WorldWideScience

Sample records for finite-temperature ensemble spin-density

  1. Finite temperature grand canonical ensemble study of the minimum electrophilicity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain; Chattaraj, Pratim K; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-09-28

    We analyze the minimum electrophilicity principle of conceptual density functional theory using the framework of the finite temperature grand canonical ensemble. We provide support for this principle, both for the cases of systems evolving from a non-equilibrium to an equilibrium state and for the change from one equilibrium state to another. In doing so, we clearly delineate the cases where this principle can, or cannot, be used.

  2. Supersymmetry at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Finite-temperature supersymmetry (SUSY) is characterized by unbroken Ward identities for SUSY variations of ensemble averages of Klein-operator inserted imaginary time-ordered products of fields. Path-integral representations of these products are defined and the Feynman rules in superspace are given. The finite-temperature no-renormalization theorem is derived. Spontaneously broken SUSY at zero temperature is shown not to be restored at high temperature. (orig.)

  3. Finite temperature field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    1997-01-01

    This book discusses all three formalisms used in the study of finite temperature field theory, namely the imaginary time formalism, the closed time formalism and thermofield dynamics. Applications of the formalisms are worked out in detail. Gauge field theories and symmetry restoration at finite temperature are among the practical examples discussed in depth. The question of gauge dependence of the effective potential and the Nielsen identities are explained. The nonrestoration of some symmetries at high temperature (such as supersymmetry) and theories on nonsimply connected space-times are al

  4. Supersymmetry at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.W. de.

    1986-01-01

    The consequences of the incorporation of finite temperature effects in fields theories are investigated. Particularly, we consider the sypersymmetric non-linear sigma model, calculating the effective potencial in the large N limit. Initially, we present the 1/N expantion formalism and, for the O(N) model of scalar field, we show the impossibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Next, we study the same model at finite temperature and in the presence of conserved charges (the O(N) symmetry's generator). We conclude that these conserved charges explicitly break the symmetry. We introduce a calculation method for the thermodynamic potential of the theory in the presence of chemical potentials. We present an introduction to Supersymmetry in the aim of describing some important concepts for the treatment at T>0. We show that Suppersymmetry is broken for any T>0, in opposition to what one expects, by the solution of the Hierachy Problem. (author) [pt

  5. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum chromodynamics; finite temperature; chiral perturbation theory; QCD sum rules. PACS Nos 11.10. ..... at finite temperature. The self-energy diagrams of figure 2 modify it to ..... method of determination at present. Acknowledgement.

  6. The Hellman-Feynman theorem at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, A.; Calles, A.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of a kind of Hellman-Feynman theorem at finite temperature is discussed. Using the cannonical ensembles, the derivative of the internal energy is obtained when it depends explicitly on a parameter. It is found that under the low temperature regime the derivative of the energy can be obtained as the statistical average of the derivative of the hamiltonian operator. The result allows to speak of the existence of the Hellman-Feynman theorem at finite temperatures (Author)

  7. Axial anomaly at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Gupte, Neelima; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Jackiw-Bardeen-Adler anomaly for QED 4 and QED 2 are calculated at finite temperature. It is found that the anomaly is independent of temperature. Ishikawa's method [1984, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 53 1615] for calculating the quantised Hall effect is extended to finite temperature. (author)

  8. Photon propagators at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, J.H.

    1982-07-01

    We have used the real time formalism to compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the photon self energies in spinor and scalar QED. We show that, for a real photon, only the transverse components develop the temperature-dependent masses, while, for an external static electromagnetic field applied to the finite temperature system, only the static electric field is screened by thermal fluctuations. After showing how to compute systematically the imaginary parts of the finite temperature Green functions, we have attempted to give a microscopic interpretation of the imaginary parts of the self energies. (author)

  9. Finite-temperature confinement transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetitsky, B.

    1984-01-01

    The formalism of lattice gauge theory at finite temperature is introduced. The framework of universality predictions for critical behavior is outlined, and recent analytic work in this direction is reviewed. New Monte Carlo information for the SU(4) theory are represented, and possible results of the inclusion of fermions in the SU(3) theory are listed

  10. Ward identities at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOlivo, J.C.; Torres, M.; Tututi, E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ward identities for QED at finite temperature are derived using the functional real-time formalism. They are verified by an explicit one-loop calculation. An effective causal vertex is constructed which satisfy the Ward identity with the associated retarded self-energy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Finite-Temperature Higgs Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgopolov, M.V.; Gurskaya, A.V.; Rykova, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we consider the short description of the “Finite-Temperature Higgs Potentials” program for calculating loop integrals at vanishing external momenta and applications for extended Higgs potentials reconstructions. Here we collect the analytic forms of the relevant loop integrals for our work in reconstruction of the effective Higgs potential parameters in extended models (MSSM, NMSSM and etc.)

  12. Finite temperature instability for compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.; Kolb, E.W.

    1986-03-01

    We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Quantum Chromodynamic at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, N.S.

    1987-01-01

    A formal expression to the Gibbs free energy of topological defects of quantum chromodynamics (QCD)by using the semiclassical approach in the context of field theory at finite temperature and in the high temperature limit is determined. This expression is used to calculate the free energy of magnetic monopoles. Applying the obtained results to a method in which the free energy of topological defects of a theory may indicate its different phases, its searched for informations about phases of QCD. (author) [pt

  14. Perturbative QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-03-01

    We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks

  15. Spinor pregeometry at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Seiji.

    1985-10-01

    We derive the effective action for gravity at finite temperature in spinor pregeometry. The temperature-dependent effective potential for the vierbein which is parametrized as e sub(kμ) = b.diag(1, xi, xi, xi) has the minimum at b = 0 for fixed xi, and behaves as -xi 3 for fixed b. These results indicate that the system of fundamental matters in spinor pregeometry cannot be in equilibrium. (author)

  16. Finite temperature approach to confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gave, E.; Jengo, R.; Omero, C.

    1980-06-01

    The finite temperature treatment of gauge theories, formulated in terms of a gauge invariant variable as in a Polyakov method, is used as a device for obtaining an effective theory where the confinement test takes the form of a correlation function. The formalism is discussed for the abelian CPsup(n-1) model in various dimensionalities and for the pure Yang-Mills theory in the limit of zero temperature. In the latter case a class of vortex like configurations of the effective theory which induce confinement correspond in particular to the instanton solutions. (author)

  17. Covariant gauges at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Landshoff, Peter V

    1992-01-01

    A prescription is presented for real-time finite-temperature perturbation theory in covariant gauges, in which only the two physical degrees of freedom of the gauge-field propagator acquire thermal parts. The propagators for the unphysical degrees of freedom of the gauge field, and for the Faddeev-Popov ghost field, are independent of temperature. This prescription is applied to the calculation of the one-loop gluon self-energy and the two-loop interaction pressure, and is found to be simpler to use than the conventional one.

  18. Supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzert, K.

    2002-11-01

    The mechanism of supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature is still only partly understood. Though it has been proven that temperature always breaks supersymmetry, the spontaneous nature of this breaking remains unclear, in particular the role of the Goldstone fermion. The aim of this work is to unify two existing approaches to the subject. From a hydrodynamic point of view, it has been argued under very general assumptions that in any supersymmetric quantum field theory at finite temperature there should exist a massless fermionic collective excitation, named phonino because of the analogy to the phonon. In the framework of a self-consistent resummed perturbation theory, it is shown for the example of the Wess-Zumino model that this mode fits very well into the quantum field theoretical framework pursued by earlier works. Interpreted as a bound state of boson and fermion, it contributes to the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identities in a way showing that supersymmetry is indeed broken spontaneously with the phonino playing the role of the Goldstone fermion. The second part of the work addresses the case of supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that also here the phonino exists and must be interpreted as the Goldstone mode. This knowledge allows a generalization to a wider class of models. (orig.)

  19. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  20. Finite-temperature field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, J.I.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    Particle number is not conserved in relativistic theories although both lepton and baryon number are. Therefore when discussing the thermodynamics of a quantum field theory one uses the grand canonical formalism. The entropy S is maximised, keeping fixed the ensemble averages E and N of energy and lepton number. Two lagrange multipliers are introduced. (author)

  1. Comparison of exact-exchange calculations for solids in current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, S.; Pittalis, S.; Kurth, S.

    2007-01-01

    The relative merits of current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory are investigated for solids treated within the exact-exchange-only approximation. Spin-orbit splittings and orbital magnetic moments are determined at zero external magnetic field. We find that for magnetic (Fe, Co......, and Ni) and nonmagnetic (Si and Ge) solids, the exact-exchange current-spin-density functional approach does not significantly improve the accuracy of the corresponding spin-density functional results....

  2. Comparison between microscopic methods for finite-temperature Bose gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, S.P.; Negretti, Antonio; Proukakis, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the equilibrium properties of a weakly interacting, trapped quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas at finite temperatures and compare different theoretical approaches. We focus in particular on two stochastic theories: a number-conserving Bogoliubov (NCB) approach and a stochastic Gross...... on different thermodynamic ensembles (NCB, canonical; SGPE, grand-canonical), they yield the correct condensate statistics in a large Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) (strong enough particle interactions). For smaller systems, the SGPE results are prone to anomalously large number fluctuations, well known...

  3. Anomalies in curved spacetime at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi-Filho, H.; Natividade, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the breakdown of conformal and gauge symmetries at finite temperature in curved spacetime background, when the changes in the background are gradual. We obtain the expressions for the Seeley's coefficients and the heat kernel expansion in this regime. As applications, we consider the self-interacting lambda phi''4 and chiral Schwinger models in curved backgrounds at finite temperature. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Parquet theory of finite temperature boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author uses the parquet summation for the two-body vertex as the framework for a perturbation theory of finite-temperature homogeneous boson systems. The present formalism is a first step toward a full description of the thermodynamic behavior of a finite temperature boson system through parquet summation. The current approximation scheme focuses on a system below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature and considers only the contribution from Bogoliubov excitations out of a boson condensate. Comparison with the finite temperature variational theory by Campbell et al. shows strong similarities between variational theory and the current theory. Numerical results from a 4 He system and a nuclear system are discussed

  5. Regularization of finite temperature string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Knecht, M.; Wallet, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The tachyonic divergences occurring in the free energy of various string theories at finite temperature are eliminated through the use of regularization schemes and analytic continuations. For closed strings, we obtain finite expressions which, however, develop an imaginary part above the Hagedorn temperature, whereas open string theories are still plagued with dilatonic divergences. (orig.)

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo studies of a metallic spin-density wave transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Max Henner

    2017-01-20

    Plenty experimental evidence indicates that quantum critical phenomena give rise to much of the rich physics observed in strongly correlated itinerant electron systems such as the high temperature superconductors. A quantum critical point of particular interest is found at the zero-temperature onset of spin-density wave order in two-dimensional metals. The appropriate low-energy theory poses an exceptionally hard problem to analytic theory, therefore the unbiased and controlled numerical approach pursued in this thesis provides important contributions on the road to comprehensive understanding. After discussing the phenomenology of quantum criticality, a sign-problem-free determinantal quantum Monte Carlo approach is introduced and an extensive toolbox of numerical methods is described in a self-contained way. By the means of large-scale computer simulations we have solved a lattice realization of the universal effective theory of interest. The finite-temperature phase diagram, showing both a quasi-long-range spin-density wave ordered phase and a d-wave superconducting dome, is discussed in its entirety. Close to the quantum phase transition we find evidence for unusual scaling of the order parameter correlations and for non-Fermi liquid behavior at isolated hot spots on the Fermi surface.

  7. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  8. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature

  9. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S

    2002-03-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature.

  10. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  11. The adjoint string at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, P.H.

    1986-10-01

    Expectations for the behavior of the adjoint string at finite temperature are presented. In the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation a real-space renormalization group study of the effective Polyakov like action predicts a deconfinement-like crossover for adjoint sources at a temperature slightly below the deconfinement temperature of fundamental sources. This prediction is compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of SU(2) lattice gauge theory on an 8 3 x2 lattice. (orig.)

  12. Behavior of supersymmetry at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Shoichi.

    1984-11-01

    Supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature is investigated by using the real-time formalism. We derive the Ward-Takahashi identities of the composite fields by using the path integral formalism. We also calculate the one-loop correction to fermion and boson masses, and discuss the connection of the perturbative result with that obtained from the effective potential. Our result shows that supersymmetry is broken explicitly even in the real-time formalism. (author)

  13. Thermal operator representation of finite temperature graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.; Das, Ashok; Espinosa, Olivier; Perez, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    Using the mixed space representation (t,p→) in the context of scalar field theories, we prove in a simple manner that the Feynman graphs at finite temperature are related to the corresponding zero temperature diagrams through a simple thermal operator, both in the imaginary time as well as in the real time formalisms. This result is generalized to the case when there is a nontrivial chemical potential present. Several interesting properties of the thermal operator are also discussed

  14. Topics on field theories at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eboli, O.J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of a first order phase transition through the study of the decay rate of the false vacuum in the high temperature limit are analysed. An alternative approach to obtain the phase diagram of a field theory which is based on the study of the free energy of topological defects, is developed the behavior of coupling constants with the help of the Dyson-Schwinger equations at finite temperature, is evaluated. (author) [pt

  15. Supersymmetric field theories at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Tata, X.R.

    1983-01-01

    We show by explicit calculations to second and third order in perturbation theory, that finite temperature effects do not break the supersymmetry Ward-Takahashi identities of the Wess-Zumino model. Moreover, it is argued that this result is true to all orders in perturbation theory, and further, true for a wide class of supersymmetric theories. We point out, however, that these identities can be broken in the course of a phase transition that restores an originally broken internal symmetry

  16. Results in finite temperature quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    First, three quantities of physical interest are calculated. The first two quantities are the self energy of the electron at order α and the self mass of the electron at order α 2 due to its interaction with a thermal bath of photons. The third quantity of physical interest is the thermal contribution to the self mass of the axion. Second, some formal developments are presented. First among these is the proof of an extension to the familiar optical theorem to cover processes taking place at finite temperature. Then an example of the application of the theorem is given for a simple field theory involving two types of scalar particles. The example illustrates that the relationship between the forward scattering amplitude and the total cross section is more complex at finite temperature than at zero temperature. Third, a method for calculating the wave function renormalization constant at finite temperature for an electron in a thermal bath of photons is presented. This method is compared with methods invented by other authors

  17. Leading Twist GPDs and Transverse Spin Densities in a Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Chandan; Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar; Zhao, Xingbo

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of both chirally even and odd generalized parton distributions in the leading twist for the quarks in a proton using the light-front wavefunctions of a quark-diquark model predicted by the holographic QCD. For transversely polarized proton, both chiral even and chiral odd GPDs contribute to the spin densities which are related to the GPDs in transverse impact parameter space. Here, we also present a study of the spin densities for transversely polarized quark and proton.

  18. Soliton pair creation at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Creation of soliton-antisoliton pairs at finite temperature is considered within a (1+1)-dimensional model of a real scalar field. It is argued that at certain temperatures, the soliton pair creation in quantum theory can be investigated by studying classical field evolution in real time. The classical field equations are solved numerically, and the pair creation rate and average number of solitons are evaluated. No peculiar suppression of the rate is observed. Some results on the sphaleron transitions in (1+1)-dimensional abelian Higgs model are also presented. (orig.)

  19. Gribov gap equation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Pais, Pablo; Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the Gribov gap equation at finite temperature is analyzed. The solutions of the gap equation (which depend explicitly on the temperature) determine the structure of the gluon propagator within the semi-classical Gribov approach. The present analysis is consistent with the standard confinement scenario for low temperatures, while for high enough temperatures, deconfinement takes place and a free gluon propagator is obtained. An intermediate regime in between the confined and free phases can be read off from the resulting gluon propagator, which appears to be closely related to partial deconfinement. (orig.)

  20. Thermal geometry from CFT at finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cong Gan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present how the thermal geometry emerges from CFT at finite temperature by using the truncated entanglement renormalization network, the cMERA. For the case of 2d CFT, the reduced geometry is the BTZ black hole or the thermal AdS as expectation. In order to determine which spacetimes prefer to form, we propose a cMERA description of the Hawking–Page phase transition. Our proposal is in agreement with the picture of the recent proposed surface/state correspondence.

  1. Thermal geometry from CFT at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Wen-Cong, E-mail: ganwencong@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wu, Meng-He, E-mail: menghewu.physik@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2016-09-10

    We present how the thermal geometry emerges from CFT at finite temperature by using the truncated entanglement renormalization network, the cMERA. For the case of 2d CFT, the reduced geometry is the BTZ black hole or the thermal AdS as expectation. In order to determine which spacetimes prefer to form, we propose a cMERA description of the Hawking–Page phase transition. Our proposal is in agreement with the picture of the recent proposed surface/state correspondence.

  2. Gribov gap equation at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Pais, Pablo [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Insitutes, Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper the Gribov gap equation at finite temperature is analyzed. The solutions of the gap equation (which depend explicitly on the temperature) determine the structure of the gluon propagator within the semi-classical Gribov approach. The present analysis is consistent with the standard confinement scenario for low temperatures, while for high enough temperatures, deconfinement takes place and a free gluon propagator is obtained. An intermediate regime in between the confined and free phases can be read off from the resulting gluon propagator, which appears to be closely related to partial deconfinement. (orig.)

  3. Quantum fields at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    These lectures are an elementary introduction to standard many-body techniques applied to the study of quantum fields at finite temperature and density: perturbative expansion, linear response theory, quasiparticles and their interactions, etc... We emphasize the usefulness of the imaginary time formalism in a wide class of problems, as opposed to many recent approaches based on real time. Properties of elementary excitations in an ultrarelativistic plasma at high temperature or chemical potential are discussed, and recent progresses in the study of the quark-gluon plasma are briefly reviewed

  4. Nuclear collective states at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milian, A.; Barranco, M.; Mas, D.; Lombard, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    The Energy Density Method (EDM) has been used to study low-lying nuclear collective states as well as isoscalar giant resonances at finite temperature (T). Giant states have been studied by computing the corresponding strength function moments (sum rules) in the Random-Phase Approximation (RPA). For the description of the low lying states we have resorted to a variety of models from the rather sophisticated RPA method to liquid drop and schematic models. It has been found that low lying states are most affected by thermal effects, giant resonances being little affected in the range of temperatures here studied

  5. Spectral correlations of the massive QCD Dirac operator at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seif, Burkhard; Wettig, Tilo; Guhr, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    We use the graded eigenvalue method, a variant of the supersymmetry technique, to compute the universal spectral correlations of the QCD Dirac operator in the presence of massive dynamical quarks. The calculation is done for the chiral Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrix theory with an arbitrary Hermitian matrix added to the Dirac matrix. This case is of interest for schematic models of OCD at finite temperature

  6. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  7. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  8. Spin Multiphoton Antiresonance at Finite Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Christian; Dykman, Mark

    2007-03-01

    Weakly anisotropic S>1 spin systems display multiphoton antiresonance. It occurs when an Nth overtone of the radiation frequency coincides with the distance between the ground and the Nth excited energy level (divided by ). The coherent response of the spin displays a sharp minimum or maximum as a function of frequency, depending on which state was initially occupied. We find the spectral shape of the response dips/peaks. We also study the stationary response for zero and finite temperatures. The response changes dramatically with increasing temperature, when excited states become occupied even in the absence of radiation. The change is due primarily to the increasing role of single-photon resonances between excited states, which occur at the same frequencies as multiphoton resonances. Single-photon resonances are broad, because the single-photon Rabi frequencies largely exceed the multi-photon ones. This allows us to separate different resonances and to study their spectral shape. We also study the change of the spectrum due to relaxational broadening of the peaks, with account taken of both decay and phase modulation.

