cutting intensities, was studied. The relationship between the number of trees removed by natural thinning and stand density and site conditions was explained. The mathematical equation density management maps was tested and the relationship of diameter, height and canopy structure of stands with different intermediate cutting intensities are proposed. Our study of natural thinning in these stands indicates that the starting and peak periods of natural thinning in the check and slightly thinned plots were both early. The amount of thinned wood was large and the course of thin-ning proceeded continuously. The three levels of thinning: the slight thinning period, the intensive thinning period and the continued thinning period could be divided on the basis of the amount of thinned wood. Natural thinning would be a very long process without artificial interfer-ence. The starting and peak periods of thinning in the middle and strong intermediate felling are both late and present intermittence. Their thinning stages were not clearly evident. Through our studies, we also discovered that stand density and site conditions had important effects on the number of dead and dying trees, but that density was more important than site conditions. By way of tests, the relative error of the mathematical equation of natural thinning lines of C. lanceolata stand density man-agement maps was 3.91% and the precision was relatively high. The practical test results of the stands, given differ-ent intermediate cutting intensities and different site indi-ces, show that the relative error of the check plots was 5.23%, while the relative errors of the other tested items were all < 5%, well within the allowable experimental error. The mathematical equation was comparatively practical. The study demonstrated

  18. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow from Schima superba and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-fen; YANG Yu-sheng; CHEN Guang-shui; LIN Peng

    2005-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in forest nutrient cycling, their monthly concentration dynamics in forest ecosystems, especially in subtropical forests only were little known. The goal of this study is to measure the concentrations and monthly dynamics of DOC and DON in precipitation, throughfall and stemflow for two plantations of Schima superba (SS) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) in Jianou, Fujian, China. Samples of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were collected on a rain event base from January 2002 to December 2002. Upon collection, all water samples were analyzed for DOC, NO3--N, NH4+-N and total dissolved N (TDN). DON was calculated by subtracting NO3--N and NH4+-N from TDN. The results showed that the precipitation had a mean DOC concentration of 1.7 mg·L-1 and DON concentration of 0.13 mg·L-1. The mean DOC and DON concentrations in throughfall were 11.2 and 0.24 mg·L-1 in the SS and 10.3 and 0.19 mg·L-1 in the CF respectively. Stemflow DOC and DON concentrations in the CF (19.1 and 0.66 mg·L-1 respectively) were significantly higher than those in the SS (17.6 and 0.48 mg·L-1 respectively). No clear monthly variation in precipitation DOC concentration was found in our study, while DON concentration in precipitation tended to be higher in summer or autumn. The monthly variations of DON concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at both forests, showing an increase at the beginning of the rainy season in March. In contrast, monthly changes of the DOC concentrations in throughfall of the SS and CF were different to those in stemflow. Throughfall DOC concentrations were higher from February to April, while relatively higher DOC concentrations in stemflow were found during September-November period.

  19. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20-30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and about 15-20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of forest

  20. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meifang Zhao

    Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20-30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 and about 15-20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1. These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long

  1. Benefits in Mixed Forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera%杉木光皮桦混交林效益的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承标; 邓绍林; 农必昌

    2001-01-01

    对桂西北杉木光皮桦混交林和杉木纯林的对比研究表明,35年生杉桦混交林的立木蓄积量为441.087 m3*hm-2,比杉木纯林高3.6%。混交林枯枝落叶层现存量及其N,P,K,Ca,Mg等元素的质量浓度分别为13.18 t*hm-2,158.3,6.1,16.5,86.3和32.3 kg*hm-2,分别比杉木纯林高9.7%,76.7%,69.4%,96.4%,83.2%,17.0%。混交林地(0~100 cm)土壤容重为0.81~1.22 g*hm-3,比杉木纯林低1.0%~8.0%,而土壤孔隙度,通气度和持水量分别比杉木纯林高2.0%~3.9%。土壤有机质、全氮、水解氮、有效磷和速效钾分别比杉木纯林高5.5%~49.8%。%Comparative studies were conducted on mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Betula luminifera and pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in westren of Guangxi.The result showed that the growing stocks in stands of 35-year-old mixed forest was 441.087 m3*hm-2,which was by 3.6% higher than those of the same years old forests of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata.The mean standing crop of litteron forest floor in mixed forest was 13.18 t*hm-2 and the mass concentration of N,P,K,Ca,Mg were 158.3,6.1,16.5,86.3,32.3 kg*hm-2,respectively.Being by 9.7%,76.7%,69.4%,96.4%,83.2%,17.0% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forest,respectively.In mixed forest,the soil volume weight (0~100 cm) were 0.81~1.22 g*cm-3,were 1.0%~8.0% lower than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,but it total poresity aeration porosity and moisture capacty were 2.0%~3.9% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,respectively.The nutrientconcentration of organic matter,TN,hydrolazable N,available P and repidly available K in the soil,being by 5.5%~49.8% higher than that of pure Cunninghamia lanceolata,respectively.

  2. 杉木观光木混交林凋落物分解及养分释放的研究%LITTER DECOMPOSITION AND NUTRIENT RELEASE IN A MIXED FOREST OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA AND TSOONGIODENDRON ODORUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉盛; 陈光水; 郭剑芬; 何宗明; 陈银秀

    2002-01-01

    通过福建省中亚热带杉木观光木混交林(Cunninghamia lanceolata and Tsoongiodendron odorum mixed forest)和杉木纯林(Pure C. lanceolata forest)凋落物的分解和养分释放动态试验研究表明,凋落物各组分分解过程中干物质损失速率随时间而减小,分解1年时以观光木叶的干重损失最大.各组分分解过程中N、P元素浓度增加而K和C元素浓度下降.混交林中各组分的养分释放速率大小为观光木叶>混合样品(等重量的观光木叶和杉木叶混合)>杉木叶>杉木小枝.不同元素的释放速率与干重损失速率大小为:K>C>干重>N≈P.混交林凋落物的年养分释放量(kg*hm-2*a-1)为N 17.921,P 0.715,K 10.315,分别是纯林的2.03倍、1.73倍和1.34倍.与纯林相比,混交林较高的年凋落物养分归还量和养分释放量有利于促进养分的再循环,这对维持混交林的地力有重要作用.%Rate of litter weight loss and release of nutrient elements were investigated in a mixed forest of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and Tsoong’ tree (Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun) and a pure stand of Chinese fir in Sanming, Fujian. Chinese fir needle, branch, Tsoong’ tree leaf and the mixture of Chinese fir needle and Tsoong’ tree leaf were involved in the 510 day period of litter bag studies. Rate of weight loss slowed with time for all litter components, with the highest percent initial weight loss of 74.54% for leaf litter of Tsoong’ tree at the first year. Concentrations of N and P appeared to increase and concentrations of K and C appeared to decrease during the decomposition. The four litter components could be arranged with respect to nutrient release rate in this sequence: leaf of Tsoong’ tree > the mixed leaves > needle of Chinese fir > branch of Chinese fir. Nutrient elements and weight loss followed the release pattern: K >C >dry weight> N≈P. The total annual nutrient release of litter fall was N,17.921 kg*hm-2*a-1; P, 0

  3. Studies on the Species of Endophytic Fungi from Cunninghamia lanceolata in Xinyang Area%信阳杉木内生真菌种类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢东升; 张伟; 杜醒醒

    2015-01-01

    通过组织分离及物种鉴定,对信阳杉木内生真菌种类进行了研究.得到丝孢纲( Hyphomycetes)和腔孢纲(Coelomycetes)真菌4科12属15种.淡色孢科(Moniliaceae)3属5种,暗色孢科(Dematiaceae)2属2种,黑盘孢科(Melanconidaceae)2属3种,球科孢科(Sphaeropsidaceae)5属5种,这些真菌均为半知菌,是杉木内生真菌首次记载.其中,拟茎点霉Phomopsis sp.、球刺盘孢菌Colletotrichum coccodes分布于杉木各样地各器官,为杉木内生真菌广布种.%By tissue isolation and species identification, the species of endophytic fungi from Cunninghamia lan-ceolata were studied in Xinyang area.The results showed that total of 15 fungal species among 12 genera belonging to 4 families and 2 classes, Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes, were obtained.Five species belonging to 3 genera in Mo-niliaceae, two species belonging to 2 genera in Dematiaceae, two species belonging to 3 genera in Melanconidaceae and five species belonging to 5 genera in Sphaeropsidaceae were reported.All the fungal species described belonged to Deuteromycotina and they were recorded for the first time as endophytic fungi in Cunninghamia lanceolata tissues.It was also found that the Colletotrichum coccodes and Phomopsis sp.distributed in every organ and every sample plot, they were dispersed species of endophytic fungi in Cunninghamia lanceolata plants.

  4. Composition and properties of soil humus in a mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Tsoongiodendron odorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in Xinkou Experimental Forestry Farm of Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University, Sanming, Fujian Province in January 1999. Taking pure stand of Chinese fir as control, the authors measured and studied the content of organic carbon, content of humic acid (HA), ratio of HA to fulvic acid (FA), and the characteristics of infrared light spectrum and visible light spectrum of soil humus in the mixed forest of Chinese fir and Tsoong' tree. Compared to humus composition in the pure stand of Chinese fir, the content of soil organic C, HA content, and the E4 value of HA for different layers of soil, except for the ratio of HA to FA, showed a significant increase in the mixed forest, while the ratios of E4 to E6 had a little decrease. The infrared light spectrum of humic acid had an absorptive peak at 1650 cm-1. It is concluded that the levels of humification and aromaticity of soil humus are higher in the mixed forest, which is favorable for the improvement of soil structure and nutrient supply, thus improving the soil fertility to a certain degree.

  5. DBH and Tree Height Growth Dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata of Different Growth Degree%30年生不同生长势杉木的胸径和树高的生长动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽颖; 张绍轩; 任佳佳; 孟京辉; 李磊

    2014-01-01

    采用树干解析法获取3种不同生长势(优势木、中庸木、被压木)杉木的胸径、树高生长数据,利用ForStat的生长曲线模拟杉木的胸径模型和树高模型,结果表明,Richards生长曲线是分析杉木胸径和树高的适宜生长曲线;3种不同生长势的杉木胸径生长曲线和树高生长曲线均呈“S”状曲线,有较高的相关性.%Two growth indices,including diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height of Cunninghamia lanceolata trees with 3 different growth vigors (dominant,intermediate and suppressed trees) were measured by stem analysis method.ForStat growth model was adopted to simulate the growth models of tree height and DBH.It was found that Richards growth curve was suitable for the analysis of DBH and tree height.The The growth curves of DBH and tree height of 3 different growth vigors of Chinese Fir were "S" shaped curves,and had significant correlations were observed between them.

  6. Assessing the effects of vegetation types on carbon storage fifteen years after reforestation on a Chinese fir site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinkui Wang; Silong Wang; Jianwei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a significant role in sequestering carbon (C) in biomass and soils. Plantations established in subtropical China since the 1980s, mainly of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) in monocultures, have proved to be major C sinks. However, information is lacking about whether mixing Chinese fir with broadleaved tree...

  7. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Community Functional Diversities in a Chinese Fir Plantation%模拟氮沉降对杉木人工林(Cunninghamia lanceolata)土壤酶活性及微生物群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁颖红; 樊后保; 刘文飞; 黄荣珍; 沈芳芳; 胡锋; 李辉信

    2013-01-01

    在杉木人工林中开展模拟氮沉降试验,设计N0(对照)、N1(N 60 kg/(hm2·a))、N2(N 120 kg/(hm2·a))和N3(N 240 kg/(hm2·a))等4个氮沉降水平.通过连续7年的处理后,研究了外加氮源对土壤酶活性及群落功能多样性的影响.相同氮沉降处理下,参与土壤碳循环的6种主要酶(蔗糖酶、纤维素酶、淀粉酶、β-葡糖苷酶、多酚氧化酶、过氧化物酶)活性、土壤微生物群落碳源利用能力和多样性指数与均匀度指数均随土层加深而降低.氮沉降对纤维素酶和多酚氧化酶具有促进作用,而对淀粉酶和过氧化物酶表现出一定的抑制作用;中-低氮沉降(N1、N2)对蔗糖酶无影响,而对β-葡糖苷酶具有促进作用,高氮沉降(N3)促进了蔗糖酶活性,但抑制了β-葡糖苷酶活性.各土层中,低氮处理(N1)促进了微生物群落碳源利用能力和多样性指数与均匀度指数的增加,而中-高氮处理(N2、N3)则呈抑制作用.主成分分析表明,土壤微生物群落利用的主要碳源为碳水化合物和羧酸,不同氮沉降处理碳源利用类型存在差异.因此,氮沉降促进了表层土壤纤维素酶、多酚氧化酶和蔗糖酶的活性,但在一定程度上抑制了淀粉酶、过氧化物酶和β-葡糖苷酶活性;氮沉降增加改变了杉木人工林土壤微生物群落的功能多样性.%This study evaluated the effects of nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities and microbial community functional diversities (sole-source carbon utilization, SCU) in a Chinese fir plantation subject to simulated nitrogen deposition for seven years at Shaxian State Forest Farm of Fujian Province, China. Nitrogen loadings were designed at 4 levels as NO (CK), N1, N2 and N3 at the doses of 0, 60, 120 and 240 kg/(hm2·a)N, respectively. Each treatment comprised 3 replicate plots of 20 m×20 m which were sprayed with CO(NH2)2 solutions on the forest floor at the beginning of each month, lasting from January 2004 to

  8. Study on Ground Diameter Single Entry Volume Table of Cunninghamia lanceolataPlantation%杉木人工林地径材积表编制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏杰南; 黎良财

    2011-01-01

    Based on the determination of the DBH (D13), ground diameter (D0.1). Height (H) and volume (V) of Cunning-hamia lanceolcta (Lamb.) Hook, artifical forests, the single ground diameter volume table was prepared and compared using multiple model selection V-Da1 and double volume table. The test of the two equation showed that they reached the accuracy requirements in production, therefore could be applied in forest survey and management.%根据杉木[ Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.]人工林样木的胸径D1.3地径D0.1、树高H的测定值和立木材积的计算值V,分别采用材积V-地径D0.1多模型选优法和二元材积表导算法编制一元地径材积表,并进行比较.经检验,这两种方法编制的数表均能够满足生产上的精度要求,可以作为林业调查、经营管理的工具数表.

  9. Effects of elevated mean and extremely high temperatures on the physio-ecological characteristics of geographically distinctive populations of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiaorong; Liao, Huixuan; Peng, Shijia; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    Conventional models for predicting species distribution under global warming scenarios often treat one species as a homogeneous whole. In the present study, we selected Cunninghamia lanceolata (C. lanceolata), a widely distributed species in China, to investigate the physio-ecological responses of five populations under different temperature regimes. The results demonstrate that increased mean temperatures induce increased growth performance among northern populations, which exhibited the greatest germination capacity and largest increase in the overlap between the growth curve and the monthly average temperature. However,tolerance of the southern population to extremely high temperatures was stronger than among the population from the northern region,shown by the best growth and the most stable photosynthetic system of the southern population under extremely high temperature. This result indicates that the growth advantage among northern populations due to increased mean temperatures may be weakened by lower tolerance to extremely high temperatures. This finding is antithetical to the predicted results. The theoretical coupling model constructed here illustrates that the difference in growth between populations at high and low latitudes and altitudes under global warming will decrease because of the frequent occurrence of extremely high temperatures.

  10. 杉木与楠木凋落叶混合分解及其P、K动态%Decomposition Characteristics and Dynamics of Phosphorus and Potassium of Leaf Litter Mixtures of Both Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江淼华; 程徐冰; 杨建忠; 郭剑芬

    2012-01-01

    将杉木、楠木凋落叶及以二者不同比例混合的凋落叶置于果园林内进行分解和P、K动态的研究,结果表明:杉木和楠木凋落叶混合处理的分解速率均大于单独分解的纯杉木和纯楠木凋落叶.各凋落叶分解过程中,P浓度略有增加,而K浓度基本呈下降趋势.纯杉木凋落叶分解过程中P、K残留率均比纯楠木叶的低.杉楠混合分解的P、K释放率基本上大于单独的纯楠木叶.杉木与楠木凋落叶混合分解对其P和K的释放有一定的促进作用.%Decomposition and the dynamics of P and K of single Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei leaf litter and their different mixtures were studied in an orchard.The results showed that the decomposition rates of litter mixtures between Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei were faster than those of single leaf litter.Concentrations of P in single and mixture of leaf litter appeared to increase and concentrations of K appeared to decrease during the decomposition.Percentages of P and K remaining were lower in single Cunninghamia lanceolata needle litter compared to single Phoeba bournei leaf litter.P and K release rates of leaf litter mixtures were faster than those of single Phoeba bournei leaf litter.Release rates of P and K were increased when leaf litter of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Phoeba bournei were mixed together.

  11. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  12. Dielectric properties of copper-ethanolamine treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jin-zhen; Yu Li-li; You Xiao-di; Kamdem D. Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In order to clarify the interaction between copper and wood substances in wood treated with copper containing water-borne wood preservatives,the dielectric constant ε'and dielectric loss factorε" of untreated wood and wood treated with four concentration levels of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) solutions were determined within a temperature range from-100 to 40℃ and a frequency range from 100 to 1 MHz. Three dielectric relaxation processes were observed in the ε" spectrum;among them R-I is based on the reorientation of methylol groups in the amorphous region of wood cell walls and R-Ⅱis related to wood extractives. R-Ⅲ appeared in Cu-EA treated wood,and its magnitude decreases with the concentration of Cu-EA solutions used in this experiment. This relaxation process was considered to be based on the reorientation of copper-ethanolamine-wood complexes in wood cell walls. At low copper retention, the hydrogen in the complex Can form hydrogen bonding with adjacent hydroxyl groups,which results in a strong bonding state between copper and wood;at high copper retention, the numerous copper-ethanolamine complexes not only hinder them from forming hydrogen bonding with adjacent wood molecules due to steric hindrance,but also weaken the interaction between wood molecules themselves,which corresponds to reducing ε" values of both R-I and R-Ⅲ processes. The results explain the fact of increasing copper leaching in wood treated with high concentration copper-based water-borne preservatives.

  13. A Study on the Analysis Method of Density Change During Self-thinning for Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation%杉木人工林自疏过程密度变化分析方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承祯; 洪伟; 姜志林

    2001-01-01

    采用二次正交旋转组合设计方法,建立了影响杉木自疏的海拔、坡位及林分平均胸径与杉木人工林自疏过程密度变化关系的数学模型,结果表明林分平均胸径对杉木人工林自然稀疏存在极显著影响,坡位与林分平均胸径的交互作用对自疏存在显著影响.运用遗传算法优化了模型参数,在检验模型适应性的基础上应用计算机模拟技术,分析了杉木人工林自疏过程密度变化随坡位及林分平均胸径变化的内在规律,为杉木人工林密度定量管理提供了科学基础.%Using quadratic orthogonal rotation design, this paper established a mathematical model of density change during self-thinning for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation, which related to the altitude, situation of slope and mean diameter at breast height. The results showed that mean diameter at breast height effected on density change for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation far significantly, and the inter-effective between situation of slope and mean diameter at breast height had significant effect on density change for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation. Then the authors optimized model's parameters by genetic algorithms, and analyzed the inner law of density change during self-thinning for Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation following the change of situation of slope and mean diameter at breast height using computer simulating technique. This study would provide scientific base for density management of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation.

  14. Effect of Different Altitude Afforestation to Cunninghamia lanceolata Cutting%不同海拔高度杉木扦插造林成效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭尧邦

    2012-01-01

    Choose different Cunninghamla lanceolata cuttings altitude for afforestation test, through investigation and analysis, the results showed that different Cunm'nghamia laneeolata cuttings altitude, the survival rate and afforestation in 3 years young forest survival, average ground diameter and height difference. With altitude Cunninghamia laneeolata 1000m height 700 - year survival rate of forestation cutting and 3-year surial was young forest taller, 3 years young forest average ground diameter and height criterion with low altitude as well.%选择不同海拔高度进行杉木扦插造林试验,通过调查对比分析,结果表明:不同海拔高度杉木扦插造林,其当年成活率和3年幼林的存活率、平均地径和高度存在差异。以海拔700~1 000m高度杉木扦插造林的当年成活率和3年幼林的存活率较高,3年幼林的平均地径和高度则以较低的海拔高度为好。

  15. Natural Resistance of Two Plantation Woods Populus × canadensis cv. and Cunninghamia lanceolata to Decay Fungi and Termites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jia-qi; Momohara Ikuo; Ohmura Wakako

    2005-01-01

    Natural durability of two plantation woods, Chinese fir and I-214 poplar, was investigated thoroughly by three testing methods, namely an accelerated laboratory decay test, a fungus cellar test and a field test. Aft er the decay test using Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor, Chinese fir and the I-214 poplar showed 34% and 69% of mass loss, respectively, indicating they should be classified as slightly durable and non-durable wood. This conclusion was confirmed by the fungus cellar test and the field test. Like the performance in the decay test, I-214 poplar showed no resistance to termites either in the laboratory or in the field,whereas Chinese fir would be classified as moderately resistant.

  16. Screening conditions of adventitious bud induction and plantlet regeneration for Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉木茎段不定芽诱导及植株再生条件筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫雅芳; 戴勤; 谭玲; 苏治南; 卢亮; 杨梅

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探索广西杉木快繁技术,为杉木组织培养和种苗供应提供参考依据.[方法]以杉木优良树种基部枝条为试验材料,进行茎段外植体消毒、不定芽诱导及植株再生研究.[结果]以75%酒精处理30 s+0.1%升汞消毒6min的效果较理想,污染率为30%;初代培养基为1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg/L+6-BA 0.6 mg/L,第8d即有芽萌动,诱导率可达47%;继代培养基1/2MS +IBA 0.3 mg/L+6-BA 0.4 mg/L中加入蔗糖30 g/L,25 d腋芽增殖倍数可达3.4倍;1/4MS+IBA 0.15mg/L+NAA 0.075 mg/L对杉木生根诱导效果较好,生根率为52%.[结论],杉木外植体用75%酒精和0.1%升汞消毒6min效果较理想,适当减少培养基中矿质元素有利于杉木外殖体芽的诱导和试管苗的增殖生长,NAA可促进试管苗生根.%[Objective]Conditions of the adventitious bud induction and plant regeneration for Cunninghamia lanceolata were screened and rapid propagation techniques for Chinese fir in Guangxi was explored to provide references for supply and tissue culture of Chinese fir seedlings.[Method]Using base branches of superior Chinese fir species as testing materials,stem explant disinfection,adventitious bud induction and plant regeneration were the focal points in the current research.[Result] (1)The best disinfection method was treating stem explants with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% mercuric chloride for 6 min,which showed 30% contamination rate; (2)In the initial medium (1/2MS + NAA 0.2 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L),the buds germinated on the 8th day with the induction rate of 47%; (3)In the optimum subculture medium (1/2MS + IBA 0.3 mg/L + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L + white sugar 30 g/L),axillary buds were multiplied by 3.4 times on the 25th day; (4)The induction effect was the best with the rooting rate of 52% in the rooting medium (1/4MS + IBA 0.15 mg/L + NAA 0.075 mg/L).[Conclusion]It was beneficial to the adventitious bud induction for Chinese fir with the initial medium (1/2MS + NAA 0.2 mg

  17. Gene expression and proteomic analysis of shoot apical meristem transition from dormancy to activation in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huimin; Cao, Dechang; Chen, Yanmei; Wei, Dongmei; Wang, Yanwei; Stevenson, Rebecca Ann; Zhu, Yingfang; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-02-02

    In contrast to annual plants, in perennial plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) can undergo seasonal transitions between dormancy and activity; understanding this transition is crucial for understanding growth in perennial plants. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM development in trees. Here, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that evident changes in starch granules, lipid bodies, and cell walls thickness of the SAM in C. lanceolata during the transition from dormancy to activation. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased and levels of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased from dormant to active stage. Examination of 20 genes and 132 differentially expressed proteins revealed that the expression of genes and proteins potentially involved in cell division and expansion significantly increased in the active stage, whereas those related to the abscisic acid insensitive 3(ABI3), the cytoskeleton and energy metabolism decreased in the dormant stage. These findings provide new insights into the complex mechanism of gene and protein expression and their relation to cytological and physiological changes of SAM in this coniferous species.

  18. Undergrowth plant species and their diversity analysis in Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaf mixed forest in west Dongting lake area%西洞庭湖区杉-阔林下植物种类及物种多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李际平; 赵春燕; 袁晓红; 郑柳; 蒋琼星

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze edge effects of landscape patch in Cunninghamia lanceolata and broadleaf tree mixed forest, the undergrowth vegetation species were analyzed by using frequency and coverage methods, the species diversity of the mixed forest was investigated according to plant species number and plant species diversity index. The results show that in the C. lanceolata forest and broadleaf tree landscape patch there existed edge effect; in the marginal zone of the mixed, the values of undergrowth plant species, the species richness and species diversity were all greater than those in Chinese fir and broad leaved core zone, and the edge effect was related with tree age groups, the edge effect of young group was not obvious, the middle age group showed a strong positive effect, the mature age group of landscape patch tended stable, the effect intensity of mature age group was less than the middle age group.%为了分析杉木类与阔叶类景观斑块间边缘效应,运用频度和盖度分析杉-阔间林下植物种类,运用植物种类数目和物种多样性指数分析杉-阔林物种多样性.结果表明:杉木类与阔叶类景观斑块间存在边缘效应,在杉-阔边缘区出现林下植物种类、物种丰富度和物种多样性均大于杉木类与阔叶类核心区,且边缘效应与龄组有关,幼龄组表现不明显,中龄组表现较强的正效应,成熟龄组景观斑块趋于稳定,边缘效应强度小于中龄组.

  19. 会同杉木人工林的潜热通量特征%Characteristics of latent heat flux over Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in Huitong county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维舟; 赵仲辉; 康文星; 田大伦; 项文化; 闫文德

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of latent heat flux were determined using the data gathered from an open path eddy covariance system and an automatic weather gradient system in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Huitong county, Hunan province. The relationship between the environmental factor and latent heat flux was studied. The results show that: the latent heat flux had distinct diurnal and annual variations. In one day, when the season was spring or summer the latent heat flux fluctuated in zero value at night, increasing from 7:00 and reaching at the peak value at 14:00. When the latent heat flux reached the peak value it reduced, 21:00 reaching the night value. In autumn or winter the latent heat flux increasing from 7-30 and reached at the peak value at 12:00 and 21:00 reached the night value. In one year, the latent heat flux annual variations presented single-peak type, the latent heat flux increased from January, August reached the maximum and began to decline month by month. The latent heat flux was linearly related to the photosynthesis active radiation, was quadratic curves related to temperature, and was power function related to the saturation vapor deficit.%利用开路式涡动相关系统与自动气象梯度观测系统的观测数据,对会同杉木人工林潜热通量特征及其与环境因子的关系进行了研究.结果表明:潜热通量具有明显的日变化和年变化特征,一天中,春夏季节潜热通量值夜间在0值左右波动,早上7:00开始递增,14:00左右达到最大后逐渐下降,21:00将为夜间值.秋冬季节潜热通量早上7:30开始递增,12:00达到最大值,19:00降为夜间值.一年中,潜热通量变化特征呈单峰型,从1月份开始递增,8月份达到最大值后逐月递减.潜热通量与光合有效辐射数据之间呈线性相关关系,与温度呈二次曲线关系,与饱和差呈幂函数关系.

  20. Plus Tree Resource Survey and Genebank Construction for Cunninghamia lanceolata%乐昌油杉优树资源调查及收集区营建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑会全; 胡德活; 王润辉; 韦如萍; 晏姝; 朱火生; 粱瑞友; 赖旭恩

    2013-01-01

    对广东省乐昌地区杉木林分进行调查,共筛选出104份乐昌油杉优树资源.对优树生长、形质、材质等性状进行测定分析,结果表明:优树群体生长性状(树高、胸径、单株材积)均值明显高于样地群体值(P<0.01),性状表现水平(PL)皆在77.0以上;入选优树树高、胸径、单株材积现实增益分别为0.4% ~ 97.1%、32.3% ~ 131.8%、82.6% ~ 712.5%;优树高径比、冠径比变幅分别为38.9 ~76.5、8.7 ~21.9;优树木材基本密度、红心材比率、木材干缩性、木材吸水性总体变幅则分别为0.251 1~0.393 1 g/cm3、29.2% ~72.3%、0.8% ~ 32.4%、189.0% ~ 332.9%;其中,木材干缩性变异程度最大,CV值达100%,而木材基本密度变异程度较低,CV值仅为11%.以平均木材质测定值为阈值对优树进行分类,不同优树群体均可分选出一定数量生长材质皆优单株.研究还对乐昌油杉优树资源进行了有效保存(就地保存与异地保存),收集区资源合计保存率为98.1%.%Based on a large-scale investigation into Cunninghamia lanceolata stands in Lechang area of Guangdong Province, a total of 104 plus trees of C. lanceolata were screened out, and the trait indexes including height, DBH, form index, standing volume, wood quality and growth properties of the plus trees were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the average values of tree height, DBH, and standing volume of the plus tree population were all significantly (P <0. 01) higher than those of the sample plot population, whose phenotype level was above 77. 0. Further analyses revealed that the real gain of tree height, DBH, and standing volume indexes of the plus trees could achieve to 0. 4% -97. 1% , 32. 3% - 131. 8% , and 82. 6% -712. 5% respectively. The height-DBH ratio and the crown-DBH diameter ratio ranged from 38. 9 to 76.5, and from 8. 7 to 21. 9 individually. The basic wood density (DEN) , red-heartwood ratio

  1. 电阻应变法测定杉木弹性常数的研究%Study on Determining the Elastic Constants of Wood of Cunninghamia lanceolata by Means of Electric Resistance-Strain Gauges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵卓平; 祝山

    2001-01-01

    The elastic constants of wood of Cunninghamia lanceolata was determined and the limits of orthotropic model adopted for wood was studied. The results showed that the elastic constants of wood could be determined by means of electric resistance-strain gauges,and the constants was satisfied to the limits of orthotropic.%测试杉木的弹性常数,研究木材采用正交各向异性体模型的限制条件。结果表明,可以采用电阻应变法以单轴压缩试件测定木材弹性常数;所测木材弹性常数满足正交各向异性材料的限制条件。

  2. 不同间伐强度对杉木人工林林分生长的影响%Effects of intermediate cutting intensities on growth of planted Cunninghamia lanceolata forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙忠于; 周开德; 王华东

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify the effect of different thinning intensities on the growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata planta-tions ,four thinning intensities (20%,30%,40%,50%)in Liuyang district as the object,an investigation was conducted on the DBH and tree height.The results showed that the DBH of 40%thinning intensity was significantly higher than other groups.There was no difference in the tree height of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations among four thinning intensities and CK plots.For what it was worth,analysis suggested that adopting the thinning intensity of 40%has obrious growth and suitable to the local development.%为探明不同间伐强度对杉木林生长的影响,以浏阳地区4种间伐强度(20%,30%,40%和50%)下的杉木人工林为对象,样地内每木标尺,连续3年测量林木胸径和树高,对比分析不同间伐强度下平均胸径和树高变化。结果表明:不同间伐强度对杉木人工林胸径连年生长量的影响差异显著,当间伐强度为40%时,可促进胸径连续性增长,并合理控制树体高度;不同间伐强度之间树高的差异均不显著。从经济效益分析,间伐强度40%的整体增长趋势较明显,具有连续性,适合当地采用。

  3. 不同模式杉阔混交对林木生长的影响%Effects of Different Modes of Chinese Fir-and-Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest on Tree Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌华

    2014-01-01

    通过对几种杉阔混交模式的试验研究,结果表明:杉木+枫香和杉木+木荷2种混交林与杉木纯林比较,在树高生长方面有极显著差异,其中以杉木+枫香混交模式生长最好,为8.47m,杉木+木荷模式次之,为7.93 m。杉阔混交对促进杉木林的健康生长有着非常大的作用。%Several modes for Chinese fir-and-broad-leaved mixed forest were studied .Result shows that :two kinds of mixed forest (Cunninghamia lanceolata+ Liquidambar formosana & Cunninghamia lanceolata + Schima super-ba) were compared to pure forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata;there are significant differences in height growth ,a-mong which the growth of mixed mode (C .lanceolata + L .formosana) is the optimal ,being 8 .47 m ,followed by C .lanceolata+ S .superba ,being 7 .93 m .Chinese fir-and-broad-leaved mixed forest has a significant role to promote healthy growth for C .lanceolata .

  4. Effect of Clear Cutting Clearances on Soil Physicochemical Properties of Cunninghamia lanceolata Stand%杉木采伐迹地清理方式对土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖秀珍

    2015-01-01

    Soil fertility of Cunninghamia lanceolata in clearing cutting and controlled burning land were studied. Result shows that the soil bulk density in controlled burning land is 13.5% higher than that in C.lanceolata planta-tion,non-controlled burning land is 5.9% higher than that in C.lanceolata plantation;differences of non-capillary porosity with different treatments are significant,non-capillary porosity of burning slash ,which is the most least,is 105.45% smaller than that of C.lanceolata;noncapillary porosity of non burning slash is 37.1% than that of C. lanceolata ;acid of soil was reduced after C.lanceolata being harvested;organic matter also decreased significantly, organic matter of non-controlled burning land is 29.1% lower than that in C.lanceolata plantation,organic matter in burning area is 1 1 9.22% lower than that in C.lanceolata;total N content in non-controlled burning land and controlled burning land is decreased by 23.07%,33.33%,respectively than that in C.lanceolata plantation;the total P content decreased by 64.1 6%,76.1 9%,the total K content decreased by 10.86%,32.74%;the content of N for non-controlled burning land was 22.69% lower than that in C.lanceolata plantation,the content of N for controlled burning land was 34.05% lower than that in C.lanceolata forest;after C.lanceolata being harvested, the content of available P & K in non-controlled burning land decreased by 1 5.43%,36.79% than that in C.lan-ceolata plantation;the content of available P & K decreased by 53.27%,71.32% than that in C.lanceolata planta-tion.%研究了杉木林采伐迹地及采伐后的炼山迹地的土壤肥力。结果表明:炼山迹地土壤容重最大,比杉木林地高13.5%,非炼山迹地比杉木林地高5.9%;不同处理非毛管孔隙差异显著,炼山迹地非毛管孔隙最小,比杉木林小105.45%,非炼山迹地非毛管孔隙比杉木林小37.1%;杉木采伐后,酸性降低;有机质也明显下降,

  5. Effects of UV-B radiation on the decomposition of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter%UV-B辐射对杉木凋落叶分解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧玲; 宋新章; 张智婷; 江洪; 王懿祥; 白尚斌

    2011-01-01

    A litterbag experiment was conducted to study the decomposition of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter under ambient and reduced UV-B radiation (22.1% below ambient) . Comparing with ambient treatment. the reduced treatment decreased the decomposition rate of C. lanceolata leaf litter by 69. 6% ( P<0.001 ) . making the relative contents of nitrogen ( N) , phosphorus ( P) ,and lignin in the litter increased by 150% , 83. 3% , and 13. 8% , respectively, and the release of potassium ( K) and carbon ( C) slowed down. In the process of litter decomposition, photo-degradation of lignin didn't play crucial role. The results suggested that UV-B radiation could accelerate the decomposition rate of C. lanceolata leaf litter, promote the release of N. P. K. and C from it.and increase the nutrients turnover rate in litter layer as well as the carbon flux on the ground, giving potential effects on the function of C. lanceolata forest as a carbon source or sink in humid subtropical China.%采用分解袋法对自然和UV-B辐射滤减环境下的杉木凋落叶进行分解试验.结果表明:与对照相比,UV-B辐射滤减处理使杉木凋落叶的分解速率降低了69.6%(P<0.001),凋落叶中氮、磷和木质素的相对含量分别增加150%、83.3%和13.8%,抑制了钾和碳的释放.木质素光降解在杉木凋落叶分解过程中的作用不明显.UV-B辐射可以加快杉木凋落叶的分解,促进氮、磷、钾和碳的释放,以及杉木林凋落物层的营养周转速度,增加地表的碳通量,对杉木林的碳源或碳汇功能具有潜在的影响.

  6. Effects of Fire on Soil Organic Carbon of Cunninghamia lanceolata Stands in North Subtropical Area%火烧对北亚热带杉木林土壤有机碳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志霞; 李正才; 周君刚; 程彩芳; 赵睿宇; 孙娇娇

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To study the effect of burning on soil organic carbon and to provide references for post-fire vegetation regeneration.[Method]The changes of organic carbon and nutrient contents in post-fire Cunninghamia lanceolata stand with the soil depth of 0 50 cm in north subtropical areas were analyzed.[Result]The contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC),easily-oxidized carbon (EOC)and light fraction organic carbon (LFOM)were higher than those of contrast sample area,which increased by 1 .7% 38.0%、6.6% 33.2% and 3.1 %45.7%,respectively.Significant differences were found in the soil layer with depth of 0 1 0 cm and 1 0 20 cm (P <0.01 ).Compared with the contrast sample area,the soil carbon storage in the layer with depth of 0 50 cm increased by 1 9.1 % one year after burning.The TOC,EOC and LFOMwere all significantly related to the soil nu-trients (total N,hydrolyzable N and available K).After burning,the increase of TOC,EOC and LFOMwere main-ly concentrated on the surface of soil and the organic carbon contents increased by 9.22 g·kg -1 in 0 1 0 cm lay-er.[Conclusion]Moderate intensity burning has a significant impact on organic carbon in the soil of C.lanceolata stand in the north subtropical area.Moderate burning can increase the soil organic carbon because the soil can mix the organic residues caused by incomplete combustion of vegetation layer.Replanting in the burned area could be a-dopted to promote the vegetation restoration.

  7. Afforestation Techniques and Result Analysis of Fast-growing and High-yield Forests of Cunninghamia lanceolata%青阳县杉木速生丰产林营林技术与成效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建军

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the demonstration forests of Cunninghamia laneeolata planted in 2004 in Nanhe Village, Muzhen Township of Qingyang County were selected as the example and the effects of technique application in fast-growing and high-yield forests of Cunning- hamia lanceolata on the stand quality and timber production were analyzed. The results showed that by adopting intensive management measures including careful tillage, fine variety and strong stock, careful planting, management and protection, etc., the average height, DBH, basal diameter and stand volume of the demonstration forests have increased significantly and brought remarkable benefits compared with stands with the same site conditions and general afforestation measures.%本文以青阳县木镇镇南河村2004年营造杉木示范林为例,分析杉木速生丰产用材林营林技术措施对林分质量和木材产量的影响。结果表明:示范点林分通过采取细致整地、良种壮苗、认真栽植、精心管护等集约经营措施,比同等立地条件对照造林林分的平均高、平均地(胸)径、林木蓄积量均有明显提高,效益明显。

  8. Studies on Electrolyte Conductivity and Activity of Dehydrogenase of Chinese Fir and Masson Pine Bare-Root Seedling under Water and Cold Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fangyuan; Xu Xizeng; Guo Xinbao

    2003-01-01

    The electrolyte conductivity and activity of dehydrogenase of bare-root seedlings of both Chinese fir (Cunningha-mia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) under freezing and desiccation treatments were studied.The results showed that needle electrolyte conductivity of both species increase significantly after freezing treatment and there are nosignificant differences in needle electrolyte conductivity between the two species. The dehydrogenase activity (ARD) of fine roots ofboth Chinese fir and Masson pine was negatively correlated with increasing freezing and desiccation. The results suggest that bothelectrolyte conductivity and dehydrogenase activity could be used as quick indicators of Chinese fir and Masson pine bare-root seed-ling quality.

  9. 基于ANP的杉木风景游憩林评价指标体系%Study on evaluation index system of Cunninghamia lanceolata scenic and recreational forests based on analytic network process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅光义; 孙玉军; 林方; 王轶夫

    2013-01-01

    So far, there is no evaluation index system of Cunninghamia lanceolata scenic and recreational forests by analytic network process. Based on the data of scenic and recreational forests at home and abroad, by taking C. lanceolata forests as studying objects, an evaluation index system of Cunninghamia lanceolata scenic and recreational forests was set up by analytic network process. The results show that in the first grade indexes, the weighting of forest aesthetics index was the biggest, that of other indexes followed by: forest measurement, stand spatial structure, Characteristics of surface cover, forest's health. In the second grade indexes, the weightings ordered by magnitude: slope, tree height, transparency distance, DBH, life form, canopy density, crown width, density of trees number, show degree of trunk, height of shrub, green quantity, proportion of coniferous trees and broadleaved trees, fallen dead wood, height of grass, coverage, distribution of grass and shrub, stem form, color diversity, forest tree distribution, litter distribution, mean height under first alive branch. This study provides basis data for city forest planning, management and further research.%网络分析法是使用很广的评价方法,该方法考虑了评价对象定量和定性指标之间相互影响,准确性更高.目前还没有学者利用网络分析方法(ANP)建立杉木风景游憩林林内景观质量评价指标体系的网络分析模型.在查阅国内外风景游憩林—致性结论的基础上,以杉木人工林为研究对象,运用网络分析法建立风景游憩林林内景观评价指标体系.结果表明:森林美学指标在主指标中权重是最大的,其余依次是林木测树、林分空间结构、地被物层特征、森林健康;二级指标中,权重从大到小依次是:坡度、平均树高、通视距离、林分平均直径、生活型组成、郁闭度、冠幅、乔木株数、树干显示度、灌木高度、针阔比、绿量、枯倒

  10. Effect of Different Tendering Measures onCunninghamia lanceolata%不同抚育措施对杉木大径材培育效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃钧; 马海泉; 陈天华; 冯博杰; 傅兵; 鄢振武

    2015-01-01

    于2011年在浙江省庆元县和龙泉市的杉木人工林设立了3个小班进行试验,每木调查,2012年3月前完成间伐,然后采取“间后施肥”、“间后不施”、“不间不施”3种不同抚育措施,研究其对杉木胸径生长量和经济收入的影响。结果表明:以“间后施肥”的效果最好,两年杉木大径材平均胸径生长量比间伐前增加了4 cm,蓄积增长量比间伐前增加了66.75 m3/hm2,平均胸径增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加1.03 cm和3.43 cm,平均蓄积增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加15.45 m3/hm2和42.90 m3/hm2。%Three subcompartments were established in 2011 for test of different tending measures inCunninghamia lanceolata plantation of Qingyuan and Longquan of Zhejiang province. Complete enumeration was conducted in 2011 at permanent sample plots in each treatment of each subcompartment. Thinning was finished before March 2012, followed by three different tendering measures, such as fertilization after thinning, no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning. The result demonstrated that fertilization after thinning had the best effect on DBH and standing stock increment, with 4cm and 66.75 m3/ha more two years later. Mean DBH and standing stock increment of treatment of fertilization after thinning was 1.03cm and 3.43cm, 15.45 m3/ha and 42.90 m3/ha more than that of no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning.

  11. Genetic Variation Analysis of Flowering Phenology in the 2.5 Generation Seed Orchard of Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉木2.5代种子园开花物候遗传变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王润辉; 胡德活; 郑会全; 刘伟新; 梁瑞友; 杨伯群

    2013-01-01

    The flowering phenology observation was conducted from February to March in 2012 on 20 Cunninghamia lanceolata clones chosen from the 2.5 generation seed orchard,which was set up in 2009 in Xiaokeng Forest Farm.The results indicated that there ware extremely significant differences in the initial blooming stage (referred as phase 1),full blooming stage (referred as phase 2) and end blooming stage (referred as phase 3) among the clones.There was also extremely significant difference in phase 1 and phase 2 between the female and male strobilus of the same clone,but there was no significant difference in the phase 3 between the female and male strobilus of the same clone,suggesting there was a high overlay in phase 3 of the female and male strobilus,which.might lead to a very high level of self-pollination that would be one of the reasons to produce large proportion of shrunken seeds.The repeatability was amazingly high in phase 1 and phase 2,but relatively low in phase 3,revealing that phase 1 and phase 2 were under strong genetic control,and phase 3 of the species was more influenced by the environment.The high repeatability of the flowering phenology proved that it would be a very effective way to select the clones with synchronized flowering phenology for establishing new seed orchards of C.lanceolata.%在小坑林场2009年营建的杉木2.5代种子园中选择20个建园无性系,于2012年2月和3月开展开花物候观测.数据分析结果表明:各无性系间的始花期、盛花期和末花期存在极显著差异;同一无性系的雌雄花在始花期、盛花期上的差别也达到极显著水平,而在末花期上的差别未达到显著水平,说明同一无性系的雌雄花末花期较一致、重叠程度高,这可能会导致很大程度的自花授粉,也可能是造成杉木种子中涩粒含量高的原因之一.另外,各无性系始花期、盛花期的重复力极高,而末花期的重复力相对较低,表明始花期、盛花期受

  12. 根系去除对米老排和杉木凋落物分解的影响%Effect of Root Removal on Litter Decomposition in Plantations of Mytilaria laosensis and Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞强; 黄志群; 何宗明; 万晓华; 余再鹏; 郑璐嘉; 肖好燕

    2015-01-01

    【目的】研究米老排和杉木凋落叶分解及其对根系去除的响应,探索根系对凋落物分解的影响,从而为森林经营管理提供科学依据。【方法】以福建南平峡阳林场米老排和杉木人工林为研究对象,在各个林分中分别设置3个20 m ×20 m的试验小区,在每个试验小区各设置对照和根系去除处理。利用网袋法研究凋落叶的分解。【结果】分解16个月后,根系去除处理下米老排和杉木凋落叶的质量损失率分别为32.3%和33.4%,与对照处理(38.1%和38.7%)相比,分别降低了15.3%和13.1%;树种、处理、时间、树种与时间的交互效应对凋落叶质量损失率均有显著影响,2种凋落叶的质量损失率在分解初期(0~8个月)差异显著,分解后期(8~16个月)差异不显著;根系去除处理可显著降低2个树种凋落叶的碳氮含量和碳氮比、显著降低土壤真菌、放线菌和总 PLFA 含量,但对革兰氏阴性细菌、革兰氏阳性细菌和真细菌生物量比均无显著影响;树种与处理的交互效应对凋落叶质量损失率、碳氮比和土壤微生物群落均无显著影响。【结论】根系去除处理对凋落叶分解速率具有显著影响,但树种与处理的交互效应不显著。%[Objective]We investigated the decomposition process of leaf litter and its responses to root removal in Mytilaria laosensis and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations. The aim was to determine the effect of fine root removal on leaf litter decomposition.[Method]Our experimental site is located at Xiayang Forest Farm,in Nanping,Fujian,China, where a M. laosensis plantation and a C. lanceolata plantation were selected. Three 20 m × 20 m plots were established in each plantation. A treatment with root trenched and a control were established in each plot. Decomposition of leaf litter was measured by litter-bag method.[Result]The mass loss rates of M. laosensis and C. lanceolata leaf

  13. Selection of Large-Sized Cunninghamia lanceolata Superior Trees and Variation Analysis on the Major Economic Traits%杉木大径材优树选择与主要经济性状变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑会全; 梁瑞友; 胡德活; 韦如萍; 王润辉; 晏姝

    2012-01-01

    以胸径为选择指标,对杉木初级种子园23年生子代林大径材优树(胸径≥26 cm)进行选择,共有38个优良单株入选,结果表明:优树胸径现实增益值均超过56%;树高、胸径、单株材积、树皮比率、木材基本密度和木材吸水性等主要经济性状在优树间变异较为广泛,变异系数在10%以上;树高、胸径、单株材积、木材吸水性间呈正相关关系,且达显著或极显著水平,而树皮比率与胸径及单株材积间、木材基本密度与各生长性状及木材吸水性间则为负相关关系,达显著或极显著水平.对大径材优树有效材积(去皮后单株材积)-木材基本密度类型作初步划分发现,共17株优树有效材积值大于优树群体均值,其中优树S14、S18 、S22、S25木材基本密度大于优树群体均值.%Taking DBH as selection index, 38 superior Cunninghamia lanceolata individuals ( DBH ≥ 26cm) were selected from 23yr old progeny plantation inside the primary seed orchard. The realized-gain of DBH of all the superior individuals was all over 56%. Further analysis revealed that the tested economic traits including height, DBH, standing volume, bark ratio ( BR) , wood basic density ( DEN) and wood hygroscopicity ( WH) varied greatly among the superior trees, and the variation coefficient was over 10%. It was also found that the height, DBH, volume, and WH were positively correlated to each other significantly or extremely significantly ( significance <0. 05 or 0. 01) among the superior trees, while there were significant or extremely significant negative correlations between BR and DBH, standing volume, between DEN and WH and each growth index. According to the classification results of the superior trees in VB (volume without bark) and DEN, 17 individuals were identified to have a higher level of VB than that of the mean value of the superior trees population (PM ) , and the DEN value of superior S14 , S18, S22, S25 trees displayed

  14. 桂东区杉木地径与胸径、树高、材积相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Ground Diameter and DBH, Tree Height and Volume of Cunninghamia lanceolata in East Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闭海秀; 黄清经

    2014-01-01

    Using ground diameter, DBH and tree height of Cunninghamia lanceolata from the control samples of second class investigation in Zhaoping county, Hezhou city, Guaingxi in 2009 as the sample data, and using the SPSS statistical analysis software and the knowledge of mathematical statistics, the correlation about the ground diameter and DBH, tree height and volume was analyzed. The correlations or curve regression models on ground diameter and DBH, and ground diameter and volume were established and the optimal model was selected , which could be used to calculate DBH and volume by ground diam-eter. The results showed that the ground diameter and tree height accumulated in strong positive correla-tion. The best regression model of ground diameter from 6cm to 20cm and DBH was D1. 3 = -0. 199 +0. 851D地. The regression model of ground diameter from 22cm to 40cm and DBH was D1. 3 = -1. 652+0. 913 D地, with precision 98. 7 %. Ground diameter and DBH also had a strong positive linear correla-tion. Regression model of the ground diameter and volume was V =0. 000 082D地2. 486 79 with precision 95. 2 %. The precision of the models built in this time was within permitted, which could be used in practice.%利用广西昭平县2009年二类调查控制样点的数据中的杉木的地径和胸径、树高为样本数据,并通过SPSS统计分析软件和数理统计知识,对地径与胸径、树高和材积的相关关系进行分析,分别建立地径与胸径、地径与材积的相关关系或曲线回归模型,最后选出最优模型,从而可利用模型由地径推算胸径和材积。结果表明,地径与树高存在显著正相关性,且地径6~20 cm 径阶与胸径之间最佳的回归模型为 D1.3=-0.199+0.851D地,地径22~40 cm径阶与胸径之间回归模型为D1.3=-1.652+0.913D地,精度是98.7%;同时地径与胸径也存在显著的正线性相关性,地径与材积的回归模型为V=0.000082D地2.48679,精度为95.2%。本次

  15. 冰雪灾害对粤北杉木林生物多样性的影响%Impact of Ice-snow Damage on Understory Biodiversity in a Cunninghamia lanceolata Stand in Northern Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓丽; 薛立

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the structure and composition of forest communities suffering from ice-snow damage, understory species were investigated in 2011 at five large (80-100 m2), five small (30-40 m2) and canopy sites in the Cunninghamia lanceolata stand, showing that there were 3, 4 and 3 shrub species and 7, 10 and 5 herbaceous species in the lager gaps, small gaps and canopy sites, respectively. Shannon-Weiner diversity in-dex was 1. 01, 1. 09 and 0. 95, Simpson diversity index was 0. 61, 0. 60 and 0. 57, Pielou (JSW) evenness index was 0. 91, 0. 79 and 0. 87, and Pielou (JSi) evenness index was 0. 92, 0. 80 and 0. 86 in shrub layer, respective-ly, in the controls, small gaps and large gaps. Whereas Shannon-Weiner diversity index was 1. 42, 1. 92 and 1. 37, Simpson diversity index was 0. 64, 0. 95 and 0. 71, Pielou ( JSW ) evenness index was 0. 73, 0. 84 and 0. 85 and Pielou (JSi) evenness index was 0. 74, 1. 05 and 0. 88 in herbaceous layer, respectively, in the controls, small gaps and large gaps. Generally, diversity index was low in large gaps due to strong illumination and high in small gaps due to large spatial heterogeneity.%为更好地了解冰雪灾害对森林群落结构和组成的影响,于2011年调查了粤北1个杉木林的5个大林窗(80~100 m2),5个小林窗(30~40 m2)和郁闭样地的林下植物。在大林窗、小林窗和郁闭样地分别有3、4和3种灌木和7,10和5种草本;郁闭样地、小林窗、大林窗灌木层的Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数分别为1.01、1.09和0.95, Shannon 多样性指数分别为0.61、0.60和0.57,均匀度指数JSW分别为0.91、0.79和0.87,均匀度指数JSi分别为0.92、0.80和0.86;而草本层的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数分别为1.42、1.92和1.37, Shannon多样性指数分别为0.64、0.95和0.71,均匀度指数JSW分别为0.73、0.84和0.85,均匀度指数JSi分别为0.74、1.05和0.88。总体来看,大林窗光照过强,不利于荫生植物生存,故多样性指数

  16. 罗田垂枝杉不同材料扦插试验研究∗%Study on the Rooting Ability of the Cuttings from Cunninghamia lanceolata cv.Luotian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国伟; 杜超群; 陈华超; 徐向阳; 晏绍良; 许业洲

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to carry out research on asexual reproduction of Cunninghamia lanceolata cv.Luotian,the lateral branches of older trees and coppice shoots were used as the experimental materials,and the difference of the effect of dif-ferent cuttings,clones and hormones on their rooting ability were compared.The results showed that secondary branches of the trees,which were more than 20 years old,had a low rooting rate which was only 48.11%,but the rooting rate of the lateral branches were more than 65%.The rooting rate (88.86%)of the coppice shoots was far higher than that (48. 01%)of the branches of the plus trees,and there were extremely significantly different between them (p<0.01).The rooting rate of the non-lignification cuttings was only 6 .6 7%,far lower than the rooting level (8 6 .9 4%~9 1 .6 7%)of the others.The rooting rate of the coppice shoots from different clones was from 51.57% to 98.77%.The rooting rate of the cuttings treated by hormone was more than 9 1 .5 7%,and the cuttings treated by powder 1 had the largest number of roots ,and there was obviously different between the method and the other treatments (p<0 .0 5 ).In general,the cut-tings of branches were significantly better than that of coppice shoots,and the rooting rate of cuttings could be improved effectively by hormone treatment.%为探索罗田垂枝杉的无性繁殖,以大树侧枝和基部萌条及采穗圃穗条为试验材料进行扦插,分析不同材料、不同系号及不同激素处理生根差异.结果表明:20 a以上的大树Ⅱ级侧枝的扦插生根率较低,为48.11%,而Ⅰ级侧枝的扦插生根率可达65%以上;萌条扦插生根率(88.86%)要远高于优树侧枝扦插生根率(48.01%),两者差异达到极显著水平(p<0.01),黄化未木质化穗条扦插生根率仅为6.67%,远低于其他萌条86.94%~91.67%的生根水平,不同系号间萌条生根率从51.57%~98.77%不等;激素处理的

  17. 黑碳添加对杉木人工林土壤微生物量碳氮的影响%Effects of Black Carbon Application on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen in the Plantation of Cunninghamia Lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 高人; 尹云锋; 杨玉盛; 马红亮; 李淑香

    2011-01-01

    As a common soil component, black carbon (BC) plays an important role in forest carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, few studies on effects of BC application on soil microbial biomass car- bon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) in forest soils have been conducted. BC produced from the pyrolysis of branch and leaf litters of Cunninghamia lanceolata at 350 ℃ in capped muffle furnace for 2 h was incorporated into test soil at rates of 0% (CO), 1% (C1) and 5% (C5) based on dried soil mass, and incubated for 28 days at 25 ℃. The results showed that the MBC decreased quickly under different treatments at the early stage of incubation, but increased steadily in later phase. The MBN increased gradually with incubation duration under the higher BC-amended treatments, but the pattern was signif- icantly different for the unamended soil, and tended to decrease throughout the experiment. Higher ap- plication levels provided further enhancement of MBC and MBN with the order as C5 〉 C1 〉 C0. In ad- dition, DOC and DON decreased with BC application and incubation duration.%向杉木人工林土壤中分别添加不同用量黑碳,以0%(C0)、1%(C1)和5%(C5)添加量(质量分数)作为不同处理,通过28d室内培养实验,研究了黑碳添加对土壤微生物量碳(ymc)和微生物量氮(MBN)的影响.结果表明,各处理土攘MBC含量变化趋势是前期急剧减少,后期增加,并趋于稳定;黑碳添加在一定程度上缓解了土壤MBN含量的减少,并随着黑碳添加量的增加,土壤MBN含量呈现增加的趋势.整个培养过程中,除第1d外,黑碳添加处理的土壤MBC和MBN含量始终高于对照处理,C5〉C1〉CO.同时,土壤可溶性碳(DOC)和可溶性氮(DON)含量也因黑碳的添加而呈现减少的趋势.

  18. Soil Fertility in Agroforestry System of Chinese Fir and Villous Amomum in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A trial of interplanting and non-interplanting villous amomum (Amomum villosum Lour.) under the canopy of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) at age 22 was established in Sanming, Fujian of China, and a survey on soil fertility was carried out 10 years after its establishment. Compared with the control (non-interplanting), the properties of soil humus in agroforestry system were ameliorated, with a higher level of humification and resynthesis of organic detritus. The soil microbial population and enzymatic activities were both higher under the influence of villous amomum. Both the nutrient supplying and nutrient conserving capacities of the soil were improved. This agroforestry system exhibited an advantage of improved soil fertility, as well as an accelerated growth of Chinese fir, it was, therefore, a sustainable management system suited for Chinese fir in South China.

  19. Research of Hybridization Pollination Technology in Chinese fir%杉木杂交授粉技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林源华

    2015-01-01

    该文从组织实施、雌雄花的特征、亲本选择、套袋隔离、花粉采集与处理、授粉等方面详细介绍了杉木人工控制授粉杂交制种技术.%In this paper,we particularly described the artificial pollination technology of Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook). It contained the aspects of organization and implementation,the characteristics of female and male flowers,parental choice,bagging isolation,pollen collection and pollination,and so on.

  20. Sap flow simulation of Cunninghamia lanceolata in degraded red soil region based on back propagation neural network%基于反向传播神经网络的退化红壤区杉木树干液流模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂洁; 刘琪璟; 危骏; 胡良

    2015-01-01

    以江西退化红壤区杉木人工林为研究对象,采用MATLAB工具箱中的log‐sigmoid型函数( tansig)为神经元作用函数,以空气温度、空气相对湿度、平均净辐射、水汽压亏缺为输入变量,液流速率为输出变量,运用贝叶斯正则化算法和Levenberg‐Marquardt算法对4000组气象数据和液流数据进行网络训练和检验,构建拓扑结构为4101的杉木树干液流反向传播( back propagation , BP)神经网络模型.结果表明:在2种算法下训练样本和检验样本模型输出值与实测值之间线性回归的拟合程度均较高,回归方程的相关系数在0.93以上;训练样本的拟合精度分别为83.57%和83.06%,检验样本的仿真精度分别为82.87%和82.15%.说明该网络模型能够很好地反映液流速率与气象因子之间的非线性函数关系,可为杉木人工林的可持续经营和林地水资源的科学管理提供有效手段.%Summary Cunninghamia lanceolata is commonly considered to be one of the most important tree species for forest restoration and reconstruction in subtropical area of China , owing to its advantages of rapid growth , good quality and high yield per unit area . However , they also consume certain amount of water during the course of growth and play roles of ecological benefits . Therefore , quantitative research on tree water consumption characteristics by transpiration has become a hot issue in the field of tree physiological ecology in recent years . Taking the C . lanceolata plantation in degraded red soil of Jiangxi Province as the research object , the log‐sigmoid type function ( tansig) of MATLAB toolbox was selected as the transmission function for the role of neurons . Four main factors including air temperature , relative air humidity , average net radiation and vapor pressure deficit were chosen as the input variables , and the sap flow velocity was selected as the output variable , to train and

  1. Relationship between Stock Growth of the 3rd Generation Seed Orchard of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Soil Properties in Different Cutting Blank%不同采伐迹地杉木第三代种子园砧木高生长与土壤关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江晓丽

    2012-01-01

    以杉木第三代种子园为调查研究对象,在外业调查的基础上,对采集的土壤样品进行了性质测定,并依据种子园砧木定植当年的树高,通过方差显著性分析及LSD多重比较分析,探讨了不同采伐迹地间杉木第三代种子园砧木定植当年生长与土壤的差异性。结果表明:土壤pH在4.2-4.8之间、速效磷含量在6.3-6.7 mg/kg之间、有机质在39-43 g/kg之间、全氮含量在1.5-1.7 g/kg之间的林地较适宜杉木砧木的生长;除速效钾外,油茶套种马尾松幼林改造迹地的各土壤养分含量比其它类型高;各采伐迹地土壤表土层厚度差异不显著;马尾松采伐迹地的砧木高生长最好。综合分析,马尾松采伐迹地与油茶套种马尾松采伐迹地较适宜杉木第三代种子园的建立。%With the research object of stock growth of the 3rd generation seed orchard of Cunninghamia lanceolata and based on field investigation, the properties of soil samples were determined and the tree height for that year were investigated. With analysis of variance and LSD multiple comparison, the differences between soil nutrients and the growth of young C. lanceolata in different cutting blank were researched. The results showed that they were suitable to growth for C. lanceolata at pH between 4.2-4.8, available P between 6.3-6.7 mg/kg, organic matter between 39-43 g/kg, total N 1.5~1.7 g/kg, except for available K. Soil properties content of Camellia oleifera interplanted young Pinus massoniana plantations were higher than other kinds. The differences of soil topsoil thickness during cutting blank were not significant. The stock growth of young C. lanceolata in cutting blank of P. massoniana was best. The comprehensive analysis results showed that the cutting blank of P. massoniana plantations and C. oleifera interplanted young P. massoniana plantations were suitable to the building of the 3rd generation seed orchard of C. lanceolatca

  2. 施肥与间伐对杉木大径材培育的影响%Effect of Thinning and Fertilization on Increment in DBH and Volume ofCunninghamia lanceolata Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐隆校; 潘建华; 赖根伟

    2016-01-01

    2012年对浙江省遂昌县牛头山、白马山、桂洋、湖山林场4个小班的人工杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)林和针阔混交林(杉木:鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense)为7:3,株数比)进行“间伐后施肥”、“间伐后不施肥”、“不施肥不间伐”3种处理,2014年调查比较不同措施对杉木林胸径和材积生长量以及经济收入的影响。结果表明,“间伐后施肥”处理的效果最好,实施2 a后杉木林平均胸径生长量、蓄积增长量比间伐前都有明显增长;3种处理给杉木材积增长带来的经济效益以“间伐后施肥”为最明显,每年可增加经济效益27810元/hm2,比“不施肥不间伐”增加13560元/hm2。%Three permanent sample plots in each subcompartment (4 subcompartments) were established in 2012 for test of thinning and fertilization on growth ofCunninghamia lanceolataplantation and mixed forest in Suichang, Zhejiang province. Complete enumeration was conducted in July-September of 2012 at permanent sample plots in each treatment of each subcompartment. Thinning was finished before December of 2012, followed by fertilization after thinning, no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning. The result demonstrated that fertilization after thinning had the best effect on DBH and standing stock increment two years later. The treatment of fertilization after thinning could increase 27810 Yuan RMB/ha in increment of volume a year, 13560 Yuan RMB more than that of no fertilization and thinning.

  3. Water status of bare—root seedlings of Chinese fir and Masson pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUFang-yuan; GUOXin-bao; XUXi-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Water relation parameters of bare-root seedlings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.)and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)were measured and changes of root growth potential as well as field survival rate of both species were studied after the bare-root seedlings were exposed in a sunny field condition.the results showed that masson pine had a lower osmotic potential(-2.07Mpa) at turgor loss point and at full turgor(-1.29Mpa),compared with Chinese fir(-1.80Mpa and -1.08Mpa respectively).The parameter Vp/Vo(63.27%) of Masson pine was higher than that of chinese fir (58.03%).This means that Masson pine has a stronger ability to tolerate desiccation,compared to Chinese fir according to analysis of above water relation parameters.Root growth potential and field survival rate decreased with prolonging duration of exposure.The field survival rate of both species was reduced to less than 40% after the seedling being exposed only two hours.Water potentials of -1.60 Mpa and -1.70 Mpa were suggested to be critical values for Chinese fir and Masson pine respectively in successful reforestation.

  4. ClRTL1 Encodes a Chinese Fir RNase III–Like Protein Involved in Regulating Shoot Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genes controlling shoot branching is crucial for improving plant architecture and increasing crop yield or biomass. A branching mutant of Chinese fir named “Dugansha” (Cunninghamia lanceolata var. dugan. has been isolated in our laboratory. We chose the cDNA-AFLP technique and an effective strategy to screen genes that potentially regulate shoot branching in Chinese fir using this mutant. An RNase III-like1 cDNA fragment named ClRTL1 was identified as a potential positive regulator. To investigate the function of ClRTL1 in regulating shoot branching, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence from C. lanceolata (Lamb. Hook, deduced its secondary structure and function, and overexpressed the coding sequence in Arabidopsis. The ClRTL1 cDNA is 1045 bp and comprises an open reading frame of 705 bp. It encodes a protein of 235 amino acids. The deduced secondary structure of the ClRTL1 indicates that it is a mini-RNase III-like protein. The expression analysis and phenotypes of 35S: ClRTL1 in A. thaliana implies that ClRTL1 plays a role in promoting shoot branching in Chinese fir.

  5. Impact of Continuous Chinese Fir Monoculture on Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-Sheng; LIU Chun-Jiang; W. KUTSCH; CHEN Guang-Shui; YU Xin-Tuo

    2004-01-01

    Soil properties were investigated in sites where three succeeding generations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lambert) Hooker) in Nanping, Fujian, China, were cultivated in order to show the impact of a repeated monoculture on site productivity. Compared with the first generation (FG) stand the soil structure deteriorated in the second generation (SG) and the third generation (TG) stands. For instance,the destruction rate of the peds increased by 55%-115% in the SG and the TG stands compared to the FG stand. Soil nutrient storage and nutrient availability also decreased in the SG and the TG stands. For surface soils of 0-20 cm, the organic matter content, total N and P, and available N and P decreased by 3%-20% relative to those in the FG stand. For many soil parameters, the differences between the FG stand and the SG and the TG stands were statistically significant (LSD test, P < 0.05). Furthermore, with each succeeding generation of Chinese fir, the total number of soil microbes declined, the soil enzyme activity weakened, and the soil biological activity decreased. In order to maintain sustainable site productivity, new silvicultural practices need to be developed for management of Chinese fir plantations.

  6. Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.

  7. 基于计算机图像处理技术评估杉木和马尾松种子活力%Seed vigor assessment for Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana using image processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓飞; 祁亨年; 赵光武

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine seed vigor of forest tree rapidly and automatically,five-lot seeds of China fir and masson pine were used to study the assessment methods of seed vigor by using computer image processing.Firstly,images were captured by a common digital camera from germinated seeds which grew upright on blue germination paper.Then,seedling growth was measured daily for 5 days since 6th day after sowing (DAS) using self-developed seedling length calculating software.The results showed that the seedling length and growth rate generally ranked seed quality in a similar trend compared with field test,and the optimal computer recognition indices were species dependent.Seedling lengths at 6th,9th DAS (SL6,SL9) were the optimal indices to assess seed vigor of China fir.Seedling length at 10th DAS (SL10) and growth speed (GS) were the optimal indices to assess seed vigor of masson pine.In general,it was feasible to assess seed vigor of China fir and masson pine by using computer image analysis of seedling length and growth rate.The research can provide a reference for seed vigor assessment of small-seed species.%为实现林木种子活力快速自动化检测,该文以杉木和马尾松各5个批次种子为对象,研究种子活力评估的计算机图像处理方法.首先,种子于蓝色发芽纸上垂直发芽,播种6d后通过普通数码相机连续拍照5d.然后,获取的图像经自主开发的幼苗长度分析软件测量幼苗长度并计算生长速率.结果表明:计算机识别的幼苗长度和生长速率能较好地区分种子批的质量水平,该结果与田间检测结果基本一致,但最佳识别指标因物种不同而异.播种6d幼苗长度(SL6)和播种9d幼苗长度(SL9)均是评估杉木种子活力的最佳指标,播种10d幼苗长度(SL10)和幼苗生长速率(GS)均是评价马尾松种子活力的最佳指标.研究结果表明,采用计算机图像处理技术测定幼苗长度和生长速率评估杉木和马尾松种子活力是

  8. 模拟氮沉降对杉木林土壤氮循环相关微生物的影响%Response of the N-Cycling Associated Soil Microorganism to Simulated N Deposition in a Plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩霞; 焦如珍; 董玉红; 孙启武; 周新华; 李峰卿

    2015-01-01

    层的固氮菌数量大于10~20 cm土层,0~60 kg·hm -2 a -1铵态氮和0~80 kg·hm -2 a -1硝态氮均可促进固氮菌的生长。亚硝酸细菌在2种氮形态处理时的变化趋势相反,低铵态氮处理可促进亚硝酸细菌的生长,低硝态氮处理抑制其生长。氮形态对硝酸细菌数量影响不显著,低氮处理促进硝酸细菌数量的增长,而中氮处理开始出现抑制作用。氮沉降量对反硝化细菌影响不显著。%Objective]The number of microorganism in soil is an important index in determining the change of the biochemical function of soil nitrogen cycle. While the current studies mostly focus on the microbial flora,the research on nitrogen cycling associated microorganisms is little. In this paper,the influence of deposition amount of short-term nitrogen deposition in different nitrogen forms on soil culturable azotobacter, nitric acid bacteria, nitrous acid bacteria and denitrifying bacteria is studied by a field simulation experiment. The change trend at early stage in response to the N-deposition is an important knowledge for forest nitrogen regulation and environmental management,and this study would provide reference for the further research on effects of nitrogen deposition on Chinese fir plantation ecosystem.[Method]In May 2013,30 plots of 1 m × 1 m were established in a Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation to simulate nitrogen loadings at 5 levels: N0,N1,N2,N3,and N4 with 0,20,40,60 and 80 kg·hm - 2 a - 1 ,respectively. Soil samples were collected in 0 -10 cm and 10 -20 cm soil layers in June,August and October 2013,respectively. The dilution plate counting method was used to determine the amount of nitrogen fixing bacteria,and the MPN-Griess colorimetry for measuring nitrate and nitrite bacteria,and the phenol two sulfonyl colorimetric method for denitrifying bacteria ( anaerobic) .[Result]The results showed: the amount of azotobacter in the 0-10 cm soil layer was more than in 10 -20 cm. Along with the

  9. Study on Chemical Emasculation Experiment of Chinese fir%杉木化学去雄初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐明; 陈益泰; 邵小根

    2001-01-01

    Chemical emasculation experiment were carried out in biclonal seed orchard of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Suichang County, Zhejiang Province from 1996 to 2000. The chemical emasculation with the compound of 45% paraquat and 10% glyphosate were commonly used at present. The results showed that: (1) Under the suitable prescriptions, the compound of 45% paraquat and 10% glyphosate is one of the inexpensive, easy and ideal chemicals of emasculation. (2) In this experiment, the suitable spraying time is 20 days before the male cone begin to dust. For the sake of safety, if the spraying begin after the formation and differentiation of male cone, but before its growth and development, i.e. before the flow of tree liquid (in dormancy), the effect will be better. (3) The optimal mixture ratio of 45% paraquat and 10% glyphosate is (8 g:15 mL)~(8 g:25 mL), diluting 80 times when using. It is better to spray 3 times.

  10. Microclimate and Its Formation Mechanism in Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook. Plantation Ecosystems in the Subtropical Zone of China%中国亚热带杉木人工林生态系统的小气候及其形成机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张合平; 田大伦; 康文星; 艾顺儒

    2001-01-01

    Microclimate characteristics and related environmental energy mechanisms were examined based on the long-term located observations in the mature, thinned and young Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation ecosys tems in western Hunan Province, China. The results show that the mature plantation ecosystem can improve the microclimate significantly by regulating the amount and spatial distribution of environmental energy, which delin eates the pattern of the microclimate in forest ecosystems in the process of ecological restoration. Compared with the young plantation, the mature plantation ecosystem decreased annual mean air temperature by 0.4 °C. The max imum decrease in monthly mean air temperature was 2.3 ~C. The mature plantation ecosystem decreased annual mean ground temperature by 1.2 °C with a maximum decrease in monthly mean ground temperature of 2.3 °C. Ma inly due to the dense canopy, the mature forest ecosystem regulates the distribution of radiation energy, and ex penditure ratios of heat budget and principal energy components to decrease temperature or make it even.%该文通过位于湖南西部的森林生态系统研究站的长期定位观测,研究了杉木人工林成熟林、间伐林和幼林的小气候特征,在分析人工林生态系统环境能量的基础上,探讨其小气候的形成机制,揭示了人工林生态系统在生态恢复后的小气候变化规律.多年的小气候观测表明,与杉木幼林比较,杉木成熟林生态系统可将年平均降低0.4℃,月平均气温最大可降低2.3℃;可降低年平均地表温度1.2℃,月地表平均温度最大可降低2.3℃;可增加年蒸发散100mm以上.人工林生态系统环境能量数据分析表明,主要通过林冠层调节环境能量数值和分布来改善系统的小气候条件,即通过影响潜热、乱流交换热、位能、动能等能量要素,降低系统的温度及其变幅.

  11. 杉木人工林林窗特征因子与闽楠幼林生长关系的研究%Research on the Relationship Between Gap Characteristics of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations and the Growth of Gap Regeneration Phoebe bournei Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧建德

    2014-01-01

    通过对福建明溪杉木人工林中16个林冠的林窗长轴和短轴及人工植苗3年生闽楠的保存率、地径和树高进行调查,分析林窗特征对闽楠植苗更新的影响。结果表明,影响闽楠幼林保存率和树高的林窗特征因子的主次排序为开阔度>短轴>长轴>面积;影响闽楠地径生长因子的主次顺序为开敝度>短轴>面积>长轴。林窗短轴、长轴、面积与开阔度等林窗特征因子与闽楠保存率、树高与地径生长均存在显著性的开口向下的二次抛物线方程的线性关系。综合闽楠幼林保存率、树高和地径生长表现,林窗短轴的理想的取值范围为5.10~6.26 m,合理取值范围为1.23~10.13 m;林窗长轴的理想的取值范围为7.37~7.88 m,合理取值范围为3.44~11.81 m;林窗面积的理想的取值范围为15.0~35.6 m2,合理取值范围为0~88.38 m2;林窗开阔度的理想的取值范围为0.429~0.507,合理取值范围为0.160~0.776。%16 canopy gaps in Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations forest and preserving rate,ground diameter, and tree height of 3-year old Phoebe bournei.plantation in mingxi,Fujian Province was investigated,and analyzed the effects of gap characteristics on planting regeration.The results showed that,in the order of affect on preserva-tion rate and height growth of P.bournei.seedlings,the order of gap characteristics factors was canopy openness>gaps minor axis>gaps long axis >gap size.In order of affect on seedlings ground diameter,it was canopy open-ness>gaps minor axis>gap size >gaps long axis.There was a significant downward opening quadric parabolic relationship between canopy openness,gaps minor axis,gaps long axis,gap size and seedlings preservation rate, height,ground diameter.Comprehensive preservation rate,tree height and diameter growth performance,ideal gaps minor axis was range of 5.10 -6.26 m,reasonable ranges was of 1.23-10.13 m.Ideal gaps long axis was

  12. Creep of Chinese Fir Wood Treated by Different Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng-lian; Zhao Guang-jie; Lü Wen-hua

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different reagents on changes of the crystalline region and amorphous region(Matrix) in wood cell walls, the creep behavior of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood treated with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and diethyl amine, sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfoxide mixture (DEA-SO2-DMSO), and the untreated wood at oven-dried,air-dry and water-saturated states during adsorption and desorption processes were all examined in air or in water. The measurements were carried out at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The load is constant with 62 g or 0.607 6 N. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The instantaneous compliance Jo and the creep compliance J of specimens decrystallized with DEA-SO2-DMSO solution were bigger than those of DMSO swollen wood, and the latter was still much bigger than those of untreated wood. 2) For untreated wood, Jo and J increased with equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood, but there was not apparent correlation between wood EMC and the relative compliance. 3) Specimens treated with DMSO and DEA-SO2-DMSO mixture were recrystallized after immersion in water, and the degree of recrystallization of the former was larger. 4) For oven-dried specimens, the creep compliances in water were bigger than those in air. But for fiber-saturated and water-saturated specimens they were nearly equivalent to each other.

  13. COLOR CHANGE OF CHINESE FIR THROUGH STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dark brown wood color is a current trend and widely appreciated by consumers in the furniture and decoration markets. Heat treatment is one of the most effective methods to darken wood’s appearance. The influence of steam-heat treatment on color change of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. was investigated within the temperature range from 170 to 230 oC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an air-tight chamber within an atmosphere comprising less than 2 percent oxygen. Saturated steam was used as a heating medium and a shielding gas. The results showed that the chroma difference (△C* decreased gradually, while the color difference (△E* and hue difference (△H* increased with an increase in temperature and length of time. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and a multi-comparison analysis revealed that the treatment temperature plays a more important role in darkening wood color during the process of steam-heat treatment in comparison with the treatment time. The results suggest that a more desirable wood color can be achieved with the technology of steam-heat treatment.

  14. SO2对中亚热带两种森林土壤氮净转化速率的短期影响%Short-term Effect of SO2 Fumigation on Soil Net Nitrogen Transformation Rates for Castanopsis carlesii and Cunninghamia lanceolata Forests of Northern Fujian, Mid-subtropics of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祥妹; 李任超; 陆建芳; 马红亮; 高人

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The impact of simulated SO2 deposition on soil nitrogen transformation rates was investigated for the two forests of Castanopsis carksii(CAC) and Cunninghamia lanceolata (CUL) in Northern Fujian, the Mid-subtropical area of China. [ Method] Soil was fumigated with three levels of SO2(0(CK) , 40 (LS)、80 (HS) mg S/kg dry soil) and incubated for 72 hours in Laboratory under the conditions of 30℃ of room temperature and 60% WHC of soil water content and the concerned nitrogen transformation indicators were measured. [ Result] The results showed that for the two forested soils after 10 h SO2 fumigation, HS treatment significantly reduced the soil pH value (P < 0. 05) , and continued for at least 24 h, but the reduction of pH value for the LS treatment was not significant, indicating that the forested soils had some of the buffer capacity to SO2 acidification. The sulfur treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased organic nitrogen mineralization in early 24 h incubation, but thereafter did not show the effect; sulfur treatment also had positive trend of soil nitrogen mineralization for CUL, but only significant for HS in the early 24 h (P < 0.05). Sulfur treatment influence on the two forested soils nitrification rates showed different dynamic characteristics. For CAS, LS significantly improved nitrification (P < 0.05) in early 24 h, but HS had no pronounced effect in the whole incubation; in contrast, for CUL forest, the influence only appeared in the late period of 48 - 72 h. The two forest soil presented in the early 24 h significant negative correlation between pH value and net mineralization rate, and reduced pH value had inhibition tendency to soil nitrification in the early 48 h for CAC soil with lower pH value(4. 50) , but for CUL soil with relatively higher pH (5. 58) had positive trend to soil net nitrification. [ Conclusion] The influencing mechanism of SO2 deposition to soil nitrogen transformation may be different from that of other common

  15. [Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes during wood formation in Chinese fir by SSH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Feng; Gao, Yan; Yang, Li-Wei; Shi, Ji-Sen

    2007-04-01

    Wood is an important raw material for the global industry with rapidly increasing demand. To isolate the differentially expressed genes in xylogenesis of Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook], a forward subtractive cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, which was performed using the cDNA from the mutant Dugansha clone as the tester and the cDNA from the normal Jurong 0 clone as the driver. Six hundred and eighteen clones were obtained. Recombinants were identified using PCR with universal T7 and SP6 primers and using EcoR digestion. To further eliminate false positive, dot hybridization was used with four DIG-labeled probes (FSP, RSP, UTP, and UDP). Real-time PCR was performed to confirm the results. A total of 260 unique ESTs were obtained, 60% of the ESTs exhibiting homologies with proteins of known function fell into 4 major classes: metabolism, cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, signal transduction and stress. The systematic analysis of genes involved in wood formation in Chinese fir provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in xylem differentiation, is important resources for forest research directed toward understanding the genetic control of wood formation and future endeavors to modify wood and fiber properties for industrial use.

  16. Development of a Compatible Taper Function and Stand-Level Merchantable Volume Model for Chinese Fir Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Tang

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook is one of the most important plantation tree species in China with good timber quality and fast growth. It covers an area of 8.54 million hectare, which corresponds to 21% of the total plantation area and 32% of total plantation volume in China. With the increasing market demand, an accurate estimation and prediction of merchantable volume at tree- and stand-level is becoming important for plantation owners. Although there are many studies on the total tree volume estimation from allometric models, these allometric models cannot predict tree- and stand-level merchantable volume at any merchantable height, and the stand-level merchantable volume model was not seen yet in Chinese fir plantations. This study aimed to develop (1 a compatible taper function for tree-level merchantable volume estimation, and (2 a stand-level merchantable volume model for Chinese fir plantations. This "taper function system" consisted in a taper function, a merchantable volume equation and a total tree volume equation. 46 Chinese fir trees were felled to develop the taper function in Shitai County, Anhui province, China. A second-order continuous autoregressive error structure corrected the inherent serial autocorrelation of different observations in one tree. The taper function and volume equations were fitted simultaneously after autocorrelation correction. The compatible taper function fitted well to our data and had very good performances in diameter and total tree volume prediction. The stand-level merchantable volume equation based on the ratio approach was developed using basal area, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter and top diameter (ranging from 0 to 30 cm as independent variables. At last, a total stand-level volume table using stand basal area and dominant height as variables was proposed for local forest managers to simplify the stand volume estimation.

  17. Recovery time of soil carbon pools of conversional Chinese fir plantations from broadleaved forests in subtropical regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Chi; Wang, Hua; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Si-Long

    2017-06-01

    The conversion from natural forest to plantation has been widely applied, with consequences on ecosystem carbon pool. The experimental results of changes of soil carbon stocks after forest conversion are often contradictory. Moreover, the recovery time of soil carbon stocks after forest conversion varies among different sites. To examine the changes of soil carbon stocks following the forest conversions in the long-term and to estimate the recovery time, we selected 116 subtropical forests, including 29 pair-wise replicates for evergreen broadleaved forests (EBF, 40-100-year-old), young Chinese fir plantations (Cunninghamia lanceolata) (YCP, 4-8-year-old), middle-aged Chinese fir plantations (MACP, 13-20-year-old), and mature Chinese fir plantations (MCP, 23-32-year-old), and estimated soil carbon stocks. Soil carbon stocks of YCP and MACP decreased in average 12.5 and 28.7Mgha(-1) compared with EBF, and showed no variation between MCP and EBF. Soil carbon stocks were positively correlated to soil total nitrogen stocks and C:N ratio. Our results showed that the forest conversions didn't cause a variation of soil carbon stocks in the long-term, although there was a short-term decline after conversion. The recovery time of soil carbon stock is 27years. These results indicate that the conversion from evergreen broadleaved forests to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical region of China causes soil carbon release in early stage, but has no effect on soil carbon stocks in the long-term. Prolonging the rotation period (>27years) would offset the adverse effects of the forest conversion on soil carbon stocks, and be critical in alleviating global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Hierarchical Bayesian Model to Predict Self-Thinning Line for Chinese Fir in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Self-thinning is a dynamic equilibrium between forest growth and mortality at full site occupancy. Parameters of the self-thinning lines are often confounded by differences across various stand and site conditions. For overcoming the problem of hierarchical and repeated measures, we used hierarchical Bayesian method to estimate the self-thinning line. The results showed that the self-thinning line for Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.Hook. plantations was not sensitive to the initial planting density. The uncertainty of model predictions was mostly due to within-subject variability. The simulation precision of hierarchical Bayesian method was better than that of stochastic frontier function (SFF. Hierarchical Bayesian method provided a reasonable explanation of the impact of other variables (site quality, soil type, aspect, etc. on self-thinning line, which gave us the posterior distribution of parameters of self-thinning line. The research of self-thinning relationship could be benefit from the use of hierarchical Bayesian method.

  19. Prediction of mechanical properties of Chinese fir wood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaqiang YU; Rongjun ZHAO; Feng FU; Benhua FEI; Zehui JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical properties and the visible and near infrared (NIR) (350-2500nm) spectra obtained from longitudinal and transverse face of 155 small clear wood samples of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) were measured, and 103 of them were used to establish calibration models. Calibrations were tested on an independent set (52 samples). Differences between calibrations developed by using the longitudinal and transverse face were small. The calibrations developed by using NIR spectra (350-2500nm) collected from transverse face were slightly inferior to those developed by using NIR spectra collected from longitudinal face. When reducing the spectral range to between 780 and 1050 nm, the calibrations developed by using NIR spectra collected from longitudinal face were slightly inferior to those developed by using NIR spectra collected from transverse face, and reducing the spectral range causes no decrease in the quality of the models developed using NIR spectra collected from transverse face. Partial lease square (PLS) modeling and test showed that calibrations developed using the visible and NIR spectra from transverse and longitudinal faces and calibrations developed by using the reducing spectral range (780- 1050nm) from the transverse face were moderate, and have a RPD range from 1.51 to 1.90. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy can be used as an initial screening.

  20. Effect of temperature on soil respiration in a Chinese fir forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-fen; YANG Yu-sheng; LIU Le-zhong; ZHAO Yue-cai; CHEN Zeng-wen; MAO Yan-ling

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples collected from the surface soil (0(10 cm) in an 88-year-old Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) forest in Nanping, Fujian, China were incubated for 90 days at the temperatures of 15°C, 25°C and 35°C in laboratory. The soil CO2 evolution rates were measured at the incubation time of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 days. The results showed that CO2 evolution rates of soil samples varied significantly with incubation time and temperature during the incubation period. Mean CO2 evolution rate and cumulative amount of CO2 evolution from soil were highest at 35°C, followed by those at 25°C, and 15°C. Substantial differences in CO2 evolution rate were found in Q10 values calculated for the 2nd and 90th day of incubation. The Q10 value for the average CO2 evolution rate was 2.0 at the temperature range of 15-25°C, but it decreased to 1.2 at 25- 35°C. Soil CO2 evolution rates decreased with the incubation time. The cumulative mineralized C at the end of incubation period (on the 90th day) was less than 10% of the initial C amounts prior to incubation.

  1. Seasonal development of cambial activity in relation to xylem formation in Chinese fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyang; Xu, Huimin; Li, Hanyin; Wei, Dongmei; Lin, Jinxing; Li, Xiaojuan

    2016-05-20

    The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem which can differentiate into secondary phloem and xylem. The secondary growth of woody plants resulting from vascular cambium activity has been a focus of considerable attention, but the quantitative relationships between cambial activity and secondary xylem formation have been little studied. Our analysis of cytological changes in the cambium of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), revealed a significant positive correlation between vascular cambium cell numbers and cambium zone width through the seasonal cycle. Cambium cell numbers and the cambium cell radial diameter were closely related to xylem formation. Immuno-labeling showed that de-esterified homogalacturonan and (1-4)-β-d-galactan epitopes were highly abundant in cell walls of dormant-stage cambium, whereas high methylesterified homogalacturonan was strongly labeled in the active stage. Raman spectroscopy detected significant changes in the chemical composition of cell walls during the active-dormant stage transition. More pectin and less monolignols occurred in radial cell walls than in tangential walls during the dormant stage, but no significant changes were found in other stages, indicating that pectin accumulation facilitates cell wall expansion, with cambium activity transition. Our quantitative analysis of the relationship between cambial activity and xylem formation, as well as the cell wall modification during the active stage provides useful information about cambial characteristics and xylogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. THE VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR WOOD DURING MOISTURE SORPTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Jiang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational properties of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood were investigated in this study as a function of changes in moisture content (MC and grain direction. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DMOE and logarithmic decrement (δ were examined using a cantilever beam vibration testing apparatus. It was observed that DMOE and δ of wood varied widely during moisture adsorption and desorption. The DMOE of wood conditioned by the adsorption process showed significant increases during the later stages of conditioning when the MC scarcely changed. However, with the desorption process, the DMOE did not increase as much during the later stages of conditioning, though they increased during the early stages of conditioning when the MC greatly decreased. These results suggest that wood in an unstable state, caused via the existing state of moisture, shows different vibrational behaviors. Furthermore, the parallel to grain direction showed much higher DMOE and lower δ when compared to the perpendicular to grain direction. The variation of vibrational properties between parallel and perpendicular to grain direction under constant MC and during moisture adsorption process could be attributed due to the microscopic, macroscopic molecular, as well as chemical constituents of wood.