  9. Stochastic density functional theory at finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytter, Yael; Rabani, Eran; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi

    2018-03-01

    Simulations in the warm dense matter regime using finite temperature Kohn-Sham density functional theory (FT-KS-DFT), while frequently used, are computationally expensive due to the partial occupation of a very large number of high-energy KS eigenstates which are obtained from subspace diagonalization. We have developed a stochastic method for applying FT-KS-DFT, that overcomes the bottleneck of calculating the occupied KS orbitals by directly obtaining the density from the KS Hamiltonian. The proposed algorithm scales as O (" close=")N3T3)">N T-1 and is compared with the high-temperature limit scaling O Instability of flat space at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature

  10. QCD and instantons at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Pisarski, R.D.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    The current understanding of the behavior of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature is presented. Perturbative methods are used to explore the high-temperature dynamics. At sufficiently high temperatures the plasma of thermal excitations screens all color electric fields and quarks are unconfined. It is believed that the high-temperature theory develops a dynamical mass gap. However in perturbation theory the infrared behavior of magnetic fluctuations is so singular that beyond some order the perturbative expansion breaks down. The topological classification of finite-energy, periodic fields is presented and the classical solutions which minimize the action in each topological sector are examined. These include periodic instantons and magnetic monopoles. At sufficiently high temperature only fields with integral topological charge can contribute to the functional integral. Electric screening completely suppresses the contribution of fields with nonintegral topological charge. Consequently the theta dependence of the free energy at high temperature is dominated by the contribution of instantons. The complete temperature dependence of the instanton density is explicitly computed and large-scale instantons are found to be suppressed. Therefore the effects of instantons may be reliably calculated at sufficiently high temperature. The behavior of the theory in the vicinity of the transition from the high-temperature quark phase to the low-temperature hadronic phase cannot be accurately computed. However, at least in the absence of light quarks, semiclassical techniques and lattice methods may be combined to yield a simple picture of the dynamics valid for both high and low temperature, and to estimate the transition temperature

  11. Compton scattering at finite temperature: thermal field dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraev, F.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Compton scattering is a classical problem of quantum electrodynamics and has been studied in its early beginnings. Perturbation theory and Feynman diagram technique enables comprehensive analysis of this problem on the basis of which famous Klein-Nishina formula is obtained [1, 2]. In this work this problem is extended to the case of finite temperature. Finite-temperature effects in Compton scattering is of practical importance for various processes in relativistic thermal plasmas in astrophysics. Recently Compton effect have been explored using closed-time path formalism with temperature corrections estimated [3]. It was found that the thermal cross section can be larger than that for zero-temperature by several orders of magnitude for the high temperature realistic in astrophysics [3]. In our work we use a main tool to account finite-temperature effects, a real-time finite-temperature quantum field theory, so-called thermofield dynamics [4, 5]. Thermofield dynamics is a canonical formalism to explore field-theoretical processes at finite temperature. It consists of two steps, doubling of Fock space and Bogolyubov transformations. Doubling leads to appearing additional degrees of freedom, called tilded operators which together with usual field operators create so-called thermal doublet. Bogolyubov transformations make field operators temperature-dependent. Using this formalism we treat Compton scattering at finite temperature via replacing in transition amplitude zero-temperature propagators by finite-temperature ones. As a result finite-temperature extension of the Klein-Nishina formula is obtained in which differential cross section is represented as a sum of zero-temperature cross section and finite-temperature correction. The obtained result could be useful in quantum electrodynamics of lasers and for relativistic thermal plasma processes in astrophysics where correct account of finite-temperature effects is important. (author)

  12. Spin-density wave state in simple hexagonal graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoyan, K. S.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.

    2018-02-01

    Simple hexagonal graphite, also known as AA graphite, is a metastable configuration of graphite. Using tight-binding approximation, it is easy to show that AA graphite is a metal with well-defined Fermi surface. The Fermi surface consists of two sheets, each shaped like a rugby ball. One sheet corresponds to electron states, another corresponds to hole states. The Fermi surface demonstrates good nesting: a suitable translation in the reciprocal space superposes one sheet onto another. In the presence of the electron-electron repulsion, a nested Fermi surface is unstable with respect to spin-density-wave ordering. This instability is studied using the mean-field theory at zero temperature, and the spin-density-wave order parameter is evaluated.

  13. Finite-Temperature Variational Monte Carlo Method for Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kensaku; Ido, Kota; Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-03-01

    A new computational method for finite-temperature properties of strongly correlated electrons is proposed by extending the variational Monte Carlo method originally developed for the ground state. The method is based on the path integral in the imaginary-time formulation, starting from the infinite-temperature state that is well approximated by a small number of certain random initial states. Lower temperatures are progressively reached by the imaginary-time evolution. The algorithm follows the framework of the quantum transfer matrix and finite-temperature Lanczos methods, but we extend them to treat much larger system sizes without the negative sign problem by optimizing the truncated Hilbert space on the basis of the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). This optimization algorithm is equivalent to the stochastic reconfiguration (SR) method that has been frequently used for the ground state to optimally truncate the Hilbert space. The obtained finite-temperature states allow an interpretation based on the thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state instead of the conventional canonical-ensemble average. Our method is tested for the one- and two-dimensional Hubbard models and its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated.

  14. Dimensional regularization and analytical continuation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangjun; Liu Lianshou

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between dimensional regularization and analytical continuation of infrared divergent integrals at finite temperature is discussed and a method of regularization of infrared divergent integrals and infrared divergent sums is given

  15. Wall deffects in field theories at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazeia Filho, D.

    1985-01-01

    We discuss the effect of restauration of simmetry in field theories at finite temperature and its relation with wall deffects which appear as consequence of the instability of the constant field configuration. (M.W.O.) [pt

  16. Chiral anomalies in QED and QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Chiral anomalies (a) for QED and QCD at finite temperature are analyzed in imaginary- and real-time formalisms. Both triangle diagrams and functional methods are used. It is found that the expressions for a in terms of finite-temperature fields are formally similar to that for the zero-temperature anomaly as a function of zero-temperature fields, thereby generalizing previous work by other authors. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig

  17. Lorentz Violation, Möller Scattering, and Finite Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesandro F. Santos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz and CPT symmetries may be violated in new physics that emerges at very high energy scale, that is, at the Planck scale. The differential cross section of the Möller scattering due to Lorentz violation at finite temperature is calculated. Lorentz-violating effects emerge from an interaction vertex due to a CPT-odd nonminimal coupling in the covariant derivative. The finite temperature effects are determined using the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD formalism.

  18. Relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, which has been proposed recently in an astrophysical context. Assuming a constant distribution of protons inside the nucleus of finite size avoids severe divergence of the electron density with respect to a point-like nucleus. A formula for the nuclear radius is chosen to treat any element. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model matches the two asymptotic regimes, i.e., the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models. The equation of state is considered in detail. For each version of the finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, the pressure, the kinetic energy, and the entropy are calculated. The internal energy and free energy are also considered. The thermodynamic consistency of the three models is considered by working from the free energy. The virial question is also studied in the three cases as well as the relationship with the density functional theory. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model is far more involved than the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models that are very close to each other from a mathematical point of view.

  19. Self-interaction corrected local spin density calculations of actinides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z

    2010-01-01

    We use the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation in order to describe localization-delocalization phenomena in the strongly correlated actinide materials. Based on total energy considerations, the methodology enables us to predict the ground-state valency configuration...... of the actinide ions in these compounds from first principles. Here we review a number of applications, ranging from electronic structure calculations of actinide metals, nitrides and carbides to the behaviour under pressure of intermetallics, and O vacancies in PuO2....

  1. Topics in quantum field theories at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on four topics in quantum field theories at finite temperature are presented in this thesis. In Chapter 1, it is shown that the chiral anomaly has no finite temperature corrections by Fujikawa's path integral approach. Chapter 2 deals with the chiral condensate in the finite temperature Schwinger model. The cluster decomposition property is employed to find . No finite critical temperature is found and the chiral condensate vanishes only at infinite temperature. In Chapter 3, the finite temperature behavior of the fermion-number breaking (Rubakov-Callan) condensate around a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole is studied. It is found that the Rubakov-Callan condensate is suppressed exponentially from the monopole core at high temperature. The limitation of the techniques is understanding the behavior of the condensate for all temperature is also discussed. Chapter 4 is on the topological mass terms in (2 + 1)-dimensional gauge theories. The authors finds that if the gauge bosons have no topological mass at tree level, no topological mass induced radiatively up to two-loop order in either Abelian or non-Abelian theories with massive fermions. The Pauli-Villars regularization is used for fermion loops. The one-loop contributions to the topological mass terms at finite temperature are calculated and the quantization constraints in this case are discussed

  2. Quantum entanglement of localized excited states at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputa, Paweł [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Simón, Joan; Štikonas, Andrius [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,University of Edinburgh,King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Takayanagi, Tadashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU),University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2015-01-20

    In this work we study the time evolutions of (Renyi) entanglement entropy of locally excited states in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) at finite temperature. We consider excited states created by acting with local operators on thermal states and give both field theoretic and holographic calculations. In free field CFTs, we find that the growth of Renyi entanglement entropy at finite temperature is reduced compared to the zero temperature result by a small quantity proportional to the width of the localized excitations. On the other hand, in finite temperature CFTs with classical gravity duals, we find that the entanglement entropy approaches a characteristic value at late time. This behaviour does not occur at zero temperature. We also study the mutual information between the two CFTs in the thermofield double (TFD) formulation and give physical interpretations of our results.

  3. Modified random phase approximation for multipole excitations at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    1991-01-01

    The modified finite temperature random phase approximation (modified FT-RPA) has been constructed with taking the influence of thermostat on the structure of quansiparticles into account. The modified FT-RPA linear response for electric quadrupole (λ π = 2 + ) and octupole (λ π = 3 - ) excitations in 5 8Ni has been calculated as a function of the nuclear temperature. As compared to the conventional FT-RPA the modified FT-RPA has given a stronger spreading for the strength distribution of quandrupole excitations at finite temperature T ≤ 3MeV. (author). 22 refs; 4 figs; 2 tabs

  4. Thermo field dynamics: a quantum field theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, F.; Marinaro, M.; Matsumoto, H.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review of the theory of thermo field dynamics (TFD) is presented. TFD is introduced and developed by Umezawa and his coworkers at finite temperature. The most significant concept in TFD is that of a thermal vacuum which satisfies some conditions denoted as thermal state conditions. The TFD permits to reformulate theories at finite temperature. There is no need in an additional principle to determine particle distributions at T ≠ 0. Temperature and other macroscopic parameters are introduced in the definition of the vacuum state. All operator formalisms used in quantum field theory at T=0 are preserved, although the field degrees of freedom are doubled. 8 refs

  5. Chiral symmetry and finite temperature effects in quantum theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Aa.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation of the harmonic oscillator at finite temperature has been carried out, using the Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Accurate results for the energy and fluctuations have been obtained, with special attention to the manifestation of the temperature effects. Varying the degree of symmetry breaking, the finite temperature behaviour of the asymmetric linear model in a linearized mean field approximation has been studied. In a study of the effects of chiral symmetry on baryon mass splittings, reasonable agreement with experiment has been obtained in a non-relativistic harmonic oscillator model

  6. Axial anomaly at finite temperature and finite density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zhixin; Su Rukeng; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U(1) axial anomaly in a hot fermion medium is investigated by using the real time Green's function method. After calculating the lowest order triangle diagrams, we find that finite temperature as well as finite fermion density does not affect the axial anomaly. The higher order corrections for the axial anomaly are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Wilson Loops in the Large N Limit at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, A.; Itzhaki, N.; Sonnenschein, J.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1998-01-01

    Using a proposal of Maldacena we compute in the framework of the supergravity description of N coincident D3 branes the energy of a quark anti-quark pair in the large N limit of U(N) N=4 SYM in four dimensions at finite temperature.

  8. A sum rule description of giant resonances at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.; Quentin, P.; Brack, M.

    1983-01-01

    A generalization of the sum rule approach to collective motion at finite temperature is presented. The m 1 and msub(-1) sum rules for the isovector dipole and the isoscalar monopole electric modes have been evaluated with the modified SkM force for the 208 Pb nucleus. The variation of the resulting giant resonance energies with temperature is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Computations of finite temperature QCD with the pseudofermion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucito, F.; Solomon, S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss the phase diagram of finite temperature QCD as it is obtained including the effects of dynamical quarks by the pseudofermion method. They compare their results with the results obtained by other groups and comment on the actual state of the art for these kind of computations

  10. Quantum and classical vacuum forces at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niekerken, Ole

    2009-06-01

    In this diploma thesis the Casimir-Polder force at zero temperature and at finite temperatures is calculated by using a well-defined quantum field theory (formulated in position space) and the method of image charges. For the calculations at finite temperature KMS-states are used. The so defined temperature describes the temperature of the electromagnetic background. A one oscillator model for inhomogeneous dispersive absorbing dielectric material is introduced and canonically quantized to calculate the Casimir-Polder force at a dielectric interface at finite temperature. The model fulfils causal commutation relations and the dielectric function of the model fulfils the Kramer-Kronig relations. We then use the same methods to calculate the van der Waals force between two neutral atoms at zero temperature and at finite temperatures. It is shown that the high temperature behaviour of the Casimir-Polder force and the van der Waals force are independent of ℎ. This means that they have to be understood classically, what is then shown in an algebraic statistical theory by using classical KMS states. (orig.)

  11. Stochastic formulation of quantum field at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that, based on an extension of the stochastic quantization method of Nelson, it is possible to obtain finite temperature fields in both the imaginary and real time formalisms which are usually quantized by using the functional integral technique

  12. Analytic behavior of the QED polarizability function at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, A.; Perez, A.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the analytical properties of the static quasi-photon polarizability function for an electron gas at finite temperature, in connection with the existence of Friedel oscillations in the potential created by an impurity. In contrast with the zero temperature case, where the polarizability is an analytical function, except for the two branch cuts which are responsible for Friedel oscillations, at finite temperature the corresponding function is non analytical, in spite of becoming continuous everywhere on the complex plane. This effect produces, as a result, the survival of the oscillatory behavior of the potential. We calculate the potential at large distances, and relate the calculation to the non-analytical properties of the polarizability.

  13. Lorentz violation, gravitoelectromagnetism and Bhabha scattering at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2018-04-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) is an approach for the gravitation field that is described using the formulation and terminology similar to that of electromagnetism. The Lorentz violation is considered in the formulation of GEM that is covariant in its form. In practice, such a small violation of the Lorentz symmetry may be expected in a unified theory at very high energy. In this paper, a non-minimal coupling term, which exhibits Lorentz violation, is added as a new term in the covariant form. The differential cross-section for Bhabha scattering in the GEM framework at finite temperature is calculated that includes Lorentz violation. The Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) formalism is used to calculate the total differential cross-section at finite temperature. The contribution due to Lorentz violation is isolated from the total cross-section. It is found to be small in magnitude.

  14. Gravitational Coleman–Weinberg potential and its finite temperature counterpart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit [Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India); Majumdar, Parthasarathi [Department of Physics, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananada University, Belur Math, Howrah 711202 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Coleman–Weinberg (CW) phenomena for the case of gravitons minimally coupled to massless scalar field is studied. The one-loop effect completely vanishes if there is no self-interaction term present in the matter sector. The one-loop effective potential is shown to develop an instability in the form of acquiring an imaginary part, which can be traced to the tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator. The finite temperature counterpart of this CW potential is computed to study the behaviour of the potential in the high and low temperature regimes with respect to the typical energy scale of the theory. Finite temperature contribution to the imaginary part of gravitational CW potential exhibits a damped oscillatory behaviour; all thermal effects are damped out as the temperature vanishes, consistent with the zero-temperature result.

  15. Level-density parameter of nuclei at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Stout, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of particle-particle (hole-hole) and of particle-hole ring diagrams to the nuclear level-density parameter at finite temperature is calculated. We first derive the correlated grand potential with the above ring diagrams included to all orders by way of a finite temperature RPA equation. An expression for the correlated level-density parameter is then obtained by differentiating the grand potential. Results obtained for the 40 Ca nucleus with realistic matrix elements derived from the Paris potential are presented. The contribution of the RPA correlations is found to be important, being significantly larger than typical Hartree-Fock results. The temperature dependence of the level-density parameter derived in the present work is generally similar to that obtained in a schematic model. Comparison with available experimental data is discussed. (orig.)

  16. The width of the giant dipole resonance at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, N.V.

    1992-01-01

    A method is proposed to evaluate the effect of the change of the Fermi sea on the width of the giant dipole resonance at finite temperature. In a schematic model it is found that, indeed, in 208 Pb the width increases very sharply up to about T=4 MeV but shows a much weaker variation for higher temperature. (author) 26 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Exotic quantum states for charmed baryons at finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The significantly screened heavy-quark potential in hot medium provides the possibility to study exotic quantum states of three-heavy-quark systems. By solving the Schrödinger equation for a three-charm-quark system at finite temperature, we found that, there exist Borromean states which might be realized in high energy nuclear collisions, and the binding energies of the system satisfy precisely the scaling law for Efimov states in the resonance limit.