  3. Evaluating management tradeoffs between economic fiber production and other ecosystem services in a Chinese-fir dominated forest plantation in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Seely, Brad; Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John; Zheng, Dexiang; Chen, Pingliu; Wang, Tongli; Li, Qinglin

    2016-07-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is not only a valuable timber species, but also plays an important role in the provision of ecosystem services. Forest management decisions to increase the production of fiber for economic gain may have negative impacts on the long-term flow of ecosystem services from forest resources. Such tradeoffs should be taken into account to fulfill the requirements of sustainable forest management. Here we employed an established, ecosystem-based, stand-level model (FORECAST) in combination with a simplified harvest-scheduling model to evaluate the potential tradeoffs among indicators of provisional, regulating and supporting ecosystem services in a Chinese-fir-dominated landscape located in Fujian Province as a case study. Indicators included: merchantable volume harvested, biomass harvested, ecosystem carbon storage, CO2 fixation, O2 released, biomass nitrogen content, pollutant absorption, and soil fertility. A series of alternative management scenarios, representing different combinations of rotation length and harvest intensity, were simulated to facilitate the analysis. Results from the analysis were summarized in the form of a decision matrix designed to provide a method for forest managers to evaluate management alternatives and tradeoffs in the context of key indicators of ecosystem services. The scenario analysis suggests that there are considerable tradeoffs in terms of ecosystem services associated with stand and landscape-level management decisions. Longer rotations and increased retention tended to favor regulating and supporting services while the opposite was true for provisional services.

  4. Linear mixed-effects models to describe individual tree crown width for China-fir in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hao

    Full Text Available A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike's information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1], and the compound symmetry structure (CS. Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR, the root mean square error (RMSE, and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2. For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models.

  5. 杉木碳汇的经济学分析:基于浙江省的调查%Economic analysis of Chinese fir forest carbon sequestration: based on Zhejiang's survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王枫; 沈月琴; 朱臻; 林建华; 王小玲

    2012-01-01

    Increasing forest carbon-sequestration has become an important measure to address the climate changes. Based on the assumptions of planting in bare lands with medium site conditions and management intensity, this research analyzed the impact of carbon subsidies and carbon tax policies on Chinese fir (Cun-ninghamia lanceolata) plantation through the Chinese fir growth model and the modified Hartman model. The research findings indicated that raising carbon price had little effect on the optimal rotation and carbon supply in a comparatively large price range because the profit from the wood was much higher than that from carbon sequestration. However, the optimal rotation and carbon supply showed a tendency to rise; the land expected value was positively correlated with the carbon price. Because of the implementation of carbon subsidies and carbon tax policies, the values of forest land had been increased. Compared with other types of land use such as agricultural land, more land should be used as forest land.%增加森林碳汇已经成为应对气候变化的重要举措.基于在中等立地条件和经营强度的土地类型上进行裸地造林的假设,运用杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 生长模型和修正的 Faustman-Hartman 模型分析碳补贴和碳税政策对杉木人工林的影响.研究表明:由于木材收益远大于碳汇收益,所以在较大的价格区间内碳汇价格增加对于最优轮伐期和碳供给的影响不显著,但最优轮伐期和碳供给量呈上升趋势;土地期望值与碳汇价格呈正相关.由于碳补贴和碳税政策的实施,林地的价值在增长,与其他土地利用类型如农业用地相比,更多的土地将被用作林业用地.

  6. Thinning increases understory diversity and biomass, and improves soil properties without decreasing growth of Chinese fir in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lili; Cai, Liping; He, Zongming; Wang, Rongwei; Wu, Pengfei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable forestry requires adopting more ecosystem-informed perspectives. Tree thinning improves forest productivity by encouraging the development of the understory, which in turn improves species diversity and nutrient cycling, thereby altering the ecophysiological environment of the stand. This study aimed to quantify tree growth, understory vegetation, and soil quality of 9- and 16-year-old Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations in South China, 1-7 years after pre-commercial thinning. The quadratic mean diameter (QMD) and individual tree volume were greatly increased and compensated for the reduced stand yield in thinned stands. In 2011, the stand volume in unthinned and thinned stands were 276.33 and 226.46 and 251.30 and 243.64 m(3) ha(-1), respectively, for young and middle stage. Therefore, we predicted that over time, the stand volume in thinned stands should exceed that in unthinned stands. The composition, diversity, and biomass of understory vegetation of the plantation monocultures significantly increased after thinning. The effects of thinning management on understory development were dynamic and apparent within 1-2 years post-thinning. Some light-demanding plant species such as Styrax faberi, Callicarpa formosana, Lophatherum gracile, and Gahnia tristis emerged in the shrub and herb layer and became dominant with the larger gaps in the canopy in thinned stands. The trigger effects of thinning management on understory and tree growth were more pronounced in the young stage. The beneficial effects on soil physical and chemical properties were measurable at later stages (7 years after thinning). The strong positive relationship between understory biomass and volume increment (at the tree and stand levels) indicated that understory improvement after thinning did not restrict productivity within Chinese fir stands but rather, benefited soil water content and nutrient status and promoted tree growth.

  7. Soil C and N Pools in Chinese Fir and Evergreen Broadleaf Forests and their Changes with Slash Burning in Mid-Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-Fen; YANG Yu-Sheng; CHEN Guang-Shui; XIE Jin-Sheng; LIN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) pools of a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)(CF) forest, and an evergreen broadleaf (EB) forest located in mid-subtropical, southeastern China, were compared before clearcutting, with the effect of slash burning on organic C and total N in the top 10 cm of soil before and after burning also being evaluated. Prior to clearcutting CF forest had significantly lower (P < 0.05) organic C and total N in the soil(0-100 cm) compared to EB forest with approximately 60% of the C and N at the two forest sites stored at the 0 to 40 cm soil. In post-burn samples of the 0-10 cm depth at 5 days, 1 year, and 5 years for CF and EB forests, significantly lower levels (P < 0.05) of organic C and total N than those in the pre-burn samples were observed. Compared to the pre-burn levels, at post-burn year 5, surface soil organic C storage was only 85% in CF forest and 72% in EB forest, while total N storage was 77% for CF forest and 73% for EB forest. Slash burning caused marked long-term changes in surface soil C and N in the two forest types.

  8. Influence of Thinning on Soil CO2 Efflux in Chinese Fir Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Da-Lun; YAN Wen-De; FANG Xi; KANG Wen-Xing; DENG Xiang-Wen; WANG Guang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Forest management is expected to influence soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) as a result of changes in microenvironmental conditions,soil microclimate,and root dynamics.Soil FCO2 rate was measured during the growing season of 2006 in both thinning and non-thinning locations within stands ranging from 0 to 8 years after the most recent thinning in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations in Huitong Ecosystem Research Station,Hunan,China.Soil temperature and moisture were also measured to examine relationships between FCO2 and soil properties.Forest thinning resulted in huge changes in FCO2 that varied with time since cutting.Immediately following harvest (year 0) FCO2 in thinning area increased by about 30%,declined to 20%-27% below pre-cutting levels during years 4-6,and recovered to pro-cutting levels at 8 years post-cutting.A similar temporal pattern,but with smaller changes,was found in non-thinning locations.The initial increase in FCO2 could be attributed to a combination of root decay,soil disturbance,and increased soil temperature in gaps,while the subsequent decrease and recovery to the death and gradual regrowth of active roots.Strong effects of soil temperature and soil water content on FCO2 were found.Forest thinning mainly influenced FCO2 through changes in tree root respiration,and the net result was a decrease in integrated FCO2 flux through the entire felling cycle.

  9. Variation Within Trees of Wood Anatomical Properties in Chinese-Fir Plantation and Their Relationship Modeling Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis on the variation pattern of early- and latewood tracheid morphological parameters along tree (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) height, including length and width, wall thickness, tissue proportion, cell wall percentage, width of growth rings, and on the relationship among them are conducted. The results indicate an initially rapid and then gentle increase of tracheid length and width, thickness of the radial wall and tangential wall of tracheid, area percentage of tracheid from pi...

  10. Spatial Variability of Soil DNA in China Fir and Masson Pine Mixed Forest in Three Gorger Reservoir Areas%三峡兰陵溪杉木马尾松混交林土壤DNA空间异质性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英华; 汪来发; 卢萍; 田晓堃; 肖文发

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples were collected to a depth of 20 cm using a 3. 0 m ×3. 0 m grid in 900 m2 (30. 0 m×30.0 m ) plots for analysis of spatial patterns of soil in undisturbed area of China fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata ) and Masson pine(Pinus massoniana) mixed forest in the Three Gorger Reservoir Areas. The investigation data showed that the average of soil DNA content was 922. 71 μg· g-1 water-free soil, the maximal value was 6 761. 30 μg· g-1 water-free soil, and the less value 58. 52 μg· g-1 water-free soil. The geostatistical analysis indicated that the spatial distribution characteristic was not obviously reflected by the liner graphs while samples were randomly distribution and independent each other. The separation distance among samples was related to precision of soil DNA content, the effects of non-structure factors (environment factors, disturbed factors) on spatial correlation structure would disappeared due to the separation distance in excess of 18. 84 m, and the spatial correlation of soil DNA faded down in plots. Spatial variability in soil DNA in the region was mostly contributed by the influencing factors including soil nitrogen, soil organic matter and content of soil water.

  11. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Guangyi

    Full Text Available A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H, diameter at breast height (DBH, and aboveground height (h to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.

  12. A Mixed-Effects Model with Different Strategies for Modeling Volume in Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Hao, Xu; de-Miguel, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of nonlinear mixed-effect taper models for volume prediction was performed. Of 21 taper equations with fewer than 5 parameters each, the best 4-parameter fixed-effect model according to fitting statistics was then modified by comparing its values for the parameters total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH), and aboveground height (h) to modeling data. Seven alternative prediction strategies were compared using the best new equation in the absence of calibration data, which is often unavailable in forestry practice. The results of this study suggest that because calibration may sometimes be a realistic option, though it is rarely used in practical applications, one of the best strategies for improving the accuracy of volume prediction is the strategy with 7 calculated total heights of 3, 6 and 9 trees in the largest, smallest and medium-size categories, respectively. We cannot use the average trees or dominant trees for calculating the random parameter for further predictions. The method described here will allow the user to make the best choices of taper type and the best random-effect calculated strategy for each practical application and situation at tree level.

  13. Micropropagation of PLUCHEA LANCEOLATA (Oliver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kher Mafatlal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata is an important medicinal plant of Asteraceae family known for its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity. A protocol was established for micropropagation of P. lanceolata using nodal explants. Nodal explants were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (1962 - MS medium supple–mented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, kinetin (Kin, thidiazuron (TDZ and 2iP (2-isopentenyladenine at various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg·dm-3. The highest multiplication rate was obtained for nodal explants cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg·dm-3 thidiazuron (TDZ. In vitro raised shoots were successfully rooted on ½ mineral salt concentration of MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg dm-3 IBA.

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus additions alter nutrient dynamics but not resorption efficiencies of Chinese fir leaves and twigs differing in age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Sheng; Niklas, Karl Joseph; Liu, Yu; Fang, Xiang-Min; Wan, Song-Ze; Wang, Huimin

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear how or even if phosphorus (P) input alters the influence of nitrogen (N) deposition in a forest. In theory, nutrients in leaves and twigs differing in age may show different responses to elevated nutrient input. To test this possibility, we selected Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) for a series of N and P addition experiments using treatments of +N1 - P (50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), +N2 - P (100 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), -N + P (50 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)), +N1 + P, +N2 + P and -N - P (without N and P addition). Soil samples were analyzed for mineral N and available P concentrations. Leaves and twigs in summer and their litters in winter were classified as and sorted into young and old components to measure N and P concentrations. Soil mineral N and available P increased with N and P additions, respectively. Nitrogen addition increased leaf and twig N concentrations in the second year, but not in the first year; P addition increased leaf and twig P concentrations in both years and enhanced young but not old leaf and twig N accumulations. Nitrogen and P resorption proficiencies in litters increased in response to N and P additions, but N and P resorption efficiencies were not significantly altered. Nitrogen resorption efficiency was generally higher in leaves than in twigs and in young vs old leaves and twigs. Phosphorus resorption efficiency showed a minimal variation from 26.6 to 47.0%. Therefore, P input intensified leaf and twig N enrichment with N addition, leaf and twig nutrients were both gradually resorbed with aging, and organ and age effects depended on the extent of nutrient limitation.

  15. Effects of tree species transfer on soil dissolved organic matter pools in a reforested Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) woodland%杉木采伐迹地造林树种转变对土壤可溶性有机质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晓华; 黄志群; 何宗明; 胡振宏; 余再鹏; 王民煌; 杨玉盛; 范少辉

    2014-01-01

    以二代杉木林采伐迹地上营造的19年生米老排与杉木人工林为对象,采用冷水、热水和2 mol·L-1 KCl溶液提取0~5、5~10和10 ~ 20 cm层土壤中的可溶性有机碳(DOC)和有机氮(DON),研究造林树种转变对土壤可溶性有机质的影响.结果表明:造林树种转变对林地土壤DOC和DON库有显著影响.米老排人工林土壤中用冷水、热水和KCl溶液浸提的DOC含量均显著高于杉木人工林,0~5和5~10 cm层土壤中用冷水和热水浸提的DON含量显著高于杉木林,不同方法浸提的DOC和DON含量大小顺序均为KCl>热水>冷水.在0~5 cm土层,米老排人工林土壤微生物生物量碳(MBC)含量比杉木林高76.3%.相关分析结果显示,热水浸提的DOC和DON与土壤MBC之间均呈显著正相关,不同树种人工林间土壤可溶性有机质的差异主要与凋落物输入的数量和质量有关.在杉木采伐迹地上营造米老排,能够明显改善土壤肥力.

  16. 杉木耐贫瘠优良无性系苗期初选%Preliminary Evaluation on Fine Clones of Chinese fir Based on Sexual Progeny Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐明; 何贵平; 曹高铨; 程亚平; 罗修宝; 翁春媚

    2013-01-01

    In order to shorten the breeding cycle of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) clone,and select good clones with stronger tolerance to barrenness,in the light of 31 clones,artificial design nutrient environments,the experiment was carried out according to two factors randomized blocks,8 individuals (in 8 cups) in each plot.After the experiment finished,the height and diameter at base of seedling were measured on entire experiment.The other traits such as the aboveground biomass,the underground biomass,the total biomass,the root-shoot ratio and the entire P content of individual have been measured according to sampling method.The results of statistical analysis showed that:(1)There were obvious differences among the clones in all the traits besides root-shoot ratio; (2)Obvious differences in all the traits existed under different nutrient stress and different sites conditions among different clones ; (3) The interaction of clone × nutrient coercion processing was complex ; (4) The research traits showed a certain variation and repeatability over intermediate level.Based on the variance analysis (fixed model),the PCA selection index under different situations was derived and obtained.Using certain selected intensity,13outstanding clones were evaluated from the entire experiment.Among them 7 clones were anti-phosphorus and the anti-potassium lack (happy nitrogenous fertilizer) clones,7 clones were anti-phosphorus lack (happy nitrogen potassium fertilizer) clones,8 fine clones were selected under normal nutrient management (happy nitrogenous,phosphorus,potassium),there were 5 fine clones with good performance,and simultaneously very stable under all kind of conditions.These clones may be applied to field tests.

  17. Effect of Slash Burning on Nutrient Removal and Soil Fertility in Chinese Fir and Evergreen Broadleaved Forests of Mid-Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A Chinese fir forest (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) and an evergreen broadleaved forest (EB) located inFujian Province, southeastern China, were examined following slash burning to compare nutrient capital andtopsoil properties with pre-burn levels. After fire, nutrient (N, P and K) removal from burning residues wasestimated at 302.5 kg ha-1 in the CF and 644.8 kg ha-1 in the EB. Fire reduced the topsoil capitals of totalN and P by about 20% and 10%, respectively, in both forests, while K capital was increased in the topsoils ofboth forests following fire. Total site nutrient loss through surface erosion was 28.4 kg (N) ha-1, 8.4 kg (P)ha-1 and 328.7 kg (K) ha-1 in the CF. In the EB, the losses of total N, P and K were 58.5, 10.5 and 396.3kg ha-1, respectively. Improvement of soil structure and increase in mineralization of nutrients associatedwith increased microbe number and enzyme activities and elevated soil respiration occurred 5 days after fire.However, organic matter and available nutrient contents and most of other soil parameters declined one yearafter fire on the burned CF and EB topsoils. These results suggest that short-term site productivity canbe stimulated immediately, but reduced subsequently by soil and water losses, especially in South China,where high-intensity precipitation, steep slopes and fragile soil can be expected. Therefore, the silviculturalmeasurements should be developed in plantation management.

  18. 炼山对杉木人工林群落学特征影响的研究%STUDY ON THE AFFECTION OF THE CHINESE FIR PLANTATION CHARACTERISTICS AFTER CONTROLLED BURNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志伟

    2001-01-01

    The effects of human disturbance on community features of Cunninghamia lanceolata mixed forests were stud-ied, the results showed that: 1 ) the proportion of phanerophyes in the not burning forests were larger than in the control burn-ing forests; 2)the species richness in the control burning forests were larger than that in not burning forests, but the speciesdiversity and Simpson evenness in the control burning forests were lower than that in the not burning forests;3)the effect ofcontrol burning on the dominant species in tree and shrub layers of Cunninghamia lanceolata mixed forests were little, buton the herb layer was very large,which dominated by positive plant species; 4)the community structure was more complexwhich would increase the crown density of stand.

  19. Tree Growth and Litter Decomposition in a Mixed Plantation of Chinese Fir and Pleioblastus amarus%杉木苦竹混交林生长效应与凋落物分解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连华萍

    2014-01-01

    Tree growth,litter production and decomposition of a multi-storey mixed stand of Chinese fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Pleioblastus amarus,developed from thinning a 10-year-old pure Chinese fir stand and retaining understorey species P.amarus, were studied in this article.Treatment SJK ( thinning a pure Chinese fir stand to density 900 stems· hm-2 and retaining understorey species P.amarus to density 6000 stems· hm-2 ) could develop obvious multi -storey crown,it was in favor of cultivating Chinese fir big-diameter timber , provided extra bamboo products and improved tree growth.Multi-storey mixed stand of Chinese fir and P.amarus had good stand structure ,higher litter production and decomposition rate of P.amarus,and litter mixture had a positive effect on decomposition rate of Chinese fir litter.Turnover time of P.amarus and Chinese fir leaf litter in treatment SJK were 2.27 a and 3.86 a,respectively ,and the former was 580 d shorter than the latter.Turnover time of Chinese fir leaf litter in pure plantation (unthinned,current density 2075~2110 stems· hm-2) was 4.94 a,394 d longer than that in the mixed stand with treatment SJK.%分析10年生杉木林经间伐后留养苦竹形成的混交复层林的生长效应及凋落物数量及分解状况。结果表明:SJK处理(杉木林进行间伐,保留杉木密度900株· hm-2,留养苦竹,满园后,保留苦竹6000株· hm-2)能够形成层次明显的复层林分,既有利于杉木培育大径材,又可以收获苦竹竹产品,具有较高的生长效应。杉木苦竹混交复层林,不仅苦竹凋落物量大,分解快,而且形成的林分结构,凋落物混合状态,有利于杉木凋落物的分解。 SJK处理中凋落物周转期:苦竹2.27 a,杉木3.86 a,苦竹凋落物周转期比杉木短580 d;杉木纯林(杉木林不间伐,现存密度2075~2110株· hm-2)凋落物周转期为4.94 a,比SJK处理中杉木凋落物周转期长394 d。

  20. 基于虚拟植物的幼龄杉木生长模拟%Growth Simulation of Young Chinese Fir Based on Virtual Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽玉; 林定; 黄洪宇; 邹杰; 陈崇成; 杜云虎

    2012-01-01

    为估算树木在不同生长环境下的生长量及评价树木与环境之间的相互关系,本文以幼龄杉木为对象,从个体尺度上,根据形态结构生长发育规律,定义了幼龄杉木生长的基本单元,耦合用于表达树木形态发育的L-系统和生理生态模型,形成了L-系统的杉木结构—功能模型.在LSTree软件基础上,集成光合作用、生物量分配等模型,扩展了冠层光合有效辐射(PAR)的空间分布模拟,计算每个叶片上分布的PAR值,为光合作用模型提供核心参数.以福州3-4年生杉木的生长盛期为例,计算不同时刻净光合速率,从而计算各生长阶段的生物量,再把生物量分配到各器官.在生物量驱动下,树木形态结构发生变化,通过迭代,实现生物量驱动下的树木动态生长模拟.净光合速率估算结果与已有相关研究对比,比较合理.这种方法可定量分析、解释植物与环境之间关系.%Energy fixation and organic matter production of forest ecosystem were dominated by plants, which are impacted by their growth environment. The forest ecosystem has the characteristic of long life-span , which makes its research laborious and costly using field experiment. The virtual geographical environment can provide a new way for its research due to its character of trying to exceed the limit of time and space. In order to estimate the biomass and evaluate relationships among tree and environments, an L-sys-tems based functional-structural model was developed for simulating the development of tree architecture, taking into account tree physiology and environment. The L-systems was used to represent the morphological development of tree. The basic growth unit was described in line with the development of young Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata). LSTree system integrated the photosynthesis, photosynthates allocation and morphogenesis models. The spatial distribution of solar radiation in tree canopy was simulated for

  1. 杉木人工林胸径生长神经网络建模研究%Modelling tree diameter growth for Chinese Fir plantations with Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车少辉; 张建国; 段爱国; 童书振

    2012-01-01

    【目的】探索神经网络技术对杉木人工林胸径生长的模拟和预测能力,以寻求最优模型。【方法】以江西大岗山杉木人工林为研究对象,依据林木生长理论,用林龄(A)、立地指数(SI)和初植密度(N)3个因子构建平均胸径生长BP模型;通过定量和定性分析相结合的方法对模型选优,并将最佳模型与拓展的Richards模型比较;最后将优化模型应用于未参与建模的样地。【结果】最佳BP模型为Levenberg-Marquardt算法3:5:1结构模型(LM351),R2=0.984,MSE=0.196;拓展的Richards模型R2=0.964,MSE=0.433。LM351模型经校正后,适合预测福建邵武杉木人工林胸径生长规律(R2=0.995)。【结论】LM351神经网络模型在精度上优于传统Richards模型,适于林龄6-28年、立地指数12-17m、初植密度1667-9967株/hm2的杉木林分平均胸径的模拟和预测。%[Objective] The paper developed a growth model of mean diameter(DBH, 1. 3 m above ground) for Chinese Fir plantation with Back-Propagation network(BP). [Method] Data from even-aged Chinese Fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantation including conventional measurements of 15 permanent sample plots located at Dagangshan Mountain in Jiangxi province from 1981 to 2008 were collected. BP models employed were one hidden layer with tan-sigmoid function and linearity function as transfer function of hidden and output layer respectively. According to the theory of stand growth, three factors,age (A),site index (SI) and initial planting density (N),were used as predictors for DBH of Chi- nese Fir. Then BP models were trained by 14 algorithms combining with different structures. Subsequent- ly, the best was selected by comparison with performances of qualitative and quantitative index. On the oth- er hand,generalized Richards's model was introduced as a reference model. Ultimately,the optimal model was

  2. Novel FIR Inversion with Only FIRS

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, G

    2005-01-01

    The inversion of an FIR data sampling is usually stated to be possible with the use of a potentially unstable IIR, and in particular circumstances. It is possible to accomplish the same inversion with the doubling of an FIR sampling and with only FIRs for the sampling and the inversion. This note presents the configuration, which appently is not in the literature, for perfect signal reconstruction.

  3. Antibacterial Property of China Fir/TiO2 Composite%杉木/TiO2复合材料的抗菌性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄素涌; 李凯夫; 佘祥威

    2011-01-01

    @@ 近来接连发生的重大致病性微生物对人类社会的危害事件,使人们对疾病控制和预防的重视提到了前所未有的高度,公众对自身居住、工作和生活环境的卫生要求越来越高,这极大促进了抗菌技术和抗菌材料的快速发展.TiO2是目前最常见的光催化性抗菌剂,具有即效抗菌效果,毒性低,安全性高.通过光催化作用进行抗菌,本身并不像其他抗菌剂会随着抗菌剂的消耗而效果逐渐下降,有持久的抗菌性能.因此,TiO2抗菌材料的研究是现代新材料科学一个极受关注的重点领域(徐瑞芬等,2002;任成军等,2004;郑怀礼等,2004).%The small samples of China fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata)/TiO2 composite were made by sol-gel method and MWLPD (microwave assistant liquid phase deposition) method for the first time (XRD result shows the size of crystal TiO2 are 16.4 and 28.3 nm respectively ).It has been verified by antibacterial testing that the antibacterial rates of samples reach up to above 90%.Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were regarded as testing target in the antibacterial testing.The antibacterial function of samples is long lasting and broad spectrum.The testing result shows that the antibacterial effect is influenced by light supply and testing temperature.Introducing the TiO2 nanotechnology as photocatalysis antibacterial agent into wood industry will promote wood modification and development of multi-function wood product.

  4. New CMS types in Plantago lanceolata and their relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Mateman, A.C.; Van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mitochondrial variation in Plantago lanceolata was used to detect new CMS types. Directional reciprocal crosses were made between plants which differed in mtDNA restriction patterns. Differential segregation of male steriles in reciprocal crosses indicated that the parents differed in CMS type. MtDN

  5. Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Enzyme Activities in a Chinese Fir Plantation%杉木人工林土壤酶活性对氮沉降的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊后保; 刘文飞; 徐雷; 许鲁平; 孟庆银

    2012-01-01

    To investigate soil enzyme activities ( catalase, invertase and urease) in response to increased nitrogen deposition in the subtropical plantation of Chinese Fir ( Cunninghamia lanceolata) , a field experiment with 20 m×20 m plots was conducted in a 12-year-old Chinese Fir plantation for 2 years. Nitrogen loadings were designed at 4 levels of 0, 60, 120, 240 kg N·hm-2a-1, referred to NO, N1, N2 and N3, respectively, with 3 replicates in each treatment. In the inner 15 m × 15 m of the plot, solution of C0( NH2)2 was sprayed on the forest floor each month, and on the margin of the plot between the inner plot and the boundary, nitrogen was fertilized once a year. The results showed that compared to NO treatment, Nl consistently had a positive effect on activities of soil catalase, invertase and urease, determined both by variations of soil enzyme activities in the center plot area every 10 days after nitrogen treatment and monthly dynamics (July through September) in the buffered zone. However, the effects of N2 and N3 treatments were found to vary with time and soil depth. The activities of these three enzymes decreased significantly with increasing soil depth.%对12年生杉木人工林开展NO(0kgN·hm-2a-1)、Nl(60kgN·hm-2a-1)、N2(120kgN·hm-2a-1)和N3(240kgN·hm-2a-1)4种水平的模拟氮沉降试验,探讨亚热带森林土壤酶(过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶和脲酶)活性对氮沉降增加的响应.试验采取2种施氮方式,即在缓冲区采取1年1次性施入氮,而在中心区每月施入等量氮.结果表明:缓冲区1次性施氮后30天内每10天土壤酶活性变化趋势和中心区按月施氮后酶活性动态均表现为N1始终促进3种酶活性(相对于NO处理);N1和N2处理对土壤酶活性的影响依施氮时间和土层深度不同而异,没有表现出明显的促进增加或抑制作用;随土层深度增加,3种酶活性均表现出明显降低趋势.

  6. Studies on adjustment effects of young Chinese fir forest to apparent heat and latent heat energy in degenerative ecosystem, and ecological restoration%杉木幼林对退化系统中显热和潜热能的调节及生态恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文星; 沙甲先; 吴耀兴; 何介南

    2011-01-01

    material and energy of the degenerative ecosystems achieved a virtuous cycle, and the structure and function developed harmoniously. Overall, the microenvironment was improved by Cunninghamia lanceolata influencing space allocation and amount of different basic environmental energy and regulating the proportion of different basic environmental energy.

  7. Research on Spatial Structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata Coppice Forest%萌生杉木林空间结构特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红敏; 何必庭; 彭辉; 沈斌; 吴克林; 林丰; 刘春辉

    2015-01-01

    利用结构参数角尺度、大小比数、混交度对浙江龙泉萌生杉木林的空间结构进行分析,结果表明:林分的平均角尺度为0.512,林分空间格局为随机分布;杉木树种分布格局为团状分布,木荷树种整体分布格局为随机分布,其它树种的整体分布格局为均匀分布;林分的平均混交度为0.438 4,在弱度混交和中度混交之间;林分中树种以胸径作为比较指标的林木个体的优势排列顺序为:苦槠、马尾松>杉木>樟树>木荷>枫香、红豆树>拟赤杨>榆树.根据萌生杉木林的结构特征提出经营对策,通过合理择伐和补植乡土树种进行林分结构调整,提高林分质量,优化林分空间结构,以便更好地发挥其功能.

  8. Study on carbon storage of Pinus massoniana,Cunninghamia lanceolataplantations at Shatang,Guangxi Province%广西沙塘林场马尾松和杉木人工林的碳储量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉华; 冯金朝; 曹书阁; 郭耆; 向达永

    2012-01-01

    【目的】量化广西沙塘林场马尾松(Pinus massoniana)和杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)人工林碳储量,为评价其碳汇功能和可持续经营提供依据。【方法】在广西沙塘林场选择处于中龄和成熟期的马尾松和杉木人工林,设置样地测算乔木、林下植被和枯落物的生物量,按20cm分层挖取样地0~60cm土层土样,最后依据有关方程,计算马尾松和杉木中龄和成熟人工林生态系统的含碳率和碳储量。【结果】马尾松、杉木人工林林下植被含碳率变化于40.06%~45.23%,枯落物含碳率为40.79%~46.06%,0~60cm土层含碳率变化于0.34%~1.26%。马尾松和杉木人工林生态系统平均碳储量分别为168.36和128.08t/hm2,其乔木层的平均碳储量分别为106.33和54.8t/hm2,分别占总碳储量的63.15%和42.79%;土壤平均碳储量分别为54.96和67.33t/hm2,其分别占总碳储量的32.64%和52.57%;其林下植被和枯落物平均碳储量分别占总碳储量的1.28%,1.02%和2.93%,3.63%。【结论】马尾松人工林总碳储量以成熟林显著高于中龄林,杉木则以中龄林略高于成熟林;土壤和乔木层碳储量是马尾松和杉木人工林生态系统碳储量的主体部分,而林下植被和枯落物对碳储量的贡献较小。%【Objective】 The carbon storage of Pinus massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Guangxi Shatang Forest Farm were estimated,which can offer a basic reference for evaluating forest carbon sequestration and forest sustainable management.【Method】 Based on aboveground,soil sample plots,and biomass regression equation,the biomass,carbon content,storage in middle-aged and mature forests of P.massoniana and C.lanceolata plantation ecosystems were quantified.【Result】 The results show that the carbon content(percent of dry weight) of the understory layer in all plantations at middle-aged and mature age ranged from 40.06%-45.23%,while the content in the litter ranged

  9. Species composition and correlation of understory woody plants in Chinese fir plantation in the lower subtropical area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Bing; LIU Shirong; CAI Daoxiong; WEN Yuanguang

    2006-01-01

    There are 71 species in the shrub layer of the Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation after natural succession.The species richness and diversity have increased with slight anthropogenic disturbance.The status and function of tmderstory woody species were judged by the analysis of the important value (IV).X2 statistics and r test were used for testing the significance of interspecific association and correlation among 25 main understory woody plants selected from the woody population.The results clearly showed their interspecific relationships and their differences in resource utilization.Species-pairs of positive association were in the majority.Most species were accommodated in the shady habitat.There was a positive correlation between the IV of the species and the interspecific association.The higher the IV of the species,the closer and more significant was the interspecific association.Based on analytical results of interspecitic association and correlation,25 woody plants in the shrub layer could be divided into four ecological species groups:I.Ficus hispida +Antidesma bunius+Mallotus barbatus+Ficus cunia+Saurauia tristyla+Mallotus philippinensis+Maesa japonica +Ficus hirta+Alchornea rugosa+Ficus fulva+Mallotus apelta;II.Cudrania tricuspidata+Schefflera octopylla;III.Cunninghamia lanceolata+Clerodendron cytophyllum +Millettia semicastrata+Randia spinosa+Litsea cubeba +Litsea pungens;IV.Ardisia japonica+Psychotria rubra +Vitex quinata+Cephalanthus occidentalis+ Pithecellobium lucidum+Mycetia sinensis.If species group III or II is the advantaged species in the shrub layer,the community would change from a coniferous forest to a sparse evergreen broad-leaved forest.For group IV,the community would be relatively stable.For group I,the coniferous forest would be mixed with coniferous-broad leaved forest.The classification of ecological species groups would provide a theoretical basis on judging its ecological function,adjusting the stand structure of the plantation and

  10. Direct and correlated responses to selection on iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Plantago lanceolata L. (ribwort plantain) produces two costly terpenoid secondary plant compounds, the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol. We performed an artificial selection experiment to investigate direct and correlated responses to selection on the constitutive level of iridoid glycosides

  11. Macronutrient Fluxes of the Litterfall in Chinese Fir Plantation in Response to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition%氮沉降对杉木人工林凋落物大量元素归还量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文飞; 樊后保; 袁颖红; 黄荣珍; 廖迎春; 李燕燕; 沈芳芳

    2011-01-01

    通过野外模拟试验,研究了杉木人工林(Cunninghamia lanceolata)凋落物养分归还对氮沉降增加的响应.试验设计为4种处理,分N0(对照)、N1、N2、N3共4种处理,N沉降量分别为0,60,120,240kgN/(hm2·a).每处理重复3次.通过3 a监测发现,经N0、N1、N2、N3处理,N元素平均年归还量分别为8.49,8.51,9.57,9.37 kg/hm2,P分别为0.74,0.68,0.73,0.72 kg/hm2,K分别为3.57,3.93,4.02,3.98kg/hm2,Ca分别为6.81,6.96,6.76,7.12 kg/hm2,Mg分别为2.12,2.22,2.08,2.30 kg/hm2,相对于N0处理,各水平的氮沉降处理在3 a时间里表现为提高凋落物N归还量的作用,但是增长幅度有下降的趋势,对P元素归还有抑制作用,对K、Ca、Mg元素先期表现为促进其归还量的作用,但在后期逐渐有呈抑制的趋势.各处理凋落物5种元素归还量均在2,4,7月出现3个明显的归还高峰期,最大值均出现在7月份.%A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of simulated nitrogen on nutrient flux of litterfall in a Chinese fir plantation. Urea (CO(NH2)2) was added at three doses, N1, N2 and N3, 60, 120,240 kg N/(hm2 · a), respectively. Based on litterfall collection during 3 years, through litterfall production,the annual N flux to the forest floor under the four treatments (N0, N1, N2 and N3) was estimated, respectively, at 8.49,8.51,9.57,9.37 kg/hm2 ; P at 0.74, 0.68, 0.73,0.72 kg/hm2 ; K at 3. 57, 3.93, 4.02,3.98 kg/hm2 ; Ca at 6.81, 6.96, 6.76,7.12 kg/hm2 ; Mg at 2.12, 2.22, 2.08,2.30 kg/hm2. The data suggested that the annual flux of N elements responded positively to N1, N2 and N3 treatments, compared with the control (N0), but growth rate decreased with the increasing N additions, negatively to P flux. It showed increased flux of K, Ca, and Mg for N1, N2 and N3 treatments firstly, thereafter decreased with the time passing by. The macronutrient flux through litterfall exhibited three pronounced peaks, occurring consistently in February, April and July respectively

  12. Effect of compression on hydroscopicity of extracted Chinese fir heartwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of extraction and compression on the hydroscopicity of wood, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia laneeolata Hook.) heartwood samples with or without extraction were radially or tangentially compressed under water-saturated condition at room temperature. Warm water and 1% sodium hydroxide were used as different solutions for extraction. Water absorp-tion capacity and moisture adsorption isotherms of the eornpressed samples were then tested. The fractai dimension of internal wood surfaces (Dfs) was calculated based on adsorption isotherms by FHH equation. Results showed that in both compressed groups, the hydroseopieity of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution improved greatly, while that of samples extracted by warm water changed little, compared with that of water-saturated samples. Recovery of set and the change of hydroscopic environment inside wood were main reasons for the difference of water absorption among water-saturated samples and samples extracted with warm water and sodium hydroxide solution. The swelling rate of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution significantly increased.Moreover, the swelling rate in the tangential direction of tangentially compressed samples was obviously higher than that in radial direction of radially compressed ones, Des values of woods extracted by warm water and sodium hydroxide solution decreased by 0.002 and 0.007 in a radially compressed group and by 0.013 and 0.013 in a tangentially compressed group, compared to those of water-saturated one. Therefore, the conclusion can be made that the extraction and compression treatments used in this study have no obvious effects on internal wood surface.

  13. Leader growth in Nordman fir christmas trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Jerram; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought......Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought...

  14. Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantago lanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, M; Tamayama, Y; Nishibe, S

    1995-10-01

    The five phenylethanoids, acteoside (1), cistanoside F (2), lavandulifolioside (3), plantamajoside (4) and isoacteoside (5) were isolated from the herb of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Compounds 1, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. lanceolata L., and 4, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. asiatica L., showed inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

  15. The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg body weight. Fermented C. lanceolata extract (500 mg/kg body weight, p.o. significantly shortened the escape latency times that were increased by scopolamine on the 4th day of trial sessions in the Morris water maze task. In addition, it exerted longer step-through latency times than those of the scopolamine-treated group in the passive avoidance test. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fermented C. lanceolata extract on glutamate-induced neurocytotoxicity were investigated in HT22 cells. Fermented C. lanceolata extract showed a relative protection ratio of 59.62% at 500 μg/mL. In conclusion, fermented C. lanceolata extract ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments, exerted neuroprotective effects, and improved activity compared to that found with original C. lanceolata. Further study will be required to investigate the mechanisms underlying this cognitive-enhancing activity.

  16. Antibacterial compounds from the root of the indigenous Australian medicinal plant Carissa lanceolata R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Dhanushka S; Locher, Cornelia; Longmore, Robert B

    2011-09-01

    The conkerberry, Carissa lanceolata R.Br. (Apocynaceae), is commonly used by many indigenous Australian communities across Northern Australia for the treatment of a variety of conditions such as chest pain, toothache, colds and flu. Indigenous uses of this plant strongly argue for an antibacterial bioactivity. The aim is to identify antibacterial compounds from root material of C. lanceolata, therefore confirming the indigenous use of the plant. Antibacterial activity was examined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis using a micro broth dilution technique. Three compounds demonstrating considerable activity were isolated. The volatile phenolic compound 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and the lignan carinol both were reported for the first time from C. lanceolata, whereas this is the second account of the occurrence of carissone. All three compounds showed activity, with 2'-hydroxyacetophenone and carinol having a minimum inhibitory concentration of plant.

  17. Effects of understory removal on soil respiration and microbial community composition structure in a Chinese fir plantation%林下植被剔除对杉木林土壤呼吸和微生物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺同鑫; 李艳鹏; 张方月; 王清奎

    2015-01-01

    AimsSoil respiration (Rs) is the largest fraction of carbon flux in forest ecosystems, but the effects of forest un-derstory removal onRs in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolate) plantations is poorly understood. In order to quantify the effects of forest understory removal onRs and microbial community composition, a field experiment was conducted in a subtropical Chinese fir plantation. MethodsForest understory was removed manually in June 2012.Rs was measured monthly using a LI-COR 8100 infrared gas analyzer from July 2012 through July 2014. Soil temperature and moisture were also measured at 5 cm depth at the time ofRs measurements. Surface soil (0–10 cm) samples were collected in July 2013 and 2014, respectively, and the soil microbial community structures were determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. Important findings Rs decreased by 32.8% over a two-year period following understory removal (UR), with a greater rate of decrease in the first year (42.9%) than in the second year (22.2%). The temperature sensitivity ofRs was affected by UR, and was 2.10 and 1.87 in the control and UR plots, respectively. UR significantly reduced the concentration of fungal PLFAs by 18.3%, but did not affect the concentration of bacterial PLFAs, resulting in an increase in the fungal:bacterial ratio; it significantly increased the concentration of gram-positive bacterial PLFAs by 24.5%, and the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacterial PLFAs after one year of treatment, but decreased the concentration of gram-positive bacterial PLFAs by 9.4% and the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacterial PLFAs after two years of treatment. The results suggested thatRs and microbial commu-nity composition were both affected by UR in Chinese firplantation, and the effects were dependent of the dura-tion following the UR treatment.%以湖南会同地区26年生杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)人工林为研究对象,探讨剔除林下植被对土壤呼吸和微

  18. Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids from Stellaria dichotoma var.lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guang Luo; Li Hua Cao; Ling Yi Kong

    2012-01-01

    Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids,dichotomine K (1) and dichotomine L (2),were isolated from the roots of Chinese medicinal plant Stellaria dichotoma L.var.lanceolata Bge.Structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic means.

  19. Phenotypic plasticity in growth habit in Plantago lanceolata: how tight is a suite of correlated characters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Hinsberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The growth habit of the rosette plant Plantago lanceolata is highly variable, and many vegetative and reproductive traits co-vary. At one end of the range plants have relatively few but long and erect leaves, form few daughter rosettes, and produce a limited number of large spikes, with relatively

  20. Phomopsis subordinaria and associated stalk disease in natural-populations of Plantago lanceolata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nooij, M.P.; Van der Aa, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Natural populations of Plantago lanceolata L. can be infected by the fungus Phomopsis subordinaria (Desm.) Trav., which causes a stalk disease. Inoculation experiments revealed that the fungus needs a wound to enter the plant tissue. Symptoms of the disease in the field and from inoculation

  1. Mitochondrial DNA variation within P-type cytoplasmic male sterility of Plantago lanceolata L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.F.M.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Van Brederode, J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    MtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms were found between cytoplasmic male-sterility types P and R of Plantago lanceolata with the homologous probe pPl311 and maize mtDNA fragments derived from the regions of atp1, cox1 and cox2. No mtDNA differences were observed between male-sterile and restored

  2. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy

    2009-03-18

    The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

  3. Phenotypic plasticity in growth habit in Plantago lanceolata: how tight is a suite of correlated characters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Hinsberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The growth habit of the rosette plant Plantago lanceolata is highly variable, and many vegetative and reproductive traits co-vary. At one end of the range plants have relatively few but long and erect leaves, form few daughter rosettes, and produce a limited number of large spikes, with relatively h

  4. Investigating the effect of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss and hohen on cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Soltani-Nasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phlomis lanceolata is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation and wounds. As most of Phlomis species have shown cytotoxic activity against proliferation of different cell lines, a biological investigation of P. lanceolata was carried out in this study. The aim of this study was to find out the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract and different fractions of Phlomis lanceolata on four cell lines. Cytotoxic activity of the metanolic total extract and partition fractions of chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether of flowering aerial parts of Phlomis lanceolata on the HT29, Caco2, T47D and NIH3T3 cell lines is examined by MTT. Petroleum ether fraction showed high cytotoxic activity against proliferation of all four cell lines. Presence of heavy triterpens and lipophil compounds recognized by TLC test in Petroleum ether fraction is responsible for high cytotoxic activity. The results emphasize the importance of phytochemical studies which could lead to the discovery of new active compounds.

  5. Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masvingwe

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

  6. Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling to Elucidate Effectiveness of Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Yong Choi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Codonopsis lanceolata fermented by lactic acid on controlling gene expression levels related to obesity was observed in an oligonucleotide chip microarray. Among 8170 genes, 393 genes were up regulated and 760 genes were down regulated in feeding the fermented C. lanceolata (FCL. Another 374 genes were up regulated and 527 genes down regulated without feeding the sample. The genes were not affected by the FCL sample. It was interesting that among those genes, Chytochrome P450, Dmbt1, LOC76487, and thyroid hormones, etc., were mostly up or down regulated. These genes are more related to lipid synthesis. We could conclude that the FCL possibly controlled the gene expression levels related to lipid synthesis, which resulted in reducing obesity. However, more detailed protein expression experiments should be carried out.

  7. Perbandingan Nilai Intersepsi Pohon Mahoni (Swietania mahagoni dan Pohon Pinus (Casuarina cunninghamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mechram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparation of Interception Loss on Mahoni (Swietania mahagoni and Pinus (Casuarina cunninghamia ABSTRACT. Interception of rain is the retention of rainwater on surface vegetation before it evaporates back into the atmosphere. Research relating to the interception is still lacking, so it is necessary to study the interception on some types of plants. Although the interception had a little value, and sometimes overlooked, but in some plants have a considerable effect. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of interception in Mahogany and Pine trees, as well as to determine the relationship between rainfall and interception. In this study, samples taken at the Mahogany and Pine trees by the number of 3 samples of each tree. There were two approaches to measure the amount of interception, the first approach was the Volume Balance Approach and the second approach was the Energy Balance Approach. In this study, the volume balance approach, with measurements of rainfall, throughfall, stemflow and interception for ten days of rainfall. The average amount of interception Mahogany obtained 15.5 mm (7.31% of the total amount of rainfall and the correlation coefficient (r was at 0.554. While the average number of interception Pinus acquired 87.23 mm (41.15% of the total amount of rainfall and the correlation coefficient (r was at 0.505. The size of the interception was influenced by wind speed, density and canopy shape. The research obtained that the interception for pine trees was higher than Mahogany trees. The results also showed that the higher percentage of rainfall, the smaller interception. This was due to the canopy conditions and climatic factors.