  18. Finite spatial volume approach to finite temperature field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Nathan

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic quantum field theory at finite temperature T=β -1 is equivalent to the same field theory at zero temperature but with one spatial dimension of finite length β. This equivalence is discussed for scalars, for fermions, and for gauge theories. The relationship is checked for free field theory. The translation of correlation functions between the two formulations is described with special emphasis on the nonlocal order parameters of gauge theories. Possible applications are mentioned. (auth)

  19. Cumulant approach to dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Minhtien.

    1993-11-01

    A new theoretical approach, based on the introduction of cumulants, to calculate thermodynamic averages and dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures is developed. The method is formulated in Liouville instead of Hilbert space and can be applied to operators which do not require to satisfy fermion or boson commutation relations. The application of the partitioning and projection methods for the dynamical correlation functions is discussed. The present method can be applied to weakly as well as to strongly correlated systems. (author). 9 refs

  20. Introduction to finite temperature and finite density QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    It has been pointed out that QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) in the circumstances of medium at finite temperature and density shows numbers of phenomena similar to the characteristics of solid state physics, e.g. phase transitions. In the past ten years, the very high temperature and density matter came to be observed experimentally at the heavy ion collisions. At the same time, the numerical QCD analysis at finite temperature and density attained quantitative level analysis possible owing to the remarkable progress of computers. In this summer school lecture, it has been set out to give not only the recent results, but also the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry, the fundamental theory of finite temperature and further expositions as in the following four sections. The first section is titled as 'Introduction to Finite Temperature and Density QCD' with subsections of 1.1 standard model and QCD, 1.2 phase transition and phase structure of QCD, 1.3 lattice QCD and thermodynamic quantity, 1.4 heavy ion collision experiments, and 1.5 neutron stars. The second one is 'Equilibrium State' with subsections of 2.1 chiral symmetry, 2.2 vacuum state: BCS theory, 2.3 NJL (Nambu-Jona-Lasinio) model, and 2.4 color superconductivity. The third one is 'Static fluctuations' with subsections of 3.1 fluctuations, 3.2 moment and cumulant, 3.3 increase of fluctuations at critical points, 3.4 analysis of fluctuations by lattice QCD and Taylor expansion, and 3.5 experimental exploration of QCD phase structure. The fourth one is 'Dynamical Structure' with 4.1 linear response theory, 4.2 spectral functions, 4.3 Matsubara function, and 4.4 analyses of dynamical structure by lattice QCD. (S. Funahashi)

  1. Deconstructing scalar QED at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Shiraishi, K.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the effective potential for the WLPNGB in a world with a circular latticized extra dimension. The mass of the Wilson line pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (WLPNGB) is calculated from the one-loop quantum effect of scalar fields at zero and finite temperature. We show that a series expansion by the modified Bessel functions is useful to calculate the one-loop effective potentials. (orig.)

  2. QCD bound states at finite temperature and baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovsky, Yu.L.; Muenchow, L.

    1991-04-01

    Quark-antiquark bound states are described within the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a class of quark models with instantaneous 4-quark interaction at finite temperature. Thereby decompositions of the Bethe-Salpeter vertex and wave functions according to their Lorentz structures and the particles content are used. As an application of general scheme, we determine the mass spectrum of low-lying mesons for a special Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model inspired by QCD for hadrons. (orig.)

  3. Finite-temperature behavior of mass hierarchies in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's mechanism for producing a large gauge hierarchy in supersymmetric theories leads to a novel symmetry behavior at finite temperature. The exponentially large expectation value in such models develops at a critical temperature of order of the small (supersymmetry-breaking) scale. The phase transition can proceed without need of vacuum tunnelling. Models based on Witten's mechanism thus require a reexamination of the standard cosmological treatment of grand unified theories. (orig.)

  4. Finite temperature QCD sum rule and the ρ-meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jueping; Jin Yaping

    1995-01-01

    The contributions from the three-gluon condensates to the finite temperature QCD sum rule for the ρ-meson are calculated, and then the dependence of the properties of the ρ-meson upon temperature is investigated in a string model of condensates. The results show that the parameters characterizing the properties of the ρ-meson change noticeably when the temperature closes to the critical temperature of the condensates, and if the critical temperatures of condensates are the same

  5. Stochastic field theory and finite-temperature supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    1988-01-01

    The finite-temperature behavior of supersymmetry is considered from the viewpoint of stochastic field theory. To this end, it is considered that Nelson's stochastic mechanics may be generalized to the quantization of a Fermi field when the classical analog of such a field is taken to be a scalar nonlocal field where the internal space is anisotropic in nature such that when quantized this gives rise to two internal helicities corresponding to fermion and antifermion. Stochastic field theory at finite temperature is then formulated from stochastic mechanics which incorporates Brownian motion in the external space as well as in the internal space of a particle. It is shown that when the anisotropy of the internal space is suppressed so that the internal time ξ 0 vanishes and the internal space variables are integrated out one has supersymmetry at finite temperature. This result is true for T = 0, also. However, at this phase equilibrium will be destroyed. Thus for a random process van Hove's result involving quantum mechanical operators, i.e., that when supersymmetry remains unbroken at T = 0 it will also remain unbroken at Tnot =0, occurs. However, this formalism indicates that when at T = 0 broken supersymmetry results, supersymmetry may be restored at a critical temperature T/sub c/

  6. Maximum entropy reconstruction of spin densities involving non uniform prior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.; Ressouche, E.; Papoular, R.J.; Zheludev, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Diffraction experiments give microscopic information on structures in crystals. A method which uses the concept of maximum of entropy (MaxEnt), appears to be a formidable improvement in the treatment of diffraction data. This method is based on a bayesian approach: among all the maps compatible with the experimental data, it selects that one which has the highest prior (intrinsic) probability. Considering that all the points of the map are equally probable, this probability (flat prior) is expressed via the Boltzman entropy of the distribution. This method has been used for the reconstruction of charge densities from X-ray data, for maps of nuclear densities from unpolarized neutron data as well as for distributions of spin density. The density maps obtained by this method, as compared to those resulting from the usual inverse Fourier transformation, are tremendously improved. In particular, any substantial deviation from the background is really contained in the data, as it costs entropy compared to a map that would ignore such features. However, in most of the cases, before the measurements are performed, some knowledge exists about the distribution which is investigated. It can range from the simple information of the type of scattering electrons to an elaborate theoretical model. In these cases, the uniform prior which considers all the different pixels as equally likely, is too weak a requirement and has to be replaced. In a rigorous bayesian analysis, Skilling has shown that prior knowledge can be encoded into the Maximum Entropy formalism through a model m(rvec r), via a new definition for the entropy given in this paper. In the absence of any data, the maximum of the entropy functional is reached for ρ(rvec r) = m(rvec r). Any substantial departure from the model, observed in the final map, is really contained in the data as, with the new definition, it costs entropy. This paper presents illustrations of model testing

  7. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μ e ) and chemical hardness (η e ) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μ e . Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (−I), positive (−A), and zero values of the fractional charge (−(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness

  8. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco, E-mail: qimfranco@hotmail.com, E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340 (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Gázquez, José L., E-mail: qimfranco@hotmail.com, E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340 (Mexico); Ayers, Paul W. [Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Vela, Alberto [Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México D. F. 07360 (Mexico)

    2015-10-21

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μ{sub e}) and chemical hardness (η{sub e}) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μ{sub e}. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (−I), positive (−A), and zero values of the fractional charge (−(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.

  9. Blockspin transformations for finite temperature field theories with gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerres, U.

    1996-08-01

    A procedure is proposed to study quantum field theories at zero or at finite temperature by a sequence of real space renormalization group (RG) or blockspin transformations. They transform to effective theories on coarser and coarser lattices. The ultimate aim is to compute constraint effective potentials, i.e. the free energy as a function of suitable order parameters. From the free energy one can read off the thermodynamic behaviour of the theory, in particular the existence and nature of phase transitions. In a finite temperature field theory one begins with either one or a sequence of transformations which transform the original theory into an effective theory on a three-dimensional lattice. Its effective action has temperature dependent coefficients. Thereafter one may proceed with further blockspin transformations of the three-dimensional theory. Assuming a finite volume, this can in principle be continued until one ends with a lattice with a single site. Its effective action is the constraint effective potential. In each RG-step, an integral over the high frequency part of the field, also called the fluctuation field, has to be performed. This is done by perturbation theory. It requires the knowledge of bare fluctuation field propagators and of interpolation operators which enter into the vertices. A detailed examination of these quantities is presented for scalar fields, abelian gauge fields and for Higgs fields, finite temperature is admitted. The lattice perturbation theory is complicated because the bare lattice propagators are complicated. This is due to a partial loss of translation invariance in each step. Therefore the use of translation invariant cutoffs in place of a lattice is also discussed. In case of gauge fields this is only possible as a continuum version of the blockspin method. (orig.)

  10. Excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, M.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental observations of collective excitations of Bose condensed atomic vapours have stimulated interest in the microscopic description of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an external potential. We present a finite temperature field theory for collective excitations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates and use a finite-temperature linear response formalism, which goes beyond the simple mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The effect of the non-condensed thermal atoms we include using perturbation theory in a quasiparticle basis. This presents a simple scheme to understand the interaction between condensate and non-condensed atoms and enables us to include the effect the condensate has on collision dynamics. At first we limit our treatment to the case of a spatially homogeneous Bose gas. We include the effect of pair and triplet anomalous averages and thus obtain a gapless theory for the excitations of a weakly interacting system, which we can link to well known results for Landau and Beliaev damping rates. A gapless theory for trapped systems with a static thermal component follows straightforwardly. We then investigate finite temperature excitations of a condensate in a spherically symmetric harmonic trap. We avoid approximations to the density of states and thus emphasise finite size aspects of the problem. We show that excitations couple strongly to a restricted number of modes, giving rise to resonance structure in their frequency spectra. Where possible we derive energy shifts and lifetimes of excitations. For one particular mode, the breathing mode, the effects of the discreteness of the system are sufficiently pronounced that the simple picture of an energy shift and width fails. Experiments in spherical traps have recently become feasible and should be able to test our detailed quantitative predictions. (author)

  11. Supersymmetric QED at finite temperature and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Unbroken supersymmetric QED is examined at finite temperature and it is shown that the scalar and spinor members of a chiral superfield acquire different temperature-dependent inertial masses. By considering the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor it is also shown that the T-dependent scalar-spinor gravitational masses are also no longer degenerate and, moreover, are different from their T-dependent inertial mass shifts implying a violation of the equivalence principle. The temperature-dependent corrections to the spinor (g-2) are also calculated and found not to vanish

  12. Small velocity and finite temperature variations in kinetic relaxation models

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter; Jü ngel, Ansgar; Aoki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    A small Knuden number analysis of a kinetic equation in the diffusive scaling is performed. The collision kernel is of BGK type with a general local Gibbs state. Assuming that the flow velocity is of the order of the Knudsen number, a Hilbert expansion yields a macroscopic model with finite temperature variations, whose complexity lies in between the hydrodynamic and the energy-transport equations. Its mathematical structure is explored and macroscopic models for specific examples of the global Gibbs state are presented. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  13. Analytic structure of ρ meson propagator at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Sarkar, Sourav; Mallik, S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the structure of one-loop self-energy graphs for the ρ meson in real time formulation of finite temperature field theory. We find the discontinuities of these graphs across the unitary and the Landau cuts. These contributions are identified with different sources of medium modification discussed in the literature. We also calculate numerically the imaginary and the real parts of the self-energies and construct the spectral function of the ρ meson, which are compared with an earlier determination. A significant contribution arises from the unitary cut of the πω loop, that was ignored so far in the literature. (orig.)

  14. Baryon number dissipation at finite temperature in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.; Raby, S.; Starkman, G.

    1990-01-01

    We analyze the phenomenon of baryon number violation at finite temperature in the standard model, and derive the relaxation rate for the baryon density in the high temperature electroweak plasma. The relaxation rate, γ is given in terms of real time correlation functions of the operator E·B, and is directly proportional to the sphaleron transition rate, Γ: γ preceq n f Γ/T 3 . Hence it is not instanton suppressed, as claimed by Cohen, Dugan and Manohar (CDM). We show explicitly how this result is consistent with the methods of CDM, once it is recognized that a new anomalous commutator is required in their approach. 19 refs., 2 figs

  15. Topological terms induced by finite temperature and density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)

    1986-01-01

    In (3+1)-dimensional finite-temperature and -density SU(2) gauge theories with left-handed fermions, the three-dimensional Chern-Simons term (topological mass) can be induced by radiative corrections. This result is derived by use of a family's index theorem which also implies that in many other quantum field theories various additional lower-dimensional topological terms can be induced. In the high-temperature limit these terms dominate the partition function, which suggests applications to early-Universe cosmology

  16. A Generalized Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.

    2006-01-01

    We show how a generalized time-dependent harmonic oscillator (GTHO) is extended to a finite temperature case by using thermo field dynamics (TFD). We derive the general time-dependent annihilation and creation operators for the system, and obtain the time-dependent quasiparticle annihilation and creation operators for the GTHO by using the temperature-dependent Bogoliubov transformation of TFD. We also obtain the thermal state as a two-mode squeezed vacuum state in the time-dependent case as well as in the time-independent case. The general formula is derived to calculate the thermal expectation value of operators

  17. A first-principles approach to finite temperature elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Zhang, H; Manga, V R; Shang, S L; Chen, L-Q; Liu, Z-K [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-06-09

    A first-principles approach to calculating the elastic stiffness coefficients at finite temperatures was proposed. It is based on the assumption that the temperature dependence of elastic stiffness coefficients mainly results from volume change as a function of temperature; it combines the first-principles calculations of elastic constants at 0 K and the first-principles phonon theory of thermal expansion. Its applications to elastic constants of Al, Cu, Ni, Mo, Ta, NiAl, and Ni{sub 3}Al from 0 K up to their respective melting points show excellent agreement between the predicted values and existing experimental measurements.

  18. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldsiefen, Tim

    2012-10-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to

  19. Critical acceleration of finite temperature SU(2) gauge simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Av, R.; Marcu, M.; Hamburg Univ.; Solomon, S.

    1991-04-01

    We present a cluster algorithm that strongly reduces critical slowing down for the SU(2) gauge theory on one time slice. The idea that underlies the new algorithm is to perform efficient flips for the signs of Polyakov loops. Ergodicity is ensured by combining it with a standard local algorithm. We show how to quantify critical slowing down for such a mixed algorithm. At the finite temperature transition, the dynamical critical exponent z is ≅0.5, whereas for the purely local algoirthm z ≅ 2. (orig.)

  20. Finite temperature CPN-1 model and long range Neel order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Hisashi.

    1989-09-01

    We study in d space-dimensions the finite temperature behavior of long range Neel order (LRNO) in CP N-1 model as a low energy effective field theory of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. For d≤1, or d≤2 at any nonzero temperature, LRNO disappears, in agreement with Mermin-Wagner-Coleman's theorem. For d=3 in the weak coupling region, LRNO exists below the critical temperature T N (Neel temperature). T N decreases as the interlayer coupling becomes relatively weak compared with that within Cu-O layers. (author)

  1. A first-principles approach to finite temperature elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Zhang, H; Manga, V R; Shang, S L; Chen, L-Q; Liu, Z-K

    2010-01-01

    A first-principles approach to calculating the elastic stiffness coefficients at finite temperatures was proposed. It is based on the assumption that the temperature dependence of elastic stiffness coefficients mainly results from volume change as a function of temperature; it combines the first-principles calculations of elastic constants at 0 K and the first-principles phonon theory of thermal expansion. Its applications to elastic constants of Al, Cu, Ni, Mo, Ta, NiAl, and Ni 3 Al from 0 K up to their respective melting points show excellent agreement between the predicted values and existing experimental measurements.

  2. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldsiefen, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to iteratively construct

  3. Correlator of nucleon currents in finite temperature pion gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletsky, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    A retarded correlator of two currents with nucleon quantum numbers is calculated for finite temperature T π in the chiral limit. It is shown that for euclidean momenta the leading one-loop corrections arise from direct interaction of thermal pions with the currents. A dispersive representation for the correlator shows that this interaction smears the nucleon pole over a frequency interval with width ≅ T. This interaction does not change the exponential fall-off of the correlator in euclidean space but gives an O(T 2 /F 2 π ) contribution to the pre-exponential factor. (orig.)

  4. Nielsen's identity and gluon condensation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalozub, V.V.

    1992-11-01

    The gauge dependence problem of the gluon field zero component condensate, A 0 =const, is investigated in finite temperature SU(3) gluodynamics. The two-loop effective action W(A 0 ,ξ) is recalculated in the background R ξ gauge. The obtained result somewhat differs from that of other authors. By straightforward calculation it is shown that W(A 0 ,ξ) satisfies the Nielsen (the Ward type) identity. Thus, the gauge invariance of the gluon condensation phenomenon is proved. (author). 14 refs

  5. On the fate of the Standard Model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' ,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Lecce,via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Urbano, Alfredo [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies,via Bonomea 256, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-05-10

    In this paper we revisit and update the computation of thermal corrections to the stability of the electroweak vacuum in the Standard Model. At zero temperature, we make use of the full two-loop effective potential, improved by three-loop beta functions with two-loop matching conditions. At finite temperature, we include one-loop thermal corrections together with resummation of daisy diagrams. We solve numerically — both at zero and finite temperature — the bounce equation, thus providing an accurate description of the thermal tunneling. Assuming a maximum temperature in the early Universe of the order of 10{sup 18} GeV, we find that the instability bound excludes values of the top mass M{sub t}≳173.6 GeV, with M{sub h}≃125 GeV and including uncertainties on the strong coupling. We discuss the validity and temperature-dependence of this bound in the early Universe, with a special focus on the reheating phase after inflation.

  6. Quarkonium at finite temperature: towards realistic phenomenology from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnier, Yannis [Institute of Theoretical Physics, EPFL,CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kaczmarek, Olaf [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld,D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Rothkopf, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg University,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-12-16

    We present the finite temperature spectra of both bottomonium and charmonium, obtained from a consistent lattice QCD based potential picture. Starting point is the complex in-medium potential extracted on full QCD lattices with dynamical u,d and s quarks, generated by the HotQCD collaboration. Using the generalized Gauss law approach, vetted in a previous study on quenched QCD, we fit Re[V] with a single temperature dependent parameter m{sub D}, the Debye screening mass, and confirm the up to now tentative values of Im[V]. The obtained analytic expression for the complex potential allows us to compute quarkonium spectral functions by solving an appropriate Schrödinger equation. These spectra exhibit thermal widths, which are free from the resolution artifacts that plague direct reconstructions from Euclidean correlators using Bayesian methods. In the present adiabatic setting, we find clear evidence for sequential melting and derive melting temperatures for the different bound states. Quarkonium is gradually weakened by both screening (Re[V]) and scattering (Im[V]) effects that in combination lead to a shift of their in-medium spectral features to smaller frequencies, contrary to the mass gain of elementary particles at finite temperature.

  7. Fermionic halos at finite temperature in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos R.; Grandi, Nicolás E.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the gravitational backreaction of a system consisting in a very large number of elementary fermions at finite temperature, in asymptotically AdS space. We work in the hydrodynamic approximation, and solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations with a perfect fluid whose equation of state takes into account both the relativistic effects of the fermionic constituents, as well as its finite temperature effects. We find a novel dense core-diluted halo structure for the density profiles in the AdS bulk, similarly as recently reported in flat space, for the case of astrophysical dark matter halos in galaxies. We further study the critical equilibrium configurations above which the core undergoes gravitational collapse towards a massive black hole, and calculate the corresponding critical central temperatures, for two qualitatively different central regimes of the fermions: the diluted-Fermi case, and the degenerate case. As a probe for the dual CFT, we construct the holographic two-point correlator of a scalar operator with large conformal dimension in the worldline limit, and briefly discuss on the boundary CFT effects at the critical points.