  8. Response of Soil Microbe Flora to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition at a Plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata%杉木林土壤微生物区系对短期模拟氮沉降的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩霞; 焦如珍; 董玉红; 孙启武; 李峰卿; 周新华

    2015-01-01

    通过模拟氮沉降试验(设置2种氮形态5种施氮水平(N0、N1、N2、N3、N4分别代表0、20、40、60、80 kg·hm-2·a-1,共10个处理)研究杉木林土壤微生物区系的变化.结果表明:沉降第1年,高氮处理对微生物数量的影响较显著,氮处理时微生物数量的变化波动较大;沉降1年后,各处理的变化规律稳定,波动较小.12月份各处理间微生物数量和细菌数量变化幅度较小、氮处理对其影响不显著,故不宜在12月采集土样.氮沉降量影响微生物总量,总体而言低氮处理促进微生物生长,最高氮处理抑制微生物生长,NH4+-N2或N3和NO3--N3处理微生物总量最多.不同微生物类群对氮沉降形态和沉降量的响应不同,土壤细菌的变化规律和微生物数量的变化规律一致,低氮处理时,硝态氮处理对细菌数量生长的影响大于铵态氮处理,2种形态氮的N2或N3处理细菌数量最大.铵态氮比硝态氮更易影响真菌的生长,且NH4+-N1和NO3--N3处理真菌数量最多.不同氮沉降形态对放线菌数量影响显著,沉降1年后高氮沉降量对放线菌生长略有促进作用.

  9. Effect of hydrological process on the productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. plantation%杉木人工林水文学过程对林分生产力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文星; 田大伦; 赵仲辉; 朱凡; 王光军

    2008-01-01

    利用湖南省会同杉木林生态系统国家野外科学研究站2004-2005年2年连续定位测定数据,分析杉木人工林水文学过程对林分生产力的影响.结果表明:大气降水不仅提供了杉木生长所需要的水分,而且,降水过程中雨水对枝叶和树干的淋溶、冲洗作用,把林冠层截留的干尘降及其自身携带的养分带入林地,降水量的多少决定进入林地的水分并影响林地的养分量;林木生长的季节变化虽然受本身生物节律的影响,但降水的月分配格局,决定着林木生长季节的水肥供给状况,进而影响着林分生产力过程;土壤水分动态与林木生长关系密切,生长季节,当土壤含水量在30%~40%(相对含水量)范围时,林木生长迅速,25%~30%范围时,林木生长速率一般,25%以下时生长速率明显下降;林木蒸腾作用与光合作用有一定的关联,但不能用蒸腾量的大小简单地预示整个林分光合作用的强弱;系统内水分输出对林分生产力的影响体现在养分的保存和损失上,通过蒸腾蒸发作用以水汽形式逸散,失去的只有水分,可以保存营养物质和保持林地的土壤肥力,有利于林木生长,而通过径流以液态形式流走时,不仅失去水分,而且流走了大量营养物质和表土,造成土样瘠薄,进而影响林分的生产力.

  10. Competition and Neighborhood Interference Index of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation Mixed with Tsoongiodendron odrum%杉木-观光木人工混交林竞争及邻体干扰指数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封磊; 洪伟; 吴承祯; 宋萍

    2007-01-01

    将杉木和观光木人工混交林中林木竞争影响空间划分为内、外两圈,在此基础上将竞争指数分解为不同的邻体干扰指数,对象木生长量与3种干扰指数的回归分析表明,以杉木为对象木时,利用张大勇提出的干扰指数模型(Izdy)效果最好;以观光木为对象木时,利用Weiner提出的干扰指数模型(Iwg)效果最好.同时,竞争强度研究表明,杉木种内竞争>杉木观光种间竞争>观光木种内竞争.通过对几种竞争影响的划分比较,说明将竞争空间分为内、外两浇圈能较好地反应林木的竞争规律.表3参17

  11. 不同杉木人工林土壤线虫群落结构及多样性研究%Research on soil nematode community Structure an diversity of difference Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树战; 王圣洁; 刘君昂; 吴毅; 何苑皞; 李河

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨土壤线虫在人工林生态系统中的功能及其对环境变化的响应.该研究利用18SrDNA的宏基因组比较了湖南省攸县不同发育阶段(3年、13年、26年)以及不同栽培代数(1代、2代、3代)杉木人工林的土壤线虫的群落结构及多样性.结果表明:(1)测序共获得了2 111条隶属于线虫动物门的序列.经聚类后产生了27个OTUs.主要类群有Prismatolaimidae、Monhysteridae、Alaimidae、Qudsianematidae、Criconematidae、Plectidae它们分别占总序列数的31%、15%、11%、8%、6%、5%,其中Prismatolaimidae在所有样地中均占绝对优势,Aphelenchidae、Cephalobidae、Criconematidae、Rhabdolaimidae、Tylenchidae这5个类群的相对丰度在各样地间具有显著性差异(p<0.05);(2)冗余分析(RDA)发现所选的5块样地的线虫的群落结构有着明显的差异,FRC,SYC,TYC三块样地的群落结构较为相似.FYC与FRC之间差异性最大;(3)6种不同的多样性指数的单因素方差分析发现,各样地的多样性指数之间没有达到显著性差异.说明长期种植单一杉木人工林能够改变土壤线虫的群落组成,但并没有改变种群的多样性.土壤线虫中存在种的冗余现象.

  12. Effect of Farm Truck Skidding on the Trail Soil of Artificial Mixed Forest of Pinus massoniana and Cunninghamia lanceolata%农用车集材对马杉混交林迹地土壤影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正雄; 周新年; 刘爱琴; 林海明; 高山

    2004-01-01

    定量分析农用车集材对马杉混交人工林迹地(集材道)土壤理化性质的影响,结果表明:集材后除土壤容重和结构体破坏率指标增大外,林地土壤其余指标均下降,而且表层土壤(0~20 cm)所受影响较底层土壤(20~40 cm)大;从森林生态采运角度出发,提出减少集材作业对林地土壤破坏的技术措施.

  13. Identification of pests and assessment of their damage on Carapa procera and Lophira lanceolata in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tindano, Baslayi; Gnankine, Olivier; Ouésdraogo, Amadé

    2016-01-01

    . The experiment was set up in western Burkina Faso and, for C. carapa, consisted of pests collected from seeds that had fallen to the ground and from stockpiled seeds. For L. lanceolata, pests were collected from fruits on the trees, and on the ground. The collected samples were sent to the laboratory to estimate....... lanceolata, whereas T. castaneum was only detected from seeds of L. lanceolata. For C. procera, the stocks were the most infested (29 %) by Ephestia spp. The infestation rate of fruits of L. lanceolata by Ephestia spp. on trees (31.42 ± 3.75 %) was less than the rate of fruits by T. castaneum on the ground......Nontimber forest products are a source of income for women in rural African communities. However, these products are frequently damaged by insect pests. The present study investigates the diversity and damage rates of insect pests that attack Carapa procera seeds and Lophira lanceolata fruits...

  14. Chemical Characterization and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Potential of Volatile Components of Aerial Parts of Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Srivastava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluchea lanceolata (DC. Oliv. & Hiern (Rasana is an important medicinal plant due to its usage in number of Ayurvedic formulations. First time, chemical composition of essential oil from the aerial part of P. lanceolata was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibitory activity of the essential oil was also evaluated using mouse brain homogenate. The major components were linalool (32.2%, β-caryophyllene (8.5%, α-terpineol (8.0%, spathulenol (7.4%, linalylacetate (5.6%, naphthalene, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl- (4.3%, α-copaene (3.6%, epi-cubebol (3.6% and trans-α-bergamontene (3.1%. The experimental results showed that hydrodistilate of P. lanceolata significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity (IC 50 value 2.54 ± 0.03 µg/mL.

  15. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  16. Plant community diversity influences allocation to direct chemical defence in Plantago lanceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG, catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms.

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Prevents Suppression of Actual Nitrification Rates in the (Myco-)Rhizosphere of Plantago lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D.VERESOGLOU

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of herbaceous plants engage into arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and consideration of their mycorrhizal status should be embodied in studies of plant-microbe interactions.To establish reliable AM contrasts,however,a sterilized re-inoculation procedure is commonly adopted.It was questioned whether the specific approach is sufficient for the studies targeting the bacterial domain,specifically nitrifiers,a group of autotrophic,slow growing microbes.In a controlled experiment mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Plantago lanceolata were grown up in compartmentalized pots to study the AM effect on nitrification rates in the plant rhizosphere.Nitrification rates were assayed following an extensive 3-week bacterial equilibration step of the re-inoculated soil and a 13-week plant growth period in a controlled environment.Under these specific conditions,the nitrification potential levels at harvest were exceptionally low,and actual nitrification rates of the root compartment of non-mycorrhizal P.lanceolata were significantly lower than those of any other compartment.It is then argued that the specific effects should be attributed to the alleged higher growth rates of non-mycorrhizal plants that are known to occur early in the AM experiment.It is concluded that the specific experimental approach is not suitable for the study of microbes with slow growth rates.

  18. An Orthogonal Least Squares Based Approach to FIR Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Wu; Zi-Qiang Lang; Stephen A Billings

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of forward Orthogonal Least Squares (OLS) algorithm to the design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. The focus of this study is a new FIR filter design procedure and to compare this with traditional methods known as the fir2() routine provided by MATLAB.

  19. Redescription and figures of the South American Mailed Catfish Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther, 1868) (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1973-01-01

    Rineloricaria lanceolata was originally described from a single specimen of unknown sex, with a faded colour pattern. The present paper contains a redescription with figures of the species, based on the holotype from Peru, and on additional specimens from Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, and Brazil, includ

  20. The dynamics of gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. .1. Frequencies of male-steriles and their cytoplasmic male sterility types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, A.A.; Luyten, R.M.J.M.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of a gynodioecious breeding system (hermaphrodites and male-steriles) was studied in Plantago lanceolata. Cytoplasmic-nuclear inheritance is important in the maintenance of male-steriles. The male-sterile trait is cytoplasmically based (CMS), and male fertility can be restored by nuc

  1. A possible role of sexuality in the population structure of Diaporthe adunca, a pathogen of Plantago lanceolata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, E.G.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the population structure of the fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca on its perennial wild host plant Plantago lanceolata was analysed, together with the occurrence of the sexual stage of the fungus. The fungus overwinters on scapes infected in the previous year. In spring, it sporulates

  2. Antilipogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Codonopsis lanceolata in Mice Hepatic Tissues after Chronic Ethanol Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areum Cha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antilipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata root extract in mice with alcohol-induced fatty liver and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Ethanol was introduced into the liquid diet by mixing it with distilled water at 5% (wt/v, providing 36% of the energy, for nine weeks. Among the three different fractions prepared from the C. lanceolata root, the C. lanceolata methanol extract (CME exhibited the most remarkable attenuation of alcohol-induced fatty liver with respect to various parameters such as hepatic free fatty acid concentration, body weight loss, and hepatic accumulations of triglyceride and cholesterol. The hepatic gene and protein expression levels were analysed via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CME feeding significantly restored the ethanol-induced downregulation of the adiponectin receptor (adipoR 1 and of adipoR2, along with their downstream molecules. Furthermore, the study data showed that CME feeding dramatically reversed ethanol-induced hepatic upregulation of toll-like receptor- (TLR- mediated signaling cascade molecules. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of CME against alcoholic fatty livers of mice appear to be with adenosine- and adiponectin-mediated regulation of hepatic steatosis and TLR-mediated modulation of hepatic proinflammatory responses.

  3. Effects of competition on root-shoot allocation in Plantago lanceolata L.: adaptive plasticity or ontogenetic drift?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendse, F.; Möller, F.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how shoot and root allocation in plants responds to increasing levels of competitive stress at different levels of soil fertility. In addition, we analyzed whether different responses were due to adaptive plasticity or should be attributed to ontogenetic drift. Plantago lanceolata pl

  4. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  5. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  6. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  7. Management of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bončina, Andrej; Ficko, Andrej; Klopčič, Matija; Matijašič, Dragan; Poljanec, Aleš

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we analysed the structure and developmental characteristics of forest stands with silver fir in Slovenia, the management and cut in four forest site strata, where silver fir occurs. We used databases from the Slovenia Forest Service. In growing stock (GS) of silver fir, large (dbh=30-49cm) and very large (d=50 cm and more) diameter trees account for 84.9 % at the national level. The highest share of very large diameter silver fir trees (45 %) is in Dinaric silver fir forests and...

  8. A New FIR Filter for State Estimation and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pyung-Soo Kim; Myung-Eui Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new FIR (finite impulse response) filter under a least squares criterion using a forgetting factor. The proposed FIR filter does not require information of the noise covariances as well as the initial state, and has some inherent properties such as time-invariance, unbiasedness and deadbeat. The proposed FIR filter is represented in a batch form and then a recursive form as an alternative form. From discussions about the choice of a forgetting factor and a window length, it is shown that they can be considered as useful parameters to make the estimation performance of the proposed FIR filter as good as possible. It is shown that the proposed FIR filter can outperform the existing FIR filter with incorrect noise covariances via computer simulations. Finally, as a useful application, an image sequence stabilization problem is considered. Through this application, the FIR filtering based approach is shown to be superior to the Kalman filtering based approach.

  9. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  10. Plantago lanceolata growth and Cr uptake after mycorrhizal inoculation in a Cr amended substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Nogales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from two chromium contaminated sites, one with 275 mg kg-1 of Cr (zone A and the other with 550 mg kg-1 Cr (zone B, were multiplied and tentatively identified. The effect of both fungal consortia on Plantago lanceolata plant growth in a substrate amended with 200 mg kg-1 of Cr and with 400 mg kg-1 Cr was assessed and compared with the growth of plants inoculated with Glomus intraradices BEG72. Only the plants inoculated with G. intraradices BEG72 and with the fungal consortia obtained from the area with a high Cr contamination (zone B grew in the soil with 400 mg kg-1 of Cr. The consortia of fungi from zone B, decreased the plant’s uptake/translocation of the heavy metal compared with G. intraradices BEG72. These results underscore the differential effect of AM fungi in conferring bioprotection in Cr contaminated soils.

  11. CONSTITUINTES QUÍMICOS E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE IN VIVO DE FLAVONOIDES ISOLADOS DE Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Clusia lanceolata leaves yielded fourteen compounds including six flavones, vitexin, isovitexin, isovitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, vitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, orientin and isoorientin, two phaeophytins [132-hydroxy-(132-S--phaeophytin a and 132-hydroxy-(132-R-phaeophytin a], two triterpenes, α- and β-amyrin, and four steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterone and stigmasterone. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional NMR techniques and comparison with literature data. The antioxidant capacity in vivo of vitexin and mixing isovitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and vitexin-2"-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside was evaluated using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the biological system model and hydrogen peroxide as a stressor agent. The results showed that the tested flavonoids were able to protect the yeast cell against the oxidative damage caused by H2O2.

  12. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  13. Purification and characterization of the main allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabozo, B; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2001-02-01

    English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) pollen is an important cause of pollinosis in the temperate regions of North America, Australia and Europe. However, very little is known about its allergen composition. The aim of this study was to identify plantain allergens, and to isolate and characterize a major allergen. Allergens were identified by immunoblotting with individual allergic patients' sera. Isolation of the major allergen was achieved by sequential reverse-phase and size-exclusion HPLC. Allergenic characterization was performed by ELISA and immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE with sera from plantain-allergic patients. N-terminal amino acid sequence was established by Edman degradation. Allergograms showed that 13 out of the 14 sera assayed had IgE to a group of proteins with a molecular weight in the range of 16-20 kd, that turned out to be different isoforms or variants of the major allergen Pla l l. Eighteen amino acid residues from the N-terminal end of one of the isoforms, and 10 of three others, were sequenced, and a partial sequence identity with Ole e 1 was found. Prevalence of specific IgE to purified Pla l 1 in plantain allergic patients was 86%, and represents about 80% of the total IgE-binding capacity of the plantain extract. The most relevant allergen from P.lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1, has been purified and characterized. This contributes to a greater knowledge of the allergen composition of this important weed, and clears the way for the standardization of plantain allergen products in terms of major allergen content.

  14. Studies on preparations and analysis of essential oil from Chinese fir%杉木精油的制备及其成分分析的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洛华; 秦特夫; 大平辰郎

    2004-01-01

    Three steam distillation devices (D-1, D-2 and D-4) or one simultaneous distillation (D-3, water-diethyl ether) as well as the process of CO2-SFE (Supercritical fluid extraction) were adopted in extraction of essential oils from Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lancedata (Lamb) Hook.) and the chemical components of the extracted essential oil were analyzed by Gas chromatograph-MS analyses. The results showed that the essential oil could be almost extracted out within 2 hours and the device-3 had the highest extraction efficiency. The major chemical component of the oil was cedrol. The yield of the extracted essential oils from Chinese fir decreased gradually with the increase of the distillation time. The best condition for extraction by means of CO2-SFE is 100 kg·cm-2 in pressure and 40℃ in temperature for .%本文研究了杉木精油的提取方法及其化学成分.采用了四种蒸馏装置来提取杉木精油.结果表明:大部分精油在蒸馏的2小时内被提取出;装置3具有较高的提取效率;杉木精油的主要化学组成为松柏醇;精油获得率随蒸馏时间段的增加而逐渐减小;采用CO2-超临界流体萃取法提取杉木精油, 压力为100kg/cm2和温度为40(C时为其最佳条件.图1表4参10.

  15. 杉木+黄山木兰混交林生物量分配格局%Biomass and Distribution Rate of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils Mixed Stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祖树

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest and Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand(control),the different organs biomass of above ground and root distribution rate were studied by authors.The results showed that the growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and total biomass of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were better than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand.As far as the biomass distribution rate were concerned,different organs' biomass distribution were showed strunk〉leaf〉branch,strunk and leaf biomass distribution rate in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were higher than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand,and branch biomass distribution rate in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand was higher than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest;The biomass of different diameter class of stump root,big root and middle root in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were higher than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand,and biomass of different diameter class of minor root and fine root in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were smaller than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand.%在调查杉木+黄山木兰混交林及杉木纯林(对照)生长量的基础上,进一步分析了杉木+黄山木兰混交林及杉木纯林地上部分各器官及各径级根生物量分配格局。研究结果表明:杉木+黄山木兰混交林中杉木的生长及林分总生物量的积累均优于杉木纯林。从生物量分配上看,杉木+黄山木兰混交林中杉木及纯林中杉木其地上部分各器官的分配均表现

  16. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae = Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of

  17. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. Barks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata.

  18. Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Joan E.; Carroll, Allen L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential of remote sensing to monitor indices of forest health was tested by examining the spectral separability of plots with different balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill, vigor. Four levels of vigor were achieved with controlled experimental manipulations of forest stands. In order of increasing vigor, the treatments were root pruning, control, thinning and thinning in combination with fertilization. Spectral reflectance of branchlets from each plot were measured under laboratory conditions using a field portable spectroradiometer with a spectral range from 350 - 2500 nm. Branchlets were discriminated using combinations of factor and discriminant analyses techniques with classification accuracies of 91% and 83% for early and late season analyses, respectively. Relationships between spectral reflectance measurements at canopy levels, stand vigor, and foliage quality for an insect herbivore will be analyzed further in support of future large scale monitoring of balsam fir vulnerability to insect disturbance.

  19. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ- induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  20. Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata.

  1. Balsam Fir Wooly Adlegid Survey on CVNWR 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 17, 2009 Amber Myers and I conducted a survey to check the status of Balsam Fir Wooly Adelgid on one hundred Balsam Fir Trees off of Freeland Trail. We...

  2. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  3. Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice.

  4. Chemical composition of essential oils from plantago lanceolata L. leaves extracted by hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomáš; Janda, Václav; Bajerová, Petra; Kremr, Daniel; Eisner, Aleš; Ventura, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Extensive traditional use of medical plants leads to research dealing with chemical composition of essential oils. The aim of this work was evaluation of quality of the essential oil and extending of the knowledge about chemical composition of essential oil from ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) and proportional representation of compounds. Extractions of essential oils from samples of ribwort were performed by hydrodistillation. GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were used for investigation of the qualitative and semi-quantitative content of aromatic compounds in the essential oils, respectively. Major aroma constituents of ribwort leaves were groups of fatty acids 28.0-52.1 % (the most abundant palmitic acid 15.3-32.0 %), oxidated monoterpenes 4.3-13.2 % (linalool 2.7-3.5 %), aldehydes and ketones 6.9-10.0 % (pentyl vinyl ketone 2.0-3.4 %) and alcohols 3.8-9.2 % (1-octen-3-ol 2.4-8.2 %). In relative high amount were identified apocarotenoids (1.5-2.3 %) which are important constituents because of their intense fragrant. The importance is in potential manufacture control of feedstocks before producing of food supplements.

  5. Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of improving predictions on far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we study the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on GMC structure. We consider three different GMCs with mass in the range M_GMC = 10^{3-6} {M_{⊙}}. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. In the fiducial case (MGMC ≈ 105M⊙), the photoevaporation time (tpe) increases from 1 Myr to 30 Myr for gas metallicity Z=0.05-1 Z_{⊙}, respectively. Next, we compute the time-dependent luminosity of key FIR lines tracing the neutral and ionized gas layers of the GMCs, ([C II] at 158 {μ m}, [O III] at 88 μ m) as a function of G0, and Z until complete photoevaporation at tpe. We find that the specific [C II] luminosity is almost independent on the GMC model within the survival time of the cloud. Stronger FUV fluxes produce higher [C II] and [O III] luminosities, however lasting for progressively shorter times. At Z = Z⊙ the [C II] emission is maximized (L_CII≈ 10^4 {L_{⊙}} for the fiducial model) for tpopulations.

  6. Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, L; Pallottini, A; Gallerani, S

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of improving predictions on the far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we have studied the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on the GMC structure. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. We find that the photoevaporation timescale, $t_{pe}$, of a typical GMC ($M_{\\rm GMC}=9 \\times 10^{4}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) is in the range $1-30$ Myr, for gas metallicity $Z=0.05-1\\,\\rm Z_{\\odot}$, respectively. At fixed metallicity, $t_{pe}$ decreases for higher FUV fluxes, $G_0$, due to the larger temperature of the photodissociation region (PDR). The presence of EUV radiation is important at $Z<0.2\\,\\rm{Z_{\\odot}}$, when the size of the HII layer becomes comparable to the cloud radius. We then compute the time-dependent luminosity (for which we give fitting formulae) of several key FIR lines ([CII], ...

  7. Cutting test on Cunninghamia konishii cuttage in artificial conditions%峦大杉扦插生根及生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪卯; 陈文荣; 陈能德; 何志斌; 陈巧女; 郑文

    2001-01-01

    The interrelation among the rooting and growth ability of Cunninghamia konishii and the type of cuttings,the types and concentration of root growth helping matters,cutting length,cutting place,cutting foliage,and cutting medium were studied.The results showed that cuttings,belonging to bark rooting tree species,sprouted roots at 84 d after cuttage.The following cuttage measures could promote rooting and growing of cutting woods:1-year lignified first king shoots with 12 cm,pruned away foliage under two third of height of coppice shoots and infused with 100 mg*kg-1 concentration of ABT for 4 h before cuttage,wereplanted on yellow soil.%对峦大杉扦插繁殖的生根及生长能力与插穗类型、激素种类、激素质量分数、插穗长度、采穗部位、穗条年龄、留叶数量和扦插基质等相关因素进行研究。结果表明:①插穗扦插后84 d产生不定根。峦大杉为皮部生根类型的树种。②采用1年生已木质化的不具顶芽的1级侧枝为插穗,在100 mg*kg-1的ABT生根粉中浸泡4 h,插穗长度12 cm,扦插前去掉下半部2/3针叶,黄心土为扦插基质的扦插繁殖技术,有利于插穗的生根及生长,是扦插繁殖峦大杉的最优组合。表7参6

  8. Coping with Pressures of Modernization by Traditional Farmers: a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIRO Chikamatsu; Jose Ireneu Furtad; SHEN Lixin; YAN Mei

    2007-01-01

    Traditional farming practices conform to sustainable rural livelihoods, while agricultural modernisation tends to undermine these practices through various perturbations. A case study in Tengchong County (western Yunnan, China) shows that transformation of traditional alder (Alnus nepalensis) and dry rice (upland rice) rotational farming to introduced Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)plantations leads to loealised water scarcity and soil fertility decline. While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work. Farmers adapt to economic liberalization by planting high value crops and trees. However,alternatives to make local agricultural production more profitable through competitive business strategies, cooperative approaches, innovations in intefor sustainable rural livelihoods have been overlooked largely due to poor information availability and lack of organisational framework.

  9. Effect of Exotic Toxin on the Nutrition of Woodland Soil%外源毒素对林地土壤养分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙池; 廖利平; 汪思龙; 黄志群

    2002-01-01

    The effect of vanillin and P-hydroxybenzoic acid on Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata) woodland soil and Schima superba woodland soil was studied in pot culture experiment.The results showed that contents of nitrogen,potassium and organic matter were lower than the control and their change scope were 21.8%,2.8% and 8.2% respectively.The content of available phosphorus were higher and the change scope was 23.7%.In addition,both changes became more significant with increase of phenolic concentration.These results showed that allelochemicals released by plant may affect content of nutrition in soil,and give rise to nutrition deficiency,and then affect Chinese fir growth.

  10. Properties of Wood/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Wenhua; ZHAO Guangjie

    2006-01-01

    With montmorillonite (MMT) organically modified as organophilic-MMT (OMMT) and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde resin (PF) as intermediate, the nanocomposites of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood and MMT, i.e. WMNC, were prepared via nano intercalation compounding, some properties of WMNC were analyzed. Results show that, compared with Chinese fir wood and its PF-impreg, WMNC has lower humidity and water absorption, better dimension stability, higher longitudinal compressive strength, abrasive resistance, fire-resistance, and water-leaching resistance with a very low mass ratio about 3% of MMT. The nano intercalation compounding of wood and exfoliated MMT nanolamellae is very promising. More studies should be carried out to fully reveal the nanosize effects and the special properties of WMNC.

  11. Effect of Continuous Plantation of Chinese Fir on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYING-XIANG; CHENJIN-LIN

    1995-01-01

    The changes in soil fertility under continuous plantation of Chinese fir were studied by comparing soil samples from different forest stands:the first and second plantations of Chinese fir,evergreen broad-leaved forests,and clear-cut and burnt Chinese fir land located at Xihou Village,Nanping of Fujian Province.The soils were humic red soil originated from weathered coarse granite of the Presinian system.Soil pH,CEC,base saturation ,exchangeable Ca2+,exchangeable Mg2+ and A1-P declined after continuous plantation of Chinese fir.The same trends were also found in the soils under broad-leaved stands and slash burnt lands.The explantation was that not merely the biological nature of the Chinese fir itself but the natural leaching of nutrients,soil erosion and nutrient losses due to clear cutting and slash burning of the preceduing plantation caused the soil deterioration .Only some of main soil nutrients decreased after continuous plantation of Chinese fir,depending on specific silvicultural system,which was different from the conclusions in some other reports which showed that all main nutrients,such as OM,total N,available P and available K decreased,Some neccessary step to make up for the lost base,to apply P fertilizer and to avoid buring on clear cut lands could be taken to prevent soil degradation and yield decline in the system of continuous plantation of Chinese fir.

  12. Fitness costs of chemical defense in Plantago lanceolata L.: effects of nutrient and competition stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Hamida B; Biere, Arjen; Van Damme, Jos M M

    2003-11-01

    Fitness costs of defense are often invoked to explain the maintenance of genetic variation in levels of chemical defense compounds in natural plant populations. We investigated fitness costs of iridoid glycosides (IGs), terpenoid compounds that strongly deter generalist insect herbivores, in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) using lines that had been artificially selected for high and low leaf IG concentrations for four generations. Twelve maternal half-sib families from each selection line were grown in four environments, consisting of two nutrient and two competition treatments. We tested whether: (1) in the absence of herbivores and pathogens, plants from lines selected for high IG levels have a lower fitness than plants selected for low IG levels; and (2) costs of chemical defense increase with environmental stress. Vegetative biomass did not differ between selection lines, but plants selected for high IG levels produced fewer inflorescences and had a significantly lower reproductive dry weight than plants selected for low IG levels, indicating a fitness cost of IG production. Line-by-nutrient and line-by-competition interactions were not significant for any of the fitness-related traits. Hence, there was no evidence that fitness costs increased with environmental stress. Two factors may have contributed to the absence of higher costs under environmental stress. First, IGs are carbon-based chemicals. Under nutrient limitation, the relative carbon excess may result in the production of IGs without imposing a further constraint on growth and reproduction. Second, correlated responses to selection on IG levels indicate the existence of a positive genetic association between IG level and cotyledon size. At low nutrient level, a path analysis based on family means revealed that in the presence of competitors, the negative direct effect of a high IG level on aboveground plant dry weight was partly offset by a positive direct effect of the associated larger

  13. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

    2014-12-06

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Allelochemicals of Chinese—fir root extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction on Chinese fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINSi-zu; CAOGuang-qiu; DULing; WANGAi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root was extracted by technology of supercritical CO2 extraction under orthogonal experiment design, and it was used to analyze allelopathic activity of Chinese-fir through bioassay of seed germination, The results showed that as to the available rate of allelochemicals, the pressure and temperature of extraction were the most im-portant factors, The allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root extracted by pure CO2 and ethanol mixed with CO2 have different al-lelopathic activities to seed germination, and the allelochemicals extracted by ethanol mixed with CO2 had stronger inhibitory effects on seed Qermination than that extracted by pure CO2.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Cuphea lanceolata encoding a beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B; Pawlowski, K; Höricke-Grandpierre, C; Schell, J; Töpfer, R

    1992-05-01

    A cDNA encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), an integral part of the fatty acid synthase type II, was cloned from Cuphea lanceolata. This cDNA of 1276 bp codes for a polypeptide of 320 amino acids with 63 N-terminal residues presumably representing a transit peptide and 257 residues corresponding to the mature protein of 27 kDa. The encoded protein shows strong homology with the amino-terminal sequence and two tryptic peptides from avocado mesocarp beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, and its total amino acid composition is highly similar to those of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductases of avocado and spinach. Amino acid sequence homologies to polyketide synthase, beta-ketoreductases and short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases are discussed. An engineered fusion protein lacking most of the transit peptide, which was produced in Escherichia coli, was isolated and proved to possess beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity. Hybridization studies revealed that in C. lanceolata beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a small family of at least two genes and that members of this family are expressed in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds.

  16. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  17. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  18. Balsam fir trees could disappear from W Va

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article discussing the balsam fir tree could disappear from the forests of West Virginia within the next decade, unless humans intervene to help. The West...

  19. Researches on Nutrition in Cultivation of Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series ofresearches on the nutrition problems in the cultivation of Chinese fir seedlings and plantations, which are mainly focus on the problems of serious land degradation in Chinese fir plantations in contradiction with the rapid development of the plantations in China, were summarized. Twelve years was taken and more than 30 pieces of research papers were published for the researches, which refers to the problems of growth effect, physiological effect, vegetation variation, biomass accumulation, n...

  20. Molecular phylogeny of Urosomoida agilis, and new combinations: Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov., and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal

    2015-02-01

    For years, systematics of three species, Urosomoida agilis (Engelmann, 1862) Hemberger in Foissner, 1982, Urosomoida longa (Gelei and Szabados, 1950) Foissner et al., 1991 and Oxytricha lanceolata Shibuya, 1930, has remained unresolved due to lack of adequate molecular data. Though, it is known since several years that the three species are not very closely related. In the present paper, 18S rRNA gene sequences for two key species, U. agilis and U. longa, and their morphology and morphometry have been analyzed. Molecular phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood, neighbour joining and maximum parsimony methods has adequately removed ambiguity over their systematics. In phylogenetic trees, U. agilis clustered consistently with non-stylonychine oxytrichids. Both Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata clustered consistently away from U. agilis and O. granulifera, the type species of the genera Urosomoida and Oxytricha, respectively. As a result of the current molecular phylogenetic investigation and based on previously inferred morphological and morphogenetic data it is proposed to remove Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata from Urosomoida and incertae sedis in Oxytricha, respectively, and establish two new generic combinations, Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov. and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. for them.

  1. Systemic, genotype-specific induction of two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L. in response to fungal infection by Diaporthe adunca (Rob.) Niessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Iridoid glycosides are a group of terpenoid secondary plant compounds known to deter generalist insect herbivores. In ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol can be induced following damage by insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated whether the s

  2. Two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides reduce the in-vitro growth of a specialist but not of a generalist pathogenic fungus of Plantago lanceolata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Many secondary plant compounds are involved in defense against both insect herbivores and pathogens. Two secondary plant compounds of Plantago lanceolata, the iridoid glycosides catalpol and its precursor aucubin, are well known for their deterrent effects on generalist and non-adapted specialist in

  3. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  4. Epidemics of Diaporthe adunca in experimental and in natural populations of Plantago lanceolata and the effect of partial resistance on disease development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, E.G.A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.; Zadoks, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Epidemics of the splash-dispersed pathogenic fungus Diaporthe adunca on its host, the perennial herb Plantago lanceolata, were followed during two consecutive years in transects at roadsides in the Netherlands. Epidemics of D. adunca were also studied on clones of a susceptible and a partially resis

  5. Photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of male-sterile and hermaphrodite sex types of Plantago lanceolata grown under conditions of contrasting nitrogen and light availabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, P.; Pilon, J.; Pens, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Plantago lanceolata is it gynodioecious species: In natural populations male steriles (MS) coexist with hermaphrodites (H). Since male steriles have a reproductive disadvantage, without any compensation for their loss in male function by an increase in female function, they are expected to disappear

  6. Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areas such as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signal processing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamental properties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of the noise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presents design, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMS algorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.

  7. Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Yadav

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areassuch as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signalprocessing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamentalproperties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of thenoise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presentsdesign, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMSalgorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.

  8. Fir Decline and Mortality in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Dvinskaya, Mariya, L.; Fedotova, Elena V.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased dieback and mortality of dark needle conifer (DNC) stands (composed of fir (Abies sibirica),Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and spruce (Picea obovata))were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of fir decline and mortality in the southern Siberian Mountains based on satellite, in situ and dendrochronological data. The studied stands are located within the boundary between DNC taiga to the north and forest-steppe to the south. Fir decline and mortality were observed to originate where topographic features contributed to maximal water-stress risk, i.e., steep (1825),convex, south-facing slopes with a shallow well-drained root zone. Fir regeneration survived droughts and increased stem radial growth, while upper canopy trees died. Tree ring width(TRW) growth negatively correlated with vapor pressure deficit (VPD), drought index and occurrence of late frosts, and positively with soil water content. Previous year growth conditions (i.e., drought index, VPD, soil water anomalies)have a high impact on current TRW (r 0.600.74). Fir mortality was induced by increased water stress and severe droughts (as a primary factor) in synergy with bark-beetles and fungi attacks (as secondary factors). Dendrochronology data indicated that fir mortality is a periodic process. In a future climate with increased aridity and drought frequency, fir (and Siberian pine) may disappear from portions of its current range (primarily within the boundary with the forest steppe)and is likely to be replaced by drought-tolerant species such as Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica.

  9. FIR line emission from high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, Livia; Ferrara, Andrea; Baek, Sunghye

    2013-01-01

    By combining high resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations of z~6 galaxies with a sub-grid multi-phase model of their interstellar medium we derive the expected intensity of several far infrared (FIR) emission lines ([C II] 158 micron, [O I] 63 micron, and [N II] 122 micron) for different values of the gas metallicity, Z. For Z = Z_sun the [C II] spectrum is very complex due to the presence of several emitting clumps of individual size < 3 kpc; the peak is displaced from the galaxy center by ~100 km/s. While the [O I] spectrum is also similarly displaced, the [N II] line comes predominantly from the central ionized regions of the galaxy. When integrated over ~500 km/s, the [C II] line flux is 185 mJy km/s; 95% of such flux originates from the cold (T~250 K) H I phase, and only 5% from the warm (T~5000 K) neutral medium. The [O I] and [N II] fluxes are ~6 and ~90 times lower than the [C II] one, respectively. By comparing our results with observations of Himiko, the most extended and luminous...

  10. High Speed Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Russian Peasant Multiplier with Sklansky Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gunasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Reconfigurable FIR filters are commonly used digital filters which find its major applications in digital signal processing and multi-standard wireless communications. The Direct form of FIR filter used in DSP application which consumes more area and power. To overcome this problem Multiplier Control Signal Decision (MCSD window schemes is incorporated into direct form FIR filter in order to dynamically change the filter order. Conventional reconfigurable FIR filter is designed using Russian Peasant Multiplier which consumes more area and delay due to poor performance of adder used in multiplication unit. In this study, modified reconfigurable FIR filter is designed to further reduce the area, power and time. In proposed Reconfigurable FIR filter, a Wallace adder is replaced by carry select adder with sklansky adder in Russian Peasant Multiplication technique. Hence, modified Reconfigurable FIR filter with carry select adder with sklansky adder consumes less area, delay and power than the conventional Reconfigurable FIR architecture with Russian Peasant Multiplication technique.

  11. A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J

    1983-05-01

    Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts.

  12. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Taranjit Singh; Harvinder Singh Josan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA). FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these charact...

  13. Investigation of Carbohydrate Compositions for Poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; MAGARA Kengo

    2006-01-01

    The carbohydrate compositions of poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese fir were investigated by the methods of hydrolysis and HPLC.The result showed that the contents of glucose,xylose and arabinose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are higher than those in Chinese fir,while contents of rhamnose and mannose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are lower than those in Chinese fir.

  14. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  15. FPGA-Based Efficient Programmable Polyphase FIR Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN He; XIONG Cheng-huan; ZHONG Shu-nan; WANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    The modelling, design and implementation of a high-speed programmable polyphase finite impulse response (FIR) filter with field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology are described. This FIR filter can run automatically according to the programmable configuration word including symmetry/asymmetry, odd/even taps, from 32 taps up to 256 taps. The filter with 12 bit signal and 12 bit coefficient word-length has been realized on a Xilinx VirtexⅡ-v1500 device and operates at the maximum sampling frequency of 160 MHz.

  16. The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near

  17. Systemic, genotype-specific induction of two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L. in response to fungal infection by Diaporthe adunca (Rob.) Niessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, Hamida B; Biere, Arjen; Van Damme, Jos M M

    2002-12-01

    Iridoid glycosides are a group of terpenoid secondary plant compounds known to deter generalist insect herbivores. In ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol can be induced following damage by insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated whether the same compounds can be induced following infection by the fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca, the causal agent of a stalk disease in P. lanceolata. Significant induction of aucubin and catalpol was observed in two of the three plant genotypes used in this study following inoculation with the pathogen. In one of the genotypes, induction occurred within 6 hr after inoculation, and no decay was observed within 8 days. The highest level of induction was observed in reproductive tissues (spikes and stalks) where infection took place. In these tissues, iridoid glycoside levels in infected plants were, on average, 97% and 37% higher than the constitutive levels in the corresponding control plants, respectively. Significant induction was also observed in leaves (24%) and roots (17%). In addition to significant genotypic variation in the level of induction, we found genetic variation for the tissue-specific pattern of induction, further broadening the scope for evolutionary fine-tuning of induced responses. Recent studies have revealed a negative association between iridoid glycoside levels in P. lanceolata genotypes and the amount of growth and reproduction of D. adunca that these genotypes support. However, for the three genotypes used in the present study, differences in resistance were not related to their constitutive or induced levels of iridoid glycosides, suggesting that additional resistance mechanisms are important in this host-pathogen system. We conclude that iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata can be induced both by arthropods and pathogenic micro-organisms. Pathogen infection could, therefore, potentially enhance resistance to generalist insect herbivores in this

  18. Performance Evaluation of FIR Filter After Implementation on Different FPGA and SOC and Its Utilization in Communication and Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Bhagwan; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2017-01-01

    There are many areas of communication and network, which have open scope to use FIR filter. Therefore, energy efficient FIR filter will increase lifetime of network and FIR filter with less delay and latency will increase performance of network. In this work, we are going to design an FIR filter ...

  19. Provenance variability in nursery growth of subalpine fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Cartwright; Cheng Ying

    2011-01-01

    Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa [Hook] Nutt.) is a wide-ranging, high-elevation species in the interior of British Columbia. It is commonly harvested for lumber, but replanting of it is limited. Some reticence is based upon wood quality and rate of growth, but there are also seed and nursery culturing difficulties. This study investigated seedling growth traits of 111...

  20. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum

    1977-01-01

    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  1. The New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter B. Gibbs; James B. Carlaw

    1973-01-01

    I once heard it said that if you want to know how something was organized, ask a man who had nothing to do with it. I suspect this may be one of the reasons I was asked to collaborate on this report of the development of the New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program.

  2. On mycorrhiza development of spruces and firs in damaged stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, T.; Weber, G.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the very fine roots of sick spruces and firs and established the following: 1. a surprising stability of mycorrhiza development, 2. differences in the dynamism of development and 3. modifications in the composition of the accompanying microfungi. The results suggest connections in the chain of causes of forest disease which have received little attention so far.

  3. The FIR/submm window on galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Guiderdoni, B; Devriendt, J E G; Hivon, E; Puget, J L

    1999-01-01

    Our view on the deep universe has been so far biased towards optically bright galaxies. Now, the measurement of the Cosmic Infrared Background in FIRAS and DIRBE residuals, and the observations of FIR/submm sources by the ISOPHOT and SCUBA instruments begin unveiling the ``optically dark side'' of galaxy formation. Though the origin of dust heating is still unsolved, it appears very likely that a large fraction of the FIR/submm emission is due to heavily-extinguished star formation. Consequently, the level of the CIRB implies that about 2/3 of galaxy/star formation in the universe is hidden by dust shrouds. In this review, we introduce a new modeling of galaxy formation and evolution that provides us with specific predictions in FIR/submm wavebands. These predictions are compared with the current status of the observations. Finally, the capabilities of current and forthcoming instruments for all-sky and deep surveys of FIR/submm sources are briefly described.

  4. Critical Path Reduction of Distributed Arithmetic Based FIR Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Badave

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Operating speed, which is reciprocal of critical path computation time, is one of the prominent design matrices of finite impulse response (FIR filters. It is largely affected by both, system architecture as well as technique used to design arithmetic modules. A large computation time of multipliers in conventionally designed multipliers, limits the speed of system architecture. Distributed arithmetic is one of the techniques, used to provide multiplier-free multiplication in the implementation of FIR filter. However suffers from a sever limitation of exponential growth of look up table (LUT with order of filter. An improved distributed arithmetic technique is addressed here to design for system architecture of FIR filter. In proposed technique, a single large LUT of conventional DA is replaced by number of smaller indexed LUT pages to restrict exponential growth and to reduce system access time. It also eliminates the use of adders. Selection module selects the desired value from desired page, which leads to reduce computational time of critical path. Trade off between access times of LUT pages and selection module helps to achieve minimum critical path so as to maximize the operating speed. Implementations are targeted to Xilinx ISE, Virtex IV devices. FIR filter with 8 bit data width of input sample results are presented here. It is observed that, proposed design perform significantly faster as compared to the conventional DA and existing DA based designs.

  5. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  6. The biology of arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    1991-01-01

    Arboreal rodents in Douglas-fir forests west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and Washington include (listed in decreasing order of dependence on trees) red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaucfus), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), Douglas' squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii), dusky-footed woodrat...

  7. Biology of bats in Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin E. Christy; Stephen D. West

    1993-01-01

    Twelve species of bats occur in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, of which nine are known to roost in tree cavities, bark crevices, or foliage, and several are closely associated with old-growth forests. Thus bat populations may be detrimentally affected by forest management practices involving the removal of large, old trees and snags. We review the life...

  8. Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies and toxic effects on plant cells in Pb-Zn (Sn) ore fields, Northeast Guangxi Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ci'an; LEI Liangqi; YANG Qijun

    2007-01-01

    In the Lingchuan-Daoping and Xinglu Pb-Zn ore fields in northern and eastern Guangxi Autonomous Region, Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies may be ascribed to the excessive amounts of Pb and Cu taken up by the root system of plants, such as China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb. Hook), mason pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum). Under transmission electron microscope (TEM), the excess Pb, Cu in the leaf cells of the plants are present as high electron-density substances, which were precipitated in the leaf cells, causing phytotoxic effects by deforming and injuring cellular tissues. The sorts of toxic elements accumulating in the leaf cells are consistent with those of the botanogeochemically anomalous elements in the polluted soil where the plants grow. In addition, the plants may also be capable of resisting the invasion of excess Cu (and Pb) .

  9. Effects of Inorganic acid catalysts on liquefaction of wood In phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiuhui; Zhao Guangjie; Chen Jinpeng

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain the effects of acid catalysts on wood liquefaction in phenol, we investigated the liquefaction of wood powder from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Triploid Populus tomentosa Carr) in the presence of phenol with the following weak inorganic acids as catalysts: phosphoric acid (85%),sulfuric acid (36%),hydrochloric acid (37%)and oxalic acid (99.5%).Results show that phosphoric acid (85%) and sulfuric acid (36%) are better than the other catalysts.It was found that lower residue ratios can be obtained under defined reaction conditions: phenol/wood ratio is 4,a 10% catalyst based on the weight of phenol,a temperature of 150℃ for 2 h and phosphoric or sulfuric acid.The residue ratios are 3.2% and 4.0%,respectively.