  8. Spotlighting quantum critical points via quantum correlations at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werlang, T.; Ribeiro, G. A. P.; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the program initiated by T. Werlang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 095702 (2010)] in several directions. Firstly, we investigate how useful quantum correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord, are in the detection of critical points of quantum phase transitions when the system is at finite temperatures. For that purpose we study several thermalized spin models in the thermodynamic limit, namely, the XXZ model, the XY model, and the Ising model, all of which with an external magnetic field. We compare the ability of quantum discord, entanglement, and some thermodynamic quantities to spotlight the quantum critical points for several different temperatures. Secondly, for some models we go beyond nearest neighbors and also study the behavior of entanglement and quantum discord for second nearest neighbors around the critical point at finite temperature. Finally, we furnish a more quantitative description of how good all these quantities are in spotlighting critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite T, bridging the gap between experimental data and those theoretical descriptions solely based on the unattainable absolute zero assumption.

  9. Perturbative algebraic quantum field theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Falk

    2013-08-15

    We present the algebraic approach to perturbative quantum field theory for the real scalar field in Minkowski spacetime. In this work we put a special emphasis on the inherent state-independence of the framework and provide a detailed analysis of the state space. The dynamics of the interacting system is constructed in a novel way by virtue of the time-slice axiom in causal perturbation theory. This method sheds new light in the connection between quantum statistical dynamics and perturbative quantum field theory. In particular it allows the explicit construction of the KMS and vacuum state for the interacting, massive Klein-Gordon field which implies the absence of infrared divergences of the interacting theory at finite temperature, in particular for the interacting Wightman and time-ordered functions.

  10. Two aspects of the quantum chromodynamics' transition at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns two aspects of the relation between chiral symmetry breaking and confinement. The first aspect is the relations between different topological objects. The relation between monopoles and center vortices and the relation between instantons and monopoles are well established, in this thesis, we explore the relation between instantons (of finite temperature, called calorons) and center vortices in SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theory in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4, respectively. The second aspect is about the order parameters. The dual condensate introduced by E. Bilgici et al. is a novel observable that relates the order parameter of chiral symmetry breaking (chiral condensate) and confinement (Polyakov loop). In this thesis, we investigate the dual condensate on dynamical staggered fermions and explore a new dual operator: the dual quark density in Chapter 5.

  11. Lattice QCD at finite temperature and density from Taylor expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In the first part, I present an overview of recent Lattice QCD simulations at finite temperature and density. In particular, we discuss fluctuations of conserved charges: baryon number, electric charge and strangeness. These can be obtained from Taylor expanding the QCD pressure as a function of corresponding chemical potentials. Our simulations were performed using quark masses corresponding to physical pion mass of about 140 MeV and allow a direct comparison to experimental data from ultra-relativistic heavy ion beams at hadron colliders such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In the second part, we discuss computational challenges for current and future exascale Lattice simulations with a focus on new silicon developments from Intel and NVIDIA.

  12. Numerical renormalization group method for entanglement negativity at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jeongmin; Sim, H.-S.; Lee, Seung-Sup B.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a numerical method to compute the negativity, an entanglement measure for mixed states, between the impurity and the bath in quantum impurity systems at finite temperature. We construct a thermal density matrix by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG), and evaluate the negativity by implementing the NRG approximation that reduces computational cost exponentially. We apply the method to the single-impurity Kondo model and the single-impurity Anderson model. In the Kondo model, the negativity exhibits a power-law scaling at temperature much lower than the Kondo temperature and a sudden death at high temperature. In the Anderson model, the charge fluctuation of the impurity contributes to the negativity even at zero temperature when the on-site Coulomb repulsion of the impurity is finite, while at low temperature the negativity between the impurity spin and the bath exhibits the same power-law scaling behavior as in the Kondo model.

  13. Goldstone fermions in supersymmetric theories at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, H.; Boyanovsky, D.

    1984-01-01

    The behavior of supersymmetric theories at finite temperature is examined. It is shown that supersymmetry is broken for any T> or =0 because of the different statistics obeyed by bosons and fermions. This breaking is always associated with a Goldstone mode(s). This phenomenon is shown to take place even in a free massive theory, where the Goldstone modes are created by composite fermion-boson bilinear operators. In the interacting theory with chiral symmetry, the same bilinear operators create the chiral doublet of Goldstone fermions, which is shown to saturate the Ward-Takahashi identities up to one loop. Because of this spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, the fermions and the bosons acquire different effective masses. In theories without chiral symmetry, at the tree level the fermion-boson bilinear operators create Goldstone modes, but at higher orders these modes become massive and the elementary fermion becomes the Goldstone field because of the mixing with these bilinear operators

  14. 1/Nc expansion of the quark condensate at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, D.; Kalinovsky, Y.L.; Roepke, G.; Schmidt, S.; Volkov, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Previously the quark and meson properties in a many quark system at finite temperature have been studied within effective QCD approaches in the Hartree approximation. In the present paper we consider the influence of the mesonic correlations on the quark self-energy and on the quark propagator within a systematic 1/N c expansion. Using a general separable ansatz for the nonlocal interaction, we derive a self-consistent equation for the 1/N c correction to the quark propagator. For a separable model with cutoff form factor, we obtain a decrease of the condensate of the order of 20% at zero temperature. A lowering of the critical temperature for the onset of the chiral restoration transition due to the inclusion of mesonic correlations is obtained with results that seem to be closer to those from lattice calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Analytic properties of finite-temperature self-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, H. Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The analytic properties in the energy variable k 0 of finite-temperature self-energies are investigated. A typical branch cut results from n particles being emitted into the heat bath and n ' being absorbed from the heat bath. There are three main results: First, in addition to the branch points at which the cuts terminate, there are also branch points attached to the cuts along their length. Second, branch points at k 0 =±k are ubiquitous and for massive particles they are essential singularities. Third, in a perturbative expansion using free particle propagators or in a resummed expansion in which the propagator pole occurs at a real energy, the self-energy will have a branch point at the pole location

  16. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  17. Gravitational collapse of a magnetized fermion gas with finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Gaspar, I. [Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia (IGA), La Habana (Cuba); Perez Martinez, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Sussman, Roberto A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico); Ulacia Rey, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    We examine the dynamics of a self-gravitating magnetized fermion gas at finite temperature near the collapsing singularity of a Bianchi-I spacetime. Considering a general set of appropriate and physically motivated initial conditions, we transform Einstein-Maxwell field equations into a complete and self-consistent dynamical system amenable for numerical work. The resulting numerical solutions reveal the gas collapsing into both, isotropic (''point-like'') and anisotropic (''cigar-like''), singularities, depending on the initial intensity of the magnetic field. We provide a thorough study of the near collapse behavior and interplay of all relevant state and kinematic variables: temperature, expansion scalar, shear scalar, magnetic field, magnetization, and energy density. A significant qualitative difference in the behavior of the gas emerges in the temperature range T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -6} and T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -3}. (orig.)

  18. Finite temperature effects on monopole and dipole excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Y F; Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Meng, J

    2011-01-01

    The relativistic random phase approximation based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings has been extended to finite temperature and employed in studies of multipole excitations within the temperature range T = 1 - 2 MeV. The model calculations showed that isoscalar giant monopole and isovector giant dipole resonances are only slightly modified with temperature, but additional transition strength appears at low energies because of thermal unblocking of single-particle orbitals close to the Fermi level. The analysis of low-lying states shows that isoscalar monopole response in 132 Sn results from single particle transitions, while the isovector dipole strength for 60 Ni, located around 10 MeV, is composed of several single particle transitions, accumulating a small degree of collectivity.

  19. Repulsive Casimir force at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2009-01-01

    We study the zero and finite temperature Casimir force acting on a perfectly conducting piston with arbitrary cross section moving inside a closed cylinder with infinitely permeable walls. We show that at any temperature, the Casimir force always tends to move the piston away from the walls and toward its equilibrium position. In the case of a rectangular piston, exact expressions for the Casimir force are derived. In the high-temperature regime, we show that the leading term of the Casimir force is linear in temperature and therefore the Casimir force has a classical limit. Due to duality, all these results also hold for an infinitely permeable piston moving inside a closed cylinder with perfectly conducting walls.

  20. Kinetic Energy of a Trapped Fermi Gas at Finite Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grela, Jacek; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2017-09-01

    We study the statistics of the kinetic (or, equivalently, potential) energy for N noninteracting fermions in a 1 d harmonic trap of frequency ω at finite temperature T . Remarkably, we find an exact solution for the full distribution of the kinetic energy, at any temperature T and for any N , using a nontrivial mapping to an integrable Calogero-Moser-Sutherland model. As a function of temperature T and for large N , we identify (i) a quantum regime, for T ˜ℏω , where quantum fluctuations dominate and (ii) a thermal regime, for T ˜N ℏω , governed by thermal fluctuations. We show how the mean and the variance as well as the large deviation function associated with the distribution of the kinetic energy cross over from the quantum to the thermal regime as T increases.

  1. Topological order, entanglement, and quantum memory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazáč, Dalimil; Hamma, Alioscia

    2012-01-01

    We compute the topological entropy of the toric code models in arbitrary dimension at finite temperature. We find that the critical temperatures for the existence of full quantum (classical) topological entropy correspond to the confinement–deconfinement transitions in the corresponding Z 2 gauge theories. This implies that the thermal stability of topological entropy corresponds to the stability of quantum (classical) memory. The implications for the understanding of ergodicity breaking in topological phases are discussed. - Highlights: ► We calculate the topological entropy of a general toric code in any dimension. ► We find phase transitions in the topological entropy. ► The phase transitions coincide with the appearance of quantum/classical memory.

  2. Perturbative algebraic quantum field theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Falk

    2013-08-01

    We present the algebraic approach to perturbative quantum field theory for the real scalar field in Minkowski spacetime. In this work we put a special emphasis on the inherent state-independence of the framework and provide a detailed analysis of the state space. The dynamics of the interacting system is constructed in a novel way by virtue of the time-slice axiom in causal perturbation theory. This method sheds new light in the connection between quantum statistical dynamics and perturbative quantum field theory. In particular it allows the explicit construction of the KMS and vacuum state for the interacting, massive Klein-Gordon field which implies the absence of infrared divergences of the interacting theory at finite temperature, in particular for the interacting Wightman and time-ordered functions.

  3. Fragmentation of giant dipole resonance at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the main part of a width of a collective giant resonance built on the ground state in heavy nuclei is due to coupling of one-phonon vibrational states with more complex ones like two phonon or two-particle - two-hole. So it seems natural that the same idea was also explored in studying of the formation and dependence on temperature of a width of giant resonances built on a compound nuclear state. The first microscopic calculations of a giant dipole resonance width at finite temperature have demonstrated its weak dependence on T whereas the experimental width Γ exp strongly increases up to T≤3 MeV. The observed thermal behaviour of Γ exp was attributed mainly to thermal fluctuations of a nuclear shape at finite T . However, further theoretical studies of the problem have shown a strengthening of the GDR spreading with T. We calculate a fragmentation of the giant dipole resonance in hot spherical nuclei within the approach based on the quasiparticle-phonon model extended to finite temperature in with the formalism of thermofield dynamics. The fragmentation of collective giant dipole vibrations at finite T is due to the coupling with 'two-thermal phonon' configurations. The energies and structures of thermal phonon states are calculated from the thermal RPA temperature dependence of the variance σ th of a theoretical E1 strength function and the experimental GDR width Γ exp in 120 Sn. The coupling of thermal phonons is determined by their fermionic structure. The variance σ th of the E1 strength function is found continuously increasing with temperature. The main reason of this behavior is the coupling of the dipole phonons with very low-lying particle-particle (hole-hole) thermal phonons. These phonons are noncollective ones and they appear only at T≠0. The calculated T dependence of σ th is quite similar to that of the experimental width Γ exp in 120 Sn and 208 Pb

  4. Orbital magnetism in ensembles of ballistic billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmo, D.; Richter, K.; Jalabert, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic response of ensembles of small two-dimensional structures at finite temperatures is calculated. Using semiclassical methods and numerical calculation it is demonstrated that only short classical trajectories are relevant. The magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in regular systems, where these trajectories appear in families. For ensembles of squares large paramagnetic susceptibility is obtained, in good agreement with recent measurements in the ballistic regime. (authors). 20 refs., 2 figs

  5. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský , Luká š; Kucková , Lenka; Malček, Michal; Koží šek, Jozef; Biskupič, Stanislav; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Arion, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Dyson-Schwinger approach to finite temperature QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Jens Andreas

    2011-10-26

    The different phases of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature are studied. To this end the nonperturbative quark propagator in Matsubara formalism is determined from its equation of motion, the Dyson-Schwinger equation. A novel truncation scheme is introduced including the nonperturbative, temperature dependent gluon propagator as extracted from lattice gauge theory. In the first part of the thesis a deconfinement order parameter, the dual condensate, and the critical temperature are determined from the dependence of the quark propagator on the temporal boundary conditions. The chiral transition is investigated by means of the quark condensate as order parameter. In addition differences in the chiral and deconfinement transition between gauge groups SU(2) and SU(3) are explored. In the following the quenched quark propagator is studied with respect to a possible spectral representation at finite temperature. In doing so, the quark propagator turns out to possess different analytic properties below and above the deconfinement transition. This result motivates the consideration of an alternative deconfinement order parameter signaling positivity violations of the spectral function. A criterion for positivity violations of the spectral function based on the curvature of the Schwinger function is derived. Using a variety of ansaetze for the spectral function, the possible quasi-particle spectrum is analyzed, in particular its quark mass and momentum dependence. The results motivate a more direct determination of the spectral function in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. In the two subsequent chapters extensions of the truncation scheme are considered. The influence of dynamical quark degrees of freedom on the chiral and deconfinement transition is investigated. This serves as a first step towards a complete self-consistent consideration of dynamical quarks and the extension to finite chemical potential. The goodness of the truncation is verified first

  8. A Dyson-Schwinger approach to finite temperature QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Jens Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The different phases of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature are studied. To this end the nonperturbative quark propagator in Matsubara formalism is determined from its equation of motion, the Dyson-Schwinger equation. A novel truncation scheme is introduced including the nonperturbative, temperature dependent gluon propagator as extracted from lattice gauge theory. In the first part of the thesis a deconfinement order parameter, the dual condensate, and the critical temperature are determined from the dependence of the quark propagator on the temporal boundary conditions. The chiral transition is investigated by means of the quark condensate as order parameter. In addition differences in the chiral and deconfinement transition between gauge groups SU(2) and SU(3) are explored. In the following the quenched quark propagator is studied with respect to a possible spectral representation at finite temperature. In doing so, the quark propagator turns out to possess different analytic properties below and above the deconfinement transition. This result motivates the consideration of an alternative deconfinement order parameter signaling positivity violations of the spectral function. A criterion for positivity violations of the spectral function based on the curvature of the Schwinger function is derived. Using a variety of ansaetze for the spectral function, the possible quasi-particle spectrum is analyzed, in particular its quark mass and momentum dependence. The results motivate a more direct determination of the spectral function in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. In the two subsequent chapters extensions of the truncation scheme are considered. The influence of dynamical quark degrees of freedom on the chiral and deconfinement transition is investigated. This serves as a first step towards a complete self-consistent consideration of dynamical quarks and the extension to finite chemical potential. The goodness of the truncation is verified first

  9. Glass transition in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.; Nad, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of low frequency dielectric measurements and a detailed kinetic investigation of the specific heat anomaly in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)(2)PF6 in the temperature range between 2 and 4 K. The dielectric relaxation shows a critical slowing down towards a ''static'......'' glass transition around 2 K. The jump in the specific heat in different controlled kinetic conditions shows all the characteristics of freezing in supercooled liquids. Both effects give direct evidence of a glass transition in the spin-density wave ground state....

  10. Complex saddle points in QCD at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiromichi; Ogilvie, Michael C.; Pangeni, Kamal

    2014-08-01

    The sign problem in QCD at finite temperature and density leads naturally to the consideration of complex saddle points of the action or effective action. The global symmetry CK of the finite-density action, where C is charge conjugation and K is complex conjugation, constrains the eigenvalues of the Polyakov loop operator P at a saddle point in such a way that the action is real at a saddle point, and net color charge is zero. The values of TrFP and TrFP† at the saddle point are real but not identical, indicating the different free energy cost associated with inserting a heavy quark versus an antiquark into the system. At such complex saddle points, the mass matrix associated with Polyakov loops may have complex eigenvalues, reflecting oscillatory behavior in color-charge densities. We illustrate these properties with a simple model which includes the one-loop contribution of gluons and two flavors of massless quarks moving in a constant Polyakov loop background. Confinement-deconfinement effects are modeled phenomenologically via an added potential term depending on the Polyakov loop eigenvalues. For sufficiently large temperature T and quark chemical potential μ, the results obtained reduce to those of perturbation theory at the complex saddle point. These results may be experimentally relevant for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at FAIR.

  11. Finite-temperature dynamics of the Mott insulating Hubbard chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Alberto; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Feiguin, Adrian E.

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamical response of the half-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model for a range of interaction strengths U and temperatures T by a combination of numerical and analytical techniques. Using time-dependent density matrix renormalization group computations we find that the single-particle spectral function undergoes a crossover to a spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid regime at temperatures T ˜J =4 t2/U for sufficiently large U >4 t . At smaller values of U and elevated temperatures the spectral function is found to exhibit two thermally broadened bands of excitations, reminiscent of what is found in the Hubbard-I approximation. The dynamical density-density response function is shown to exhibit a finite-temperature resonance at low frequencies inside the Mott gap, with a physical origin similar to the Villain mode in gapped quantum spin chains. We complement our numerical computations by developing an analytic strong-coupling approach to the low-temperature dynamics in the spin-incoherent regime.

  12. Dynamical renormalization group resummation of finite temperature infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de; Boyanovsky, D.; Simionato, M.; Holman, R.; Simionato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce the method of dynamical renormalization group to study relaxation and damping out of equilibrium directly in real time and apply it to the study of infrared divergences in scalar QED. This method allows a consistent resummation of infrared effects associated with the exchange of quasistatic transverse photons and leads to anomalous logarithmic relaxation of the form e -αampersandhthinsp;Tampersandhthinsp;tampersandhthinsp;ln[t/t 0 ] for hard momentum charged excitations. This is in contrast with the usual quasiparticle interpretation of charged collective excitations at finite temperature in the sense of exponential relaxation of a narrow width resonance for which the width is the imaginary part of the self-energy on shell. In the case of narrow resonances away from thresholds, this approach leads to the usual exponential relaxation. The hard thermal loop resummation program is incorporated consistently into the dynamical renormalization group yielding a picture of relaxation and damping phenomena in a plasma in real time that transcends the conceptual limitations of the quasiparticle picture and other types of resummation schemes. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Nanoscale dislocation shear loops at static equilibrium and finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khanh; Capolungo, Laurent; Spearot, Douglas E.

    2017-12-01

    Atomistic simulations are used to determine the resolved shear stress necessary for equilibrium and the resulting geometry of nanoscale dislocation shear loops in Al. Dislocation loops with different sizes and shapes are created via superposition of elemental triangular dislocation displacement fields in the presence of an externally imposed shear stress. First, a bisection algorithm is developed to determine systematically the resolved shear stress necessary for equilibrium at 0 K. This approach allows for the identification of dislocation core structure and a correlation between dislocation loop size, shape and the computed shear stress for equilibrium. It is found, in agreement with predictions made by Scattergood and Bacon, that the equilibrium shape of a dislocation loop becomes more circular with increasing loop size. Second, the bisection algorithm is extended to study the influence of temperature on the resolved shear stress necessary for stability. An approach is presented to compute the effective lattice friction stress, including temperature dependence, for dislocation loops in Al. The temperature dependence of the effective lattice friction stress can be reliably computed for dislocation loops larger than 16.2 nm. However, for dislocation loops smaller than this threshold, the effective lattice friction stress shows a dislocation loop size dependence caused by significant overlap of the stress fields on the interior of the dislocation loops. Combined, static and finite temperature atomistic simulations provide essential data to parameterize discrete dislocation dynamics simulations.

  14. PT Symmetry and QCD: Finite Temperature and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Ogilvie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of PT symmetry to quantum chromodynamics (QCD, the gauge theory of the strong interactions, is explored in the context of finite temperature and density. Two significant problems in QCD are studied: the sign problem of finite-density QCD, and the problem of confinement. It is proven that the effective action for heavy quarks at finite density is PT-symmetric. For the case of 1+1 dimensions, the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian, although not Hermitian, has real eigenvalues for a range of values of the chemical potential μ, solving the sign problem for this model. The effective action for heavy quarks is part of a potentially large class of generalized sine-Gordon models which are non-Hermitian but are PT-symmetric. Generalized sine-Gordon models also occur naturally in gauge theories in which magnetic monopoles lead to confinement. We explore gauge theories where monopoles cause confinement at arbitrarily high temperatures. Several different classes of monopole gases exist, with each class leading to different string tension scaling laws. For one class of monopole gas models, the PT-symmetric affine Toda field theory emerges naturally as the effective theory. This in turn leads to sine-law scaling for string tensions, a behavior consistent with lattice simulations.

  15. Ferroelectricity Induced by Acentric Spin-Density Waves in YMn2O5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Blake, G.R.; Park, S.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2006-01-01

    The commensurate and incommensurate magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric system YMn2O5, as determined from neutron diffraction, were found to be spin-density waves lacking a global center of symmetry. We propose a model, based on a simple magnetoelastic coupling to the lattice, which enables

  16. Spin density measurement of water-bridged Co-dimer using polarized neutrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard-Møller, Emil; Overgaard, Jacob; Chilton, Nick

    present an experimentally determined spin density using polarized neutron diffraction in a simple water-bridged cobalt dimer [Co2(H2O)(piv)4(Hpiv)2(py)2] which is known to have a small ferromagnetic coupling between the spin centers. Visualizing the SDD could get us one step further in understanding...

  17. Are radiative corrections to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein formula affected by finite temperature and density?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, R.

    1993-01-01

    One-loop photonic corrections to the electron-neutrino (ν e ) charged-current medium induced self-energy are examined using finite temperature field theory. It is shown that irrespective of computing radiative corrections at finite temperature and density, there are no O(α) corrections to the charged-current contribution of the ν e 's dispersion relation

  18. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Its Restoration at Finite Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu

    2008-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry for the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model is investigated. The gauge symmetry behavior at finite temperature is also investigated and it is shown that the gauge symmetry broken dynamically at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperatures

  19. Relation between Euclidean and real time calculations of Green functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, A.

    1993-01-01

    We find a relation between the semiclassical approximation of the temperature (Matsubara) two-point correlator and the corresponding classical Green function in real time at finite temperature. The anharmonic oscillator at finite temperature is used to illustrate our statement, which is however of rather general origin

  20. The finite-temperature Gaussian effective potential from a variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugerud, H.; Ravndal, F.

    1990-08-01

    Writing the partition function for a scalar quantum field theory as a functional integral, it follows that the finite-temperature Gaussian effective potential is an upper limit to the free energy of the system. Explicit results are given for the anharmonic oscillator at finite temperature. 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. Finite-temperature models of Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proukakis, Nick P; Jackson, Brian [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Nikolaos.Proukakis@ncl.ac.uk

    2008-10-28

    The theoretical description of trapped weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates is characterized by a large number of seemingly very different approaches which have been developed over the course of time by researchers with very distinct backgrounds. Newcomers to this field, experimentalists and young researchers all face a considerable challenge in navigating through the 'maze' of abundant theoretical models, and simple correspondences between existing approaches are not always very transparent. This tutorial provides a generic introduction to such theories, in an attempt to single out common features and deficiencies of certain 'classes of approaches' identified by their physical content, rather than their particular mathematical implementation. This tutorial is structured in a manner accessible to a non-specialist with a good working knowledge of quantum mechanics. Although some familiarity with concepts of quantum field theory would be an advantage, key notions, such as the occupation number representation of second quantization, are nonetheless briefly reviewed. Following a general introduction, the complexity of models is gradually built up, starting from the basic zero-temperature formalism of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. This structure enables readers to probe different levels of theoretical developments (mean field, number conserving and stochastic) according to their particular needs. In addition to its 'training element', we hope that this tutorial will prove useful to active researchers in this field, both in terms of the correspondences made between different theoretical models, and as a source of reference for existing and developing finite-temperature theoretical models. (phd tutorial)

  2. Accuracy of the microcanonical Lanczos method to compute real-frequency dynamical spectral functions of quantum models at finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Dagotto, Elbio; Tohyama, Takami

    2018-04-01

    We examine the accuracy of the microcanonical Lanczos method (MCLM) developed by Long et al. [Phys. Rev. B 68, 235106 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.235106] to compute dynamical spectral functions of interacting quantum models at finite temperatures. The MCLM is based on the microcanonical ensemble, which becomes exact in the thermodynamic limit. To apply the microcanonical ensemble at a fixed temperature, one has to find energy eigenstates with the energy eigenvalue corresponding to the internal energy in the canonical ensemble. Here, we propose to use thermal pure quantum state methods by Sugiura and Shimizu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 010401 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.010401] to obtain the internal energy. After obtaining the energy eigenstates using the Lanczos diagonalization method, dynamical quantities are computed via a continued fraction expansion, a standard procedure for Lanczos-based numerical methods. Using one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with S =1 /2 , we demonstrate that the proposed procedure is reasonably accurate, even for relatively small systems.

  3. Accuracy of the microcanonical Lanczos method to compute real-frequency dynamical spectral functions of quantum models at finite temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Dagotto, Elbio; Tohyama, Takami

    2018-04-01

    We examine the accuracy of the microcanonical Lanczos method (MCLM) developed by Long et al. [Phys. Rev. B 68, 235106 (2003)PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.68.235106] to compute dynamical spectral functions of interacting quantum models at finite temperatures. The MCLM is based on the microcanonical ensemble, which becomes exact in the thermodynamic limit. To apply the microcanonical ensemble at a fixed temperature, one has to find energy eigenstates with the energy eigenvalue corresponding to the internal energy in the canonical ensemble. Here, we propose to use thermal pure quantum state methods by Sugiura and Shimizu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 010401 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.111.010401] to obtain the internal energy. After obtaining the energy eigenstates using the Lanczos diagonalization method, dynamical quantities are computed via a continued fraction expansion, a standard procedure for Lanczos-based numerical methods. Using one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with S=1/2, we demonstrate that the proposed procedure is reasonably accurate, even for relatively small systems.

  4. Lattice QCD at finite temperature with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The subatomic world is governed by the strong interactions of quarks and gluons, described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks experience confinement into colour-less objects, i.e. they can not be observed as free particles. Under extreme conditions such as high temperature or high density, this constraint softens and a transition to a phase where quarks and gluons are quasi-free particles (Quark-Gluon-Plasma) can occur. This environment resembles the conditions prevailing during the early stages of the universe shortly after the Big Bang. The phase diagram of QCD is under investigation in current and future collider experiments, for example at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) or at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Due to the strength of the strong interactions in the energy regime of interest, analytic methods can not be applied rigorously. The only tool to study QCD from first principles is given by simulations of its discretised version, Lattice QCD (LQCD). These simulations are in the high-performance computing area, hence, the numerical aspects of LQCD are a vital part in this field of research. In recent years, Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) have been incorporated in these simulations as they are a standard tool for general purpose calculations today. In the course of this thesis, the LQCD application CL 2 QCD has been developed, which allows for simulations on GPUs as well as on traditional CPUs, as it is based on OpenCL. CL 2 QCD constitutes the first application for Wilson type fermions in OpenCL. It provides excellent performance and has been applied in physics studies presented in this thesis. The investigation of the QCD phase diagram is hampered by the notorious sign-problem, which restricts current simulation algorithms to small values of the chemical potential. Theoretically, studying unphysical parameter ranges allows for constraints on the phase diagram. Of utmost importance is the clarification of the order of the finite

  5. Finite-temperature stress calculations in atomic models using moments of position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Ouyang, Lizhi

    2018-07-01

    Continuum modeling of finite temperature mechanical behavior of atomic systems requires refined description of atomic motions. In this paper, we identify additional kinematical quantities that are relevant for a more accurate continuum description as the system is subjected to step-wise loading. The presented formalism avoids the necessity for atomic trajectory mapping with deformation, provides the definitions of the kinematic variables and their conjugates in real space, and simplifies local work conjugacy. The total work done on an atom under deformation is decomposed into the work corresponding to changing its equilibrium position and work corresponding to changing its second moment about equilibrium position. Correspondingly, we define two kinematic variables: a deformation gradient tensor and a vibration tensor, and derive their stress conjugates, termed here as static and vibration stresses, respectively. The proposed approach is validated using MD simulation in NVT ensembles for fcc aluminum subjected to uniaxial extension. The observed evolution of second moments in the MD simulation with macroscopic deformation is not directly related to the transformation of atomic trajectories through the deformation gradient using generator functions. However, it is noteworthy that deformation leads to a change in the second moment of the trajectories. Correspondingly, the vibration part of the Piola stress becomes particularly significant at high temperature and high tensile strain as the crystal approaches the softening limit. In contrast to the eigenvectors of the deformation gradient, the eigenvectors of the vibration tensor show strong spatial heterogeneity in the vicinity of softening. More importantly, the elliptic distribution of local atomic density transitions to a dumbbell shape, before significant non-affinity in equilibrium positions has occurred.

  6. Critical endline of the finite temperature phase transition for 2+1 flavor QCD away from the SU(3-flavor symmetric point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshifumi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the critical end line of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD away from the SU(3-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively O(a- improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical end line is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multi-parameter, multi-ensemble reweighting method at the temporal size NT = 6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm.

  7. Spin density and orbital optimization in open shell systems: A rational and computationally efficient proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giner, Emmanuel, E-mail: gnrmnl@unife.it; Angeli, Celestino, E-mail: anc@unife.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Famaceutiche, Universita di Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-03-14

    The present work describes a new method to compute accurate spin densities for open shell systems. The proposed approach follows two steps: first, it provides molecular orbitals which correctly take into account the spin delocalization; second, a proper CI treatment allows to account for the spin polarization effect while keeping a restricted formalism and avoiding spin contamination. The main idea of the optimization procedure is based on the orbital relaxation of the various charge transfer determinants responsible for the spin delocalization. The algorithm is tested and compared to other existing methods on a series of organic and inorganic open shell systems. The results reported here show that the new approach (almost black-box) provides accurate spin densities at a reasonable computational cost making it suitable for a systematic study of open shell systems.

  8. Two-magnon Raman scattering in a spin density wave antiferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Friedhelm; Kampf, Arno P.; Mueller-Hartmann, Erwin

    1996-01-01

    We present the results for a model calculation of resonant two-magnon Raman scattering in a spin density wave (SDW) antiferromagnet. The resonant enhancement of the two-magnon intensity is obtained from a microscopic analysis of the photon-magnon coupling vertex. By combining magnon-magnon interactions with `triple resonance` phenomena in the vertex function the resulting intensity line shape is found to closely resemble the measured two-magnon Raman signal in antiferromagnetic cuprates. Both...

  9. Relativistic Random-Phase Approximation with Density-dependent Meson-nucleon Couplings at Finite Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Y.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-01-01

    The fully self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA) framework based on effective interactions with a phenomenological density dependence is extended to finite temperatures. The RRPA configuration space is built from the spectrum of single-nucleon states at finite temperature obtained by the temperature dependent relativistic mean field (RMF-T) theory based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon vertex functions. As an illustration, the dependence of binding energy, radius, entropy and single particle levels on temperature for spherical nucleus 2 08P b is investigated in RMF-T theory. The finite temperature RRPA has been employed in studies of giant monopole and dipole resonances, and the evolution of resonance properties has been studied as a function of temperature. In addition, exotic modes of excitation have been systematically explored at finite temperatures, with an emphasis on the case of pygmy dipole resonances.(author)

  10. Extension of Nelson's stochastic quantization to finite temperature using thermo field dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of Nelson's stochastic quantum mechanics to finite temperature. Utilizing the formulation of Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD), we can show that Ito's stochastic equations for tilde and non-tilde particle positions reproduce the TFD-type Schroedinger equation which is equivalent to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In our formalism, the drift terms in the Ito's stochastic equation have the temperature dependence and the thermal fluctuation is induced through the correlation of the non-tilde and tilde particles. We show that our formalism satisfies the position-momentum uncertainty relation at finite temperature. -- Highlights: → Utilizing TFD, we extend Nelson's stochastic method to finite temperature. → We introduce stochastic equations for tilde and non-tilde particles. → Our stochastic equations can reproduce the TFD-type Schroedinger equation. → Our formalism satisfies the uncertainly relation at finite temperature.

  11. Discontinuities of Green functions in field theory at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobes, R.L.; Semenoff, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    We derive systematic rules for calculating the imaginary parts of Minkowski space Green functions in quantum field theory at finite temperature and density. Self-energy corrections are used as an example of the application of these rules. (orig.)

  12. Spin-Density Functionals from Current-Density Functional Theory and Vice Versa: A Road towards New Approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelle, K.; Gross, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the exchange-correlation functional of spin-density functional theory is identical, on a certain set of densities, with the exchange-correlation functional of current-density functional theory. This rigorous connection is used to construct new approximations of the exchange-correlation functionals. These include a conceptually new generalized-gradient spin-density functional and a nonlocal current-density functional. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction gamma p -> p omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Williams, D. Applegate, M. Bellis, C.A. Meyer

    2009-12-01

    High-statistics differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction gamma p -> p omega have been measured using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass (CM) energies from threshold up to 2.84 GeV. Results are reported in 112 10-MeV wide CM energy bins, each subdivided into cos(theta_CM) bins of width 0.1. These are the most precise and extensive omega photoproduction measurements to date. A number of prominent structures are clearly present in the data. Many of these have not previously been observed due to limited statistics in earlier measurements.

  14. Electronic structure of the Fe2 molecule in the local-spin-density approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, S.; Kestner, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ab initio self-consistent all-electron spin-polarized calculations have been performed for the ground-state properties of the Fe 2 molecule using the local-spin-density approximation. A Gaussian orbital basis is employed and all the two-electron integrals are evaluated analytically. The matrix elements of the exchange-correlation potential are computed numerically. The total energy, the binding energy, the equilibrium distance, vibrational frequency, and the ground-state configurations are reported and compared with other calculations and experimental results

  15. Spin Density Matrix Elements in exclusive production of ω mesons at Hermes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianski B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spin density matrix elements have been determined for exclusive ω meson production on hydrogen and deuterium targets, in the kinematic region of 1.0 < Q2 < 10.0 GeV2, 3.0 < W < 6.3 GeV and –t' < 0.2 GeV2. The data, from which SDMEs are determined, were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer during the running period of 1996 to 2007 using the 27.6 GeV electron or positron beam of HERA. A sizable contribution of unnatural parity exchange amplitudes is found for exclusive ω meson production.

  16. Charge and spin density in s-stable rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, H. de.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study of the electronic structure of rare earth intermetallic compounds, in particular the electronic charge and spin density distribution. These are closely related to the properties of the rare earth ions, which carry the partly filled 4f shell. In chapter 1 a survey of the theory of hyperfine interaction as far as it has a bearing on the Moessbauer effect of 155 Gd and 151 Eu is given. Also some details of the Moessbauer spectra, which have practical importance are discussed. In chapter 2 the experimental set-up is described. Special attention is paid to the gamma radiation source and gamma detection requirements. In chapter 3 the author introduces the theoretical framework which will be used to interpret the measurements. In chapter 4 the results of the 155 Gd Moessbauer measurements are presented. Also it is discussed how the result can be understood in terms of the charge and spin density in rare earth intermetallic compounds. In order to lend support to the picture emerging from the previous chapter, in chapter 5 the conduction electron band structure of some representative Gd intermetallics is computed with an approximate semi-empirical LCAO method. The results are compared with those from chapter 4. Finally, in chapter 6, the 151 Eu resonance is used to investigate the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field and line width in the Eu intermetallic compounds Eu 2 Mg 17 and EuMg 5 . (Auth.)

  17. Charmonium spectrum at finite temperature from a Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Kenji

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Making use of a recently developed method of analyzing QCD sum rules, we investigate charmonium spectral functions at finite temperature. This method employs the Maximum Entropy Method, which makes it possible to directly obtain the spectral function from the sum rules, without having to introduce any strong assumption about its functional form. Finite temperature effects are incorporated into the sum rules by the change of the various gluonic condensates that appear in the operator product expansion. These changes depend on the energy density and pressure at finite temperature, which are extracted from lattice QCD. As a result, J/ψ and ηc dissolve into the continuum already at temperatures around 1.0 ~ 1.1 Tc.