  10. Genetic analysis of ecological relevant morphological variability in Plantago lanceolata L. : 2. Localisation and organisation of quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, K

    1987-04-01

    Morphological variability was analysed in an F2-generation derived from crosses between two ecotypes of Plantago lanceolata L. Six allozyme loci, localised in five linkage groups, were used as markers. For two marker loci, Got-2 and Gpi-1, segregations did not fit monogenic ratios. In the linkage groups to which these two loci belonged, male sterility genes appeared to be present. In these crosses, male sterility (type 3, as described by Van Damme 1983) may be determined by two recessive loci located in the linkage groups of Got-2 and of Gpi-1. Many correlations of morphological and life history characters with allozyme markers were observed. The quantitative trait loci did not appear to be concentrated in major gene complexes. Often many loci were involved, sometimes with effects opposite to those expected from the population values. Main effects of the linkage groups appeared to be more important than interaction effects in determining variability. It also appeared that there is a positive correlation between the number of heterozygous allozyme loci and generative growth.

  11. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  13. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranjit Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these characteristics, a Cuckoo Search algorithm (CSA is proposed in this paper. CSA have been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Results are presented in this paper that seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design

  14. Noniterative Design of 2-Channel FIR Orthogonal Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez M Elena Domínguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of obtaining an explicit expression of all real FIR paraunitary filters. In this work, we present a general parameterization of 2-channel FIR orthogonal filters. Unlike other approaches which make use of a lattice structure, we show that our technique designs any orthogonal filter directly, with no need of iteration procedures. Moreover, in order to design an -tap 2-channel paraunitary filterbank, it suffices to choose independent parameters, and introduce them in a simple expression which provides the filter coefficients directly. Some examples illustrate how this new approach can be used for designing filters with certain desired properties. Further conditions can be eventually imposed on the parameters so as to design filters for specific applications.

  15. Cost Analysis of Different Digital Fir Filter Design Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amninder Singh,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available FIR digital filters are widely used in the communication world. The implementation cost of filter circuit is counted by the number of multipliers & adders used, that decides the chip area. In this paper, design techniques of low pass FIR filter using the different windows are presented. The simulation is done in MATLAB. It is shown that filter designed using Hamming and Blackman windows are better than rest of the windows used. Out of two, Hamming window is better as its transition width is narrow, 0.019 than Blackman, 0.034. Further the performance analysis of Kaiser Window, Equiripple and Minimum phase filters was obtained, for same 0.04 transition width. There is a disparity in implementation cost & area. The minimum phase filter can be implemented with lesser number of filter coefficients with tolerable pass-band, stop-band ripples specifications.

  16. Cyclotron Resonance Gain for FIR and THz Radiation in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Nightvid

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron resonance maser source using low-effective-mass conduction electrons in graphene, if successful, would allow for generation of Far Infrared (FIR) and Terahertz (THz) radiation without requiring magnetic fields running into the tens of Tesla. In order to investigate this possibility, we consider a device in which electrons are effectively injected via pumping from the valence band to the conduction band using an infrared (IR) laser source, subsequently gyrate in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the graphene, and give rise to gain for a FIR/THz wave crossing the plane of the graphene. A set of integral expressions is derived by assuming that the non-radiative energy loss processes of the electrons can be adequately represented by a damping force proportional and antiparallel to their momentum. Minimal gain may occur at very short electron damping times of hundreds of femtoseconds.

  17. Degrading Precision Arithmetics for Low-power FIR Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a review of different techniques used to implement highly optimized DSP systems is presented. The case of study is the implementation of parallel FIR filters aimed to applications characterized by high speed and high selectivity in frequency where at the same time low power dissipat......In this paper a review of different techniques used to implement highly optimized DSP systems is presented. The case of study is the implementation of parallel FIR filters aimed to applications characterized by high speed and high selectivity in frequency where at the same time low power...... on selective bit freezing, DPA-II, based on VDD voltage scaling, and DPA-III, based on power gating. Some theoreticaVsimuiative analysis of the introduced arithmetic errors and some implementation results are shown. A discussion on the suitability of these methodologies on standard cell technologies and FPGAs...

  18. Research on SINS Alignment Algorithm Based on FIR Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Jun-xiang; HU De-wen; WU Yuan-xin; HU Xiao-ping

    2007-01-01

    An inertial frame based alignment (IFBA) method is presented, especially for the applications on a rocking platform, e.g., marine applications. Defining the initial body frame as the inertial frame, the IFBA method achieves the alignment by virtue of a cascade of low-pass FIR filters, which attenuate the disturbing acceleration and maintain the gravity vector. The aligning time rests with the orders of the FIR filter group, and the method is suitable for large initial misali gnment case. An alignment scheme comprising a coarse phase by the IFBA method an d a fine phase by a Kalman filter is presented. Both vehicle-based and ship-based alignment experiments were carried out. The results show that the proposed scheme converges much faster than the traditional method at no cost of precision and also works well under any large initial misalignment.

  19. Synthesis of Band Filters and Equalizers Using Microwav FIR Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

    2000-01-01

    It is desired to design a passive bandpass filter with both a linear phase and flat magnitude response within the band and also has steep skirts. Using the properties of both coupled lines and elementary FIR (Finite Impulse Response) signal processing techniques can produce a filter of adequate phase response and magnitude control. The design procedure will first be described and then a sample filter will then be synthesized and results shown.

  20. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M; Fadda, D.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Wright, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25−500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temper...

  1. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, GJ; S. Bianchi; Bock, J.; Bomans, DJ; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mu m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temp...

  2. Action of Douglas Fir Tussock Moth Larvae and Their Microflora on Dietary Terpenes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, R E; Spence, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    A single type of bacterium, tentatively identified as a member of the genus Bacillus, was isolated from 2 of 20 midguts of Douglas fir tussock moth larvae being fed a diet of fir needles. No bacteria could be isolated from most midguts. Although spherically shaped bodies were present in the food bolus, these bodies, if microorganisms, could not be distinguished from spherical bodies associated with the plant tissue. The Douglas fir tussock moth dietary terpenes were altered during their passa...

  3. [Selection of biomass estimation models for Chinese fir plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Duan, Ai-guo; Xiang, Cong-wei

    2010-12-01

    A total of 11 kinds of biomass models were adopted to estimate the biomass of single tree and its organs in young (7-year-old), middle-age (16-year-old), mature (28-year-old), and mixed-age Chinese fir plantations. There were totally 308 biomass models fitted. Among the 11 kinds of biomass models, power function models fitted best, followed by exponential models, and then polynomial models. Twenty-one optimal biomass models for individual organ and single tree were chosen, including 18 models for individual organ and 3 models for single tree. There were 7 optimal biomass models for the single tree in the mixed-age plantation, containing 6 for individual organ and 1 for single tree, and all in the form of power function. The optimal biomass models for the single tree in different age plantations had poor generality, but the ones for that in mixed-age plantation had a certain generality with high accuracy, which could be used for estimating the biomass of single tree in different age plantations. The optimal biomass models for single Chinese fir tree in Shaowu of Fujin Province were used to predict the single tree biomass in mature (28-year-old) Chinese fir plantation in Jiangxi Province, and it was found that the models based on a large sample of forest biomass had a relatively high accuracy, being able to be applied in large area, whereas the regional models with small sample were limited to small area.

  4. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, A C; Mittal, R; Allen, S W; Baum, S A; Boehringer, H; Bregman, J N; Bremer, M N; Combes, F; Crawford, C S; Donahue, M; Egami, E; Fabian, A C; Hamer, S L; Hatch, N A; Jaffe, W; Johnstone, R M; McNamara, B R; O'Dea, C P; Popesso, P; Quillen, A C; Salome, P; Sarazin, C L; Voit, G M; Wilman, R J; Wise, M W

    2010-01-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [C II], [O I] and [N I] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (>10^9 Mo) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed...

  5. 不同间伐强度对杉木人工林下植被发育及生物量的影响%The Effect on the Intensity of Different Selected Deforestation of Artificial Cunninghamia lanceolata to the Growth and Development and the Quantity of Living Things of Forest Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江民锦

    2001-01-01

    对江西分宜县山下林场14、16地位指数级杉木林不同间伐强度固定样地林下植被作了研究.结果表明,植物种组成、重要值、结构、盖度及生物量均随间伐强度而不同.对照与弱度间伐的盖度与生物量均小于中度与强度间伐的,前者分别为35%~60%与1500~3000kg·hm-2,后者分别为70%~80%与5000~7000kg·hm-2.中度和强度间伐都可以促进林下植被良好发育.

  6. Growth Response of Silver Fir and Bosnian Pine from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Toromani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper explore the growth-climate relationships in total ring width chronologies of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii Christ. The objective of this study is to quantify the climate influence on radial growth of both species. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growing years (called pointer years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients. The objectives of this study were: (1 to define the pattern of climatic response of each species, (2 to highlight the influence of local ecological conditions on tree's growth, and (3 to compare the response of silver fir and Bosnian pine to climate. Responses of total ring width to climate were estimated by establishing the mean relationship between growth and climate through simple correlations analysis and bootstrapped response functions. The response to climatic variability was also assessed by analyzing pointer years which correspond to abrupt changes in growth pattern and revealing the tree-growth response to extreme climatic events. For the period 1908-2008 the mean sensitivity (MS of total ring width chronology for Bosnian pine (0.209 was higher than silver fir (0.169 suggesting that Bosnian pine is more sensitive to climate (pointer years were more frequent in ring width chronology of Bosnian pine than in silver fir ring width chronology. The high values of first-order autocorrelations for Bosnian pine (0.674 indicated a strong dependence of current growth on the previous year’s growth. Pointer years analysis underlined the high sensitivity to spring temperatures and precipitation for both species. Radial growth for both species depends strongly on spring climate variables (temperatures and precipitation which play a significant role particularly for earlywood production. Material and Methods: We selected 12 silver fir trees and 15 Bosnian pine trees and took two 5

  7. n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrudin, Nanang; Dwi Astuti, Eny; Sulistyawati, Rini; Santosa, Djoko; Susandarini, Ratna; Nurrochmad, Arief; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n-hexane insoluble fraction of P. lanceolata leaves dichloromethane extract (HIFPL). We first evaluated its potency to reduce paw edema induced by carrageenan, and the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in mice. The efficacy of HIFPL to inhibit COX-2 was also evaluated in an in vitro enzymatic assay. We further studied the effect of HIFPL on leukocytes migration in mice induced by thioglycollate. The level of chemokines facilitating the migration of leukocytes was also measured. We found that HIFPL (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The HIFPL reduced the volume of paw edema and COX-2 expression. However, HIFPL acts as an unselective COX-2 inhibitor as it inhibited COX-1 with a slightly higher potency. Interestingly, HIFPL strongly inhibited leukocyte migration by reducing the level of chemokines, Interleukine-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).

  8. n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Fakhrudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n-hexane insoluble fraction of P. lanceolata leaves dichloromethane extract (HIFPL. We first evaluated its potency to reduce paw edema induced by carrageenan, and the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, in mice. The efficacy of HIFPL to inhibit COX-2 was also evaluated in an in vitro enzymatic assay. We further studied the effect of HIFPL on leukocytes migration in mice induced by thioglycollate. The level of chemokines facilitating the migration of leukocytes was also measured. We found that HIFPL (40, 80, 160 mg/kg demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The HIFPL reduced the volume of paw edema and COX-2 expression. However, HIFPL acts as an unselective COX-2 inhibitor as it inhibited COX-1 with a slightly higher potency. Interestingly, HIFPL strongly inhibited leukocyte migration by reducing the level of chemokines, Interleukine-8 (IL-8 and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1.

  9. Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H

    2012-04-01

    Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures.

  10. 越南杉木种源早期评价与选择%Evaluation and early selection of Chinese fir provenances in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN Ba Trieu; 丁国昌; 陈宇; 曹光球; PHAM Van Huong; 林思祖

    2016-01-01

    Good provenance selection of Chinese fir [ Cunninghammia lanceolata ( Hook) Lamb.] plays a vital role in forest planta-tion in Vietnam.Nine Vietnamese origins and 1 Chinese origin of C.lancoe lata were planted in north, center and south regions of Vietnam for 2 years to select the best provenance for each region.Results showed that after 2 years of growing, in the same test region, different provenances were significantly various in growth, while the same provenance performed variously in different test regions.North Vietnam was the ideal area for Chinese fir production with the most provenances due to its cool climate, followed by the south region.Provenances of CL9, CL7, CL6, CL4, CL2 and CL1 ( overall performance in descending order) were all elite species in the north Vietnam.CL4 and CL1 were the best grown in central Vietnam and CL8, CL9 and CL2 were the best species in the south Vietnam.The early study result of the test contributed to selection of adaptable growing regions for Vietnam Chinese fir plantations and offering references for elite provenance region planning.%杉木良种选择研究对越南杉木人工林有重要意义。以9个越南杉木种源与1个中国杉木无性系为研究对象,于越南3个试验点开展种源试验,并做早期选择。结果表明:种植2a后,在同一试验区不同的种源生长差异明显,同一种源在不同试验区生长不一。越南北部是杉木最适合的生长地区,南部次之,中部最差,这可能与当地的气候等因素有关。在越南北部, CL9、 CL7、 CL6、 CL4、 CL2和CL1种源为优良种源;在中部, CL4和CL1种源是优良种源;在南部,优良种源为CL8、 CL9与CL2。本试验早期研究结果有助于为越南杉木人工林选择适应种植地区和优良种源区规划提供借鉴。

  11. Power Efficient Design of Parallel/Serial FIR Filters in RNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petricca, Massimo; Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the Residue Number System (RNS) provides an efficient implementation of parallel FIR filters especially when the filter order and the dynamic range are high. The two main drawbacks of RNS, need of converters and coding overhead, make a serialized implementation of the FIR fi...

  12. Population buildup and vertical spread of dwarf mistletoe on young red and white firs in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; John R. Parmeter Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Rate of population buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz., was slow in most small red firs and white firs 12 to 15 years after inoculation with the parasite. Where population buildup did occur, it remained clustered in the lower portions of tree crowns near inoculation sites. Maximum distance of vertical spread was 16...

  13. Conversion of SPORL pretreated Douglas fir forest residues into microbial lipids with oleaginous yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas fir is the dominant commercial tree grown in the United States. In this study Douglas fir residue was converted to single cell oils using oleaginous yeasts. Monosaccharides were extracted from the woody biomass by pretreating with sulfite and dilute sulfuric acid (SPORL process) and hydrol...

  14. Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...

  15. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van E.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant natur

  16. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant

  17. Properties of predictor based on relative neighborhood graph localized FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1995-01-01

    A time signal prediction algorithm based on relative neighborhood graph (RNG) localized FIR filters is defined. The RNG connects two nodes, of input space dimension D, if their lune does not contain any other node. The FIR filters associated with the nodes, are used for local approximation...

  18. Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Henrot-Versillé, S; Couchot, F

    2007-01-01

    We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

  19. Analysis of the growth characteristics of a 450-year-old silver fir tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth characteristics of silver fir are of high importance for selection forest management, and for the current aims laid out in Serbia’s forest management focused on increasing the share of silver firs in Serbia’s growing stock. With the objective of increasing the understanding of the growth characteristics of silver fir, the growth of two silver fir trees felled during forest site production research on Mt. Goč, located in Central Serbia, have been analyzed. Both trees showed significant differences in their growth dynamics over long periods as results of micro-site and micro-stand effects (primarily ambient light regime. The common growth characteristic of the two trees, a 450-year-old tree as the main study object (labeled Tree A and a 270-year-old Tree B is a long stagnation stage. For Tree A the latent phase, with small interruptions, lasted 410 years; one phase lasted 330 years in continuity, which is the longest period of silver fir stagnation recorded in Europe. Tree B showed a long-lasting stagnation stage that lasted 170 years. The long stagnation stage of Tree A, characterized by an average diameter increment of 1.4 mm/year (average growth ring width of 0.7 mm and an average height increment of 0.08 m/year, shows the extraordinary silver fir capacity for physiological survival in complete shade. This study adds to the existing knowledge of the shade tolerance of the silver fir. Therefore, the silver fir belongs to the group of extremely shade-tolerant tree species. This characteristic makes silver fir an irreplaceable tree species in the selection forest structure. It offers a wide range of silvicultural flexibility in the management of these forests, and is applicable to silver fir selection Serbia’s forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. EVBR 37008: Sustainable management of total forest potentials in the Republic of Serbia

  20. Evaluating water deficit and glyphosate treatment on the accumulation of phenolic compounds and photosynthesis rate in transgenic Codonopsis lanceolata (Siebold & Zucc.) Trautv. over-expressing γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-tmt) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Son, Na-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Yu, Chang Yeon; Chung, Ill-Min

    2017-07-01

    The effect of water stress and herbicide treatment on the phenolic compound concentration and photosynthesis rate in transgenic Codonopsis lanceolata plants over-expressing the γ-tmt gene was investigated and compared to that in control non-transgenic C. lanceolata plants. The total phenolic compound content was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection in C. lanceolata seedlings 3 weeks after water stress and treatment with glyphosate. Changes in the composition of phenolic compounds were observed in leaf and root extracts from transformed C. lanceolata plants following water stress and treatment with glyphosate. The total concentration of phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts of transgenic samples after water stress ranged from 3455.13 ± 40.48 to 8695.00 ± 45.44 µg g(-1) dry weight (DW), whereas the total concentration phenolic compound in the leaf extracts of non-transgenic control samples was 5630.83 ± 45.91 µg g(-1) DW. The predominant phenolic compounds that increased after the water stress in the transgenic leaf were (+) catechin, benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, rutin, vanillic acid, and veratric acid. The total concentration of phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts of transgenic samples after glyphosate treatment ranged from 4744.37 ± 81.81 to 12,051.02 ± 75.00 µg g(-1) DW, whereas the total concentration of the leaf extracts of non-transgenic control samples after glyphosate treatment was 3778.28 ± 59.73 µg g(-1) DW. Major phenolic compounds that increased in the transgenic C. lanceolata plants after glyphosate treatment included kaempherol, gallic acid, myricetin, p-hydroxybenzjoic acid, quercetin, salicylic acid, t-cinnamic acid, catechin, benzoicacid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, veratric acid, and vanillic acid. Among these, vanillic acid showed the greatest increase in both leaf and root extracts from transgenic plants relative to

  1. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  2. MODIFIED MICROPIPLINE ARCHITECTURE FOR SYNTHESIZABLE ASYNCHRONOUS FIR FILTER DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Halak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of asynchronous design approaches to construct digital signal processing (DSP systems is a rapidly growing research area driven by a wide range of emerging energy constrained applications such as wireless sensor network, portable medical devices and brain implants. The asynchronous design techniques allow the construction of systems which are samples driven, which means they only dissipate dynamic energy when there processing data and idle otherwise. This inherent advantage of asynchronous design over conventional synchronous circuits allows them to be energy efficient. However the implementation flow of asynchronous systems is still difficult due to its lack of compatibility with industrystandard synchronous design tools and modelling languages. This paper devises a novel asynchronous design for a finite impulse response (FIR filter, an essential building block of DSP systems, which is synthesizable and suitable for implementation using conventional synchronous systems design flow and tools. The proposed design is based on a modified version of the micropipline architecture and it is constructed using four phase bundled data protocol. A hardware prototype of the proposed filter has been developed on an FPGA, and systematically verified. The results prove correct functionality of the novel design and a superior performance compared to a synchronous FIR implementation. The findings of this work will allow a wider adoption of asynchronous circuits by DSP designers to harness their energy and performance benefits.

  3. POLARIZATION OF FIR EMISSION FROM T-TAURI DISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of 850 gm sub-mm polarization from T-Tauri disks open up the possibility of studying the magnetic eld structure within protostellar disks. The degree of polarization is around 3% and the direction of polarization is perpendicular to the disk. Since thermal emission from dust grains dominates the spectral energy distribution at sub-mm/far-infrared (FIR wavelengths, dust grains are thought to be the cause of the polarization. We discuss grain alignment by radiation and we explore the efficiency of dust alignment in T-Tauri disks. The calculations show that dust grains located far away from the central proto-star are more efficiently aligned. In the presence of a regular magnetic eld, the aligned grains produce polarized emission in sub-mm/FIR wavelengths. The direction of polarization is perpendicular to the local magnetic eld direction. When we use a recent T-Tauri disk model and take a Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck-type distribution with maximum grain size of 500{1000 -m, the degree of polarization is around 2{3% level at wavelengths larger than - 100 gm. Our work indicates that multifrequency infrared polarimetric studies of protostellar disks can provide good insights into the details of their magnetic structure. We also provide predictions for polarize emission for disks viewed at di erent wavelengths and viewing angles.

  4. Upgrade Plans for the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, R.; Garnier, D.; Irby, J.; Brower, D. L.; Xu, P.; Bergerson, W. F.; Ding, W. X.; Guttenfelder, W.; Marmar, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The 3-chord FIR polarimeter presently deployed on C-Mod is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. It operates under ITER-like plasma conditions and magnetic fields, and uses an optical layout similar to that proposed for ITER. The details of this system and some results from the C-Mod 2012 campaign will be presented, along with the design of the upgrade that is now being implemented. The new system will provide horizontal chords near the mid-plane and low loss etalon windows to improve both the signal level and our ability to study magnetic fluctuations. The laser table has been relocated from the C-Mod cell to a shielded and climate controlled location, and improvements have been made to its acoustic isolation. New collimation optics, and a beam-line needed to convey the FIR beams into the tokamak port have been designed. Improvements to the detector electronics will also be discussed, as will initial testing of the laser system and reference detectors during C-Mod operation. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  5. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  6. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 4 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest–southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2–3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.

  7. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.

  8. FIR Filter Implementation Based on the RNS with Diminished-1 Encoded Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Uros Zivaljevic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A technique, based on the residue number system (RNS with diminished-1 encoded channel, has being used for implementing a finite impulse response (FIR digital filter. The proposed RNS architecture of the filter consists of three main blocks: forward and reverse converter and arithmetic processor for each channel. Architecture for residue to binary (reverse convertor with diminished-1 encoded channel has been proposed. Besides, for all RNS channels, the systolic design is used for the efficient  realization of FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of diminished-1 residue arithmetic, signal processing, and decoding for FIR filters.

  9. Soil Biological Changes for a Natural Forest and Two Plantations in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Shui; YANG Yu-Sheng; XIE Jin-Sheng; LI Ling; GAO Ren

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of natural forests into pure plantation forests is a common management practice in subtropical China.To evaluate the effects of forest conversion on soil fertility, microbe numbers and enzyme activities in topsoils (0-10 cm)were quantified in two 33-year-old monoculture plantations of Castanopsis kawakamii Hayata (CK) and Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb. (Chinese fir) (CF), and compared to a neighboring relict natural C. kawakamii forest (NF), in Sanming,Fujian. Five soil samples were collected once each in January, April, July, September and November in 2000 in each forest for laboratory analysis. Over the sampling year, there were significant differences for bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes between forests and between seasons (P < 0.05). The largest bacteria and fungi populations were in NF, while CF contained the greatest number of actinomycetes. There were also significant differences (P < 0.05) with microbial respiration for forests and seasons. Additionally, compared with NF, urease and acid phosphatase were significantly lower (P < 0.05)in CK and CF. Also, the correlations of soil hydrolysable N and available P to soil microbial and enzymatic activities were highly significant (P < 0.01). Thus, to alter the traditional Chinese fir monoculture so as to mimic the natural forest conditions, managing mixed stands of Chinese fir and broadleaf trees or conducting crop rotation of conifers and broadleaf trees as well as minimizing forest disturbances like clear-cutting, slash burning and soil preparing, could be utilized.

  10. Changes in Soil Carbon Pools Induced by Substitution of Plantation for Native Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QIUFANG; XU JIANMING

    2003-01-01

    Changes in soil carbon pools under Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and bamboo (Phyllostachyspubescens) plantations substituted for a native forest ( Quereus acutissima, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Cas-tanopsis sclerophylla, Platycarya strobilacea, Lithocarpus glaber) were studied on the hills with acid parentrock and soils classified as red soils (Ferrisols) in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province of east China. It was foundthat total soil organic carbon (TSOC), easily oxidisable carbon (EOC) and water-soluble organic carbon(WSOC) under bamboo plantation were increased, but microbial biomass carbon (MBC) was decreased. Onthe contrary, Chinese fir induced declines of all fractions of C including TSOC, EOC, WSOC and MBC.The percentages of the active fractions of soil C (EOC and WSOC) were increased in the plantations ascompared to the native broad-leaved forest, but proportions of soil organic C as MBC were decreased. Itcould be concluded that bamboo plantation had a great ability of not only fixing C but also accelerating soilC pool cycle, improving nutrient and microorganism activity; therefore, it is a good ecosystem and could berecommended for wide development. Chinese fir would shrink the soil C pool and deteriorate soil biologicalfertility, so it did not benefit CO2 fixing and land sustainable utilization.

  11. Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Zn from contaminated soil to various plants and evaluation of soil remediation with indicator plant (Plantago lanceolata L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupan, M.; Lobnik, F.; Kadunc, V. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Agronomy Dept., Center for Soil and Environmental Science; Hudnik, V. [National Institute of Chemistry Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-12-31

    The accumulation of cadmium, lead, and zinc by different major cultivated plants from soils contaminated with heavy metals, is presented. The vegetables, crops, and the indicator plant narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) were used in a field experiment including 3 areas with different levels of pollution. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were observed in edible green parts of vegetables (endive, spinach, lettuce) and roots (carrot, red beet, radish). The heavy metal content in leguminous plants (pods and seeds) was very low compared to high soil concentrations. Wheat and maize showed lower concentrations in grains and kernels than in green parts. Lime and vermiculite were used for reduction of Cd availability to plants in polluted soil. The Cd concentration decreased in the narrow leaf plantain in the presence of both lime and vermiculite in acid soil. In the higher-pH soil the Cd availability to spinach was greatly reduced in the presence of vermiculite

  12. Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Ryou, Albert

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes, and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.es to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  13. Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  14. Sigma Delta Modulation Based Ternary FIR Filter Mapping on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayabuddin Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper single-bit SDM (Sigma Delta Modulation based TFF (Ternary FIR Filter with balanced ternary coefficients (i.e. -1/0/+1 has been mapped on small commercially available FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Filter coefficients were obtained using second order sigma delta modulator. The filter structure is based on a hierarchical adder tree that can easily be pipelined for high performance purpose. Filter structure was coded in VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language and simulated in Quartus-II software. The filter exhibits low I/O (Input Output and core area usage and high performance-achieving clock speeds close to 200MHz on a low-cost FPGA and over 500MHz on a latest FPGA commercially available device. This single-bit ternary filter is intended to support video and audio processing applications in mobile communication systems.

  15. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Buat, V; Cortese, L; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bock, J; Bomans, D J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D; Corbelli, E; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dariush, A; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Gavazzi, G; Gear, W; Giovanardi, C; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Grossi, M; Hony, S; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L; Isaak, K; Jones, A; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S C; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierini, D; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sabatini, S; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Sundar, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Verstappen, J; Vigroux, L; Vlahakis, C; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Xilouris, E M; Zeilinger, W; Zibetti, S

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mic spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated bynthe synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter beta<2 in low metallicity, active systems.

  16. Intratree Variability of Cleavage Resistance of Chinese Fir from Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; REN Haiqing; LUO Xiuqin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the variation of cleavage resistance of Chinese fir wood from plantation.Six trees of 36 years old were investigated,and the cleavage resistance properties for 672 samples made of the trees were tested.The samples were cut from the sapwood and heartwood at different directions (south and north) and heights (1.3,3.3,5.3 and 7.3 m) of the trees.The result showed that:tangential cleavage resistance was higher than radial one, and cleavage resistance of sapwood was higher than that of heartwood,but there was no significant difference in cleavage resistances between sections of the north and the south of the trees.There was a little variation in cleavage resistance between the radial and tangential from butt to top log,which shows alittle decrease with the height from 1.3 to 5.3 m,but a rise in the top of the trees.

  17. Power and Aging Characterization of Digital FIR Filters Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calimera, Andrea; Liu, Wei; Macii, Enrico;

    2012-01-01

    With technology scaling, newer metrics have been introduced, in addition to delay, area, and power dissipation, to characterize the behavior of digital systems. While dynamic and static power dissipation still remain the most serious concern at nanometer lengths (65nm and below), process-variatio......With technology scaling, newer metrics have been introduced, in addition to delay, area, and power dissipation, to characterize the behavior of digital systems. While dynamic and static power dissipation still remain the most serious concern at nanometer lengths (65nm and below), process......-variation, temperature and aging induced variations pose new challenges in the fabrication of the next generation of ICs. This work presents a detailed power and aging characterization of digital FIR filters in an industrial 45nm CMOS technology, and a design space exploration of different filter architectures...

  18. Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  19. Study on Volatile Organic Components from Chinese Fir Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; OHIRA Tatsuro

    2006-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are emitted by a wide array of products, which include a variety of chemicals, some of them may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Several analytical instrument including gas chromatograph, high preferment liquid chromatograph, mass spectrometry and solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were used in this study. The results showed the aldehyde and ketone components of Chinese fir wood were little composed of formaldehyde, syn-acetaldehyde, anti-acetadehyde and acrolein, VOCs obtained by Tenax GR absorber consisted of the major component cedrene (42.92%) and another 28 components, and the major components of the VOCs from the sample by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique were cedrene and cedrol.

  20. Ternary and Multi-Bit FIR Filter Area-Performance Tradeoffs in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Ur-Rahman Dayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and area of conventional FIR (Finite Impulse Responce filters versus ternary sigma delta modulated FIR filter is compared in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays using VHDL (Verilog Description Language. Two different approaches were designed and synthesized at same spectral performance by obtaining a TIR (Target Impulse Response. Both filters were synthesized on adaptive LUT (Look Up Table FPGA device in pipelined and non-pipelined modes. It is shown that the Ternary FIR filter occupies approximately the same area as the corresponding multi-bit filter, but for a given specification, the ternary FIR filter has 32% better performance in non-pipelined and 72% in pipelined mode, compared to its equivalent Multi-Bit filter at its optimum 12-bit coefficient quantization. These promising results shows that ternary logic based (i.e. +1,0,-1 filters can be used for huge chip area savings and higher performance.

  1. FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....

  2. Balsam Woolly Adelgid Survey on Balsam Fir Stand in Central Tract 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On August 14, 2002, Emily Grafton and Dawn Washington surveyed the balsam fir stand in the central tract, off of Delta 13 trail, near the Little Blackwater and Glade...

  3. Tree shaking machine aids cone collection in a Douglas-fir seed orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Copes; William K. Randall

    1983-01-01

    A boom-type tree shaker was used in a Douglas-fir seed orchard to remove cones from 7- to 9-meter tall grafted Douglas-fir trees. An average of 55 percent of the cones were removed by shaking, while damage inflicted to the upper crown was confined primarily to branch and leader breakage in the top three internodes. Damage to the lower bole, where the shaker head...

  4. Interferometric Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Star-forming Regions II. NGC2024 FIR5

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, S P; Girart, J M; Rao, R; Lai, Shih-Ping; Crutcher, Richard M.; Girart, Jose M.; Rao, Ramprasad

    2001-01-01

    We present the first interferometric polarization maps of the NGC2024 FIR5 molecular core obtained with the BIMA array at approximately 2 arcsec resolution. We measure an average position angle of -60+-6 degrees in the main core of FIR5 and 54+-9 degrees in the eastern wing of FIR5. The morphology of the polarization angles in the main core of FIR5 suggests that the field lines are parabolic with a symmetry axis approximately parallel to the major axis of the putative disk in FIR5, which is consistent with the theoretical scenario that the gravitational collapse pulled the field lines into an hour-glass shape. The polarization percentage decreases toward regions with high intensity and close to the center of the core, suggesting that the dust alignment efficiency may decrease at high density. The plane-of-sky field strength can be estimated with the modified Chandrasekhar-Fermi formula, and the small dispersion of the polarization angles in FIR5 suggests that the magnetic field is strong ($\\gtrsim$ 2mG) and p...

  5. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  6. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  7. Optimal design study of high order FIR digital filters based on neural network algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小华; 何怡刚

    2004-01-01

    An optimal design approach of high order FIR digital filter is developed based on the algorithm of neural networks with cosine basis function . The main idea is to minimize the sum of the square errors between the amplitude response of the desired FIR filter and that of the designed by training the weights of neural networks, then obtains the impulse response of FIR digital filter . The convergence theorem of the neural networks algorithm is presented and proved,and the optimal design method is introduced by designing four kinds of FIR digital filters , i.e., low-pass, high-pass,bandpass , and band-stop FIR digital filter. The results of the amplitude responses show that attenuation in stop-bands is more than 60 dB with no ripple and pulse existing in pass-bands, and cutoff frequency of passband and stop-band is easily controlled precisely . The presented optimal design approach of high order FIR digital filter is significantly effective.

  8. Radio Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest-southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the ...

  9. VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF FIR FILTER USING COMPUTATIONAL SHARING MULTIPLIER BASED ON HIGH SPEED CARRY SELECT ADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile computing and multimedia applications demand high-performance and low-power VLSI Digital Signal Processing (DSP systems. One of the most widely used operations in DSP is Finite-Impulse Response (FIR filtering. In the existing method FIR filter is designed using array multiplier, which is having higher delay and power dissipation. The proposed method presents a programmable digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter for high-performance applications. The architecture is based on a computational sharing multiplier which specifically doing add and shift operation and also targets computation re-use in vector-scalar products. CSHM multiplier can be implemented by Carry Select Adder which is a high speed adder. A Carry-Select Adder (CSA can be implemented by using single ripple carry adder and add-one circuits using the fast all-one finding circuit and low-delay multiplexers to reduce the area and accelerate the speed of CSA. An 8-tap programmable FIR filter was implemented in tanner EDA tool using CMOS 180nm technology based on the proposed CSHM technique. In which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns of the filter using array multiplier are 6000, 3.732 and 9 respectively. The FIR filter using CSHM in which the number of transistor, power (mW and clock cycle (ns are 23500, 2.627 and 4.5 respectively. By adopting the proposed method for the design of FIR filter, the delay is reduced to about 43.2% in comparison with the existing method. The CSHM scheme and circuit-level techniques helped to achieve high-performance FIR filtering operation.

  10. Release of terpenes from fir wood during its long-term use and in thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačík, František; Veľková, Veronika; Šmíra, Pavel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Kačíková, Danica; Reinprecht, Ladislav

    2012-08-21

    Building structures made from fir wood are often attacked by wood-destroying insects for which the terpenes it contains serve as attractants. One of the possibilities for extending the lifetime of structures is to use older wood with a lower content of terpenes and/or thermally modified wood. The study evaluated the levels of terpenes in naturally aged fir wood (108, 146, 279, 287 and 390 years) and their decrease by thermal treatment (the temperature of 60 °C and 120 °C, treatment duration of 10 h). Terpenes were extracted from wood samples by hexane and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicate that recent fir wood contained approximately 60 times more terpenes than the oldest wood (186:3.1 mg/kg). The thermal wood treatment speeded up the release of terpenes. The temperature of 60 °C caused a loss in terpenes in the recent fir wood by 62%, the temperature of 120 °C even by >99%. After the treatment at the temperature of 60 °C the recent fir wood had approximately the same quantity of terpenes as non-thermally treated 108 year old wood, i.e., approximately 60-70 mg/kg. After the thermal treatment at the temperature of 120 °C the quantity of terpenes dropped in the recent as well as the old fir wood to minimum quantities (0.7-1.1 mg/kg). The thermal treatment can thus be used as a suitable method for the protection of fir wood from wood-destroying insects.

  11. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  12. FIR line profiles as probes of warm gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the shapes, velocities, and intensities of FIR lines all help to probe the dynamics, physical associations, and excitation conditions of warm gas in molecular clouds. With this in mind, we have observed the J=9-8, 12-11,14-13, and 16-15 lines of (12)CO and the 158 micron line of C II in a number of positions in 4 selected clouds. The data were obtained with a laser heterodyne spectrometer aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Line measurements at 0.6 km/s resolution allow us to resolve the profiles completely, and thereby to distinguish between UV-and shock-heating mechanisms for the high-excitation gas. For CO, the high-J linewidths lie in the range of 4-20 km/s (FWHM), similar to those observed for low-J (J less than 4) transitions in these sources. This correspondence suggests that the hotter gas (T = 200-600 K) is dynamically linked to the quiescent gas component, perhaps by association with the UV-heated peripheries of the numerous cloud clumps. Much of the C II emission is thought to emanate from these cloud peripheries, but the line profiles generally do not match those seen in CO. None of the observed sources show any evidence in high-J (12)CO emission for shock-excitation (i.e., linewidths greater than 30 km/s).

  13. Potential programs for high sensitivity FIR spectroscopy with SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Spinoglio, L; Saraceno, P; Spinoglio, Luigi; Giorgio, Anna Maria Di; Saraceno, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the potential of high sensitivity mid-IR and far-IR spectroscopy to proof the physical properties of active nuclei and starburst regions of local and distant galaxies. For local galaxies, it will be possible to map the discs and ISM through the low ionization ionic lines and a variety of molecular tracers, such as OH, H2O and high-J CO. At increasing distance, most of the ionic nebular lines (typical of stars and AGNs) are shifted into the FIR, making possible to compare the observed spectra with those predicted by different evolutionary scenarios. At the very high redshift of 10-15, sensitive mid-to-far-IR spectrometers, such as those planned to be at the focal plane of the future SPICA mision, could be adequate to detect the H recombination lines excited in the HII regions around population III stars, if these stars happened to reside in large clusters of more than 10^5 members.

  14. Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John P.; Weikel, Jennifer M.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of recent fire history and decades of even-aged forest management, many coniferous forests in western Oregon are composed of young (20-50 yrs), densely stocked Douglas-fir stands. Often these stands are structurally simple - a single canopy layer with one or two overstory tree species - and have a relatively sparse understory. The lack of structural complexity in these stands may limit the availability of key habitat components for several species of vertebrates, including birds. Thinning may increase structural diversity by reducing competition among overstory trees and increasing the amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor, thereby increasing development of understory vegetation. Existing old-growth forests may have developed under lower densities than is typical of contemporary plantations. Thus, thinning also may be a tool for accelerating the development of late-successional forest conditions in some circumstances. In addition to the potential increases in structural and biological diversity, thinning frequently is used to optimize wood fiber production and to generate timber revenue.

  15. The effects of mineral nitrogen limitation, competition, arbuscular mycorrhiza, and their respective interactions, on morphological and chemical plant traits of Plantago lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Höpfner, Ingo; Matuszak, Agnieszka; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Müller, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that suffer from a multitude of challenges such as abiotic stress or the interactions with competitors, antagonists and symbionts, which influence their performance as well as their eco-physiological and biochemical responses in complex ways. In particular, the combination of different stressors and their impact on plant biomass production and the plant's ability to metabolically adjust to these challenges are less well understood. To study the effects of mineral nitrogen (N) availability, interspecific competition and the association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on biomass production, biomass allocation patterns (root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area) and metabolic responses, we chose the model organism Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Plants were grown in a full factorial experiment. Biomass production and its allocation patterns were assessed at harvest, and the influence of the different treatments and their interactions on the plant metabolome were analysed using a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Limited supply of mineral N caused the most pronounced changes with respect to plant biomass and biomass allocation patterns, and altered the concentrations of more than one third of the polar plant metabolome. Competition also impaired plant biomass production, yet affected the plant metabolome to a much lesser extent than limited mineral N supply. The interaction of competition and limited mineral N supply often caused additive changes on several traits. The association with AMF did not enhance biomass production, but altered biomass allocation patterns such as the root/shoot ratio and the specific leaf area. Interestingly, we did not find significant changes in the plant metabolome caused by AMF. A targeted analysis revealed that only limited mineral N supply reduced the concentrations of one of the main target defence

  16. 入侵植物剑叶金鸡菊克隆繁殖特性及群落特征%Clonal Reproductive Property and Community Characteristic of Invasive Species Coreopsis lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建军; 肖宜安; 周小军

    2012-01-01

    The clonal reproductive properly and community characteristic of invasive species Coreopsis lanceolata in different habitats in Lu Shan, Jiangxi province were studied. The results showed that there was no significant difference in clonal architecture under habitats with different resources. Whether in rock or deserted farmland, the clonal architecture was mainly phalanx which developed from the base of plant, it seemed that there was no correlation between the guerrilla clonal architecture and the level of environment resources. Those guerrilla clonal growth traits made C. Lanceolata had collectivize growth strategy, which improved its resistance to barren and drought environment. Thus, naturalized C. Lanceolata could dominate various indigenous plants in Lushan, the companion species of C. Lanceolata populations were weeds with wider adaptability.%以江西庐山剑叶金鸡菊(Coreopsis lanceolata)入侵群落为研究对象,调查了不同生境剑叶金鸡菊的克隆繁殖特性和群落特征.结果表明,生境资源水平高低对剑叶金鸡菊的克隆构型影响不显著,无论是资源贫乏的岩石还是资源丰富的弃耕地生境,剑叶金鸡菊依靠植株基部节处萌生的小芽体生长成密集丛生状,其游击型克隆构型变化与环境资源可利用水平高低无关.剑叶金鸡菊种群的伴生植物多为一些适应范围广的杂草,由于剑叶金鸡菊的密集型克隆生长的集团化生长策略,使其种群耐贫瘠和干旱能力非常强,因而适应不同生境的能力也非常强,这种生长策略使剑叶金鸡菊个体能快速扩增并排挤本土植物,形成大面积的单一优势种群影响当地的生物多样性.

  17. Screening of Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria in Rhizosphere of Cunninghaimia Lanceolata and Investigation on Their Properties of Phosphate-solubilizing and IAA-producing%杉木根际固氮菌筛选及其溶磷性与分泌IAA特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德明; 李蓉

    2012-01-01

    Chinese fir ( Cunninghaimia Lanceolata) is a main tree species of planted fast-growing forest in China. The problem on rapid reduction of soil fertility resulted from nutrient consumption of Chinese fir plantation still remains to be solved since the studies on screening and application of rhizosphere bacteria of Chinese fir with growth-promoting effect are rarely reported. In our study, 16 strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria are isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese fir by measurement of nitrogenase activities using acetylene reduction assay after culturing in Ashby medium. Their abilities of dissolving inorganic and organic phosphorus are evaluated by dissolving phosphate zone on Menkina media and molybdenum blue spectrophotometry. IAA-producing abilities of the strains are measurated by the Salkowski colorimetry. The results indicate that 5 strains show high potential of nitrogen fixing with nitrogenase activity of over 150 nmol · mL-1 · h-1. NGJ-4 has the highest nitrogenase activity (264.7 nmol · mL-1 · h-1) and NCX-5 takes the second place (237.4 nmol · mL-1 · h-1'). There are 8 strains with abilitiy of dissolving inorganic phosphorus. The available phosphorus increments of NGJ-8, NGJ-4 and NGX-3 are 182.7, 158.4 and 133.9 mg · L-1, respectively, which can't dissolve organic phosphorus. There are 5 strains with low dissolving organic phosphorus abilitiy. The highest available phosphorus increments derived from organic phosphorus is only 46.1 mg · L-1 of NGX-5. Most of the strains can secrete IAA. The first 5 strains have a high IAA concentration of more than 20 mg · L-1 in supernatant of bacteria solution. The IAA concentration levels of NGX-5, NGJ-3, NGJ-4 and NCX-3 are 35.8, 32.1, 27.8 and 27. 7 mg · L-1, respectively. Consequently, NGJ-4, NGX-5 and NGJ-8 integrated prominent nitrogen-fixing, phosphorus-dissolving and IAA-producing can be utilized in developing multiple-effective microbial fertilizer.%我国特有速生用材林主要造林

  18. 1D and 2D economical FIR filters generated by Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoljub Pavlović, Vlastimir; Stanojko Dončov, Nebojša; Gradimir Ćirić, Dejan

    2013-11-01

    Christoffel-Darboux formula for Chebyshev continual orthogonal polynomials of the first kind is proposed to find a mathematical solution of approximation problem of a one-dimensional (1D) filter function in the z domain. Such an approach allows for the generation of a linear phase selective 1D low-pass digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter function in compact explicit form by using an analytical method. A new difference equation and structure of corresponding linear phase 1D low-pass digital FIR filter are given here. As an example, one extremely economic 1D FIR filter (with four adders and without multipliers) is designed by the proposed technique and its characteristics are presented. Global Christoffel-Darboux formula for orthonormal Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind and for two independent variables for generating linear phase symmetric two-dimensional (2D) FIR digital filter functions in a compact explicit representative form, by using an analytical method, is proposed in this paper. The formula can be most directly applied for mathematically solving the approximation problem of a filter function of even and odd order. Examples of a new class of extremely economic linear phase symmetric selective 2D FIR digital filters obtained by the proposed approximation technique are presented.