  18. A SIMPLE DERIVATION OF FINITE-TEMPERATURE CFT CORRELATORS FROM THE BTZ BLACK HOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple Lie-algebraic approach to momentum-space two-point functions of two-dimensional conformal field theory at finite temperature dual to the BTZ black hole. Making use of the real-time prescription of AdS/CFT correspondence and ladder equations of the Lie algebra so(2,2 ∼= sl(2,RL⊕sl(2,RR, we show that the finite-temperature two-point functions in momentum space satisfy linear recurrence relations with respect to the left and right momenta. These recurrence relations are exactly solvable and completely determine the momentum-dependence of retarded and advanced two-point functions of finite-temperature conformal field theory.

  19. Finite-temperature phase structure of lattice QCD with Wilson quark action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ukawa, A.; Umemura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The long-standing issue of the nature of the critical line of lattice QCD with the Wilson quark action at finite temperatures, defined to be the line of vanishing pion screening mass, and its relation to the line of finite-temperature chiral transition is examined. Presented are both analytical and numerical evidence that the critical line forms a cusp at a finite gauge coupling, and that the line of chiral transition runs past the tip of the cusp without touching the critical line. Implications on the continuum limit and the flavor dependence of chiral transition are discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Finite-temperature mobility of a particle coupled to a fermionic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castella, H.; Zotos, X.

    1996-01-01

    We study numerically the finite-temperature and frequency mobility of a particle coupled by a local interaction to a system of spinless fermions in one dimension. We find that when the model is integrable (particle mass equal to the mass of fermions) the static mobility diverges. Further, an enhanced mobility is observed over a finite parameter range away from the integrable point. We present an analysis of the finite-temperature static mobility based on a random matrix theory description of the many-body Hamiltonian. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Standard Model Extension and Casimir effect for fermions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.F., E-mail: alesandroferreira@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC (Canada); Khanna, Faqir C., E-mail: khannaf@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, T6J 2J1, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2016-11-10

    Lorentz and CPT symmetries are foundations for important processes in particle physics. Recent studies in Standard Model Extension (SME) at high energy indicate that these symmetries may be violated. Modifications in the lagrangian are necessary to achieve a hermitian hamiltonian. The fermion sector of the standard model extension is used to calculate the effects of the Lorentz and CPT violation on the Casimir effect at zero and finite temperature. The Casimir effect and Stefan–Boltzmann law at finite temperature are calculated using the thermo field dynamics formalism.

  2. Finite-temperature gluon spectral functions from N{sub f} = 2+1+1 lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; Trunin, Anton [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pawlowski, Jan M. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Rothkopf, Alexander [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    We investigate gluon correlation functions and spectral functions at finite temperature in Landau gauge on lattice QCD ensembles with N{sub f} = 2+1+1 dynamical twisted-mass quarks flavors, generated by the tmfT collaboration. They cover a temperature range from 0.8 ≤ T/T{sub C} ≤ 4 using the fixed-scale approach. Our study of spectral properties is based on a novel Bayesian approach for the extraction of non-positive-definite spectral functions. For each binned spatial momentum we take into account the gluon correlation functions at all available discrete imaginary frequencies. Clear indications for the existence of a well defined quasi-particle peak are obtained. Due to a relatively small number of imaginary frequencies available, we focus on the momentum and temperature dependence of the position of this spectral feature. The corresponding dispersion relation reveals different in-medium masses for longitudinal and transversal gluons at high temperatures, qualitatively consistent with weak coupling expectations. (orig.)

  3. The finite temperature density matrix and two-point correlations in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhmann, Frank; Hasenclever, Nils P.; Seel, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    We derive finite temperature versions of integral formulae for the two-point correlation functions in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain. The derivation is based on the summation of density matrix elements characterizing a finite chain segment of length m. On this occasion we also supply a proof of the basic integral formula for the density matrix presented in an earlier publication.

  4. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest ... total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. .... energies are relevant to the finite temperature analysis, we have analysed about 50.

  5. Symmetry restoration in the Georgi-Glashow model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Junior, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Symmetry restoration in the SU(5) model is analysed by means of finite temperature field theory. In our calculations symmetry restoration is due to topological defects which appear thanks to thermodynamical effects. We apply our results in cosmology, in order to explain the primordial inhomogeneity. Our results are compatible with Zeldovich's spectrum. (author) [pt

  6. Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, B. [Government Science College, Malkangiri 764 048 (India)], E-mail: brunda@iopb.res.in; Raj, B.K. [B.J.B. College, Bhubaneswar 751 014 (India); Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, P.G. Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F.M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India)], E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in

    2008-12-01

    We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T{sub c} cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters.

  7. Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, B.; Raj, B.K.; Rout, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T c cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters

  8. Galvanomagnetic properties in the spin-density-wave phase of (TMTSF)2PF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korin-Hamzic, B.; Bechgaard, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the magnetoresistance and the Hall effect in the spin-density-wave (SDW) state of (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 down to 2 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T in order to gain an additional insight into the nature of the possible subphases in the SDW state. We have found that the temperature dependent magnetoresistance anisotropy changes below 4 K; this change being maximal for the current in the lowest conductivity direction. The Hall resistivity has showed different magnetic field dependencies for T>4 K and T<4 K. The resistivity and the Hall resistivity were also investigated as the function of the electric field. The backflow coefficient α does not change below 4 K. (orig.)

  9. Spin-density correlations in the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory: Comparison with polarized neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N.B., E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Reser, B.I., E-mail: reser@imp.uran.ru [Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Paradezhenko, G.V., E-mail: gparadezhenko@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    To study the spin-density correlations in the ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we relate the spin correlator and neutron scattering cross-section. In the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory, we obtain explicit expressions for the effective and local magnetic moments and spatial spin-density correlator. Our theoretical results are demonstrated by the example of bcc Fe. The effective and local moments are found in good agreement with results of polarized neutron scattering experiment over a wide temperature range. The calculated short-range order is small (up to 4 Å) and slowly decreases with temperature.

  10. Mean free path of nucleons in a Fermi gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.T.; Griffin, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The mean free path of a nucleon in a nuclear Fermi gas at finite temperature is calculated by utilizing the free nucleon-nucleon cross section modified to suppress final states excluded by the Pauli principle. The results agree with an earlier zero-temperature calculation but yield substantially smaller values than a previous finite-temperature analysis. The Fermi gas mean free paths are some two to four times shorter than those implied by phenomenological imaginary optical potentials, suggesting that the present Fermi gas model fails to adequately describe the physical processes determining the mean free path. Even so, the present results, taken as lower bounds on te mean free path, require temperatures of some 4.5 MeV before the mean free path of bound nucleons becomes as short as the nuclear diameter. It follows that very high excitation energies are prerequisite to any short mean free path assumption in nuclear heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  11. Population dynamics of excited atoms in non-Markovian environments at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Hong-Mei; Fang Mao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    The population dynamics of a two-atom system, which is in two independent Lorentzian reservoirs or in two independent Ohmic reservoirs respectively, where the reservoirs are at zero temperature or finite temperature, is studied by using the time-convolutionless master-equation method. The influences of the characteristics and temperature of a non-Markovian environment on the population of the excited atoms are analyzed. We find that the population trapping of the excited atoms is related to the characteristics and the temperature of the non-Markovian environment. The results show that, at zero temperature, the two atoms can be effectively trapped in the excited state both in the Lorentzian reservoirs and in the Ohmic reservoirs. At finite temperature, the population of the excited atoms will quickly decay to a nonzero value. (paper)

  12. Quantum dynamics at finite temperature: Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Ivan P., E-mail: ivan.christov@phys.uni-sofia.bg

    2016-08-15

    In this work we investigate the ground state and the dissipative quantum dynamics of interacting charged particles in an external potential at finite temperature. The recently devised time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo (TDQMC) method allows a self-consistent treatment of the system of particles together with bath oscillators first for imaginary-time propagation of Schrödinger type of equations where both the system and the bath converge to their finite temperature ground state, and next for real time calculation where the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated. In that context the application of TDQMC appears as promising alternative to the path-integral related techniques where the real time propagation can be a challenge.

  13. Thermo field dynamics in the treatment of the nuclear pairing problem at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civitarese, O.; DePaoli, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the thermo field dynamics, in dealing with the study of nuclear properties at finite temperature, is discussed for the case of a nuclear Hamiltonian which includes a single-particle term and a monopole pairing residual two-body interaction. The rules of the thermo fields dynamics are applied to double the Hilbert space, thus accounting for the thermal occupation of single-particle states, and to construct dual spaces, both for single-particle (BCS) and collective (RPA) degrees of freedom. It is shown that the rules of the thermo field dynamics yield to a temperature dependence of the equations describing quasiparticle and phonon excitations which is similar to the one found in the more conventional finite temperature Wick's theorem approach, namely: By dealing with thermal averages. (orig.)

  14. Compressibility, zero sound, and effective mass of a fermionic dipolar gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.

    2010-01-01

    The compressibility, zero-sound dispersion, and effective mass of a gas of fermionic dipolar molecules is calculated at finite temperature for one-, two-, and three-dimensional uniform systems, and in a multilayer quasi-two-dimensional system. The compressibility is nonmonotonic in the reduced temperature, T/T F , exhibiting a maximum at finite temperature. This effect might be visible in a quasi-low-dimensional experiment, providing a clear signature of the onset of many-body quantum degeneracy effects. The collective mode dispersion and effective mass show similar nontrivial temperature and density dependence. In a quasi-low-dimensional system, the zero-sound mode may propagate at experimentally attainable temperatures.

  15. Nucleon-nucleon interaction of a chiral σ-ω model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukeng Su

    1994-01-01

    By using the imaginery time Green's function method, the nucleon-nucleon interaction of the chiral σ-ω model has been investigated under the one-loop approximation. The effective masses of the pion, σ-meson and ω-meson at finite temperature are given. We have found that the potential well of the nucleon-nucleon interaction becomes shallow as the temperature increases. At a critical temperature T c (70 MEV) the potential well disappears. (author)

  16. On the calculation of finite-temperature effects in field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.; Taylor, J.C.

    1991-03-01

    We discuss an alternative method for computing finite-temperature effects in field theories, within the framework of the imaginary-time formalism. Our approach allows for a systematic calculation of the high temperature expansion in terms of Riemann Zeta functions. The imaginary-time result is analytically continued to the complex plane. We are able to obtain the real-time limit of the real and the imaginary parts of the Green functions. (author)

  17. Metastability of the (φiφi)32 model at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananos, G.N.J.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1996-11-01

    Using concurrently the dimensional and analytic regularization methods we applied the Gross-Neveu model at finite temperature and density (chemical potential) in a D-dimensional spacetime. The renormalized effective potential is presented at the one-loop approximation. In the case of non-zero chemical potential we show that the effective potential acquires an imaginary part, which means that the system becomes metastable, indicating the possibility of a first phase transition. (author)

  18. Multiple scattering expansion of the self-energy at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, S.; Ellis, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    An often used rule that the thermal correction to the self-energy is the thermal phase-space times the forward scattering amplitude from target particles is shown to be the leading term in an exact multiple scattering expansion. Starting from imaginary-time finite-temperature field theory, a rigorous expansion for the retarded self-energy is derived. The relationship to the thermodynamic potential is briefly discussed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Multiple Scattering Expansion of the Self-Energy at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Sangyong; Ellis, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    An often used rule that the thermal correction to the self-energy is the thermal phase-space times the forward scattering amplitude from target particles is shown to be the leading term in an exact multiple scattering expansion. Starting from imaginary-time finite-temperature field theory, a rigorous expansion for the retarded self-energy is derived. The relationship to the thermodynamic potential is briefly discussed.

  20. The Fermion boson interaction within the linear sigma model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, H.C.G.

    2000-01-01

    We study the interaction of massless bosons at finite temperature. Specifically, we calculate the self-energy of massless fermions due to interaction with massless bosons at high temperature, which is the region where thermal effects are maximal. The calculations are concentrated in the limit of vanishing fermion three momentum and after considering the effective boson dressed mass, we obtain the damping rate of the fermion. It is shown that in the limit k O 2 T + g 3 T. (author)

  1. Induced Chern-Simons term in lattice QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, O.A.; Petrov, V.K.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The general conditions for the Chern-Simons action to be induced as a non-universal contribution of fermionic determinant are formulated in finite-temperature lattice QCD. The dependence of the corresponding coefficient in the action on non-universal parameters (chemical potentials, vacuum features, etc.) is explored. Special attention is paid to the role of A 0 -condensate if it is available in this theory. ((orig.))

  2. Three loop HTL perturbation theory at finite temperature and chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States); Andersen, Jens O. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Haque, Najmul; Mustafa, Munshi G. [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Su, Nan [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In this proceedings contribution we present a recent three-loop hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the thermodynamic potential for a finite temperature and chemical potential system of quarks and gluons. We compare the resulting pressure, trace anomaly, and diagonal/off-diagonal quark susceptibilities with lattice data. We show that there is good agreement between the three-loop HTLpt analytic result and available lattice data.

  3. Reduced one-body density matrix of Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiao-Chen; Hao Ya-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    With thermal Bose–Fermi mapping method, we investigate the Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature. It is shown that at low temperature, the Tonks gas displays the Fermi-like density profiles, and with the increase in temperature, the Tonks gas distributes in wider region. The reduced one-body density matrix is diagonal dominant in the whole temperature region, and the off-diagonal elements shall vanish rapidly with the deviation from the diagonal part at high temperature. (paper)

  4. Finite temperature effects in Bose-Einstein condensed dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Madarassy, Enikö J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation that takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates

  5. Photon polarization tensor in the light front field theory at zero and finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Charles da Rocha; Perez, Silvana; Strauss, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, light front quantized field theories have been successfully generalized to finite temperature. The light front frame was introduced by Dirac , and the quantization of field theories on the null-plane has found applications in many branches of physics. In order to obtain the thermal contribution, we consider the hard thermal loop approximation. This technique was developed by Braaten and Pisarski for the thermal quantum field theory at equal times and is particularly useful to extract the leading thermal contributions to the amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theories. In this work, we consider the light front quantum electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and evaluate the photon polarization tensor at one loop for both zero and finite temperatures. In the first case, we apply the dimensional regularization method to extract the finite contribution and find the transverse structure for the amplitude in terms of the light front coordinates. The result agrees with one-loop covariant calculation. For the thermal corrections, we generalize the hard thermal loop approximation to the light front and calculate the dominant temperature contribution to the polarization tensor, consistent with the Ward identity. In both zero as well as finite temperature calculations, we use the oblique light front coordinates. (author)

  6. Finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron: The thermo-field dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Combining the multiple Davydov D2 Ansatz with the method of thermo-field dynamics, we study finite temperature dynamics of a Holstein polaron on a lattice. It has been demonstrated, using the hierarchy equations of motion method as a benchmark, that our approach provides an efficient, robust description of finite temperature dynamics of the Holstein polaron in the simultaneous presence of diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling. The method of thermo-field dynamics handles temperature effects in the Hilbert space with key numerical advantages over other treatments of finite-temperature dynamics based on quantum master equations in the Liouville space or wave function propagation with Monte Carlo importance sampling. While for weak to moderate diagonal coupling temperature increases inhibit polaron mobility, it is found that off-diagonal coupling induces phonon-assisted transport that dominates at high temperatures. Results on the mean square displacements show that band-like transport features dominate the diagonal coupling cases, and there exists a crossover from band-like to hopping transport with increasing temperature when including off-diagonal coupling. As a proof of concept, our theory provides a unified treatment of coherent and incoherent transport in molecular crystals and is applicable to any temperature.

  7. The quantum open system theory for quarkonium during finite temperature medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains theoretical studies on the dynamics of heavy quarkonium in a finite temperature medium. As a first step of understanding the dynamics of heavy quarkonium in a medium, it explains firstly the definition of potential acting between heavy quarks in a finite temperature medium, and next the stochastic potential and decoherence. While the conventional definition based on thermodynamics lacks theoretical validity, theoretically reasonable definition can be obtained by the spectral decomposition of Wilson loop in the medium. When calculating the potential with this definition, the imaginary part appears, leading to the lacking of theoretical integrity when used in the potential terms of Schroedinger equation, but it is eliminated by the concept of stochastic potential. Decoherence given by thermal fluctuation to wave function is an important physical process of the dynamics of heavy quarkonium in a finite temperature medium. There is a limit of stochastic potential that cannot describe the irreversible process, and this limitation can be overcome by a more comprehensive system based on the theory of quantum open system. By dealing with the heavy quarkonium as quantum open system, phenomena such as color shielding, thermal fluctuation, and dissipation in the quark-gluon plasma, become describable in the way of quantum theory. (A.O.)

  8. Ensemble Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  9. Calculations with the quasirelativistic local-spin-density-functional theory for high-Z atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Whitehead, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The generalized-exchange local-spin-density-functional theory (LSD-GX) with relativistic corrections of the mass velocity and Darwin terms has been used to calculate statistical total energies for the neutral atoms, the positive ions, and the negative ions for high-Z elements. The effect of the correlation and relaxation correction on the statistical total energy is discussed. Comparing the calculated results for the ionization potentials and electron affinities for the atoms (atomic number Z from 37 to 56 and 72 to 80) with experiment, shows that for the atoms rubidium to barium both the LSD-GX and the quasirelativistic LSD-GX, with self-interaction correction, Gopinathan, Whitehead, and Bogdanovic's Fermi-hole parameters [Phys. Rev. A 14, 1 (1976)], and Vosko, Wilk, and Nusair's correlation correction [Can. J. Phys. 58, 1200 (1980)], are very good methods for calculating ionization potentials and electron affinities. For the atoms hafnium to mercury the relativistic effect has to be considered

  10. Magnetic properties of the spin-density wave in (TMTSF)2X and (TMTTF)2Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, N.; Hosokawa, Y.; Iwasaki, H.; Nomura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Saito, G.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the spin density wave (SDW) phase in (TMTSF) 2 X (X=AsF 6 , PF 6 ) and (TMTTF) 2 Br were investigated through analyses of 1 H-NMR and static magnetization measurements. A divergent peak was observed, at the temperature T * well below the SDW transition temperature, in the 1 H spin-lattice relaxation rate in the incommensurate SDW phase of (TMTSF) 2 X. A decrease of the differential magnetic susceptibility of (TMTSF) 2 X with the field parallel to the a-axis was observed around T * . This anomaly indicates a difference of the spin canting above and below T * which divides the SDW phase. In the measurements of magnetic susceptibility on the commensurate SDW phase of (TMTTF) 2 Br, a large decrease of the spin susceptibility was observed above T SDW and non-activated type behavior in the b'-axis susceptibility is observed below the spin-flop field at low temperature. The data are discussed on the basis of commensurability. (orig.)

  11. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: zzeng@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW) caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW) caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1) comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2) comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3) SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  12. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1 comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2 comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3 SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  13. New correlation potential for the local-spin-density functional formalism. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.; Farkas, L.

    1982-01-01

    Using the new parameterization for the correlation potential which seems to be the best that is at present available within the local-spin-density (LSD) functional formalism, the Fermi contact term in light atoms (up to Ni) is calculated. Although the overall improvement of the previous LSD results is obtained, discrepancy between theory and experiment remains rather large. It seems that the local approximation for exchange and correlation fails to predict such quantities as magnetic-moment density near the nucleus. It is also shown that the self-interaction correction does not remedy this failure. Further, the effect of the nonzero nuclear radius is investigated and found to be most important in the lightest atoms (e.g. a factor of 0.664 appears in the case of Li). This fact was omitted in all previous calculations and throws doubt on the reported excellent agreement of the results of many-body perturbation theory with experiment. It was also verified that the contact approximation of the Fermi contact term is really good enough. (author)

  14. Electrically tunable spin polarization in silicene: A multi-terminal spin density matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Son-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Recent realized silicene field-effect transistor yields promising electronic applications. Using a multi-terminal spin density matrix approach, this paper presents an analysis of the spin polarizations in a silicene structure of the spin field-effect transistor by considering the intertwined intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit couplings, gate voltage, Zeeman splitting, as well as disorder. Coexistence of the stagger potential and intrinsic spin–orbit coupling results in spin precession, making any in-plane polarization directions reachable by the gate voltage; specifically, the intrinsic coupling allows one to electrically adjust the in-plane components of the polarizations, while the Rashba coupling to adjust the out-of-plan polarizations. Larger electrically tunable ranges of in-plan polarizations are found in oppositely gated silicene than in the uniformly gated silicene. Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably in weak disorder regime, while independent of the phases, stronger disorder leads to a saturation value. - Highlights: • Density matrix with spin rotations enables multi-terminal arbitrary spin injections. • Gate-voltage tunable in-plane polarizations require intrinsic SO coupling. • Gate-voltage tunable out-of-plane polarizations require Rashba SO coupling. • Oppositely gated silicene yields a large tunable range of in-plan polarizations. • Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably only in weak disorder.

  15. Annealing effect on spin density of broken bonds and on the structure of amorphous germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhan'ko, F.N.; Okunev, V.D.; Samojlenko, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dependence of volumetric spin density of broken bonds in a-Ge films, produced by cathode sputtering in argon, on the annealing temperature is investigated by ESR method. The film structure is controlled by the X-ray method. Two ESR lines with g=2.019 and g=2.003, their intensities changing non-monotonously with annealing temperature are observed. The line with g=2.019 is typical of only amorphous germanium state, and the line with g=2.003 is preserved after film crystallization. Under comparison of results with structural data a conclusion is made that the observed lines in ESR spectra are linked with broken bonds in peripheral regions of two types of clusters. The line with g=2.003 is conditioned by broken bonds in the peripheral cluster regions with standard cubic atom packing and the line with g=2.019 is linked with clusters of hexagonal type which is not typical of crystalline germanium standard structure

  16. NYYD Ensemble

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    NYYD Ensemble'i duost Traksmann - Lukk E.-S. Tüüri teosega "Symbiosis", mis on salvestatud ka hiljuti ilmunud NYYD Ensemble'i CDle. 2. märtsil Rakvere Teatri väikeses saalis ja 3. märtsil Rotermanni Soolalaos, kavas Tüür, Kaumann, Berio, Reich, Yun, Hauta-aho, Buckinx

  17. Multidimensional Schrödinger Equation and Spectral Properties of Heavy-Quarkonium Mesons at Finite Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu-Shady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-radial Schrödinger equation is analytically solved at finite temperature. The analytic exact iteration method (AEIM is employed to obtain the energy eigenvalues and wave functions for all states n and l. The application of present results to the calculation of charmonium and bottomonium masses at finite temperature is also presented. The behavior of the charmonium and bottomonium masses is in qualitative agreement with other theoretical methods. We conclude that the solution of the Schrödinger equation plays an important role at finite temperature that the analysis of the quarkonium states gives a key input to quark-gluon plasma diagnostics.

  18. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitouche, F.; Bouarab, S.; Tazibt, S.; Vega, A.; Demangeat, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X 2 /Cr 36 (001) and X 1 /Cr 37 (001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe 3 /X 1 /Cr 37 /X 1 (001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  19. Real-time finite-temperature correlators from AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Edwin; Vaman, Diana; Wu Chaolun; Arnold, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence ideas in conjunction with insights from finite-temperature real-time field theory formalism to compute 3-point correlators of N=4 super Yang-Mills operators, in real time and at finite temperature. To this end, we propose that the gravity field action is integrated only over the right and left quadrants of the Penrose diagram of the anti-de Sitter-Schwarzschild background, with a relative sign between the two terms. For concreteness we consider the case of a scalar field in the black hole background. Using the scalar field Schwinger-Keldysh bulk-to-boundary propagators, we give the general expression of a 3-point real-time Green's correlator. We then note that this particular prescription amounts to adapting the finite-temperature analog of Veltman's circling rules to tree-level Witten diagrams, and comment on the retarded and Feynman scalar bulk-to-boundary propagators. We subject our prescription to several checks: Kubo-Martin-Schwinger identities, the largest time equation, and the zero-temperature limit. When specializing to a particular retarded (causal) 3-point function, we find a very simple answer: the momentum-space correlator is given by three causal (two advanced and one retarded) bulk-to-boundary propagators, meeting at a vertex point which is integrated from spatial infinity to the horizon only. This result is expected based on analyticity, since the retarded n-point functions are obtained by analytic continuation from the imaginary-time Green's function, and based on causality considerations.

  20. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  1. Phase structure of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature: Large-N and continuum limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, O., E-mail: oleg@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Chelnokov, V., E-mail: chelnokov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Gravina, M., E-mail: gravina@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Papa, A., E-mail: papa@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We study numerically three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature, for N=5,6,8,12,13 and 20 on lattices with temporal extension N{sub t}=2,4,8. For each model, we locate phase transition points and determine critical indices. We propose also the scaling of critical points with N. The data obtained enable us to verify the scaling near the continuum limit for the Z(N) models at finite temperatures.

  2. Phase structure of 3D Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature: Large-N and continuum limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, O.; Chelnokov, V.; Gravina, M.; Papa, A.

    2014-01-01

    We study numerically three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature, for N=5,6,8,12,13 and 20 on lattices with temporal extension N t =2,4,8. For each model, we locate phase transition points and determine critical indices. We propose also the scaling of critical points with N. The data obtained enable us to verify the scaling near the continuum limit for the Z(N) models at finite temperatures

  3. The finite-temperature thermodynamics of a trapped unitary Fermi gas within fractional exclusion statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Chen Jisheng

    2010-01-01

    We utilize the fractional exclusion statistics of the Haldane and Wu hypothesis to study the thermodynamics of a unitary Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic oscillator potential at ultra-low finite temperature. The entropy per particle as a function of the energy per particle and energy per particle versus rescaled temperature are numerically compared with the experimental data. The study shows that, except the chemical potential behaviour, there exists a reasonable consistency between the experimental measurement and theoretical attempt for the entropy and energy per particle. In the fractional exclusion statistics formalism, the behaviour of the isochore heat capacity for a trapped unitary Fermi gas is also analysed.

  4. BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature for superfluid trapped Fermi atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein-condensate) crossover for a system of trapped Fermi atoms at finite temperature, both below and above the superfluid critical temperature, by including fluctuations beyond mean field. We determine the superfluid critical temperature and the pair-breaking temperature as functions of the attractive interaction between Fermi atoms, from the weak- to the strong-coupling limit (where bosonic molecules form as bound-fermion pairs). Density profiles in the trap are also obtained for all temperatures and couplings

  5. Quantum electrodynamics at a finite temperature with an external field destroying the stability of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Fradkin, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    A generating functional for expectation values is found for QED at a finite temperature with an external field which destroys the stability of the vacuum. The equations for connected Green functions and the effective action for the mean field are written out. Their representation is obtained in the form of an integral over the proper time for the Green function taking into account temperature effects in a constant uniform field. By means of this representation the polarization operator for the mean field in an external constant uniform field has been calculated

  6. Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge at zero and finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on recent results obtained within the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. By relating the Gribov confinement scenario to the center vortex picture of confinement it is shown that the Coulomb string tension is tied to the spatial string tension. For the quark sector a vacuum wave functional is used which results in variational equations which are free of ultraviolet divergences. The variational approach is extended to finite temperatures by compactifying a spatial dimension. For the chiral and deconfinement phase transition pseudo-critical temperatures of 170MeV and 198 MeV, respectively, are obtained.

  7. Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan; MIDong

    2004-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple local gauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalar fields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential is given which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinement behavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can be melted away under high temperatures.

  8. Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; MI Dong

    2004-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple localgauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalarfields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential isgiven which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinementbehavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can bemelted away under high temperatures.

  9. Effect of pairwise additivity on finite-temperature behavior of classical ideal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaari, Ashkan; Jafari, Mahmoud

    2018-05-01

    Finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations have been applied to inquire into the effect of pairwise additivity on the behavior of classical ideal gas within the temperature range of T = 250-4000 K via applying a variety of pair potentials and then examining the temperature dependence of a number of thermodynamical properties. Examining the compressibility factor reveals the most deviation from ideal-gas behavior for the Lennard-Jones system mainly due to the presence of both the attractive and repulsive terms. The systems with either attractive or repulsive intermolecular potentials are found to present no resemblance to real gases, but the most similarity to the ideal one as temperature rises.

  10. Electrical conductivity of Dirac/Schrödinger hybrid electron systems at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh, Nguyen Quoc; Linh, Dang Khanh

    2018-04-01

    We calculate the dielectric function of a system composed of a Bernal bilayer graphene (BLG) and an ordinary two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), separated by a spacer, as a function of temperature T, interlayer distance d and spacer dielectric constant ε2 . Based on the results for dielectric function, we calculate the finite-temperature electrical conductivity of the first layer in presence of the second one due to the screened Coulomb scattering. We also compare our results with those of BLG-BLG, BLG systems and study the effect of 2DEG materials on the conductivity.

  11. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  12. Finite-temperature symmetry restoration in the four-dimensional Φ4 model with four components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, K.

    1990-01-01

    The finite-temperature symmetry restoration in the four-dimensional φ 4 theory with four components and with an infinite self-coupling is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations on lattices with time extensions L t =4,5,6 and space extensions 12 3 -28 3 . The numerical calculations are done by means of the Wolff cluster algorithm which is very efficient for simulations near a phase transition. The numerical results are in good agreement with an improved one-loop expansion and with the 1/N-expansion, indicating that in the electroweak theory the symmetry restoration temperature T sr is about 350 GeV. (orig.)

  13. Quark self-energy beyond the mean field at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, an effective low-energy model of QCD, is extended to the next to the leading order in the 1/N c expansion at finite temperature and density. The contributions to the quark self-energy and the constituent quark mass from the meson dressing are considered in a perturbative approach about the mean field. In particular, the temperature dependence of the quark mass is shown numerically at zero chemical potential. The correction to the quark mass from the meson dressing amounts to 20% compared to the result of the leading order at low temperature, and rapidly approaches zero at high temperature

  14. Phase structure of 3DZ(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, O.; Chelnokov, V.; Cortese, G.; Gravina, M.; Papa, A.; Surzhikov, I.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a numerical study of the phase transitions in three-dimensional Z(N) lattice gauge theories at finite temperature for N>4. Using the dual formulation of the models and a cluster algorithm we locate the position of the critical points and study the critical behavior across both phase transitions in details. In particular, we determine various critical indices, compute the average action and the specific heat. Our results are consistent with the two transitions being of infinite order. Furthermore, they belong to the universality class of two-dimensional Z(N) vector spin models

  15. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  16. Properties of Localized Protons in Neutron Star Matter at Finite Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmaglinski, A.; Kubis, S.; Wójcik, W.

    2014-02-01

    We study properties of the proton component of neutron star matter for realistic nuclear models. Vanishing of the nuclear symmetry energy implies proton-neutron separation in dense nuclear matter. Protons which form admixture tend to be localized in potential wells. Here, we extend the description of proton localization to finite temperatures. It appears that the protons are still localized at temperatures typical for hot neutron stars. That fact has important astrophysical consequences. Moreover, the temperature inclusion leads to unexpected results for the behavior of the proton localized state.

  17. Casimir effect at finite temperature for pure-photon sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.F., E-mail: alesandroferreira@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road Victoria, BC (Canada); Khanna, Faqir C., E-mail: khannaf@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Dynamics between particles is governed by Lorentz and CPT symmetry. There is a violation of Parity (P) and CP symmetry at low levels. The unified theory, that includes particle physics and quantum gravity, may be expected to be covariant with Lorentz and CPT symmetry. At high enough energies, will the unified theory display violation of any symmetry? The Standard Model Extension (SME), with Lorentz and CPT violating terms, has been suggested to include particle dynamics. The minimal SME in the pure photon sector is considered in order to calculate the Casimir effect at finite temperature.

  18. Finite temperature LGT in a finite box with BPS monopole boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Molodtsov, S.V.; Mueller-Preussker, M.; Veselov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Finite temperature SU(2) lattice gauge theory is investigated in a 3D cubic box with fixed boundary conditions (b.c.) provided by a discretized, static BPS monopole solution with varying core scale μ. For discrete μ-values we find stable classical solutions either of electro-magnetic ('dyon') or of purely magnetic type inside the box. Near the deconfinement transition we study the influence of the b.c. on the quantized fields inside the box. In contrast to the purely magnetic background field case, for the dyon case we observe confinement for temperatures above the usual critical one

  19. Casimir effect at finite temperature for the Kalb-Ramond field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belich, H.; Silva, L. M.; Helayeel-Neto, J. A.; Santana, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    We use the thermofield dynamics formalism to obtain the energy-momentum tensor for the Kalb-Ramond field in a topology S 1 xS 1 xR 2 . The compactification is carried out by a generalized thermofield dynamics-Bogoliubov transformation that is used to define a renormalized energy-momentum tensor. The expressions for the Casimir energy and pressure at finite temperature are then derived. A comparative analysis with the electromagnetic case is developed, and the results may be important for applications, as in cuprate superconductivity, for instance.

  20. Quantum statistical mechanics of nonrelativistic membranes: crumpling transition at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, Adriaan M. J.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of quantum fluctuations on a nearly flat, nonrelativistic two-dimensional membrane with extrinsic curvature stiffness and tension is investigated. The renormalization group analysis is carried out in first-order perturbative theory. In contrast to thermal fluctuations, which soften the membrane at large scales and turn it into a crumpled surface, quantum fluctuations are found to stiffen the membrane, so that it exhibits a Hausdorff dimension equal to two. The large-scale behavior of the membrane is further studied at finite temperature, where a nontrivial fixed point is found, signaling a crumpling transition.

  1. Correspondence between imaginary-time and real-time finite-temperature field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobes, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is known that one-particle-irreducible graphs found using the imaginary-time formalism of finite-temperature field theory differ in general with those of the real-time formalism. Here it is shown that within the real-time formalism one can consider a sum of graphs, motivated by causality arguments, which at least in a number of simple examples agree with the corresponding analytically continued imaginary-time result. The occurrence of multiple statistical factors in this sum of graphs is discussed

  2. The Fermion boson interaction within the linear sigma model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, H.C.G. [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais (DCNAT)

    2000-07-01

    We study the interaction of massless bosons at finite temperature. Specifically, we calculate the self-energy of massless fermions due to interaction with massless bosons at high temperature, which is the region where thermal effects are maximal. The calculations are concentrated in the limit of vanishing fermion three momentum and after considering the effective boson dressed mass, we obtain the damping rate of the fermion. It is shown that in the limit k{sub O} <

  3. Finite-temperature random-phase approximation for spectroscopic properties of neon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, J.; Collins, L. A.; Fontes, C. J.; Csanak, G.

    2007-01-01

    A finite-temperature random-phase approximation (FTRPA) is applied to calculate oscillator strengths for excitations in hot and dense plasmas. Application of the FTRPA provides a convenient, self-consistent method with which to explore coupled-channel effects of excited electrons in a dense plasma. We present FTRPA calculations that include coupled-channel effects. The inclusion of these effects is shown to cause significant differences in the oscillator strength for a prototypical case of 1 P excitation in neon when compared with single-channel and with average-atom calculations. Trends as a function of temperature and density are also discussed

  4. Quantum electrodynamics at finite temperatures in presence of an external field violating the vacuum stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Fradkin, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    A functional generating expectation values is obtained for QED at a finite temperature in presence of an external field violating the vacuum stability. Equations for connected Green's functions and the effective action for the mean field are derived. The Green function is obtained as an integral with respect of the proper time; the representation takes into account temperature effects in a constant homogeneous field. The polarization operator for the mean field in an external constant homogeneous field is calculated by means of the integral representation

  5. The effective potential for composite operator in the scalar model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananos, G.N.J.; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: nfuxsvai@lafex.cbpf.br; gino@lafex.cbpf.br

    2000-10-01

    We discuss the {phi}{sup 4} and {phi}{sup 6} theory defined in a flat D-dimensional space-time. We assume that the system is in equilibrium with a thermal bath at temperature {beta}{sup -1}. To obtain non-perturbative result, the 1?N expansion is used. The method of the composite operator for summing a large set of Feynman graphs, is developed for the finite temperature system. The resumed effective potential and the analysis of the D=3 and D=4 cases are given .(author)

  6. Similarities between the Hubbard and Periodic Anderson Models at Finite Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, K.; Huscroft, C.; Scalettar, R. T.; McMahan, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    The single band Hubbard and the two band periodic Anderson Hamiltonians have traditionally been applied to rather different physical problems--the Mott transition and itinerant magnetism, and Kondo singlet formation and scattering off localized magnetic states, respectively. In this paper, we compare the magnetic and charge correlations, and spectral functions, of the two systems. We show quantitatively that they exhibit remarkably similar behavior, including a nearly identical topology of the finite temperature phase diagrams at half filling. We address potential implications of this for theories of the rare earth ''volume collapse'' transition. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Relativistic BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature and its application to color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lianyi; Zhuang Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    The nonrelativistic G 0 G formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The uncondensed pairs contribute a pseudogap to the fermion excitations. The theory recovers the BCS mean field approximation at zero temperature and the nonrelativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superfluid to the nonrelativistic BEC state and then to the relativistic BEC state. For color superconductivity at moderate baryon density, the matter is in the BCS-BEC crossover region, and the behavior of the pseudogap is quite similar to that found in high temperature superconductors

  8. Elements of non-equilibrium (ℎ, k)-dynamics at zero and finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubeva, O.N.; Sukhanov, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a method which allows developing some elements of non-equilibrium (ℎ, k)-dynamics without use of Schroedinger equation. It is based on the generalization pf Fokker-Planck and Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Sequential considering of stochastic influence of vacuum is realized in the quantum heat bath model. We show that at the presence of quantum-thermal diffusion non-equilibrium wave functions describe the process of nearing to generalized state of thermal equilibrium at zero and finite temperatures. They can be used as a ground for universal description of transport phenomena

  9. On colour non-singlet representations of the quark-gluon system at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, A.; Paria, L.