  19. Characteristics of heat-treated Turkish pine and fir wood after ThermoWood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Hamiyet Sahin

    2010-11-01

    The Finnish wood heat treatment technology ThermoWood, was recently introduced to Turkey. Data about the mechanical and physical properties of Turkish wood species are important for industry and academia. In this study two industrially important Turkish wood species, pine (Pinus nigraArnold.) and fir (Abies bornmülleriana Matf.) were heat-treated using the ThermoWood process. Pine and fir samples were thermally modified for 2 hr at 212 and 190 degrees C, respectively. The modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), impact bending strength (IBS), and compression strength (CS), in addition to swelling (Sw) and shrinkage (Sh) of thermally-modified wood were examined. The results indicate that the heat treatment method clearly decreased the MOR, MOE and lBS of pine and fir. However, a small increase was observed for CS values of heat treated wood species. The most affected mechanical properties were MOR and lBS for both pine and fir. The reduction in MOE was smaller than that in MOR and lBS. Volumetric shrinkage and swelling of these species were also improved by approximately half. In Addition, the changes in the mechanical and physical properties studied in pine were larger than that of fir.

  20. Effects of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rates in Korean Fir (Abies koreana) between Healthy and Dieback Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Young Woo; Jong-Hwan Lim; Don Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on natural Korean fir forests (Abies koreana) growing In Mount Halla in Jeju Island, Korea (33°13-36′ N and 126° 12-57′ E). Mount Halla is the highest mountain (1950 m a.s.l.) in South Korea. On the Korean fir forests near the top of Mount Halla in Korea, we established permanent plots between dieback and healthy population. Each permanent plot includes both dieback and relatively healthy Korean fir individuals. Three sites in this study showed similar altitude, topographic position, aspects, slope, diameter at breast height, average height and ages. Net photosynthetic rates (PN) on different temperature regimes were evaluated to explain the forest dieback phenomenon on Korean fir populations. Light response curves were determined on three different temperature regimes: 15℃, 20℃and 25℃. The Irradiance response curve showed higher values in lower air temperatures. Generally, Irradiance response curves of healthy Korean fir populations were higher than the dieback population at all sites.

  1. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  2. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species.

  3. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.

  4. Morphological defects in native Japanese fir trees around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Hoshino, Junko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-08-28

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) in March 2011, much attention has been paid to the biological consequences of the released radionuclides into the surrounding area. We investigated the morphological changes in Japanese fir, a Japanese endemic native conifer, at locations near the F1NPP. Japanese fir populations near the F1NPP showed a significantly increased number of morphological defects, involving deletions of leader shoots of the main axis, compared to a control population far from the F1NPP. The frequency of the defects corresponded to the radioactive contamination levels of the observation sites. A significant increase in deletions of the leader shoots became apparent in those that elongated after the spring of 2012, a year after the accident. These results suggest possibility that the contamination by radionuclides contributed to the morphological defects in Japanese fir trees in the area near the F1NPP.

  5. Frequency Spectrum Based Low-Area Low-Power Parallel FIR Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Gyun Chung

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel (or block FIR digital filters can be used either for high-speed or low-power (with reduced supply voltage applications. Traditional parallel filter implementations cause linear increase in the hardware cost with respect to the block size. Recently, an efficient parallel FIR filter implementation technique requiring a less-than linear increase in the hardware cost was proposed. This paper makes two contributions. First, the filter spectrum characteristics are exploited to select the best fast filter structures. Second, a novel block filter quantization algorithm is introduced. Using filter benchmarks, it is shown that the use of the appropriate fast FIR filter structures and the proposed quantization scheme can result in reduction in the number of binary adders up to 20%.

  6. Design of Maximally Flat FIR Filters Based on Explicit Formulas Combined with Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A maximally flat FIR filter design method based on explicit formulas combined with simulated annealing and random search was presented. Utilizing the explicit formulas to calculate the initial values, the finite-word-length FIR filter design problem was converted into optimization of the filter coefficients. An optimization method combined with local discrete random search and simulated annealing was proposed, with the result of optimum solution in the sense of Chebyshev approximation. The proposed method can simplify the design process of FIR filter and reduce the calculation burden. The simulation result indicates that the proposed method is superior to the traditional round off method and can reduce the value of the objective function to 41%-74%.

  7. Signal-adapted FIR Filter Banks Without Perfect-reconstruction Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUIPenglang; ZHANGAihua

    2005-01-01

    A time-domain approach is proposed to design signal-adapted FIR (Finite impulse response) filter banks without the perfect reconstruction property. For a given Wide sense stationary (WSS) input process and a total bit budget, it is a highly nonlinear and large size optimization problem to design the optimal FIR filter bank that minimizes the sum of the quantization distortion and systematic distortion. Thus, the design algorithm is crucial, in particular, selection of the initial filter bank. Here, the FIR approximation of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter bank is used as the initial filter bank and an ad hoc three-stage algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. The numerical results show: the design achieves large subband coding gains (GSBC) that are close to or exceed the GSBC's of the optimal IIR biorthogonal filter banks.

  8. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  9. AN ITERATIVE ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMAL DESIGN OF NON-FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE FIR DIGITAL FILTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Liu Xin; Tian Xinguang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel iterative algorithm for optimal design of non-frequency-se-lective Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters based on the windowing method. Different from the traditional optimization concept of adjusting the window or the filter order in the windowing design of an FIR digital filter,the key idea of the algorithm is minimizing the approximation error by succes-sively modifying the design result through an iterative procedure under the condition of a fixed window length. In the iterative procedure,the known deviation of the designed frequency response in each iteration from the ideal frequency response is used as a reference for the next iteration. Because the approximation error can be specified variably,the algorithm is applicable for the design of FIR digital filters with different technical requirements in the frequency domain. A design example is employed to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  10. WOOD-WATER RELATIONSHIPS AND BIOLOGICAL DURABILITY OF HEAT-TREATED TAURUS FIR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad BAL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Taurus Fir (Abies cilicica wood was treated with hot air at temperatures of 160, 190 and 220°C for 2h durations. After heat treatment, some physical properties and wood-water relationships were evaluated, such as mass loss, density, tangential swelling, radial swelling, volumetric swelling, swelling anisotropy, and fiber saturation point. In addition, the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood was tested in the laboratory with the soil contact test, and determined weight loss. The relationships between mass loss and some of the tested properties were determined using regression analysis. The results showed that heat treatment at 220°C had significant effects on the physical properties and the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood. Further, it was determined that there was a linear-negative correlation between weight loss and mass loss.

  11. Design of Full-Band and Low-Pass FIR Differentiators: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhnache, C.; Ferdi, Y.; Taleb-Ahmed, A.

    2008-06-01

    Digital differentiators are useful in many fields of sciences and engineering. They can be designed using two approaches, namely, FIR filters design and FIR filters design. This paper is concerned by the first one in which great interest in the design of digital differentiators has encouraged the development of various design methods. The widely used methods for FIR differentiators are those based on criteria L1, L2, L∞ and that based on Taylor series. A comparison between these methods is carried out in terms of approximation accuracy and computational complexity. Numeric examples are presented to illustrate the performance of each method. It was found that the design results obtained by least squares method for fullband and low-pass differentiators are better than the other ones.

  12. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  13. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildfire risk to fir ecosystems of Greece in the context of climate change among a sample of Greek forestry experts by conducting personal interviews. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 forest experts answered the developed survey from 43 different forest management units covering all forestry agencies which manage fir forests in the country. The perceived fire risk and management to fir forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change and to all fire management aspects, such as fire prevention, fire suppression and post fire treatments. Results: Increased fire risk was rated as a quite important issue in fir forests during the last few years, while the adapting options to climate change are not implemented mainly due to budget and personnel constrains. According to forest experts, fire prevention in fir forests under climate change should be focused on public awareness and fuel management. Nevertheless, the survey results indicate that there is also a need for specific fire prevention measures such as the type of logging activities and other technical measures. The result of this survey highlighted the need for the establishment of a new firefighting organization and for the better coordination of all involved parties during fire suppression. Conclusions: The findings of the current study can be critically important in determining how forest fire management considerations are incorporated into

  14. 中国杉木害虫名录(一)(昆虫纲:直翅目,等翅目,半翅目,双翅目,鳞翅目,膜翅目;蛛形纲:蜱螨目)%A List of pests on Chinese fir from China(I) (Insecta:Orthoptera,Isoptera,Hemiptera,Diptera,Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera;Arachnida:Acarina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏初奖; 王旺进

    2014-01-01

    By investigation and consuLting a number of data,a List of pests on Chinese fir( Cunninghamia lanceolat) from China was presented in this paper. This List incLuded 151 species beLonging to 47 famiLies,7 orders and 2 cLas-ses,Isecta with Orthoptera(10 species in 4 famiLies),Isoptera(27 species in 3 famiLies ),Hemiptera(49species in 14 famiLies),Lepidoptera(57 species in 20 famiLies),Diptera(2 species in 2 famiLies),Hymenoptera(1 spe-cies in 1 famiLy),and Arachnida with Acarina(5 species in 3 famiLies). The Chinese names,scientific names and distribution of the pests were aLso given. The resuLts provided the reLationaL information for monitoring and controLLing these pests.%通过调查和查阅文献资料,整理了危害我国杉木的害虫名录(一),计7目47科110属151种。其中昆虫纲( Isecta)146种,包括直翅目( Orthoptera)4科10种、等翅目( Isoptera)3科27种、半翅目( Hemiptera)14科49种、鳞翅目( Lepidoptera)20科57种、双翅目( Diptera)2科2种和膜翅目( Hymenoptera)1科1种;以及蛛形纲( Arachnida)蜱螨目( Acarina)3科4属5种。并列出每种害虫的中名、学名和分布省份,为杉木害虫的监测与综合治理提供依据。

  15. Two-band hybrid FIR-IIR filters for image compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianyu; Smith, Mark J T

    2011-11-01

    Two-band analysis-synthesis filters or wavelet filters are used pervasively for compressing natural images. Both FIR and IIR filters have been studied in this context, the former being the most popular. In this paper, we examine the compression performance of these two-band filters in a dyadic wavelet decomposition and attempt to isolate features that contribute most directly to the performance gain. Then, employing the general exact reconstruction condition, hybrid FIR-IIR analysis-synthesis filters are designed to maximize compression performance for natural images. Experimental results are presented that compare performance with the popular biorthogonal filters in terms of peak SNR, subjective quality, and computational complexity.

  16. Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.

  17. MCH pheromone for preventing Douglas-fir beetle infestation in windthrown trees

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, M. D.; Furniss, M. M.; Oaks, R. D.; Gibson, K.E.; Meyer, H E

    1984-01-01

    A granular controlled-release formulation (98 percent inert, 2 percent 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) was applied May 11-13, 1982, at 4.48 kg/ha to 76.9 ha of uninfested windthrown Douglas-fir by helicopter with a modified aerial spreader of 1.13 m³ capacity. Granules measured on treated plots averaged 2.04-2.69 kg/ha, sufficient to reduce Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) infestation 96.4 percent by late June. The same MCH treatment reduced spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) ...

  18. Modification of Chinese fir with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD: Processing and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqian Shi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A process for the chemical modification of Chinese fir with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD was studied. The hydrophobicity of the resulting products was evaluated by characterization of the equilibrium moisture content, water-surface contact angle, water absorption coefficient, and anti-swelling efficiency. The results indicated that when 5% AKD solution was used, the modified wood generally showed good hydrophobicity and improved dimensional stability. The result of boiling water and hexane extraction tests showed that the modified fir possessed very stable hydrophobicity.

  19. Study on Drying Characteristic of Chinese Fir and Poplar Plantation Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYongdong; LIXiaoling

    2004-01-01

    The drying characteristic was studied for plantation wood of Chinese fir and poplar, which are typical plantation wood of southern and northern part of China, respectively. Through lO0-degree-method the drying characteristic and basic drying condition were gotten, then drying schedule was developed for practical drying, the results showed that the drying schedule is suitable for Chinese fir and poplar plantation lumber, but shrinkage is large. The recommendation was made that enough dead weight is needed to decrease shrinkage in drying process. The drying quality of the two species of lumber is good in conventional drying method.

  20. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van, B.A.J.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant nature of this PWM-signal. An impulse response with only positive coefficients was chosen, because of its resistance to deadzone and mismatch. With a DAC current of 0.5 mA, the dynamic range is 111 dB (...

  1. A predictive nondestructive model for the covariation of tree height, diameter, and stem volume scaling relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongrui; Zhong, Quanlin; Niklas, Karl J.; Cai, Liang; Yang, Yusheng; Cheng, Dongliang

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that the scaling exponents among plant height H, diameter D, and biomass M will covary across phyletically diverse species. However, the relationships between scaling exponents and normalization constants remain unclear. Therefore, we developed a predictive model for the covariation of H, D, and stem volume V scaling relationships and used data from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Jiangxi province, China to test it. As predicted by the model and supported by the data, normalization constants are positively correlated with their associated scaling exponents for D vs. V and H vs. V, whereas normalization constants are negatively correlated with the scaling exponents of H vs. D. The prediction model also yielded reliable estimations of V (mean absolute percentage error = 10.5 ± 0.32 SE across 12 model calibrated sites). These results (1) support a totally new covariation scaling model, (2) indicate that differences in stem volume scaling relationships at the intra-specific level are driven by anatomical or ecophysiological responses to site quality and/or management practices, and (3) provide an accurate non-destructive method for predicting Chinese fir stem volume.

  2. A predictive nondestructive model for the covariation of tree height, diameter, and stem volume scaling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongrui; Zhong, Quanlin; Niklas, Karl J; Cai, Liang; Yang, Yusheng; Cheng, Dongliang

    2016-08-24

    Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that the scaling exponents among plant height H, diameter D, and biomass M will covary across phyletically diverse species. However, the relationships between scaling exponents and normalization constants remain unclear. Therefore, we developed a predictive model for the covariation of H, D, and stem volume V scaling relationships and used data from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Jiangxi province, China to test it. As predicted by the model and supported by the data, normalization constants are positively correlated with their associated scaling exponents for D vs. V and H vs. V, whereas normalization constants are negatively correlated with the scaling exponents of H vs. D. The prediction model also yielded reliable estimations of V (mean absolute percentage error = 10.5 ± 0.32 SE across 12 model calibrated sites). These results (1) support a totally new covariation scaling model, (2) indicate that differences in stem volume scaling relationships at the intra-specific level are driven by anatomical or ecophysiological responses to site quality and/or management practices, and (3) provide an accurate non-destructive method for predicting Chinese fir stem volume.

  3. Demonstrating A New Census of INfrared Galaxies with ALMA (DANCING-ALMA). I. FIR Size and Luminosity Relation at z = 0-6

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We present the large statistics of the galaxy effective radius in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) wavelength Re(FIR) obtained from 1258 deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1-mm band maps that are open for public by 2016 December. Our ALMA sample consists of 736 sources at z=0-6 that typically have the star-formation rate of ~50-1000 M$_{\\odot}$/yr and the stellar mass of ~10$^{10}$-10$^{11.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$. We homogeneously derive Re(FIR) and FIR luminosity L_FIR of our ...

  4. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  5. EuroFIR quality approach for managing food composition data; where are we in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Roe, Mark; Oseredczuk, Marine; Castanheira, Isabel; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    A EuroFIR quality management framework was developed to assure data quality of food composition data, incorporating several recommendations developed or improved during the EuroFIR projects. A flow chart of the compilation process with standard operating procedures to assure critical steps was the starting point. Recommendations for food description, component identification, value documentation, recipe calculation, quality evaluation of values, guidelines to assess analytical methods, document and data repositories and training opportunities were harmonized as elements of the quality framework. European food composition database organizations reached consensus on the EuroFIR quality framework and started implementation. Peer reviews of the European compiler organizations were organized to evaluate the quality framework, focusing on what was achieved and on improvements needed. The reviews demonstrated that European food database compilers have made good use of standards and guidelines produced by EuroFIR, as well as a common understanding that a quality framework is essential to assure food composition data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  7. Implementation of High Performance Fir Filter Using Low Power Multiplier and Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety Kashyap,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing growth in laptop and portable systems in cellular networks has intensified the research efforts in low power microelectronics. Now a day, there are many portable applications requiring low power and high throughput than ever before. Thus, low power system design has become a significant performance goal. So this paper is face with more constraints: high speed, high throughput, and at the same time, consumes as minimal power as possible. The Finite Impulse Response (FIR Filter is the important component for designing an efficient digital signal processing system. So, in this paper author trying, a FIR filter is constructing, which is efficient not only in terms of power and speed but also in terms of delay. When consider the elementary structure of an FIR filter, it is found that it is a combination of multipliers and delays, which in turn are the combination of adders. . This paper presents an efficient implementation and analysis for performance evaluation of multiplier and adder to minimize the consumption of energy during multiplication and addition methodology to improve the performance by compares different type of Multipliers and adder, respectively. By using, power comparison result of adders and multiplier, choice low power adder and multiplier to implementation of high performance FIR filter.

  8. Implementation of High Speed FIR Filter: Performance Comparison with Different Parallel Prefix Adders in FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the design of high speed FIR filter using parallel prefix adders and factorized multiplier. The fundamental component in constructing any high speed FIR filter consists of adders, multipliers and delay elements. To meet the constraint of high speed performance and low power consumption parallel prefix adders are more suitable. This study focus the design of new Parallel Prefix Adder (PPA and new multiplier cell called factorized multiplier with minimal depth algorithm and its functional characteristics is compared with the existing architecture in terms of delay and area. The performance evaluation of the proposed PPA and multiplier are examined for the bit sizes of 8, 16, 32 and 64. The coefficient of the filter is obtained through hamming window using MATLAB program. The proposed FIR filter using new PPA and factorized multiplier has been prototyped on XC3S1600EFG320 in Spartan-3E Platform using Integrated Synthesis Environment (ISE for 90 nm process. Nearly 14% of slice utilization and 34% of speed improvement has been obtained for FIR using new PPA and factorized multiplier.

  9. Efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings. This effort was conducted as part of the IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture program to evaluate fungicides and biopesticides for management of root, crown and stem rot of ornamental plants ca...

  10. Lumber-grade recovery from 110-year-old Douglas-fir thinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    What lumber-grade and yield recovery is possible from thinnings in low Site III, 110-year-old, young-growth Douglas -fir stand? A lumber-grade recovery study of sawtimber cut in recent thinning experiments at the Wind River Experimental Forest, Skamania County, Washington, gives some idea of the answer. The thinning experiments were designed to determine increment and...

  11. A Design of 2L-Channel FIR Paraunitary Filter Banks with Complex Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the design of 2L-channel FIR paraunitary filter banks with complex coefficients to meet the requirement of processing complex signals. The filter designed with the algorithm has the property of near linear-phase. Thus, there is no more phase distortions introduced to the phase spectrum.

  12. Carbon Sequestration in Soils Affected by Douglas Fir Reforestation in Apennines (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Di Biase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas fir reforestation plays an important role in Italian forest because no indigenous conifer has similar characteristics of productivity and timber quality. Few studies on physicochemical properties of soils under Douglas fire are noticeable. The aim of this work is to evaluate the organic C stock into soils under Douglas fir plantation in different selected areas. The areas of study are located in the North Apennine (Italy; Corno alle Scale (COR, Vallombrosa (VAL, Mulino Mengoni (MEN, respectively are chosen for the presence of Douglas fir reforestation of 60 years old. Two soil profiles for each area have been open and described. The pH value decreased along the profile depth. The organic C amount in organic layers was higher in Val and Men pedons than that determined in COR one. Higher amount of organic C were detected in organo-mineral horizons of Co pedons, highlighting a rapid turnover of soil organic matter. The C stock calculated in the first 30 cm of soil showed that the higher C amount is stored in highest altitudes profiles (COR6 and VAL6 than the other. The soil are classified as Lithic Dystrudepts in the highest altitudes (COR 6, 7 and VAL 6, 7, respectively while as Humic Dystrudepts in MEN (4 and 5 pedons. We conclude that no dangerous effects on soil quality of Douglas fir were investigated and they seem to be similar to those of native tree species, even if other different aspects should be investigated.

  13. Realized gains from block-plot coastal Douglas-fir trials in the northern Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence Z. Ye; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; J. Bradley. St. Clair

    2010-01-01

    Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite--high predicted gain; intermediate--moderate predicted gain; and an...

  14. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  15. Three different criteria for the design of two-dimensional zero phase FIR digital filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, E.; Johansen, M.; Conradsen, Knut

    1993-01-01

    An error criterion for the design of FIR filters is proposed. Filters with relatively many free filter coefficients are designed using the Chebyshev, the weighted-least-squares (WLS), and a new partitioned minimax error criterion, and the performance of the filters is compared. A general and fast...

  16. A Comparative Study on LUT and Accumulator Radix-4 Based Multichannel RNS FIR Filter Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britto Pari. J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of two architectures proposed for multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter are performed in terms of complexity and speed. The proposed architectures, viz, dual port memory based LUT multiplier and accumulator based radix-4 multiplier architectures, are designed to reduce the complexity and to improve the speed of operation of multiplier used in multichannel reconfigurable FIR filter. Both the architectures accepts residues of given binary input in which the 3n-bit binary input is converted into three residues using binary to Residue Number System (RNS converter, and then processed in three FIR sub filters constructed in direct form. The reconfigurable structure is achieved by combining Power of Two (PoT FIR sub modules and altering the filter taps based on select signals. The proposed designs can be realized up to 20-taps and has been tested for 4, 8, 16 and 20 taps. The architectures have been realized in Verilog HDL and synthesized using Altera FPGA device Stratix II EP2S15F672C5. The performance comparison of two architectures shows that dual port memory based LUT multiplier architecture significantly reduces the area by 20% and accumulator based Radix-4 multiplier increases the speed by 90% regardless of the number of taps.

  17. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; G.R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Stem sinuosity is a highly visible stem-form trait in the leaders of fast-growing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees, yet its cause is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that sinuous stems have longer expanses of primary growth than nonsinuous stems (putting the leader at higher risk for...

  18. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff. Downes

    2005-01-01

    Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood...

  19. Dynamic phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis and biomass patterns in Douglas-fir seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Koehn; G. I. McDonald; D. L. Turner; D. L. Adams

    2010-01-01

    As climate changes, understanding the mechanisms long-lived conifers use to adapt becomes more important. Light gradients within a forest stand vary constantly with the changes in climate, and the minimum light required for survival plays a major role in plant community dynamics. This study focuses on the dynamic plasticity of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var....

  20. The Douglas-Fir Genome Sequence Reveals Specialization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Neale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb. Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50 = 340,704 bp. Incremental improvements in sequencing and assembly technologies are in part responsible for the higher quality reference genome, but it may also be due to a slightly lower exact repeat content in Douglas-fir vs. pine and spruce. Comparative genome annotation with angiosperm species reveals gene-family expansion and contraction in Douglas-fir and other conifers which may account for some of the major morphological and physiological differences between the two major plant groups. Notable differences in the size of the NDH-complex gene family and genes underlying the functional basis of shade tolerance/intolerance were observed. This reference genome sequence not only provides an important resource for Douglas-fir breeders and geneticists but also sheds additional light on the evolutionary processes that have led to the divergence of modern angiosperms from the more ancient gymnosperms.

  1. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  2. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.; Kroon, P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Larsen, J.C.; Speijers, G.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Sheehan, D.; Gry, J.; Finglas, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence, the Eu

  3. Effects of Different Types of Chinese Fir Stands on Nutrient Status of Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUYUAN-CHUN; ZHANGHUAN-CHAO

    1995-01-01

    The effects of different types of Chinese fir stand,including those with varous composition (pure and mixed),in various cropping systems (first and continuous cropping system)and at different ages,on the nutrient status of soils the hilly regions of southern Anhui Province were studied by means of ecological sequential comparison on the basis of similar climate and soil type.The work was carried out in the Xiaoxi Forest Farm of Jingxian County and the Caijiaqiao Forest Farm of Jingde Coundy,where the soil is parayellow soil derived from phyllite and sandstone,The results revealed that with the increase of age,Chinese fir pure stand could accumulate organic matter and nitrogen in the soil but it resulted in decreasing of soil pH and base ions(especially Ca2+) compared to its mixed stand with broad-leaf trees such as Chinese sassafras,In order to improve the soil fertility,It would be better to mix Chinese fir with broad-leaf trees when afforestation In the management of Chinese fir pure stand,base compounds and phosphates should be added to the soil for mintaining soil fertility and raising and raising forest productivity.

  4. Training aspects in the use and production of food composition databases. The EuroFIR experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Witthöft, C.; Busstra, M.C.; Elburg, L.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of national food databases have been published on the internet. However, these internet databases can only be searched individually, and the data have been compiled at a national level, resulting in incompatibilities. To resolve these problems, the Network of Excellence EuroFIR

  5. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    Neonectria neomacrospora in Denmark. In Iceland the corkbark fir showed superior results, especially for survival rate and Christmas tree quality. The White River provenance from British Columbia is recommended for use in Denmark. The Mount Taylor provenance from the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico...

  6. Frequency invariant beamforming via optimal array pattern synthesis and FIR filters design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shefeng; MA Yuanliang

    2005-01-01

    An approach to designing time domain broadband frequency invariant beamformer via optimal array pattern synthesis and optimal FIR filters design is proposed. First, the working frequency band is decomposed into a number of narrow band frequency bins. The array weights at each frequency bin are designed via optimal array pattern synthesis methods to insure that the synthesized pattern approximates the desired one within the mainlobe area.Then, a bank of FIR filters corresponding to the input channels are designed to provide the frequency responses that approximate the array weights in the working frequency band for each sensor. Finally, each sensor feeds a FIR filter and the filter outputs are summed to produce the beam output time series. Both array pattern synthesis and FIR filters design problems are formulated as the second-order cone programming (SOCP), which can be easily solved using well-developed interior-point methods. Results of computer simulations and lake-experiment for a twelve-element semicircular array demonstrate satisfactory performance of the proposed approach.

  7. High-angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. López-Sepulcre; V. Taquet; A. Sánchez-Monge; C. Ceccarelli; C. Dominik; M. Kama; E. Caux; F. Fontani; A. Fuente; P.T.P. Ho; R. Neri; Y. Shimajiri

    2013-01-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of

  8. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  9. Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of comminuted Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2016-01-01

    Size reduction homogenizes the bulk biomass and facilitates downstream feedstock handling, transportation, and storage. Effects of feeding rate, mill-type (hammer and knife mill), screen size, and moisture content on comminution energy consumption of commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pulp chips were quantified. The resulting particles...

  10. Growth and nutrition of Douglas fir, Scots pine and pedunculate oak in relation to soil acidification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on sandy soil in the Netherlands, inputs of water, nutrients and acid loads were changed for four years. Effects of soil changes on growth and nutrition were compared with similar foreign experi

  11. Growth and morphogenesis of shoot initials of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    An optimalized method of micropropagation of Douglas fir is described. Seasonal changes were found in optima for nitrate and sucrose in the medium and in the optimum for the light intensity during the culture of shoot initials. Differences in morphogenesis were obtained from shoot initials that had

  12. Simulation of carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Dekker, S.C.; Bouten, W.; Kohsiek, W.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The forest growth/hydrology model FORGRO–SWIF, consisting of a forest growth and a soil water model, was applied to quantify the inter-annual variability of the carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest (Pseudotsuga menziessii (Mirb.) Franco) in The Netherlands. With these budgets, the water

  13. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  14. Effect of Mixed Forests of Chinese Fir and Tsoong‘s Tree on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYUSHAN; DINGYINGXIANG

    1998-01-01

    An investigation and on 13-year-old(1984-1996) Chinese fir and Tsoong's tree mixed forests in Jianou City,Fujian Province,China was carried out to compare the influences of different interplanting types of individual tree-tree,row-row,row-strip(three rows)and pure Chinese fir stands on soil properties.Compared with the pure stands of Chinese fir ,the mixed stands exerted a posivtive effect on soil fertility,with increases in soil organic matter,total N,available P and available K.Moreover,improvements were also observed in soil enzymatic activities ,aggregate structure,structure,stability,status of soil porosity,soil aeration and penetrability in miexd stands.The row-row interplanted stands had the best effect on tree growth and soil properties among these mixed forests.In the southern subtropical region,the spreading of the row-row mixing model of the two tree species would be helpful to preventin ghe soil from fertility deterioratio caused by successive plantation of Chineses fir.

  15. EFFICIENT FIR FILTER DESIGN METHODOLOGY USING DYNAMIC REGIONAL HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM WITH OPPOSITION AND LOCAL LEARNING (DRHS-OLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nirmala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of FIR filter is carried out using a “Dynamic Regional Harmony Search algorithm (DRHS with Opposition and Local Learning”. The Harmony Search (HS is a robust optimization algorithm which mimics the musician’s improvisation method and has been used by many researchers for solving and optimizing various real-world optimization problems and numerical solutions. For optimizing the functionality of the FIR filter, DRHS algorithm which is an enhanced variant of the HS algorithm is adopted to avoid pre-mature convergence and stagnation. BY adopting DRHS algorithm the low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop FIR filters are constructed and their performances are evaluated and compared with the other existing optimization techniques. A comparison of the DRHS with other optimization algorithms for constructing FIR filter clearly shows the DRHS finds the optimal solution and the convergence is clearly guaranteed.

  16. Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: New spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

    2014-11-01

    We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants.

  17. Wood quality and value production in mixed fir-spruce-beech stands: long-term research in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem quality and damage was evaluated in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands. Moreover, an assortments structure was determined with their financial value. Results were compared with pure spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst., fir (Abies alba Mill. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands. Repeated measurements on 31 long-term research plots, stand assortment models, assortment yield models and value yield models were used. Stem quality of fir and spruce was only slightly lower in mixed stands compared to pure stands but beech stem quality was considerably worse in mixed stands. Fir and spruce had slightly lower proportions of better IIIA quality logs and higher proportions of IIIB quality in mixed stands. Beech had worse assortment structure than spruce and fir, in general. Pure beech stands had higher proportions of better I–IIIA quality assortments than mixed stands by 1–7%. Fir and spruce average value production (€ m−3 culminated at about 56 and 62 cm mean diameters. Almost the same value production was found in pure stands. In these stands it culminated at the mean diameter of 58 and 60 cm. Beech produced substantially less value on the same sites. In mixed stands, its value production culminated at the mean diameter of 40 cm. In pure stands, it culminated at the mean diameter of 36 cm. Although the production was found to be similar in both mixed and pure forests, higher damage intensity and less stem quality in mixed forests suggest that the pure forests can be more profitable.

  18. THERMO-VACUUM MODIFICATION OF SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST. AND FIR (ABIES ALBA MILL. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottaviano Allegretti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents results of the characterization of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. and fir (Abies alba Mill. wood thermally modified by TERMOVUOTO® technology at temperatures in the range of 160 to 220°C in vacuum conditions. Sixteen thermo-vacuum treatment tests were carried out using a pilot laboratory unit on 30-mm-thick spruce and fir boards in various combinations of the process parameters, i.e. temperature (T, duration (t, and pressure (p. The treated material was characterized to reveal the changes of the physical-mechanical properties including color and durability. The treated wood showed an improved performance with relation to the dimensional stability and durability. The measured mechanical properties did not show any significant decrease. Analytical models, based on the existing correlations between wood properties and process parameters, were assessed, thus allowing the control of the process.

  19. The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

  20. Generic Feasibility of Perfect Reconstruction with Short FIR Filters in Multi-channel Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    We study the feasibility of short finite impulse response (FIR) synthesis for perfect reconstruction (PR) in generic FIR filter banks. Among all PR synthesis banks, we focus on the one with the minimum filter length. For filter banks with oversampling factors of at least two, we provide prescriptions for the shortest filter length of the synthesis bank that would guarantee PR almost surely. The prescribed length is as short or shorter than the analysis filters and has an approximate inverse relationship with the oversampling factor. Our results are in form of necessary and sufficient statements that hold generically, hence only fail for elaborately-designed nongeneric examples. We provide extensive numerical verification of the theoretical results and demonstrate that the gap between the derived filter length prescriptions and the true minimum is small. The results have potential applications in synthesis FB design problems, where the analysis bank is given, and for analysis of fundamental limitations in blin...

  1. Pathology of a Gammabaculovirus in Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lucarotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neodiprion abietis Gammabaculovirus (Baculoviridae: NeabNPV is virulent, highly contagious, and infects only midgut epithelial cells of balsam fir sawfly larvae, but infections can carry through to adult sawflies in the midgut. Larval infections are characterized by hypertrophy of midgut epithelial cell nuclei, where virogenic stromata develop to produce nucleocapsids that are singly enveloped before occlusion into occlusion bodies. Infected, occlusion body-laden cells slough from the midgut epithelium as a result of a dissolution of the basal lamina. Infected cells undergo lysis, and viral occlusion bodies exit affected larvae in a watery diarrhea to infect other balsam fir sawfly larvae. A budded virus stage was not observed, but nucleocapsid and occlusion body formation resembled the development of occlusion-derived virions and occlusion bodies in lepidopteran alphabaculoviruses.

  2. Sharpening the response of an FIR filter using Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Chaturvedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented FIR filter with the help of Kaiser Window and Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT. The window shape parameter is tuned for the transition band by considering linear phase FRFT Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. Here FRFT of Kaiser Window is taken and convolved with the response function for tuning purposes of the transition band which makes effective transition band. This proposed method includes the change of parameters of Kaiser window by which other windows like Rectangle, Bartlett, Hamming Blackman and Hanning windows are generated by using FRFT. The efficiencies of this method in terms of main lobe and side ripples are better than the above mentioned windows under Fourier transform.

  3. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence......BASIS. Of the 222 defined article 14 claims, 21 pertain to plants or plant-based bioactive compounds, of which 19 are in eBASIS. Conclusions: There is extensive overlap between eBASIS and the submitted health claims that relate to plant-based bioactive compounds. EuroFIR eBASIS is a useful tool for regulators...... to independently check completeness of health claims applications relating to phytochemicals and is a potentially valuable resource to assist claimants in the compilation of dossiers on functional foods and health claims. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, S101-S107; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.219...

  4. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that experience distinctly different climate in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Under an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas-fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  5. Comparisons of FIR and IIR implementations of a subtraction-based stimulus artifact rejection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, Meysam; Chiel, Hillel J; Mohseni, Pedram

    2007-01-01

    Finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) temporal filtering techniques are investigated to assess the feasibility of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) implementation of a subtraction-based stimulus artifact rejection (SAR) algorithm in implantable, closed-loop neuroprostheses. The two approaches are compared in terms of their system architectures, overall performances, and the associated computational costs. Pre-recorded neural data from an Aplysia californica are used to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed implementations. Digital building blocks for an FIR-based system are also simulated in a 0.18-microm CMOS technology, showing a total power consumption of IIR-based system can further reduce the required power consumption and die area.

  6. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-08-23

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  7. Increased Biomass of Nursery-Grown Douglas-Fir Seedlings upon Inoculation with Diazotrophic Endophytic Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings are periodically challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses. The ability of endophytes to colonize the interior of plants could confer benefits to host plants that may play an important role in plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this greenhouse study, nursery-grown Douglas-fir seedlings were inoculated with diazotrophic endophytes previously isolated from poplar and willow trees and grown for fifteen months in nutrient-poor conditions. Inoculated seedlings had significant increases in biomass (48%, root length (13% and shoot height (16% compared to the control seedlings. Characterization of these endophytes for symbiotic traits in addition to nitrogen fixation revealed that they can also solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. Colonization was observed through fluorescent microscopy in seedlings inoculated with gfp- and mkate-tagged strains. Inoculation with beneficial endophytes could prove to be valuable for increasing the production of planting stocks in forest nurseries.

  8. Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Dyka, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the 'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from the market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the a priori known filter. The best result were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return from the market, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

  9. EFFECT OF STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment often brings about some negative effects on mechanical properties of wood. Chinese fir is currently underutilized due to some inherent properties that limit its further applications. Using steam as a heating medium and a shielding gas, the heartwood and sapwood of Chinese fir were treated at a temperature ranging from 170ºC to 230ºC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an airtight chamber. Both the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were increased for the sapwood specimens under the temperature less than 200ºC for short treatment times. The hardness was increased for both two kinds of specimens under the temperature less than or about 200ºC, compared to the untreated specimens. The temperature has a stronger effect on mechanical properties of wood than the time, and the temperature of 200 ºC is a critical point in modifying mechanical properties of wood.

  10. Soil-mediated effects of atmospheric deposition on eastern US spruce-fir forests. Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W.; Fernandez, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    The coincident observation of Waldsterben in Germany and red spruce decline in the northeastern U.S. has naturally led to some speculation that similar mechanisms may be involved. In the German situation, soil-mediated hypotheses played (and still play) a major role; namely, soil acidification and aluminum toxicity and base cation deficiencies. In the red spruce case, there has been much concern that cation deficiencies and/or aluminum toxicity may also play a major role. The purpose of this chapter is to: (1) review some of the basic properties of soils, nutrition, and nutrient cycling in spruce-fir and fir ecosystems, both in the polluted and in the relatively unpolluted regions of the U.S. and Canada, and (2) to evaluate several soil acidity-related hypotheses for red spruce decline.

  11. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo

    2011-02-01

    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  12. Aspirated pits in wetwood and micromorphology of microbial degradation in subalpine fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoli; CAI Liping; XU Yongji

    2006-01-01

    Differentiating from normal wood,pit membranes in wetwood of subalpine fir contain bacteria of water drop shape or orbicular shape,and flaky shape,as observed using Scanning Electronic Microscope.Not only are ray parenchyma cells in wetwood partially degraded but also margo strands in pit membranes are somewhat degraded by bacterial activities.Most of the bordered-pit membranes in normal wood are unaspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits in earlywood and latewood account for only 6.8% and 13.4%,respectively.Nevertheless,most of the bordered-pit membranes in wetwood are aspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits account for 77.7% and 72.1%,respectively.The problem of hard-to-dry for subalpine fir could be reasoned from the considerable amount of aspirated pit membranes in wetwood.

  13. HR approximation of FIR filters via discrete-time hybrid-domain vector fitting

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We present a discrete-time hybrid-domain vector fitting algorithm, called HD-VFz, for the HR approximation of FIR filters with an arbitrary combination of time- and frequency-sampled responses. The core routine involves a two-step pole refinement process based on a linear least-squares solve and an eigenvalue problem. Through hybrid-domain data approximation and digital partial fraction basis with relative stability consideration, HD-VFz exhibits fast computation and remarkable fitting accura...

  14. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  15. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii var. glauca): a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Rehfeldt

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of 3rd-year height of 228 seedling populations, grown in four separate studies in two of the same common gardens, were used to summarize patterns of genetic variation for Douglas-fir across 250 000 km 2 of forested lands in Idaho and Montana, U.S.A. Because each study was conducted in different years with a different set of populations, measurements were...

  16. On the Nature of the Deeply Embedded Protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Stutz, A. M.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stanke, T.; Manoj, P.; Adams, J. D.; Tobin, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L ⊙, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L ⊙. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L ⊙. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L ⊙, while the luminosity of the colder (~20 K) extended core could be around 100 L ⊙, with a mass of about 27 M ⊙. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L ⊙. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  17. Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: different European origins for the North African Abies species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary.

  18. Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a 47-year-old Douglas-fir plantation

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ranger; Gelhaye, D.

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Biomass and nutrient content of the root system of a Douglas-fir stand were calculated using the regression technique. Nine trees, evenly distributed in the girth classes of the stand, were felled for measurements and sampling. Results were compared to published data. Statistically significant relationships between tree circumference at 1.30 m and root biomass or nutrient content were observed. The root biomass was 58 t of dry matter, which was 18% of the total stand b...

  19. Ability of natural extracts to limit mold growth on Douglas-fir sapwood

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Maoz; Joseph J. Karchesy; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    2012-01-01

    The ability of selected plant extracts from wood and foliage to inhibit mold regrowth on fungal colonized wood was evaluated on Douglas-fir sapwood. Most foliage extracts produced some inhibition of Graphium or Trichoderma species, but isolations of other fungi increased following treatment. Five out of eight wood extracts produced 50% reductions in isolations, and those from Alaska cedar, western juniper, and incense cedar produced at least 80% reductions. The results indicate that wood ext...

  20. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Osorio, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Stutz, A. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ali, B. [NHSC/IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanke, T. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Adams, J. D. [USRA-SOFIA, DAOF, 2825 E. Ave. P, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States); Tobin, J. J., E-mail: furlan@ipac.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlotttesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {sub ☉}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ☉}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ☉}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ☉}, while the luminosity of the colder (∼20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ☉}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ☉}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ☉}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  1. Design and Efficiency Analysis of one Class of Uniform Linear Phase FIR Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Pantić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One class of uniform linear phase filter banks with different numbers of band-pass channels will be considered in this study, concentrating on 5, 9 and 17-band filter banks and their mutual comparison concerning delay and implementation complexity. Designed banks are based on the FIR filters and frequency response masking technique and are also compared to the banks with direct realization considering complementarity and delay.

  2. A tool for automatic generation of RTL-level VHDL description of RNS FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Although digital filters based on the Residue Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dissipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR filters which hides the RNS algorithms to th...... to the designer, and generates a synthesizable VHDL description of the filter taking into account several design constraints such as: delay, area and energy....

  3. Acidification Sources in Red Alder and Douglas-Fir Soils -- Importance of Nitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Miegroet, Helga Van; Cole, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation, throughfall, forest floor, and soil leachate samples were monitored continuously in 1981 and 1982 in a N-poor Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forest and a red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) forest growing adjacently on a glacial soil in western Washington. The purpose of the study was to quantify the relative importance of atmospheric vs. natural sources of H+ input to forest soil acidification, and to determine the role of N transformation processes in the overa...

  4. Seasonal dynamics of phloem formation in Silver fir and Norway spruce as affected by drought

    OpenAIRE

    Gričar, Jožica; Čufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of phloem growth ring formation in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) at different sites in Slovenia during the droughty growing season of 2003 was studied. We also determined the timing of cambial activity, xylem and phloem formation, and counted the number of cells in the completed phloem and xylem growth rings. Light microscopy of cross-sections revealed that cambial activity started on the phloem and xylem side simultaneously at all 3 plots. ...

  5. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Yannis Raftoyannis; Dimitrios Bakaloudis

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildf...

  6. Time-Varying FIR Equalization for MIMO Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose time-varying FIR equalization techniques for spatial multiplexing-based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission over doubly selective channels. The doubly selective channel is approximated using the basis expansion model (BEM, and equalized by means of time-varying FIR filters designed according to the BEM. By doing so, the time-varying deconvolution problem is converted into a two-dimensional time-invariant deconvolution problem in the time-invariant coefficients of the channel BEM and the time-invariant coefficients of the equalizer BEM. The timevarying FIR equalizers are derived based on either the matched filtering criterion, or the linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE or the zero-forcing (ZF criteria. In addition to the linear equalizers, the decision feedback equalizer (DFE is proposed. The DFE can be designed according to two different scenarios. In the first scenario, the DFE is based on feeding back previously estimated symbols from one particular antenna at a time. Whereas, in the second scenario, the previously estimated symbols from all transmit antennas are fed back together. The performance of the proposed equalizers in the context of MIMO transmission is analyzed in terms of numerical simulations.

  7. High angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sepulcre, A; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Ceccarelli, C; Dominik, C; Kama, M; Caux, E; Fontani, F; Fuente, A; Ho, P T P; Neri, R; Shimajiri, Y

    2013-01-01

    OMC-2 FIR 4 is one of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters, located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2 and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. In order to investigate the morphology of this region, we used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution which allows us to resolve structures of 5", equivalent to 2000 AU. Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure w...

  8. FIR Spectroscopy of the Galactic Center: Hot and Warm Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Pety, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    The angular resolution (~10'') achieved by the Herschel Space Observatory ~3.5 m telescope at FIR wavelengths allowed us to roughly separate the emission toward the inner parsec of the galaxy (the central cavity) from that of the surrounding circumnuclear disk (the CND). The FIR spectrum toward Sgr A* is dominated by intense [O III], [O I], [C II], [N III], [N II], and [C I] fine-structure lines (in decreasing order of luminosity) arising in gas irradiated by the strong UV field from the central stellar cluster. The high-J CO rotational line intensities observed at the interface between the inner CND and the central cavity are consistent with a hot isothermal component at T k ~ 103.1 K and n(H2)~ 104 cm-3. They are also consistent with a distribution of lower temperatures at higher gas density, with most CO at T k~300 K. The hot CO component (either the bulk of the CO column density or just a small fraction depending on the above scenario) likely results from a combination of UV and shock-driven heating. If UV-irradiated and heated dense clumps do not exist, shocks likely dominate the heating of the hot molecular gas component. Although this component is beam diluted in our FIR observations, it may be resolved at much higher angular resolution. An ALMA project using different molecular tracers to characterize UV-irradiated shocks in the innermost layers of the CND is ongoing.

  9. Performance of swarm based optimization techniques for designing digital FIR filter: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear phase FIR filter is designed through recently proposed nature inspired optimization algorithm known as Cuckoo search (CS. A comparative study of Cuckoo search (CS, particle swarm optimization (PSO and artificial bee colony (ABC nature inspired optimization methods in the field of linear phase FIR filter design is also presented. For this purpose, an improved L1 weighted error function is formulated in frequency domain, and minimized through CS, PSO and ABC respectively. The error or objective function has a controlling parameter wt which controls the amount of ripple in the desired band of frequency. The performance of FIR filter is examined through three key parameters; Maximum Pass Band Ripple (MPR, Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR and Stopband Attenuation (As. Comparative study and the simulation results reveal that the designed filter with CS gives better performance in terms of Maximum Stopband Ripple (MSR, and Stopband Attenuation (As for low order filter design, and for higher order it also gives better performance in term of Maximum Passband Ripple (MPR. Superiority of the proposed technique is also shown through comparison with other recently proposed methods.

  10. An advanced strategy for wind speed forecasting using expert 2-D FIR filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGHADDAM, A. A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies such as wind and solar have become the most attractive means of electricity generation nowadays. Social and environmental benefits as well as economical issues result in further utilization of such these energy resources. In this regard, wind energy plays an important roll in operation of small-scale power systems like Micro Grid. On the other hand, wind stochastic nature in different time and place horizons, makes accurate forecasting of its behavior an inevitable task for market planners and energy management systems. In this paper an advanced strategy for wind speed estimation has been purposed and its superior performance is compared to that of conventional methods. The model is based on linear predictive filtering and image processing principles using 2-D FIR filters. To show the efficiency of purposed predictive model different FIR filters are designed and tested through similar data. Wind speed data have been collected during the period January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009 from Casella automatic weather station at Plymouth. It is observed that 2-D FIR filters act more accurately in comparison with 1-D conventional representations; however, their prediction ability varies considerably through different filter sizing.

  11. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media.

  12. High-angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Taquet, V.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Caux, E.; Fontani, F.; Fuente, A.; Ho, P. T. P.; Neri, R.; Shimajiri, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. Aims: We aim to disentangle the core multiplicity, to investigate the morphology of this region in order to study the formation of a low- and intermediate-mass protostar cluster, and to aid in interpretation of the single-dish line profiles already in our hands. Methods: We used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion transitions that used the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution that allows us to resolve structures of 5″, which is equivalent to ~2000 AU. Results: Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure within them. Two of these sources have elongated shapes and are associated with dust continuum emission peaks, thus likely containing at least one molecular core each. One of them also displays radio continuum emission, which may be attributed to a young B3-B4 star that dominates the overall luminosity output of the region. The third identified source displays a DCO+(2-1) emission peak and weak dust continuum emission. Its higher abundance of DCO+ relative to the other two regions suggests a lower temperature, hence its possible association with either a younger low

  13. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  14. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese dos frutos e sementes de Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567 Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruits and seeds of Clusia lanceolata Cambess. (Clusiaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.3567

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Clusia lanceolata Cambess é espécie arbustiva da Mata Atlântica. Caracteriza-se por ser dioica, com flores estaminadas e pistiladas grandes, vistosas, de coloração rosa, apresentando a parte interna vinácea. Foram descritos aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie, visando classificar corretamente o seu tipo de fruto e, também, confirmar a origem do apêndice carnoso que envolve as sementes. O material botânico utilizado constou de flores em antese e frutos, em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento, coletados de dois espécimes. Os estudos morfológicos e anatômicos foram realizados segundo técnicas usuais. O fruto é cápsula septífraga, esférica, de coloração verde-avermelhado. O exocarpo é unisseriado; o mesocarpo parenquimático contém numerosos ductos secretores e feixes vasculares, de disposição principalmente longitudinal. O endocarpo é derivado da epiderme interna do ovário e de três a quatro camadas subepidérmicas, cujas células alongam-se tangencialmente e a parede que delimita o lóculo sofre lignificação. A abertura se faz pela sutura carpelar, por meio de uma faixa de células parenquimáticas de tamanho reduzido, que se bifurca em direção aos lóculos no meio dos septos. Os óvulos anátropos bitegumentados, com endotélio e hipóstase, originam sementes também anátropas, exotégmicas e envolvidas por arilo de origem funicular e exostomal. O embrião é hipocotilar.Clusia lanceolata Cambess. is a shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. The plant is dioecious, with large, showy, pink staminate and pistillate flowers that are wine-colored internally. The morphological and structural aspects of the fruits and seeds of this species are described here in order to correctly classify the fruit type and to determine the origin of the fleshy appendage that surrounds the seeds. The botanical material utilized here contained flowers in anthesis and fruits in four stages of

  15. Change of brightness, chromatism and infra red spectra of compressed China fir wood during heat treatment%热处理过程中杉木压缩木材的材色及红外光谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁瑛; 赵广杰; 中野隆人

    2001-01-01

    In this study the brightness, chromatism and infra red spectra ofcompressed China fir wood during heat treatment in air or heat treatment in vacuum are studied. The water-saturated and boiled specimens of China firCunninghamia lanceolata) are hot pressed with the average compression rate of 50%. Then they are heat treated in a common oven or in a vacuum oven, with the temperatures of treatment of 140,160,180,200,220℃, respectively. Then the brightness, chromatism, infra red spectra of the specimens are measured and discussed. In addition, some relationships between brightness, chromatism and recovery, weight loss and anti-swelling efficiency are deduced and discussed. The results are: (1) The brightness of the specimens will decrease and the chromatism will increase with the prolongation of time of heat treatment. Compared to heat treatment in vacuum, the specimens have less brightness and more chromatism after being heat treated in air, under the conditions of same temperature and time of heat treatment. (2) As far as the relationships between brightness, chromatism and recovery are concerned, there is little difference between heat treatment in air and heat treatment in vacuum. The fixation degree of compression set is closely related to the change degree of color. (3) As far as the relationships between brightness, chromatism and weight loss, anti-swelling efficiency are concerned, the more the weight loss or anti-swelling efficiency is, the less the brightness is, or the more the chromatism is. (4) The infra red spectra of specimens show that there are evident changes of waves at the wavelength of 1743, 1660 and 1605cm-1 which are attributed to the change of C=O in wood. So it is clear that at least hemicellulose, even lignin in wood cell chemically changes during heat treatment of compressed wood of China fir.%为了探讨热处理过程中杉木压缩木材的材色变化规律,以及材色和木材化学主成分变化之间的关系,该

  16. Models for Predicting the Biomass of Cunninghamialanceolata Trees and Stands in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangyi, Mei; Yujun, Sun; Saeed, Sajjad

    2017-01-01

    Using existing equations to estimate the biomass of a single tree or a forest stand still involves large uncertainties. In this study, we developed individual-tree biomass models for Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata.) stands in Fujian Province, southeast China, by using 74 previously established models that have been most commonly used to estimate tree biomass. We selected the best fit models and modified them. The results showed that the published model ln(B(Biomass)) = a + b * ln(D) + c * (ln(H))2 + d * (ln(H))3 + e * ln(WD) had the best fit for estimating the tree biomass of Chinese Fir stands. Furthermore, we observed that variables D(diameter at breast height), H (height), and WD(wood density)were significantly correlated with the total tree biomass estimation model. As a result, a natural logarithm structure gave the best estimates for the tree biomass structure. Finally, when a multi-step improvement on tree biomass model was performed, the tree biomass model with Tree volume(TV), WD and biomass wood density conversion factor (BECF),achieved the highest simulation accuracy, expressed as ln(TB) = -0.0703 + 0.9780 * ln(TV) + 0.0213 * ln(WD) + 1.0166 * ln(BECF). Therefore, when TV, WD and BECF were combined with tree biomass volume coefficient bi for Chinese Fir, the stand biomass (SB)model included both volume(SV) and coefficient bi variables of the stand as follows: bi = Exp(-0.0703+0.9780*ln(TV)+0.0213 * ln(WD)+1.0166*ln(BECF)). The stand biomass model is SB = SV/TV * bi.

  17. 米槠天然林与人促更新林乔木碳贮量及分布特征%Arbor Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Castanopsis lanceolata Nature Forest and Artificial Promoting Regeneration Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈彩霞

    2014-01-01

    Taking Castanopsis lanceolata nature forest and artificial promote regeneration forest as the research objects, this paper studied the arbor carbon storage and its different-class allocations of them.results showed:the carbon storage of Castanopsis Lanceola-ta nature forest was 193.66 t· hm-2 ,that of artificial promote regeneration forest was 141.34 t· hm-2.The class distribution of nat-ural forest DBH was wavy, the ratios of each class carbon storages to total carbon storage ratio were:2.85%,3.46%,6.55%, 2.90%,84.24%;however, the promote regeneration forest increased progressively with class, the ratios were:3.19%, 4.98%, 15.52%,36.85%,and 39.45%.In vertical direction,2 forest carbon storage increased with height class increase,the carbon storage of Castanopsis Lanceolata nature forest was the maximum values of 2 forest carbon storages appeared in the height class≥20 m,the carbon storage of Castanopsis Lanceolata nature forest was 117.54 t· hm-2 ,that of artificial promote regeneration forest was 85.67 t· hm-2 respectively.%以米槠天然林和人促更新林为研究对象,研究米槠天然林与米槠人促更新林2个林分的乔木碳贮量及其不同径级、高度的分配特征。结果表明:米槠天然林碳贮量为193.66 t· hm-2,人促更新林碳贮量为141.34 t· hm-2。天然林径级呈波浪型分布,各径级(5~10 cm、10~15 cm、15~20 cm、20~25 cm、≥25 cm )碳贮量占总碳贮量比值分别为:2.85%、3.46%、6.55%、2.90%、84.24%;而人促更新林径级呈递增变化,各径级碳贮量分配没有天然林集中,各径级碳贮量占总碳贮量比值分别为:3.19%、4.98%、15.52%、36.85%、39.45%。在垂直方向上,2个林分碳贮量均随着高度级的增加而增加,且2个林分碳贮量最大值均出现在≥20 m高度级,碳贮量米槠天然林为117.54 t · hm-2、人促更新林为85.67 t · hm-2。

  18. Stand Composition, Tree Proximity and Size Have Minimal Effects on Leaf Function of Coexisting Aspen and Subalpine Fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Aaron C; Barney, Trevor; St Clair, Samuel B

    2016-01-01

    Forest structural heterogeneity due to species composition, spatial relationships and tree size are widely studied patterns in forest systems, but their impacts on tree function are not as well documented. The objective of this study was to examine how stand composition, tree proximity relationships and tree size influence the leaf functional traits of aspen, an early successional species, and subalpine fir, a climax species. We measured foliar nutrients, nonstructural carbohydrates (aspen only), defense chemistry and xylem water potential of aspen and subalpine fir trees in three size classes growing in close proximity or independently from other trees under three stand conditions: aspen dominant, aspen-conifer mixed, and conifer dominant stands. Close proximity of subalpine fir to aspen reduced aspen's storage of starch in foliar tissue by 17% suggesting that competition between these species may have small effects on carbon metabolism in aspen leaves. Simple sugar (glucose + sucrose) concentrations in aspen leaves were slightly higher in larger aspen trees than smaller trees. However, no differences were found in stem water potential, foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, or secondary defense chemicals of aspen or subalpine fir across the gradients of stand composition, tree proximity or tree size. These results suggest that mechanisms of coexistence allow both aspen and subalpine fir to maintain leaf function across a wide range of stand structural characteristics. For aspen, resource sharing through its clonal root system and high resource storage capacity may partially contribute to its functional stability in mixed aspen-conifer stands.

  19. In vivo evaluation of the effect of stimulus distribution on FIR statistical efficiency in event-related fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J Martijn; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H; Drevets, Wayne C; Furey, Maura L

    2013-05-15

    Technical developments in MRI have improved signal to noise, allowing use of analysis methods such as Finite impulse response (FIR) of rapid event related functional MRI (er-fMRI). FIR is one of the most informative analysis methods as it determines onset and full shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) without any a priori assumptions. FIR is however vulnerable to multicollinearity, which is directly related to the distribution of stimuli over time. Efficiency can be optimized by simplifying a design, and restricting stimuli distribution to specific sequences, while more design flexibility necessarily reduces efficiency. However, the actual effect of efficiency on fMRI results has never been tested in vivo. Thus, it is currently difficult to make an informed choice between protocol flexibility and statistical efficiency. The main goal of this study was to assign concrete fMRI signal to noise values to the abstract scale of FIR statistical efficiency. Ten subjects repeated a perception task with five random and m-sequence based protocol, with varying but, according to literature, acceptable levels of multicollinearity. Results indicated substantial differences in signal standard deviation, while the level was a function of multicollinearity. Experiment protocols varied up to 55.4% in standard deviation. Results confirm that quality of fMRI in an FIR analysis can significantly and substantially vary with statistical efficiency. Our in vivo measurements can be used to aid in making an informed decision between freedom in protocol design and statistical efficiency.

  20. An Innovations-Based Noise Cancelling Technique on Inverse Kepstrum Whitening Filter and Adaptive FIR Filter in Beamforming Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Jeong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acoustic noise cancelling technique using an inverse kepstrum system as an innovations-based whitening application for an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR filter in beamforming structure. The inverse kepstrum method uses an innovations-whitened form from one acoustic path transfer function between a reference microphone sensor and a noise source so that the rear-end reference signal will then be a whitened sequence to a cascaded adaptive FIR filter in the beamforming structure. By using an inverse kepstrum filter as a whitening filter with the use of a delay filter, the cascaded adaptive FIR filter estimates only the numerator of the polynomial part from the ratio of overall combined transfer functions. The test results have shown that the adaptive FIR filter is more effective in beamforming structure than an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC structure in terms of signal distortion in the desired signal and noise reduction in noise with nonminimum phase components. In addition, the inverse kepstrum method shows almost the same convergence level in estimate of noise statistics with the use of a smaller amount of adaptive FIR filter weights than the kepstrum method, hence it could provide better computational simplicity in processing. Furthermore, the rear-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure has shown less signal distortion in the desired signal than the front-end kepstrum method and the front-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure.

  1. Calculation methods of reactivity using derivatives of nuclear power and Filter fir; Metodos para o calculo da reatividade usando derivadas da potencia nuclear e o filtro FIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Daniel Suescun

    2007-07-01

    This work presents two new methods for the solution of the inverse point kinetics equation. The first method is based on the integration by parts of the integral of the inverse point kinetics equation, which results in a power series in terms of the nuclear power in time dependence. Applying some conditions to the nuclear power, the reactivity is represented as first and second derivatives of this nuclear power. This new calculation method for reactivity has special characteristics, amongst which the possibility of using different sampling periods, and the possibility of restarting the calculation, after its interruption associated it with a possible equipment malfunction, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a non-continuous way. Apart from this reactivity can be obtained with or without dependency on the nuclear power memory. The second method is based on the Laplace transform of the point kinetics equations, resulting in an expression equivalent to the inverse kinetics equation as a function of the power history. The reactivity can be written in terms of the summation of convolution with response to impulse, characteristic of a linear system. For its digital form the Z-transform is used, which is the discrete version of the Laplace transform. In this method it can be pointed out that the linear part is equivalent to a filter named Finite Impulse Response (Fir). The Fir filter will always be, stable and non-varying in time, and, apart from this, it can be implemented in the non-recursive way. This type of implementation does not require feedback, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a continuous way. The proposed methods were validated using signals with random noise and showing the relationship between the reactivity difference and the degree of the random noise. (author)

  2. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; Gómez, José F.; González-García, Beatriz; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.; Loinard, Laurent; Vavrek, Roland; Carrasco-González, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7-5 cm), multi-epoch (1994-2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free-free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ˜7500-12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ˜100 km s-1. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ˜30 km s-1, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  3. Diseño de Filtros FIR de Retraso Fraccionario Mediante Optimización en Frecuencia Fractional Delay FIR Filter Design using Frequency-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Díaz-Carmona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el diseño en el dominio de la frecuencia de filtros digitales FIR de retraso fraccionario (Fractional Delay Filter, FDF con características de ancho de banda amplio y una resolución fina de retraso. El método de diseño en frecuencia utilizado está basado en optimización con mínimos cuadrados en la aproximación de series de Taylor de la señal de entrada. La propuesta consiste en reducir la complejidad de la optimización en frecuencia al momento de diseñar el FDF. Lo anterior se logra con la combinación de una estructura multirazón (multirate y una estructura Farrow modificada. El filtro resultante presenta como ventajas un número reducido de operaciones por muestra de salida y una reducción notable en la carga computacional de diseño.A frequency domain design method for fractional delay FIR filters (Fractional Delay Filter, FDF with wide bandwidth and fine delay resolution is described. The frequency domain method is based on a least square Taylor series approximation of the input signal. The proposed design method consists of reducing the complexity of the frequency optimization workload in the design of the FDF. This is obtained by the combination of a multirate structure and a modified Farrow structure. The resulting filter has a reduced number of arithmetic operations per output sample and yields a significant reduction in the design computational workload.

  4. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible...

  5. Filtered Iterative Reconstruction (FIR) via Proximal Forward-Backward Splitting: A Synergy of Analytical and Iterative Reconstruction Method for CT

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This work is to develop a general framework, namely filtered iterative reconstruction (FIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality. Specifically, FIR is formulated as a combination of filtered data fidelity and sparsity regularization, and then solved by proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm. As a result, the image reconstruction decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is in turn weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based FIR has a fast convergenc...

  6. Role of geographical provenance in the response of silver fir seedlings to experimental warming and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Luis; Gonzalez-Díaz, Patricia; Quero, José L; Camarero, J Julio; Lloret, Francisco; Jump, Alistair S

    2016-10-01

    Changes in climate can alter the distribution and population dynamics of tree species by altering their recruitment patterns, especially at range edges. However, geographical patterns of genetic diversity could buffer the negative consequences of changing climate at rear range edges where populations might also harbour individuals with drought-adapted genotypes. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) reaches its south-western distribution limit in the Spanish Pyrenees, where recent climatic dieback events have disproportionately affected westernmost populations. We hypothesized that silver fir populations from the eastern Pyrenees are less vulnerable to the expected changing climate due to the inclusion of drought-resistant genotypes. We performed an experiment under strictly controlled conditions simulating projected warming and drought compared with current conditions and analysed physiology, growth and survival of silver fir seedlings collected from eastern and western Pyrenean populations. Genetic analyses separated eastern and western provenances in two different lineages. Climate treatments affected seedling morphology and survival of both lineages in an overall similar way: elevated drought diminished survival and induced a higher biomass allocation to roots. Increased temperature and drought provoked more negative stem water potentials and increased δ(13)C ratios in leaves. Warming reduced nitrogen concentration and increased soluble sugar content in leaves, whereas drought increased nitrogen concentration. Lineage affected these physiological parameters, with western seedlings being more sensitive to warming and drought increase in terms of δ(13)C, nitrogen and content of soluble sugars. Our results demonstrate that, in A. alba, differences in the physiological response of this species to drought are also associated with differences in biogeographical history.

  7. Genetic analysis of silver-fir populations in the North Carpathian and Sudeten Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds collected from individual trees in the 16 Carpathian and 2 Sudeten silver-fir (Abies alba populations were studied with the starch gel electrophoresis in megagametophytes using 14 enzyme systems with 28 loci. The results show that the geographical distance between populations are in a small part reflected in genetic distances. There are two main groups of populations: Sudeten and Carpathian with a very big genetic distance between them. Other populations consist of a few small groups with low gene flow between them (Nm = 3.286. About 80% of genetic variation is located within populations (FST = 0.223. Average values for genetic multiplicity and diversity for Carpathian populations are as follows: number of alleles per locus: Na = 2.308, with effective number of alleles Ne = 1.552 and proportion of polymorphic loci 71.21%. The mean number of alleles per locus (Na varied from 2.107 to 2.607 in population. The mean effective number of alleles per locus (Ne ranged from 1.429 to 1.662. Average Fis for Carpathian populations was -0.021, which means that there is small excess of heterozygotes. The average observed heterozygosity amounted to Ho = 0.275 and expected heterozygosity was He = 0.269. The dendrogram structure and presence of rare alleles found in silver-fir of Czech, and Slovakian populations allow for a hypothesis that in postglaciation the silver-fir moved into the Polish Carpathians not westward from the east but from the south along river valleys from some Balkan refuges, getting North bypassing the High Tatra Range. This way, a highly diversified set of populations originated, differ in the presence of rare alleles. This differentiation is not prevented by a relatively small flow of genes between populations. The calculated gene flow Nm = 3.286 also indicates isolation between the populations. It means 3.3 immigrants per generation into the studied populations.

  8. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  9. An Experimental Assessment of Transverse Adaptive Fir Filters as Applied to Vibrating Structures Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Castello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at assessing the performance of adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters on the identification of vibrating structures. Four adaptive algorithms were used: Least Mean Squares (LMS, Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS, Transform-Domain Least Mean Squares (TD – LMS and Set-Membership Binormalized Data-Reusing LMS Algorithm (SM – BNDRLMS. The capability of these filters to perform the identification of vibrating structures is shown on real experiments. The first experiment consists of an aluminum cantilever beam containing piezoelectric sensors and actuators and the second one is a steel pinned-pinned beam instrumented with accelerometers and an electromechanical shaker.

  10. Gyrotrons for High-Power Terahertz Science and Technology at FIR UF

    CERN Document Server

    Idehara, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the recent progress in the development of a series of gyrotrons at FIR UF that have opened the road to many novel applications in the high-power Terahertz science and technology. The current status of the research in this actively developing field is illustrated by the most representative examples in which the developed gyrotrons are used as powerful and frequency tunable sources of coherent radiation operating in a CW regime. Among them are high-precision spectroscopic techniques (most notably DNP-NMR, ESR, XDMR, and studies of the hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of positronium), treatment and characterization of advanced materials, new medical technologies.

  11. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for Blind Deconvolution and Identification of Multichannel FIR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanagha Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind identification of MIMO FIR systems has widely received attentions in various fields of wireless data communications. Here, we use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as the update mechanism of the well-known inverse filtering approach and we show its good performance compared to original method. Specially, the proposed method is shown to be more robust against lower SNR scenarios or in cases with smaller lengths of available data records. Also, a modified version of PSO is presented which further improves the robustness and preciseness of PSO algorithm. However the most important promise of the modified version is its drastically faster convergence compared to standard implementation of PSO.

  12. A low-power asynchronous data-path for a FIR filter bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a number of design issues relating to the implementation of low-power asynchronous signal processing circuits. Specifically, the paper addresses the design of a dedicated processor structure that implements an audio FIR filter bank which is part of an industrial application. ...... the implications it has on the choice of architecture, handshake-protocol, data-encoding, and circuit design. This includes a tagging scheme that divides the data-path into slices, and an asynchronous ripple carry adder that avoids a completion tree....

  13. A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yong; Yu, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations for each sample which in turn lowers the power consumption. The filter is developed based on the interpolated finite impulse filter technique and is very attractive for a low cost and low power VLSI implementation.

  14. Lnear Phase FIR Filter on Measuring 3—D Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYunshan; YANGFujun; 等

    1997-01-01

    An optical technology for 3-D surface measurement is se up.The technology,based on a deformed projected grating pattern which carries the 3-D information of the measured object,can automatically and accurately obtain the phase map of a measured object by using a linear-phase FIR filter.In contrast to the 2-D fast Fourier transform technique,it's more than fast.Only one image pattern is sufficient for measuring .The phase map can be processed without assigning fringe orders and making distinction between a depression and an elevation.Theoretical analysis and experimental result are presented.

  15. Herschel/HIFI spectroscopy of the intermediate mass protostar NGC 7129 FIRS 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnstone, D.; Fich, M.; McCoey, C.

    2010-01-01

    Herschel/HIFI observations of water from the intermediate mass protostar NGC 7129 FIRS 2 provide a powerful diagnostic of the physical conditions in this star formation environment. Six spectral settings, covering four H216O and two H218O lines, were observed and all but one H218O line were...... are consistent with emission from water arising in the envelope around the intermediate mass protostar, and the abundance of H2O is constrained to ˜10-7 for the outer envelope. Additionally, the presence of a narrow self-absorption component for the lowest energy lines is likely due to self-absorption from...

  16. Density Fluctuation Measurements Using FIR Interferometer on HL-2A Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan; PENG Bei-Bin; YANG Qing-wei; DUAN Xu-Ru; DING Xuan-Tong; LI Lian-Cai; LI Yong-Gao; JIAO Yi-Ming; DENG Zhong-Chao; YI Jiang; LIU Yi; ZHAO Kai-Jun; JI Xiao-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Denity fluctuations were first measured in the core region of HL-2A tokamak plasma using a newly developed multi-channel FIR interferometer system. In divertor ohmic discharges, we measured the radial density fluctuation levels of 5%, which increase to 10-20% during the appearance of MHD activity. Most of the power density in the density fluctuation spectrum is directly associated with m=2 tearing modes. The fluctuation levels reduce to 1/3 and plasma confinement is improved during off-axis electron-cyclotron-resonance heating (ECRH).Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 10575030 and 10675043.

  17. Design of broadly tuned FIR FEL based on a variable-period microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing-Xiang Liu [Institute of Applied Electronics, Sichuan (China)]|[Southwest Jiaotong Univ., Sichuan (China); Yong Xu [Southwest Jiatong Univ., Sichuan (China)

    1995-12-31

    A varible-period microwiggler is proposed and investigated. The fundamental period of the microwiggler is designed as {lambda}o=2mm, and the period of the microwiggler can be turned from {lambda}o to n{lambda}o (n=1,2,3,{hor_ellipsis}) The wiggler fields with the period 3{lambda}o, 4{lambda}o, and 5{lambda}o are measured and compared with the theoretical results. Finally, a broadly tuned FIR FEL is designed based on the performance of the variable-period microwiggler.

  18. Transpiration Regulation of silver firs during and after severe droughts in relation to soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanzy, A.; Nourtier, M.

    2011-12-01

    Silver fir is declining and dying in the Mediterranean area, at its southern margin where climate is expected to become warmer and drier. At regional scale, silver fir death seems to be located on dry areas while it depends on soil water availability at forest stand scale. To understand silver firs vulnerability to drought, factors involved in their transpiration regulation were studied. An experiment was carried out on Mont Ventoux (in Provence region in south of France) which is a karstic area. Soil properties were characterised by electric resistivity tomography for estimating soil water storage capacity through the determination of soil depth and stones content. Transpiration, predawn leaf water potential dynamic and crown surface temperature were measured on trees during three years. Vulnerability curves to embolism of coarse roots and branches were established. Finally, tree growth rate history was analysed using tree ring width analysis. The experiment covered three very different climatic years. 2008 was a wet year, whereas a severe drought occurred in summer 2009 and in less extent in 2010. Soils were well watered during winters thanks to exceptional snow falls. In the context of the experiment, silver firs strongly regulate their transpiration. Transpiration/potential transpiration ratio is mostly far below 1. The decrease in transpiration rate during drying periods were the quickest on soil having small and large water storage capacity whereas on the intermediate cases, the decrease was more gradual. Moreover, the water stress intensity, derived from predawn leaf water potential, was the largest on soil having large water storage capacity. After the 2009 severe drought, transpiration rate remains much low after fall rainfalls. The transpiration drop persisted after the winter while soils were well watered. Sap flow radial distributions have suggested that the deeps roots were not reactivated after the drought. Tring ring width analysis showed that the

  19. Spectral-line Survey at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths toward an Outflow-shocked Region, OMC 2-FIR 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Sakai, Takeshi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Saito, Masao; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Momose, Munetake; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2015-12-01

    We performed the first spectral line survey at 82-106 GHz and 335-355 GHz toward the outflow-shocked region OMC 2-FIR 4, the outflow driving source FIR 3, and the northern outflow lobe FIR 3N. We detected 120 lines of 20 molecular species. The line profiles can be classified into two types: one type is a single Gaussian component with a narrow (3 km s-1) widths. The narrow components for most of the lines are detected at all positions, suggesting that they trace the ambient dense gas. For CO, CS, HCN, and HCO+, the wide components are detected at all positions, suggesting an outflow origin. The wide components of C34S, SO, SiO, H13CN, HC15N, {{{H}}}213CO, H2CS, HC3N, and CH3OH are only detected at FIR 4, suggesting an origin as outflow-shocked gas. The rotation diagram analysis revealed that the narrow components of C2H and H13CO+ show low temperatures of 12.5 ± 1.4 K, while the wide components show high temperatures of 20-70 K. This supports our interpretation that the wide components trace the outflow and/or outflow-shocked gas. We compared the observed molecular abundances relative to H13CO+ with those of the outflow-shocked region L 1157 B1 and the hot corino IRAS 16293-2422. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the chemical enrichment in FIR 4 is caused by hot-core chemistry, the chemical compositions in FIR 4 are more similar to those in L 1157 B1 than those in IRAS 16293-2422.

  20. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  1. Short-Term Creep Behavior of CFRP-Reinforced Wood Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP was used to adhesively reinforce Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood specimens. This study examined the flexural static and creep performances of CFPR-reinforced wood composites that had been subjected to changes in moisture and stress levels. The major findings were as follows: 1 the cyclic creep was slightly lower for those specimens subjected to the cyclic stress condition than for those subjected to a constant stress level due to the deflection recovery under cyclic loading; 2 the environmental conditions of high temperature and high humidity assisted in accelerating the creep by increasing the moisture content of the composite and reducing the compressive strength of wood, causing the composite specimen to fail via damage in the wood layer from compressive crushing; 3 the stress level governed the creep of the CFRP-reinforced wood composite; and 4 the Burger model was able to accurately simulate the short-term creep performance of the CFPR-reinforced wood composite. It was suggested the maximum bending stress level should be limited to 40% for the CFRP-reinforced wood composites fabricated in this study.

  2. Relations Between Permeability and Structure of Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fucheng; Zhao Youke; Lü Jianxiong

    2003-01-01

    The permeability and the structure of heartwood and sapwood of the solvent-exchange dried and the air-dried green-wood of Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were measured inorder to study the relations between the permeability and the structure. The results showed that the permeability of sapwood of boththe air-dried and the solvent-exchange dried wood was higher than that of heartwood, and the permeability of the solvent-exchangeddried heartwood and sapwood was higher than that of the air-dried. A higher permeability of wood was attributed to, on the one hand,a bigger number of flow path per unit area of the wood perpendicular to the flow direction resulted from a bigger number ofunaspirated pits per unit area and a bigger number of effective pit openings per membrane, and on the other hand, a smaller numberof tracheid in series connection per unit length parallel to flow direction resulted from a longer tracheid length and an effectivetracheid length for permeability.

  3. Significance of the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products on the properties of activated carbons from phosphoric acid activation of lignocellulosic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Songlin; Yang, Jianxiao; Cai, Xuan [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Liu, Junli [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2009-07-15

    Two series of activated carbons derived from China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood impregnated with phosphoric acid were prepared in a cylindrical container that was kept in a closed state covered with a lid (the covered case) or in an open state. The effects of the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products of starting materials on the properties of activated carbon were investigated in the process of phosphoric acid activation. Elemental analysis and SEM observation showed that both activating in the covered case and increasing the mass of starting material used favored the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products. An investigation of N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms revealed that the carbonization of volatile pyrolytic products significantly enhanced mesopore development in the final carbons, especially pores with a size range from 2.5 to 30 nm, with little influence on micropores, and therefore produced a large increase in the adsorption capacity to Vitamin B12 (with a molecular size of 2.09 nm). Activated carbons with highly developed mesopores could be obtained in the covered case. The carbonization mechanism of volatiles was discussed and two different carbonization pathways (in solid and gas phases) were proposed during phosphoric acid activation. (author)

  4. Effects of site conditions and methods of cultivation on growth of sawtooth oak plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luozhong TANG; Mukui YU; Dan ZHAO; Chunfeng YAN; Zhilong LIU; Shengzuo FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of site conditions and cultivation on the growth of sawtooth oak {Quercus acutissima Carr.) plantations were evaluated at the Hongyashan forest farm, in Chuzhou City, Anhui Province, China. The results indicate that the position on the slope, the amount of gravel and the thickness of the soil were important factors in the growth of the sawtooth oak. Lower slope positions with small amounts of gravel and a thick soil were better for the growth of this species than middle slope positions with more gravel and a thin soil. Given the site conditions of the hilly and mountainous areas in Chuzhou City, the mixed Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and sawtooth oak forests did not improve forest productivity compared with pure sawtooth oak forests. Both urea and compound fertilizers promoted the growth of sawtooth oak, as did site preparation and intercropping. Two years after planting, the height growth of ordinary seedlings with a starting height of 0.6 m was higher than that of supper seedlings with a starting height of 1.0 m. Compared with planting, the early growth of the coppices was faster, but the later growth of the coppices was slower.

  5. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  6. Investigation of process of interception in beech-fir stand on mountain Goch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of the precipitation is intercepted by vegetation before reaching the ground. The portion of intercepted water, which is retained in storage of the vegetal cover and evaporates, is called the interception loss. Interception represents important component of water balance, because of reduction of total rainfall. It decreases potential for forming of surface runoff. Depends on complex of vegetative and climate factors. In humid forested regions about 25% of the annual precipitation may become interception loss. Results of investigation in beech-fir stand on mountain Goch are presented in this paper Investigation was carried out on experimental catchment area Vaona IV (A=0.098 km2, in association Abieti-fagetum, on mountain Goch, in Central Serbia. Standard rain gauges were used to determine total precipitation and throughfalls, during vegetation period (1992-1997. Total interception (Ic depends on total precipitation (Pb, kind of trees, shape and density of the crown, position in the stand and age. Average values of interception (Icsr during vegetation period (1992-1997, amount to Icsr=43.7-53.3% of total precipitation (fir, and Icsr=17.7-22.8% (beech.

  7. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    CERN Document Server

    Furlan, E; Osorio, M; Stutz, A M; Fischer, W J; Ali, B; Stanke, T; Manoj, P; Adams, J D; Tobin, J J

    2014-01-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and APEX telescopes to study the bright sub-mm source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 $\\mu$m, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 $\\mu$m. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 $\\mu$m, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 Lsun, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 Lsun. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed SED well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 Lsun. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be just 12-14 Lsun, while the luminosity of the colder (~ 20 K) extended core could be around 100 Lsun, with a mass of about 27 Msun. Our derived lu...

  8. Drying characteristics and equilibrium moisture content of steam-treated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pak Sui; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Larsson, Sylvia H

    2012-07-01

    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.) particles were exposed to high pressure saturated steam (200 and 220 °C for 5 and 10 min) to improve the durability and hydrophobicity of pellets produced from them. Depending on treatment severity, the moisture content of the particles increased from 10% to 36% (wet basis). Douglas fir particles steam-treated at 220 °C for 10 min had the fastest drying rate of 0.014 min(-1). The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of steam-treated samples decreased with increasing steam temperature and treatment time. The Giggnheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) equilibrium model gave a good fit with the equilibrium data with R(2) = 0.99. The adsorption rate of untreated pellets exposed to humid air (30 °C, 90% RH) for 72 h was 0.0152 min(-1) while that of steam-treated pellets ranged from 0.0125 to 0.0135 min(-1) without a clear trend with steam treatment severity. These findings are critical to develop durable and less hygroscopic pellets.

  9. Soil carbon budget in different-aged Chinese fir plantations in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shebao Yu; Dan Wang; Wei Dai; Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the age effect on soil carbon balance in forest ecosystems is important for other material cycles and forest man-agement. In this research we investigated soil organic carbon density, litter production, litter decomposition rate, soil respiration, and soil mi-crobial properties in a chronosequence of four Chinese fir plantations of 7, 16, 23 and 29 years at Dagangshan mountain range, Jiangxi Province, south China. There was a significant increasing trend in litter production with increasing plantation age. Litter decomposition rate and soil respira-tion, however, declined from the 7-year to the 16-year plantation, and then increased after 16 years. This was largely dependent on soil micro-organisms. Soil carbon output was higher than carbon input before 16 years, and total soil carbon stock declined from 35.98 t·ha-1 in the 7-year plantation to 30.12 t·ha-1 in the 16-year plantation. Greater litter produc-tion could not explain the greater soil carbon stock, suggesting that forest growth impacted this microbial process that controlled rates of soil car-bon balance together with litter and soil respiration. The results highlight the importance of the development stage in assessing soil carbon budget and its significance to future management of Chinese fir plantations.

  10. Low temperature FIR and submm mass absorption coefficient of interstellar silicate dust analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Coupeaud, A; Meny, C; Nayral, C; Delpech, F; Leroux, H; Depecker, C; Creff, G; Brubach, J B; Roy, P

    2011-01-01

    Cold dust grains emission in the FIR/submm is usually expressed as a modified black body law in which the dust mass absorption coefficient (MAC), is described with a temperature- and wavelength-independent emissivity spectral index, beta. However, numerous data from space and balloon-born missions and recently from Herschel and Planck show that dust emission is not well understood, as revealed by the observed anti-correlation of beta with the grain temperature. In order to give astronomers the necessary data to interpret FIR/submm observations, we synthesised analogues of interstellar amorphous and crystalline silicate grains, rich in Mg and Ca, and having stiochiometry of olivine and pyroxene and measured their MAC, in the 100-1000/1500 \\mum range for grain temperatures varying from 300 to 10 K. We find that the grain MAC decreases when the grain temperature decreases and that the local spectral index, beta, defined as the slope of the MAC curve, is anti-correlated with the grain temperature. These variation...

  11. Evaluation of the FIR Example using Xilinx Vivado High-Level Synthesis Compiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Compared to central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have major advantages in reconfigurability and performance achieved per watt. This development flow has been augmented with high-level synthesis (HLS) flow that can convert programs written in a high-level programming language to Hardware Description Language (HDL). Using high-level programming languages such as C, C++, and OpenCL for FPGA-based development could allow software developers, who have little FPGA knowledge, to take advantage of the FPGA-based application acceleration. This improves developer productivity and makes the FPGA-based acceleration accessible to hardware and software developers. Xilinx Vivado HLS compiler is a high-level synthesis tool that enables C, C++ and System C specification to be directly targeted into Xilinx FPGAs without the need to create RTL manually. The white paper [1] published recently by Xilinx uses a finite impulse response (FIR) example to demonstrate the variable-precision features in the Vivado HLS compiler and the resource and power benefits of converting floating point to fixed point for a design. To get a better understanding of variable-precision features in terms of resource usage and performance, this report presents the experimental results of evaluating the FIR example using Vivado HLS 2017.1 and a Kintex Ultrascale FPGA. In addition, we evaluated the half-precision floating-point data type against the double-precision and single-precision data type and present the detailed results.

  12. Role of canopy interception on water and nutrient cycling in Chinese fir plantation ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Wenxing; DENG Xiangwen; ZHAO Zhonghui

    2007-01-01

    The role of canopy interception on nutrient cycling in Chinese fir plantation ecosystem was studied on the basis of the position data during four years.Results indicate that the average canopy interception amount was 267.0 mm/year.Canopy interception play a significant role in water cycle and nutrient cycle processes in ecosystem,and was an important part of evaporation from the Chinese fir plantation ecosystem,being up to 27.2%.The evaporation from the canopy interception was an important way of water output from ecosystem,up to 19.9%.The flush-eluviation of branches and leaves caused by canopy interception brought nutrient input of 143.629 kg/(hm2·year),which was 117.2% of the input 63.924kg/(hm2·year)from the atmospheric precipitation.The decreased amount of 80.1 mm precipitation input caused by canopy interception reduced the amount of rainfall into the stand surface and infiltration into the soil,reduced the output with runoff and drainage,and decreased nutrient loss through output water.Therefore,the additional preserve of nutrient by canopy interception was 8.664 kg/(hm2·year).

  13. 1-D Systolic Arrays Design of LMS Adaptive (FIR Digital Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the 1-D systolic array approach with a method of systematic linear design of systolic algorithms. Past methods for mapping the Least-Mean-Square (LMS Adaptive Finite-Impulse-Response (FIR filter onto parallel and pipelined architectures either introduce delays in the coefficients updates or have excessive hardware requirements. In this article, we describe an efficient 1-D systolic array for the LMS adaptive FIR filter that produces the same output and error signals as produced by the standard LMS adaptive filter architecture with single assignment form of processor functions.The proposed systolic architectures that are designed operate on a block-by-block basis and makes use of the flexibility in the design, which takes the inner product step (convolution sum of the tap weight vector and the tap input vector in the design consideration. It enables us to extract more than one algorithm for the same problem. The input and output data flow sequentially and continuously into and out of the systolic arrays at the system clock rates, during each clock period, processing element of the same type operates in parallel. The most computationally demanding among them performs only two consecutive multiplications and two additions/subtractions per clock period, thereby allowing a very high throughput and very fast block signal processing to be achieved at the expense of a delay of L samples between the input and output and 100% utilization, L being the block size.

  14. FIR Spectroscopy of the Galactic Center: Hot and Warm Molecular Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, J R; Cernicharo, J; Gerin, M; Pety, J

    2016-01-01

    The angular resolution (~10") achieved by the Herschel Space Observatory ~3.5m telescope at FIR wavelengths allowed us to roughly separate the emission toward the inner parsec of the galaxy (the central cavity) from that of the surrounding circumnuclear disk (the CND). The FIR spectrum toward SgrA* is dominated by intense [Oiii], [Oi], [Cii], [Niii], [Nii], and [Ci] fine-structure lines (in decreasing order of luminosity) arising in gas irradiated by the strong UV field from the central stellar cluster. The high-J CO rotational line intensities observed at the interface between the inner CND and the central cavity are consistent with a hot isothermal component at T~10^{3.1} K and n(H_2)~10^4 cm^{-3}. They are also consistent with a distribution of lower temperatures at higher gas density, with most CO at T~300 K. The hot CO component (either the bulk of the CO column density or just a small fraction depending on the above scenario) likely results from a combination of UV and shock-driven heating. Although thi...

  15. HERSCHEL-HIFI spectroscopy of the intermediate mass protostar NGC7129 FIRS 2

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, D; McCoey, C; van Kempen, T A; Fuente, A; Kristensen, L E; Cernicharo, J; Caselli, P; Visser, R; Plume, R; Herczeg, G J; van Dishoeck, E F; Wampfler, S; Bachiller, R; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E; Benz, A O; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S D; Encrenaz, P; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M R; Jacq, T; Jørgensen, J K; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Liseau, R; Marseille, M; Melnick, G; Neufeld, D; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Risacher, C; Santiago-García, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; Tafalla, M; van der Tak, F; Wyrowski, F; Yıldız, U A; Caux, E; Honingh, N; Jellema, W; Schieder, R; Teyssier, D; Whyborn, N

    2010-01-01

    HERSCHEL-HIFI observations of water from the intermediate mass protostar NGC7129 FIRS 2 provide a powerful diagnostic of the physical conditions in this star formation environment. Six spectral settings, covering four H216O and two H218O lines, were observed and all but one H218O line were detected. The four H2 16 O lines discussed here share a similar morphology: a narrower, \\approx 6 km/s, component centered slightly redward of the systemic velocity of NGC7129 FIRS 2 and a much broader, \\approx 25 km/s component centered blueward and likely associated with powerful outflows. The narrower components are consistent with emission from water arising in the envelope around the intermediate mass protostar, and the abundance of H2O is constrained to \\approx 10-7 for the outer envelope. Additionally, the presence of a narrow self-absorption component for the lowest energy lines is likely due to self-absorption from colder water in the outer envelope. The broader component, where the H2O/CO relative abundance is fou...

  16. Low frequency radio-FIR correlation in normal galaxies at ~1 kpc scales

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Aritra; Mitra, Dipanjan

    2012-01-01

    We study the radio--FIR correlation between the nonthermal (synchrotron) radio continuum emission at \\lambda 90 cm (333 MHz) and the far infrared emission due to cool (~20 K) dust at \\lambda 70\\mu m in spatially resolved normal galaxies at scales of ~1 kpc. The slope of the radio--FIR correlation significantly differs between the arm and interarm regions. However, this change is not evident at a lower wavelength of \\lambda 20 cm (1.4 GHz). We find the slope of the correlation in the arm to be 0.8 \\pm 0.12 and we use this to determine the coupling between equipartition magnetic field (B_{eq}) and gas density (\\rho_{gas}) as B_{eq} \\propto \\rho_{gas}^{0.51 \\pm 0.12}. This is close to what is predicted by MHD simulations of turbulent ISM, provided the same region produces both the radio and far infrared emission. We argue that at 1 kpc scales this condition is satisfied for radio emission at 1.4 GHz and may not be satisfied at 333 MHz. Change of slope observed in the interarm region could be caused by propagatio...

  17. LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO-FIR CORRELATION IN NORMAL GALAXIES AT {approx}1 kpc SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Aritra; Roy, Subhashis; Mitra, Dipanjan, E-mail: aritra@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: roy@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: dmitra@ncra.tifr.res.in [National Center for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune-411007 (India)

    2012-09-10

    We study the radio-FIR correlation between the nonthermal (synchrotron) radio continuum emission at {lambda}90 cm (333 MHz) and the far-infrared emission due to cool ({approx}20 K) dust at {lambda}70 {mu}m in spatially resolved normal galaxies at scales of {approx}1 kpc. The slope of the radio-FIR correlation significantly differs between the arm and interarm regions. However, this change is not evident at a lower wavelength of {lambda}20 cm (1.4 GHz). We find the slope of the correlation in the arm to be 0.8 {+-} 0.12 and we use this to determine the coupling between equipartition magnetic field (B{sub eq}) and gas density ({rho}{sub gas}) as B{sub eq}{proportional_to}{rho}{sup 0.51{+-}0.12}{sub gas}. This is close to what is predicted by magnetohydrodynamic simulations of turbulent interstellar medium, provided the same region produces both the radio and far-infrared emission. We argue that at 1 kpc scales this condition is satisfied for radio emission at 1.4 GHz and may not be satisfied at 333 MHz. The change of slope observed in the interarm region could be caused by propagation of low energy ({approx}1.5 GeV) and long-lived ({approx}10{sup 8} yr) cosmic-ray electrons at 333 MHz.

  18. A Method for Designing FIR Filters with Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic Used for Modeling Human Audiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZOPOS, E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative method for designing FIR filters that implement arbitrary magnitude characteristics, defined by the user through a set of frequency-magnitude points (frequency samples. The proposed method is based on the non-uniform frequency sampling algorithm. For each iteration a new set of frequency samples is generated, by processing the set used in the previous run; this implies changing the samples location around the previous frequency values and adjusting their magnitude through interpolation. If necessary, additional samples can be introduced, as well. After each iteration the magnitude characteristic of the resulting filter is determined by using the non-uniform DFT and compared with the required one; if the errors are larger than the acceptable levels (set by the user a new iteration is run; the length of the resulting filter and the values of its coefficients are also taken into consideration when deciding a re-run. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method a tool for designing FIR filters that match human audiograms was implemented in LabVIEW. It was shown that the resulting filters have smaller coefficients than the standard one, and can also have lower order, while the errors remain relatively small.

  19. Investigation of bunch repetition rate deviations in FIR FEL driven by a magnetron-based microtron

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevitch, Grigori M; Lee Byung Cheol; Lee, J

    2002-01-01

    The stability of the bunch repetition rate in a FIR FEL driven by a 2.8 GHz magnetron-based microtron was investigated using a heterodyne method with a low Q-factor straight-flight measuring cavity. The measuring cavity is located in the straight section of the FIR FEL injection beam line and is excited by the passage of electron bunches. The RF signal from the measuring cavity coupling loop was mixed with a precise heterodyne signal with a frequency difference of several MHz. The beat frequency was analyzed to obtain the temporal distribution of the bunch repetition rate deviation during the macro pulse of the electron beam. The time resolution and the accuracy of measurements are approximately 100 ns and a few kHz, respectively. Based on this data, we could determine the level and shape of the magnetron current and the initial frequency shift between magnetron and accelerating cavity for the FEL operation in the wavelength range 100-300 microns.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir: a comparison of species richness in native western North American forests and Patagonian plantations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroetaveña, C; Cázares, E; Rajchenberg, M

    2007-07-01

    The putative ectomycorrhizal fungal species registered from sporocarps associated with ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests in their natural range distribution (i.e., western Canada, USA, and Mexico) and from plantations in south Argentina and other parts of the world are listed. One hundred and fifty seven taxa are reported for native ponderosa pine forests and 514 taxa for native Douglas-fir forests based on available literature and databases. A small group of genera comprises a high proportion of the species richness for native Douglas-fir (i.e., Cortinarius, Inocybe, and Russula), whereas in native ponderosa pine, the species richness is more evenly distributed among several genera. The comparison between ectomycorrhizal species richness associated with both trees in native forests and in Patagonia (Argentina) shows far fewer species in the latter, with 18 taxa for the ponderosa pine and 15 for the Douglas-fir. Epigeous species richness is clearly dominant in native Douglas-fir, whereas a more balanced relation epigeous/hypogeous richness is observed for native ponderosa pine; a similar trend was observed for Patagonian plantations. Most fungi in Patagonian Douglas-fir plantations have not been recorded in plantations elsewhere, except Suillus lakei and Thelephora terrestris, and only 56% of the fungal taxa recorded in Douglas-fir plantations around the world are known from native forests, the other taxa being new associations for this host, suggesting that new tree + ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa associations are favored in artificial situations as plantations.

  1. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO(2) assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffell, Brandy J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Shaw, David C; Brooks, J Renée; Lachenbruch, Barbara; McKay, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible reference species (western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla) to evaluate their use as proxies for variation in past SNC infection, particularly in relation to potential explanatory climate factors. We sampled trees from an Oregon site where a fungicide trial took place from 1996 to 2000, which enabled the comparison of stable isotope values between trees with and without disease. Carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) of treated Douglas-fir tree-rings was greater than that of untreated Douglas-fir tree-rings during the fungicide treatment period. Both annual growth and tree-ring Δ(13)C increased with treatment such that treated Douglas-fir had values similar to co-occurring western hemlock during the treatment period. There was no difference in the tree-ring oxygen stable isotope ratio between treated and untreated Douglas-fir. Tree-ring Δ(13)C of diseased Douglas-fir was negatively correlated with relative humidity during the two previous summers, consistent with increased leaf colonization by SNC under high humidity conditions that leads to greater disease severity in following years.

  2. Influence of a sand soil plough base on the growth of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, F; Nick, L

    2000-01-01

    The root/shoot growth of eight year old Douglas fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO) planted on ploughed agricultured land in the first generation was investigated. One half of the field was 60 cm deeply ploughed before afforestation. The second half was not deeply ploughed and was compa

  3. Spectral-Line Survey at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths toward an Outflow-Shocked Region, OMC 2-FIR 4

    CERN Document Server

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Saito, Masao; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Momose, Munetake; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2015-01-01

    We performed the first spectral-line survey at 82--106 GHz and 335--355 GHz toward the outflow-shocked region, OMC 2-FIR 4, the outflow driving source, FIR 3, and the northern outflow lobe, FIR 3N. We detected 120 lines of 20 molecular species. The line profiles are found to be classifiable into two types: one is a single Gaussian component with a narrow ($$ 3km s$^{-1}$) widths. The narrow components for the most of the lines are detected at all positions, suggesting that they trace the ambient dense gas. For CO, CS, HCN, and HCO$^{+}$, the wide components are detected at all positions, suggesting the outflow origin. The wide components of C$^{34}$S, SO, SiO, H$^{13}$CN, HC$^{15}$N, H$_2^{13}$CO, H$_2$CS, HC$_3$N, and CH$_3$OH are detected only at FIR 4, suggesting the outflow-shocked gas origin. The rotation diagram analysis revealed that the narrow components of C$_2$H and H$^{13}$CO$^+$ show low temperatures of 12.5$\\pm$1.4 K, while the wide components show high temperatures of 20--70 K. This supports our...

  4. Assessing intra- and inter-regional climate effects on Douglas-fir biomass dynamics in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Bell; Andrew N. Gray

    2016-01-01

    While ecological succession shapes contemporary forest structure and dynamics, other factors like forest structure (dense vs. sparse canopies) and climate may alter structural trajectories. To assess potential sources of variation in structural trajectories, we examined proportional biomass change for a regionally dominant tree species, Douglas-fir (...

  5. A strategy for monitoring Swiss needle cast and assessing its growth impact in Douglas-fir plantations of Coastal Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug Maguire; Alan Kanaskie; Mike McWilliams

    2000-01-01

    Many Douglas-fir plantations along the north coast of Oregon are exhibiting severe symptoms of Swiss needle cast disease (SNC). These symptoms include premature loss of foliage, abundant fungal pseudothecia on needles, yellowing of foliage, and apparent reduction in diameter and height growth. The development of the disease and its impacts on growth are currently being...

  6. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  7. Performance and Complexity Analysis of Blind FIR Channel Identification Algorithms Based on Deterministic Maximum Likelihood in SIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Omar, Samir; Slock, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We analyze two algorithms that have been introduced previously for Deterministic Maximum Likelihood (DML) blind estimation of multiple FIR channels. The first one is a modification of the Iterative Quadratic ML (IQML) algorithm. IQML gives biased estimates of the channel and performs poorly at lo...

  8. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Kuppevelt, van Michiel; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir (Ps

  9. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  10. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Tepley; F.J. Swanson; T.A. Spies

    2013-01-01

    Forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have strongly influenced concepts and policy concerning old-growth forest conservation. Despite the attention to their old-growth characteristics, a tendency remains to view their disturbance ecology in relatively simple terms, emphasizing infrequent, stand-replacing (SR...

  11. The importance of seasonal temperature and moisture patterns on growth of Douglas-fir in western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-fir growth in the Pacific Northwest is thought to be water limited. However, discerning the relative influence of air temperature and plant available soil water (W) on growth is difficult because they interact with each other, with other climate factors and with the inher...

  12. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  13. Influence of a sand soil plough base on the growth of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, F; Nick, L

    The root/shoot growth of eight year old Douglas fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO) planted on ploughed agricultured land in the first generation was investigated. One half of the field was 60 cm deeply ploughed before afforestation. The second half was not deeply ploughed and was

  14. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  15. Comparison of Dilute Acid and Sulfite Pretreatment for enzymatic Saccharification of Earlywood and Latewood of Douglas Fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Zhang; Xiaochun Lei; C. Tim Scott; J.Y. Zhu; Kecheng Li

    2014-01-01

    This study applied dilute acid (DA) and sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) to deconstruct earlywood and latewood cell walls of Douglas fir for fermentable sugars production through subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. DA pretreatment removed almost all the hemicelluloses, while SPORL at initial pH=4.5 (SP-B) removed significant...

  16. Effect of organic amendments on Douglas-fir transplants grown in fumigated versus non-fumigated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khudduri

    2010-01-01

    We transplanted one-year old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings into compost-amended soil that had either been spring-fumigated with a methyl bromide/chloropicrin combination or left unfumigated. Seedling nutrient, pathology, morphology, and packout measurements were significantly better for those transplanted into fumigated rather than non-...

  17. Short-day treatment alters Douglas-fir seedling dehardening and transplant root proliferation at varying rhizosphere temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; BArrett C. Wilson; R. Kasten Dumroese; Rosa C. Goodman; K. Francis Salifu

    2008-01-01

    We tested effects of shortened day length during nursery culture on Douglis-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedling development at dormancy release. Seedlings from a 42 N source were grown either under ambient photoperiods (long-day (LD)) or with a 28 day period of 9 h light: 15 h dark photoperiods (short...

  18. 披针叶黄华中2株蠕形分生孢子内生真菌的鉴定%Identification of Two Helminthosporioid Fungal Endophytes from Thermopsis lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大林; 赵清梅; 余永涛; 罗永红; 朱海; 吴勇; 郭浩满; 吴秀枝; 李明月

    2015-01-01

    对披针叶黄华(Thermopsis lanceolata)中分离的编号为SP01﹑RM02的2株蠕形分生孢子内生真菌进行种属分类鉴定.观察真菌的形态,提取真菌DNA,扩增并测定其ITS﹑GA PDH序列,构建系统发育树,结合形态特征和遗传进化分析结果,并对其进行种属分类. 结果表明,SP01菌株的形态特征与凸脐孢属(Exserohilum)中的E.rostratum最为相似,与E.rostratum的遗传进化关系最为密切;RM02菌株的形态特征与弯孢属(Curvularia)中C.spicifera、C.australiensis最为相似,与C.spicifera的遗传进化关系最为密切. 确定披针叶黄华中分离的SP01﹑RM02分别为E.rostratum和C.spicifera.%This study was conducted to confirm the species of two helminthosporioid fungal endophytes, SP01 and RM02, isolated from wild Thermopsis lanceolata.The two isolates were observed under the light microscope respectively.The DNA of the fungi were extracted for amplifying the fungal ITS and GAPDH sequences that were sequenced subsequently.Homology comparison was conducted and NJ phylogenetic trees were established based on the sequences of the fungi.Two fungal endo-phytes were classified according to the fungal morphology and phylogenetic analysis.The results indicated that SP01 was simi-lar to Exserohilum rostratum.Homology and phylogenetic analyses also showed SP01 to be more closely related to E.rostra-tum.RM02 was more similar to some fungi of Curvularia genus, such as C.spicifera and C.australiensis.Homology and phylogenetic analyses also showed the isolate to be most closely related to C.spicifera.In addition to above results, the two isolates, SP01 and RM02, were classified as E.rostratum and C.spicifera respectively.

  19. MODELING THE ANOMALY OF SURFACE NUMBER DENSITIES OF GALAXIES ON THE GALACTIC EXTINCTION MAP DUE TO THEIR FIR EMISSION CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kayo, Issha [Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Nishimichi, Takahiro, E-mail: kashiwagi@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al. for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 μm and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ≡ (νL){sub 100} {sub μm}/(νL) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.

  20. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  1. Design of FIR Filters with Discrete Coefficients using Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Shuntaro; Suyama, Kenji

    In this paper, we propose a new design method for linear phase FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters with discrete coefficients. In a hardware implementation, filter coefficients must be represented as discrete values. The design problem of digital filters with discrete coefficients is formulated as the integer programming problem. Then, an enormous amount of computational time is required to solve the problem in a strict solver. Recently, ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) which is one heuristic approach, is used widely for solving combinational problem like the traveling salesman problem. In our method, we formulate the design problem as the 0-1 integer programming problem and solve it by using the ACO. Several design examples are shown to present effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Neural Network Algorithm for Designing FIR Filters Utilizing Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua Wang; Yi-Gang He; Tian-Zan Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new joint optimization method for the design of sharp linear-phase finite-impulse response (FIR) digital filters which are synthesized by using basic and multistage frequency-response-masking (FRM) techniques. The method is based on a batch back-propagation neural network algorithm with a variable learning rate mode. We propose the following two-step optimization technique in order to reduce the complexity. At the first step, an initial FRM filter is designed by alternately optimizing the subfilters. At the second step, this solution is then used as a start-up solution to further optimization. The further optimization problem is highly nonlinear with respect to the coefficients of all the subfilters. Therefore, it is decomposed into several linear neural network optimization problems. Some examples from the literature are given, and the results show that the proposed algorithm can design better FRM filters than several existing methods.

  3. Efficient Algorithms for the Discrete Gabor Transform with a Long Fir Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2012-01-01

    The Discrete Gabor Transform (DGT) is the most commonly used signal transform for signal analysis and synthesis using a linear frequency scale. The development of the Linear Time-Frequency Analysis Toolbox (LTFAT) has been based on a detailed study of many variants of the relevant algorithms....... As a side result of these systematic developments of the subject, two new methods are presented here. Comparisons are made with respect to the computational complexity, and the running time of optimised implementations in the C programming language. The new algorithms have the lowest known computational...... complexity and running time when a long FIR window is used. The implementations are freely available for download. By summarizing general background information on the state of the art, this article can also be seen as a research survey, sharing with the readers experience in the numerical work in Gabor...

  4. Modeling the hemodynamic response in fMRI using smooth FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    -parametric approach based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. In order to cope with the increase in the number of degrees of freedom, the authors introduce a Gaussian process prior on the filter parameters. They show how to carry on the analysis by incorporating prior knowledge on the filters, optimizing hyper......Modeling the hemodynamic response in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) experiments is an important aspect of the analysis of functional neuroimages. This has been done in the past using parametric response function, from a limited family. In this contribution, the authors adopt a semi......-parameters using the evidence framework, or sampling using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The authors present a comparison of their model with standard hemodynamic response kernels on simulated data, and perform a full analysis of data acquired during an experiment involving visual stimulation....

  5. Superconductivity in boron carbide? Clarification by low-temperature MIR/FIR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, H; Kuhlmann, U

    2011-11-01

    The electronic structure and phonon density of B(13)B(2) boron carbide calculated by Calandra et al (2004 Phys. Rev. B 69 224505) defines this compound as metallic, and the authors predict superconductivity with T(C)s up to 36.7 K. Their results are affected by the same deficiencies as former band structure calculations on boron carbides based on hypothetical crystal structures deviating significantly from the real ones. We present optical mid IR/far IR (MIR/FIR) spectra of boron carbide with compositions between B(4.3)C and B(10.37)C, evidencing semiconducting behaviour at least down to 30 K. There is no indication of superconductivity. The spectra yield new information on numerous localized gap states close to the valence band edge.

  6. Changes of Chemical Composition and Crystalline of Compressed Chinese Fir Wood in Heating Fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Xiaoshu; Zhao Guangjie; Nakao Tetsuya

    2004-01-01

    The changes in relative crystalline, chemical composition and internal structure of compressed Chinese fir wood after different heating fixations were found strictly related to fixation conditions. The compressed wood powders were fixed either by heating at different temperatures all resulting in a 10% recovery, or by incubating at 180 °C for different periods with subsequent recovery levels. Both X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption of those samples have been measured. Relative crystalline increases at early stage of heating fixation, and then decreased gradually. Hemicellulose and lignin decomposition were induced by the fixation process, especially at 180 °C, and lignin was degraded actively. Furthermore, absorbed water was lost after heating, but cellulose did not change markedly. Although different fixation pathways can result in the same recovery level, the major chemical reactions underlying them vary, which is consistent with the difference of fixation mechanisms.

  7. Transverse Emittance Measurements In High-power Fir Fel Energy-recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Bolotin, V P; Matveenko, A N; Shevchenko, O A; Vinokurov, N A

    2004-01-01

    50 MeV accelerator-recirculator of Siberian Center for Photochemical Research has been designed to drive the FIR FEL with an average power of up to 10 kW in the wavelengths region from 5 to 200 μm. The first stage with the beam energy of 14 MeV was put into operation and laser power of about 200 W on 150 μm was achieved recently [1]. Transverse emittance measurements are carried out online in a number of locations along the beam-line. OTR screens and video-cameras are used to capture the beam shape images, video signal is digitized by a frame grabber and the pictures are processed further. Online measurements allow the accelerator parameters to be optimized to minimize the emittance growth, which is essential to the FEL operation. The transverse emittance measurements system and data processing techniques are presented in this paper.

  8. A Low Power/Area Digital FIR Filter Design Based on PRF Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel DSP to ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) architecture desig n methodology is presented in this paper for reducing power/area consumption. Traditional methods always focus on optimizing hardware structure or algorithm sep arately. The authors propose a new method called PRF (ParallelingReducing-Fol-ding) framework to combine hardware optimization with algorithm simplification. In the first step,paralleling, unfolding technology is applied to divide one data path into several channels and expose the redundancy of the algorithm. In the second step, reducing,decoupling theory is used to reduce computational complexity.In the last step, folding, timemultiplexing method is used to merge similar components. As an exoteric methodology framework, many optimization methods can be integrated into the PRF framework.To optimize a 3N taps FIR (Fincte Impact Response)and obtain a content result,PRF methodology framework is applied.

  9. Round-Off Noise of Multiplicative FIR Filters Implemented on an FPGA Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Vandenbussche

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the effects of round-off noise on Multiplicative Finite Impulse Response (MFIR filters used to approximate the behavior of pole filters. General expressions to calculate the signal to round-off noise ratio of a cascade structure of Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters are obtained and applied on the special case of MFIR filters. The analysis is based on fixed-point implementations, which are most common in digital signal processing algorithms implemented in Field-Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA technology. Three well known scaling methods, i.e., L2 bound; infinity bound and absolute bound scaling are considered and compared. The paper shows that the ordering of the MFIR stages, in combination with the scaling methods, have an important impact on the round-off noise. An optimal ordering of the stages for a chosen scaling method can improve the round-off noise performance by 20 dB.

  10. Ability of natural extracts to limit mold growth on Douglas-fir sapwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Maoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of selected plant extracts from wood and foliage to inhibit mold regrowth on fungal colonized wood was evaluated on Douglas-fir sapwood. Most foliage extracts produced some inhibition of Graphium or Trichoderma species, but isolations of other fungi increased following treatment. Five out of eight wood extracts produced 50% reductions in isolations, and those from Alaska cedar, western juniper, and incense cedar produced at least 80% reductions. The results indicate that wood extracts may be useful for reducing the incidence of mold on wood products, but none of the materials evaluated completely inhibited the test fungi. These extracts may provide a useful value-added application for by-products of lumber production from these species.

  11. Resources of Digital FIR Filters Hardware Implementation in FPGAs for Digital Image Processing in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kulla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main image information content, from the human visual system viewing point, is focused into whole colorimetric and spatial informations. Because every image is result of some previous processes, the goal for all standard image processing methods is improvement colorimetric and spatial image parameters in relation maximum information content by the complicated and expensive systems for digital image processing in (quasireal time [1] based on the flash signal (multiprocessors. Some single-purpose applications do not need the robust and flash systems for DIP and be enough for their use single digital filters with suitable hardware implementation. In the contribution discussed problem is therefore focused on the short description of FIR digital tilters and their hardware implementation in FPGAs-Xilinx for usage in the image processing in real time include obtained experimental results.

  12. Multidimensional Systolic Arrays of LMS AlgorithmAdaptive (FIR Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir A. R. Al-Hashemy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidimensional systolic arrays realization of LMS algorithm by a method of mapping regular algorithm onto processor array, are designed. They are based on appropriately selected 1-D systolic array filter that depends on the inner product sum systolic implementation. Various arrays may be derived that exhibit a regular arrangement of the cells (processors and local interconnection pattern, which are important for VLSI implementation. It reduces latency time and increases the throughput rate in comparison to classical 1-D systolic arrays. The 3-D multilayered array consists of 2-D layers, which are connected with each other only by edges. Such arrays for LMS-based adaptive (FIR filter may be opposed the fundamental requirements of fast convergence rate in most adaptive filter applications.

  13. Performance analysis of adjustable window based FIR filter for noisy ECG Signal Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mahawar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recording of the electrical activity associated to heart functioning is known as Electrocardiogram (ECG. ECG is a quasi-periodical, rhythmically signal synchronized by the function of the heart, which acts as a generator of bioelectric events. ECG signals are low level signals and sensitive to external contaminations. Electrocardiogram signals are often corrupted by noise which may have electrical or electrophysiological origin. The noise signal tends to alter the signal morphology, thereby hindering the correct diagnosis. In order to remove the unwanted noise, a digital filtering technique based on adjustable windows is proposed in this paper. Finite Impulse Response (FIR low pass is designed using windowing method for the ECG signal. The results obtained from different techniques are compared on the basis of popularly used signal error measures like SNR, PRD, PRD1, and MSE.

  14. A VHDL Implementation of Direct, Pipelined and Distributed Arithmetic FIR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucharitha. L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital filters are typically used to modify or alter the attributes of a signal in the time or frequency domain. In this project, various FIR filter structures will be studied and implemented in VHDL. Basic arithmetic blocks to carry out DSP on FPGAs will be discussed. The very popular LUT based approach for arithmetic circuit implementation will be presented. The conventional PDSP MAC and Distributed arithmetic MAC units will be implemented and their performance will be compared. Usage of Pipelining in multipliers for improving the speed will also be discussed. The ModelSim XE simulator will be used to simulate the design at various stages. Xilinx synthesis tool (XST will be used to synthesize the design for spartan3E family FPGA (XC3S500E. Xilinx Placement {&} Routing tools will be used for backend, design optimization and I/O routing

  15. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.

  16. Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lucarotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study and peak (laboratory study phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea foliage, NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e, respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage, NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae.

  17. Implementasi Filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR Window Hamming dan Blackman menggunakan DSK TMS320C6713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LITA LIDYAWATI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital

  18. Effects of Different Management Regimes for Cutover Areas on Soil Carbon Storage in Chinese Fir Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xi; Tian Dalun; Xiang Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    Based on data collected (through local observations) for several consecutive years,comparative analyses of Chinese fir plantations in Huitong,Hunan,were made.Results show that,before harvesting,carbon storage in forest soils in these 22-year-old plantations (0-60 cm)amounted to 160.38 t/hm2;1 year after a 100%clearcutting,loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 35.00%;2 years later,the rate was 44.65%;and,after 3 years,the rate was 43.93%compared with a control area of a standing forest.Three years after 50%thinning and 100%clear-cutting,the loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 16.14 and 45.15%,respectively.There existed an evident difference in carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas in four kinds of management regimes,which followed the order:closed Chinese fir forests (108.20 t/hm2)>fallow lands after farming (92.68 t/hm )>commercial forests (85.80 t/hm2)>naturally regenerated forestlands after harvesting.Carbon storage in unbumt soil(0-45 cm) reached 73.36 t/hm2,which was 15.20 t/hm2 higher than that in the soil of burnt areas.A total of 20.7%of carbon storage in the soil (0-45 cm) of burnt areas was lost 40 days after burning.Carbon storage in surface soil (0-15 cm) was higher than in the lower soil layer,which amounted to 30.04%(0-60 cm) and 53.52%(0-30 cm) of total carbon storage in the soil.

  19. Growth Responses of Trees to Micronutrients and Their Feedback Effect in Various Soil-Forest Ecosystems of Taihu Lake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vector analysis technique and ecological sequential comparison methods were adopted to study tree growth response to the micronutrients, B, Mo, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn, in soils derived from various parent materials in the forest area of Taihu Lake region in southeast China. The results showed that the dry weight of individual current-year needle of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) grown on the soil derived from granite parent rock was increased by 8% and 13% in comparison with that grown on the soils derived from sandstone and ash-tuff parent rock, respectively. And such dry weight of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) grown on the soil derived from sandstone parent rock was increased by 21% in comparison with that on the soil derived from ash-tuff parent rock. One of the reasons for those results was that micronutrients content in the soil derived from ash-tuff parent rock were not sufficient to meet the requirement of the growth of Chinese fir and loblolly pine, i.e., micronutrients in soil were deficient and/or induced deficient. The amounts of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn uptake by Chinese fir and loblolly pine were in agreement with the contents of available micronutrients in soil respectively, except for B and Mo. Meanwhile, there might exist an "antagonism" between the uptake of B versus Mo by trees, although more studies are needed to confirm it. Regression analysis indicated that amount of a soil available micronutrient was correlated to the type of parent material and its total amount in the forest floor, except for B. The F test identified that the correlation of each equation reached the significant level to different extents, respectively. The t test confirmed that amount of available forms was mainly depended on the type of parent material for Mo, Cu, Zn and Mn but on the forest floor for Fe. There was a feedback effect of forest stand on the amount of soil available micronutrients. The ability of accumulating available micronutrients in soil was better by the

  20. Fermentative high-titer ethanol production from Douglas-fir forest residue without detoxification using SPORL: high SO2 loading at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng Gu; William Gilles; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated high sulfur dioxide (SO2) loading in applying Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) to Douglas-fir forest residue (FS-10) for ethanol production through yeast fermentation. Three pretreatments were conducted at 140

  1. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic water use efficiency after fertilization of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective ...

  2. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    Full Text Available Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production

  3. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  4. Preparation of liquefied wood-based resins and their application in molding material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie; Yu Li-li; Jie Shu-jun

    2007-01-01

    To investigate value in use of liquefied wood-based resin applications in molding material, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and poplar (Populus tomentosa) wood meal were liquefied in phenol. The reactant was co-condensed with formaldehyde to obtain liquefied wood-based resin. For this paper, we investigated the characterization of the resin and its application in molding material. The result shows that the basic properties of liquefied wood-based resin were satisfactory; the bonding strength of plywood prepared with liquefied Chinese fir and liquefied poplar resin can reach 1.54 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The compression strengths of the molding material prepared with two kinds of liquefied wood resin were 73.01 and 73.58 MPa, almost the same as that of PF resin molding material. The limiting volume swelling of molding material made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.5% and 8.3%, thickness swelling rates of water absorption were 3.3% and 4.2%, and the maximum weight ratios of water absorption were 25.9% and 26.2%, respectively. The soil burial test result shows that the weight loss rate of the molding materials made with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were 8.3% and 9.1% and that of the PF resin molding material was 7.9%. After the soil internment test, the reduction ratio of compression strength of the two kinds of molding material achieved 16.9%and 17.7%, while that of the PF resin molding material was 15.4%. The test results of wood fungi inoculation on the three surfaces of the molding material indicate the breeding rate of molding material prepared with liquefied Chinese resin and liquefied poplar resin were at level 4 and that of PF resin molding material was at level 1 of the ISO standard.

  5. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-guo Duan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  6. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ai-guo; Zhang, Jian-guo; Zhang, Xiong-qing; He, Cai-yun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM) or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM) were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM) and parameter recovery method (PRM) were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1) R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2) the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3) the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4) the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  7. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELE TEŠEVIĆ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of fresh young needles with twigs of Douglas fir (Pseudosuga menziesii Mirb. Franco obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. Ten compounds, accounting for 94.26 % of the oil, were identified. The main compounds found were bornyl acetate (34.65 %, camphene (29.82 %, a-pinene (11.65 % and santene (5.45 %. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was tested against various fungal species. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Douglas fir essential oil ranged from 1.5 to 4 µg mL-1. The fungi most sensitive to the tested oil were Phomopsis helianthi, while Penicillium species, along with Microsporum canis, were the most resistant. Compared to the commercial fungicidal agent bifonazole, the studied essential oil demonstrated higher antifungal activity.

  8. Optimal design of FIR high pass filter based on L1 error approximation using real coded genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Aggarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital finite impulse response (FIR highpass (HP filter using the L1-norm based real-coded genetic algorithm (RCGA is investigated. A novel fitness function based on L1 norm is adopted to enhance the design accuracy. Optimized filter coefficients are obtained by defining the filter objective function in L1 sense using RCGA. Simulation analysis unveils that the performance of the RCGA adopting this fitness function is better in terms of signal attenuation ability of the filter, flatter passband and the convergence rate. Observations are made on the percentage improvement of this algorithm over the gradient-based L1 optimization approach on various factors by a large amount. It is concluded that RCGA leads to the best solution under specified parameters for the FIR filter design on account of slight unnoticeable higher transition width.

  9. Depletion of chlorine into HCl ice in a protostellar core. The CHESS spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, M.; Caux, E.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Wakelam, V.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lanza, M.; Lique, F.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Lis, D. C.; Caballero, R. N.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The freezeout of gas-phase species onto cold dust grains can drastically alter the chemistry and the heating-cooling balance of protostellar material. In contrast to well-known species such as carbon monoxide (CO), the freezeout of various carriers of elements with abundances OMC-2 FIR 4. Methods: We observed transitions of HCl and H2Cl+ towards OMC-2 FIR 4 using the Herschel Space Observatory and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facilities. Our analysis makes use of state of the art chlorine gas-grain chemical models and newly calculated HCl-H2 hyperfine collisional excitation rate coefficients. Results: A narrow emission component in the HCl lines traces the extended envelope, and a broad one traces a more compact central region. The gas-phase HCl abundance in FIR 4 is 9 × 10-11, a factor of only 10-3 that of volatile elemental chlorine. The H2Cl+ lines are detected in absorption and trace a tenuous foreground cloud, where we find no depletion of volatile chlorine. Conclusions: Gas-phase HCl is the tip of the chlorine iceberg in protostellar cores. Using a gas-grain chemical model, we show that the hydrogenation of atomic chlorine on grain surfaces in the dark cloud stage sequesters at least 90% of the volatile chlorine into HCl ice, where it remains in the protostellar stage. About 10% of chlorine is in gaseous atomic form. Gas-phase HCl is a minor, but diagnostically key reservoir, with an abundance of ≲10-10 in most of the protostellar core. We find the [35Cl]/[37Cl] ratio in OMC-2 FIR 4 to be 3.2 ± 0.1, consistent with the solar system value. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. The small-scale structure of OMC-2 FIR 4: Interferometric observations of an intermediate-mass protocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Taquet, Vianney; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Kama, Mihkel; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Shimajiri, Yoshito

    2013-07-01

    Intermediate-mass stars are an important ingredient of our Galaxy and a key to understanding how high- and low-mass stars form in clusters. One of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters is OMC-2 FIR 4, which is located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2, and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. In order to investigate the small-scale morphology of OMC-2 FIR 4 and aid in interpretation of the single-dish line profiles already in our hands, we imaged the region using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution that allows us to resolve structures down to 1 arcsec, which is equivalent to ∼ 400 AU. Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure within them. One of them may be associated with a young B3-B4 star that dominates the overall luminosity output of the region. In short, our interferometric observations show the complexity of the intermediate-mass protocluster OMC-2 FIR 4, where multiple cores, chemical differentiation, and an ionised region all coexist within an area of only 10000 AU.

  11. Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Marcus A; Simard, Suzanne W

    2011-11-01

    Facilitation of tree establishment by ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks (MNs) may become increasingly important as drought stress increases with climate change in some forested regions of North America. The objective of this study was to determine (1) whether temperature, CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), soil moisture, and MNs interact to affect plant establishment success, such that MNs facilitate establishment when plants are the most water stressed, and (2) whether transfer of C and water between plants through MNs plays a role in this. We established interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesiivar.glauca) seedlings in root boxes with and without the potential to form MNs with nearby conspecific seedlings that had consistent access to water via their taproots. We varied temperature, [CO(2)], and soil moisture in growth chambers. Douglas-fir seedling survival increased when the potential existed to form an MN. Growth increased with MN potential under the driest soil conditions, but decreased with temperature at 800 ppm [CO(2)]. Transfer of (13)C to receiver seedlings was unaffected by potential to form an MN with donor seedlings, but deuterated water (D(2)O) transfer increased with MN potential under ambient [CO(2)]. Chlorophyll fluorescence was reduced when seedlings had the potential to form an MN under high [CO(2)] and cool temperatures. We conclude that Douglas-fir seedling establishment in laboratory conditions is facilitated by MN potential where Douglas-fir seedlings have consistent access to water. Moreover, this facilitation appears to increase as water stress potential increases and water transfer via networks may play a role in this. These results suggest that conservation of MN potential may be important to forest regeneration where drought stress increases with climate change.

  12. Growth responses of the balsam fir and black spruce spacing trials. Information report No. N-X-291

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsh, M.B.; Lavigne, M.B.; Donnelly, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    The report describes the initial growth responses of plots thinned to a range of spacings in three balsam fir stands and three black spruce stands on the Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland and western Newfoundland. Statistical analyses were conducted of nominal vs actual spacing and merchantable trees at rotation. Results are given for the effects of thinning on actual conditions, total volume growth, diameter growth and volume growth responses, and 10-year growth responses.

  13. Effects of long-term pruning, meristem origin, and branch order on the rooting of Douglas-fir stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1992-01-01

    The rooting percentages of 14 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) clones were examined annually from 1974 to 1988. The trees were 10 and 13 years old in 1974 and were pruned to 2.0 m in 1978 and 1979 and then recut annually to 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 m, starting in 1983. The pruned trees showed no evidence of decreased rooting percentage...

  14. Concomitant expression of far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein (FBP) interacting repressor (FIR) and its splice variants induce migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Benedikt; Bovet, Michael; Yin, Yi; Stichel, Damian; Malz, Mona; González-Vallinas, Margarita; Middleton, Alistair; Ehemann, Volker; Schmitt, Jennifer; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Herpel, Esther; Singer, Stephan; Warth, Arne; Schirmacher, Peter; Drasdo, Dirk; Matthäus, Franziska; Breuhahn, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Transcription factors integrate a variety of oncogenic input information, facilitate tumour growth and cell dissemination, and therefore represent promising therapeutic target structures. Because over-expression of DNA-interacting far upstream element binding protein (FBP) supports non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) migration, we asked whether its repressor, FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) is functionally inactivated and how FIR might affect NSCLC cell biology. Different FIR splice variants were highly expressed in the majority of NSCLCs, with the highest levels in tumours carrying genomic gains of chromosome 8q24.3, which contained the FIR gene locus. Nuclear FIR expression was significantly enriched at the invasion front of primary NSCLCs, but this did not correlate with tumour cell proliferation. FIR accumulation was associated with worse patient survival and tumour recurrence; in addition, FIR over-expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). In vitro, we applied newly developed methods and modelling approaches for the quantitative and time-resolved description of the pro-migratory and pro-invasive capacities of SCC cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of all FIR variants significantly reduced the speed and directional movement of tumour cells in all phases of migration. Furthermore, sprouting efficiency and single cell invasiveness were diminished following FIR inhibition. Interestingly, the silencing of FIR isoforms lacking exon 2 (FIR(Δexon2)) alone was sufficient to reduce lateral migration and invasion. In summary, by using scale-spanning data derived from primary human tissues, quantitative cellular analyses and mathematical modelling, we have demonstrated that concomitant over-expression of FIR and its splice variants drives NSCLC migration and dissemination.

  15. Location and Survival of Mycorrhiza Helper Pseudomonas fluorescens during Establishment of Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis between Laccaria bicolor and Douglas Fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Klett, P.; Pierrat, J. C.; Garbaye, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6, isolated from a Laccaria bicolor sporocarp, consistently promotes L. bicolor-Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) ectomycorrhizal formation, even with low doses of bacterial inoculum. In order to describe this phenomenon more accurately, we have looked at the location and survival of the introduced bacterial strain in the soil and in the rhizosphere during the establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis in glasshouse and nursery experiments. Bacterial populations were quantified with a spontaneous, stable, rifampin-resistant mutant, BBc6R8, which phenotypically conformed to the parental strain. BBc6R8 populations declined rapidly, reaching the detection limit after 19 weeks, and did not increase either when L. bicolor sporocarps were forming in autumn or when Douglas fir roots resumed growing in spring. BBc6R8 was neither an endophyte nor a rhizobacterium. Furthermore, it was not particularly associated with either mycorrhizas of Douglas fir-L. bicolor or L. bicolor sporocarps. Surprisingly, a significant mycorrhiza helper effect was observed when the inoculated BBc6R8 population had dropped as low as 30 CFU g of dry matter(sup-1) in the soil. This study raises questions concerning the bacterial concentration in the soil which is effective for promotion of mycorrhizal establishment and the timing of the bacterial effect. It allows us to develop working hypotheses, which can be tested experimentally, to identify the mechanisms of the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:16535478

  16. Direct Imaging of a Compact Molecular Outflow from a Very Low-luminosity Object; L1521F-IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Satoko; Bourke, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    We report interferometric observations of the VeLLO L1521F-IRS, in 12CO (2-1) line emission and the 1.3 mm continuum emission, using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). With the 12CO high-resolution observations, we have spatially resolved a compact but poorly collimated molecular outflow associated with L1521F-IRS for the first time. The blueshifted and redshifted lobes are aligned along the east and west side of L1521F-IRS with a lobe size of ~1000 AU. The estimated outflow mass, maximum outflow velocity, and outflow force are (9.0-80)x10^{-4} M_{sol}, 7.2 km s^{-1}, and (7.4-66)x10^{-7} M_{sol} km s^{-1} yr^{-1}, respectively. The estimated outflow parameters such as size, mass, and momentum rate are similar to values derived for other VeLLOs, and are located at the lower end of values compared to previously studied outflows associated with low- to high-mass star forming regions. Low-velocity less collimated (1.5 km s^{-1}/1200 AU) and higher-velocity compact (4.0 km s^{-1}/920 AU) outflow components are sugges...

  17. Douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii) plantlets responses to as, PB, and sb-contaminated soils from former mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Pascaud, Grégoire; Faugeron, Céline; Soubrand, Marilyne; Joussein, Emmanuel; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation of metalloids by conifers is not widely studied although they may be relevant for several contaminated sites, especially those located in cold areas and sometimes under dry climates. Here, seeds of Douglas fir were sown in greenhouse on three soils collected in two French former mines: a gold mine (soils L1 and L2) and a lead and silver mine (soil P). These soils are highly contaminated by Pb, As, and Sb at different concentrations. Plants were harvested after ten weeks. Growth parameters, primary metabolite content, and shoot and root ionomes were determined. Douglas firs grown on the soils L1 and P had a lower biomass than controls and a higher oxidation status whereas those grown on the soil L2 exhibited a more developed root system and only slight modifications of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Based on trace element (TE) concentrations in shoots and roots and their translocation factor (TF), Douglas fir could be a relevant candidate for As phytoextraction (0.8 g. kg(-1) dry weight in shoots and a TF of 1.1) and may be used to phytostabilize Pb and Sb (8.8 g and 127 mg. kg(-1) in roots for Pb and Sb, respectively, and TF lower than 0.1).

  18. Lyman break and UV-selected galaxies at z ~ 1: II. PACS-100um/160um FIR detections

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Bongiovanni, Á; Pérez-García, A M; Cepa, J; Cedrés, B; Ederoclite, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E J; Altieri, B; Andreani, P; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Aussel, H; itez, N Ben\\'; Berta, S; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, F J; Cerviño, M; Cimatti, A; Cristobal-Hornillos, D; Daddi, E; Elbaz, D; Fernandez-Soto, A; Schreiber, N Förster; Genzel, R; Gonzalez-Delgado, R M; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Floc'h, E Le; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; Maiolino, R; arquez, I M\\'; inez, V J Mart\\'; Masegosa, J; Matute, I; Moles, M; Molino, A; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; inez, R P\\' erez-Mart\\'; Pintos-Castro, I; Poglitsch, A; Polednikova, J; Popesso, P; Pović, M; Pozzi, F; Prada, F; Quintana, J M; Riguccini, L; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Valtchanov, I; Viironen, K

    2013-01-01

    We report the PACS-100um/160um detections of a sample of 42 GALEX-selected and FIR-detected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 1 located in the COSMOS field and analyze their ultra-violet (UV) to far-infrared (FIR) properties. The detection of these LBGs in the FIR indicates that they have a dust content high enough so that its emission can be directly detected. According to a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with stellar population templates to their UV-to-near-IR observed photometry, PACS-detected LBGs tend to be bigger, more massive, dustier, redder in the UV continuum, and UV-brighter than PACS-undetected LBGs. PACS-detected LBGs at z ~ 1 are mostly disk-like galaxies and are located over the green-valley and red sequence of the color-magnitude diagram of galaxies at their redshift. By using their UV and IR emission, we find that PACS-detected LBGs tend to be less dusty and have slightly higher total star-formation rates (SFRs) than other PACS-detected UV-selected galaxies within their same reds...

  19. A Detailed Study of the Radio--FIR Correlation in NGC6946 with Herschel-PACS/SPIRE from KINGFISH

    CERN Document Server

    Tabatabaei, F S; Murphy, E J; Beck, R; Groves, B; Meidt, S; Krause, M; Rix, H-W; Sandstrom, K; Crocker, A F; Galametz, M; Helou, G; Wilson, C D; Kennicutt, R; Calzetti, D; Draine, B; Aniano, G; Dale, D; Dumas, G; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Hinz, J; Kreckel, K; Montiel, E; Roussel, H

    2013-01-01

    We derive the distribution of the synchrotron spectral index across NGC6946 and investigate the correlation between the radio continuum (synchrotron) and far-infrared (FIR) emission using the KINGFISH Herschel PACS and SPIRE data. The radio--FIR correlation is studied as a function of star formation rate, magnetic field strength, radiation field strength, and the total gas surface brightness. The synchrotron emission follows both star-forming regions and the so-called magnetic arms present in the inter-arm regions. The synchrotron spectral index is steepest along the magnetic arms ($\\alpha_n \\sim 1$), while it is flat in places of giant H{\\sc ii} regions and in the center of the galaxy ($\\alpha_n \\sim 0.6-0.7$). The map of $\\alpha_n$ provides an observational evidence for aging and energy loss of cosmic ray electrons propagating in the disk of the galaxy. Variations in the synchrotron--FIR correlation across the galaxy are shown to be a function of both star formation and magnetic fields. We find that the syn...

  20. INVESTIGATING CHANGES IN THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF HEAT-TREATED HORNBEAM AND ULUDAG FIR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Aydemir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical constituents and some physical properties such as swelling and water absorption of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L and uludag fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf. wood were investigated after heat treatment at three different temperatures (170 oC, 190 oC, and 210 oC for three different durations (4, 8, and 12 hours by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry. The results of TGA show that there was less weight loss in the main degradation region (300-500 oC for the heat-treated samples as compared to untreated (control samples. In addition, there was greater weight loss of hornbeam wood than of uludag fir wood in a similar degradation region. This difference could be due to the chemical constituents of softwoods and hardwoods. The results of FTIR spectrometry show that the chemical constituents of the hornbeam wood samples were more affected by heat treatment. All heat-treated samples exhibited lower water absorption and swelling compared to control samples. It was found that the relative decrease in swelling and water absorption for uludag fir was higher than for hornbeam. The maximum decrease in water absorption and swelling was found for both species that were heat-treated at 210 oC for 12 hours.