    2000-01-01

    We use a group theoretical technique to project out the partition function for a system of quarks, antiquarks and gluons onto a particular representation of the internal symmetry group SU(3): the colour singlet, colour octet and colour 27-plet, at finite temperature. We do this to calculate the thermodynamic quantities for those representations. We also calculate the change in free energy of the plasma droplet formed from the hot hadronic gas. We find that the size of the droplet in the colour-octet representation is smaller than that in the colour-singlet representations at different temperatures in the vicinity of the critical temperatures of the phase transitions. (orig.)

  10. Finite temperature and chemical potential in lattice QCD and its critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a method to study lattice QCD at finite temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ). We compare the method with direct results and with the Glasgow method by using n f =4 QCD at Im(μ)≠0. We locate the critical endpoint (E) of QCD on the Re(μ)-T plane. We use n f =2+1 dynamical staggered quarks with semi-realistic masses on L t =4 lattices. Our results are based on O(10 3 - 10 4 ) configurations. (orig.)

  11. The effective potential for composite operator in the scalar model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananos, G.N.J.; Svaiter, N.F.

    2000-10-01

    We discuss the φ 4 and φ 6 theory defined in a flat D-dimensional space-time. We assume that the system is in equilibrium with a thermal bath at temperature β -1 . To obtain non-perturbative result, the 1?N expansion is used. The method of the composite operator for summing a large set of Feynman graphs, is developed for the finite temperature system. The resumed effective potential and the analysis of the D=3 and D=4 cases are given .(author)

  12. Ensembl 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, E; Andrews, D; Bevan, P; Caccamo, M; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clarke, L; Coates, G; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Cutts, T; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Fernandez-Suarez, X M; Gane, P; Gibbins, B; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Hotz, H; Iyer, V; Kahari, A; Jekosch, K; Kasprzyk, A; Keefe, D; Keenan, S; Lehvaslaiho, H; McVicker, G; Melsopp, C; Meidl, P; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Potter, S; Proctor, G; Rae, M; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smedley, D; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Storey, R; Ureta-Vidal, A; Woodwark, C; Clamp, M; Hubbard, T

    2004-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organize biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive and integrated source of annotation of large genome sequences, available via interactive website, web services or flat files. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. The facilities of the system range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualization and installations exist around the world both in companies and at academic sites. With a total of nine genome sequences available from Ensembl and more genomes to follow, recent developments have focused mainly on closer integration between genomes and external data.

  13. Ensembl 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Aken, Bronwen L.; Achuthan, Premanand; Akanni, Wasiu; Amode, M. Ridwan; Bernsdorff, Friederike; Bhai, Jyothish; Billis, Konstantinos; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cummins, Carla; Clapham, Peter; Gil, Laurent; Gir?n, Carlos Garc?a; Gordon, Leo; Hourlier, Thibaut; Hunt, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl (www.ensembl.org) is a database and genome browser for enabling research on vertebrate genomes. We import, analyse, curate and integrate a diverse collection of large-scale reference data to create a more comprehensive view of genome biology than would be possible from any individual dataset. Our extensive data resources include evidence-based gene and regulatory region annotation, genome variation and gene trees. An accompanying suite of tools, infrastructure and programmatic access ...

  14. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  15. Mechanical properties and fracture behavior of single-layer phosphorene at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Ding, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene, a new two-dimensional (2D) material beyond graphene, has attracted great attention in recent years due to its superior physical and electrical properties. However, compared to graphene and other 2D materials, phosphorene has a relatively low Young’s modulus and fracture strength, which may limit its applications due to possible structure failures. For the mechanical reliability of future phosphorene-based nanodevices, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene. Previous studies on the mechanical properties of phosphorene were based on first principles calculations at 0 K. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. It is found that temperature has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of phosphorene. The fracture strength and strain reduce by more than 65% when the temperature increases from 0 K to 450 K. Moreover, the fracture strength and strain in the zigzag direction is more sensitive to the temperature rise than that in the armchair direction. More interestingly, the failure crack propagates preferably along the groove in the puckered structure when uniaxial tension is applied in the armchair direction. In contrast, when the uniaxial tension is applied in the zigzag direction, multiple cracks are observed with rough fracture surfaces. Our present work provides useful information about the mechanical properties and failure behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. (paper)

  16. Perfect 3-dimensional lattice actions for 4-dimensional quantum field theories at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerres, U.; Mack, G.; Palma, G.

    1994-12-01

    We propose a two-step procedure to study the order of phase transitions at finite temperature in electroweak theory and in simplified models thereof. In a first step a coarse grained free energy is computed by perturbative methods. It is obtained in the form of a 3-dimensional perfect lattice action by a block spin transformation. It has finite temperature dependent coefficients. In this way the UV-problem and the infrared problem is separated in a clean way. In the second step the effective 3-dimensional lattice theory is treated in a nonperturbative way, either by the Feynman-Bololiubov method (solution of a gap equation), by real space renormalization group methods, or by computer simulations. In this paper we outline the principles for φ 4 -theory and scalar electrodynamics. The Balaban-Jaffe block spin transformation for the gauge field is used. It is known how to extend this transformation to the nonabelian case, but this will not be discussed here. (orig.)

  17. Projection after variation in the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanto, P.

    2017-11-01

    The finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation often breaks symmetries of the underlying many-body Hamiltonian. Restricting the calculation of the HFB partition function to a subspace with good quantum numbers through projection after variation restores some of the correlations lost in breaking these symmetries, although effects of the broken symmetries such as sharp kinks at phase transitions remain. However, the most general projection after variation formula in the finite-temperature HFB approximation is limited by a sign ambiguity. Here, I extend the Pfaffian formula for the many-body traces of HFB density operators introduced by Robledo [L. M. Robledo, Phys. Rev. C. 79, 021302(R) (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevC.79.021302] to eliminate this sign ambiguity and evaluate the more complicated many-body traces required in projection after variation in the most general HFB case. The method is validated through a proof-of-principle calculation of the particle-number-projected HFB thermal energy in a simple model.

  18. Effects of Composite Pions on the Chiral Condensate within the PNJL Model at Finite Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, D.; Dubinin, A.; Ebert, D.; Friesen, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of composite pions on the behaviour of the chiral condensate at finite temperature within the Polyakov-loop improved NJL model. To this end we treat quark-antiquark correlations in the pion channel (bound states and scattering continuum) within a Beth-Uhlenbeck approach that uses medium-dependent phase shifts. A striking medium effect is the Mott transition which occurs when the binding energy vanishes and the discrete pion bound state merges the continuum. This transition is triggered by the lowering of the continuum edge due to the chiral restoration transition. This in turn also entails a modification of the Polyakov-loop so that the SU(3) center symmetry gets broken at finite temperature and dynamical quarks (and gluons) appear in the system, taking over the role of the dominant degrees of freedom from the pions. At low temperatures our model reproduces the chiral perturbation theory result for the chiral condensate while at high temperatures the PNJL model result is recovered. The new aspect of the current work is a consistent treatment of the chiral restoration transition region within the Beth-Uhlenbeck approach on the basis of mesonic phase shifts for the treatment of the correlations.

  19. Fierz-complete NJL model study: Fixed points and phase structure at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Leonhardt, Marc; Pospiech, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models are frequently employed as low-energy models in various research fields. With respect to the theory of the strong interaction, this class of models is indeed often used to analyze the structure of the phase diagram at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. The predictions from such models for the phase structure at finite quark chemical potential are of particular interest as this regime is difficult to access with lattice Monte Carlo approaches. In this work, we consider a Fierz-complete version of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. By studying its renormalization group flow, we analyze in detail how Fierz-incomplete approximations affect the predictive power of such model studies. In particular, we investigate the curvature of the phase boundary at small chemical potential, the critical value of the chemical potential above which no spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the possible interpretation of the underlying dynamics in terms of difermion-type degrees of freedom. We find that the inclusion of four-fermion channels other than the conventional scalar-pseudoscalar channel is not only important at large chemical potential but also leaves a significant imprint on the dynamics at small chemical potential as measured by the curvature of the finite-temperature phase boundary.

  20. Gluon scattering in N=4 super Yang-Mills at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Katsushi; Iwasaki, Koh; Nastase, Horatiu

    2008-01-01

    We extend the AdS/CFT prescription of Alday and Maldacena to finite temperature T, defining an amplitude for gluon scattering in N=4 Super Yang-Mills at strong coupling from string theory. It is defined by a lightlike 'Wilson loop' living at the horizon of the T-dual to the black hole in AdS space. Unlike the zero temperature case, this is different from the Wilson loop contour defined at the boundary of the AdS black hole metric. Thus at nonzero T there is no relation between gluon scattering amplitudes and the Wilson loop. We calculate a gauge theory observable that can be interpreted as the amplitude at strong coupling for forward scattering of a low energy gluon (E >T) in both cutoff and generalized dimensional regularization. The generalized dimensional regularization is defined in string theory as an IR modified dimensional reduction. For this calculation, the corresponding usual Wilson loop of the same boundary shape was argued to be related to the jet quenching parameter of the finite temperature N=4 SYM plasma, while the gluon scattering amplitude is related to the viscosity coefficient. (author)

  1. Metal-ligand delocalization and spin density in the CuCl2 and [CuCl4](2-) molecules: Some insights from wave function theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Emmanuel; Angeli, Celestino

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this paper is to unravel the physical phenomena involved in the calculation of the spin density of the CuCl2 and [CuCl4](2-) systems using wave function methods. Various types of wave functions are used here, both variational and perturbative, to analyse the effects impacting the spin density. It is found that the spin density on the chlorine ligands strongly depends on the mixing between two types of valence bond structures. It is demonstrated that the main difficulties found in most of the previous studies based on wave function methods come from the fact that each valence bond structure requires a different set of molecular orbitals and that using a unique set of molecular orbitals in a variational procedure leads to the removal of one of them from the wave function. Starting from these results, a method to compute the spin density at a reasonable computational cost is proposed.

  2. Wilson-Polyakov loops for critical strings and superstrings at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    An open string with end-points fixed at spatial separation L is a string theory analogue of the static quark-antiquark system in quenched QCD. Folowing a review of the quantum mechanics of this system in critical bosonic string theory the partition function at finite β (the inverse temperature) for fixed end-point open strings is discussed. This is related by a conformal transformation ('world-sheet duality') to the correlation function of two closed strings fixed at distinct spatial points (a string theory analogue of two Wilson-Polyakov loops). Temperature duality (β → β' = 4π 2 /β) relates this correlation function, in turn, to the finite-temperature Green function for a closed strong propagating between initial and final states that are at distinct (euclidean) space-time points. In addition, spatial duality relates the fixed end-point open string to the familiar open string with free end-points. A generalization to fixed end-points superstrings is suggested, in which the superalgebra may be viewed as the spatial dual of the usual open-string superalgebra. At zero temperature world-sheet duality relates the partition function of supersymmetric fixed end-point open strings to the correlation function of point-like closed-string states. These couple to combinations of the scalar and pseudoscalar states of a type-2b superstring superfield. At finite temperature supersymmetry is broken and this correlation function involves the propagation of non-supersymmetric states with non-zero winding numbers (which formally include a tachyon at temperatures above the Hagedorn transition). Temperature duality again relates the partition function to the finite-temperature Green function describing the propagator for point-like closed-string states of the dual theory, in which supersymmetry is broken. The singularity that arises in the critical bosonic theory as L is reduced below L = 2 π√α' is absent in the superstring and the static potential is well defined for all

  3. Heavy quark free energies for three quark systems at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, Kay; Karsch, Frithjof; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Vogt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We study the free energy of static three quark systems in singlet, octet, decuplet, and average color channels in the quenched approximation and in 2-flavor QCD at finite temperature. We show that in the high temperature phase singlet and decuplet free energies of three quark systems are well described by the sum of the free energies of three diquark systems plus self-energy contributions of the three quarks. In the confining low temperature phase we find evidence for a Y-shaped flux tube in SU(3) pure gauge theory, which is less evident in 2-flavor QCD due to the onset of string breaking. We also compare the short distance behavior of octet and decuplet free energies to the free energies of single static quarks in the corresponding color representations.

  4. Possible higher order phase transition in large-N gauge theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hiromichi

    2017-08-07

    We analyze the phase structure of SU(¥) gauge theory at finite temperature using matrix models. Our basic assumption is that the effective potential is dominated by double-trace terms for the Polyakov loops. As a function of the temperature, a background field for the Polyakov loop, and a quartic coupling, it exhibits a universal structure: in the large portion of the parameter space, there is a continuous phase transition analogous to the third-order phase transition of Gross,Witten and Wadia, but the order of phase transition can be higher than third. We show that different confining potentials give rise to drastically different behavior of the eigenvalue density and the free energy. Therefore lattice simulations at large N could probe the order of phase transition and test our results. Critical

  5. A self consistent study of the phase transition in the scalar electroweak theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerres, U.; Mack, G.; Palma, G.

    1994-12-01

    We propose the study of the phase transition in the scalar electroweak theory at finite temperature by a two-step method. It combines i) dimensional reduction to a 3-dimensional lattice theory via perturbative blockspin transformation, and ii) either further real space renormalization group transformations, or solution of gap equations, for the 3d lattice theory. A gap equation can be obtained by using the Peierls inequality to find the best quadratic approximation to the 3d action. This method avoids the lack of self consistency of the usual treatments which do not separate infrared and UV-problems by introduction of a lattice cutoff. The effective 3d lattice action could also be used in computer simulations. (orig.)

  6. A self consistent study of the phase transition in the scalar electroweak theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerres, U.

    1995-01-01

    We propose the study of the phase transition in the scalar electroweak theory at finite temperature by a two-step method. It combines i) dimensional reduction to a 3-dimensional lattice theory via perturbative blockspin transformation, and ii) either further real space renormalization group transformations, or solution of gap equations, for the 3d lattice theory. A gap equation can be obtained by using the Peierls inequality to find the best quadratic approximation to the 3d action. This method avoids the lack of self consistency of the usual treatments which do not separate infrared and UV-problems by introduction of a lattice cutoff. The effective 3d lattice action could also be used in computer simulations. ((orig.))

  7. Bethe ansatz approach to quantum sine Gordon thermodynamics and finite temperature excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, X.

    1982-01-01

    Takahashi and Suzuki (TS) using the Bethe ansatz method developed a formalism for the thermodynamics of the XYZ spin chain. Translating their formalism to the quantum sine-Gordon system, the thermodynamics and finite temperature elementary excitations are analyzed. Criteria imposed by TS on the allowed states simply correspond to the condition of normalizability of the wave functions. A set of coupled nonlinear integral equations for the thermodynamic equilibrium densities for particular values of the coupling constant in the attractive regime is derived. Solving numerically these Bethe ansatz equations, curves of the specific heat as a function of temperature are obtained. The soliton contribution peaks at a temperature of about 0.4 soliton masses shifting downward as the classical limit is approached. The weak coupling regime is analyzed by deriving the Bethe ansatz equations including the charged vacuum excitations. It is shown that they are necessary for a consistent presentation of the thermodynamics

  8. A Riemann-Hilbert formulation for the finite temperature Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaglià, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Università di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cornagliotto, Martina [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Università di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Mattelliano, Massimo; Tateo, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Università di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-03

    Inspired by recent results in the context of AdS/CFT integrability, we reconsider the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations describing the 1D fermionic Hubbard model at finite temperature. We prove that the infinite set of TBA equations are equivalent to a simple nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem for a finite number of unknown functions. The latter can be transformed into a set of three coupled nonlinear integral equations defined over a finite support, which can be easily solved numerically. We discuss the emergence of an exact Bethe Ansatz and the link between the TBA approach and the results by Jüttner, Klümper and Suzuki based on the Quantum Transfer Matrix method. We also comment on the analytic continuation mechanism leading to excited states and on the mirror equations describing the finite-size Hubbard model with twisted boundary conditions.

  9. The Strutinsky method and its foundation from the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.

    1981-01-01

    Strutinsky's shell-correction method is investigated in the framework of the microscopial Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method at finite temperature HFBT. Applying the Strutinsky energy averaging consistently to the normal and abnormal density matrices and to the entropy, we define a self-consistently average HFBT system as the solution of a variational problem. From the latter we derive the generalized Strutinsky energy theorem and the explicit expressions for the shell correction of a statistically excited system of BCS quasiparticles. Using numerical results of HF calculations, we demonstrate the convergence of the Strutinsky expansion and estimate the validity of the partical shell-correction approach. We also discuss the close connections of the Strutinsky energy averaging with semiclassical expansions and their usefulness for solving the average nuclear self-consistency problem. In particular we argue that the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem should hold for the averaged HFBT system and we thus provide a justification of the use of semiclassical density functionals. (orig.)

  10. Finite-temperature spin dynamics in a perturbed quantum critical Ising chain with an E₈ symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianda; Kormos, Márton; Si, Qimiao

    2014-12-12

    A spectrum exhibiting E₈ symmetry is expected to arise when a small longitudinal field is introduced in the transverse-field Ising chain at its quantum critical point. Evidence for this spectrum has recently come from neutron scattering measurements in cobalt niobate, a quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet. Unlike its zero-temperature counterpart, the finite-temperature dynamics of the model has not yet been determined. We study the dynamical spin structure factor of the model at low frequencies and nonzero temperatures, using the form factor method. Its frequency dependence is singular, but differs from the diffusion form. The temperature dependence of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate has an activated form, whose prefactor we also determine. We propose NMR experiments as a means to further test the applicability of the E₈ description for CoNb₂O₆.

  11. Holographic geometry of cMERA for quantum quenches and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollabashi, Ali; Naozaki, Masahiro; Ryu, Shinsei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    We study the time evolution of cMERA (continuous MERA) under quantum quenches in free field theories. We calculate the corresponding holographic metric using the proposal in http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.3469 and confirm that it qualitatively agrees with its gravity dual given by a half of the AdS black hole spacetime, argued by Hartman and Maldacena in http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.1080. By doubling the cMERA for the quantum quench, we give an explicit construction of finite temperature cMERA. We also study cMERA in the presence of chemical potential and show that there is an enhancement of metric in the infrared region corresponding to the Fermi energy

  12. Infrared problem in gΦ4 theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-11-01

    We study the infrared problem in gΦ 4 theory in 4 dimensions at finite temperature in the context of the real-time formalism. We perform a complete 2-loop analysis of the mass-shift in this model, as a N-loop calculation for a specific class of diagrams. In the case of massless particles, we find the same problems as for hot QCD, that is, the natural infrared cutoff which emerges as a thermal mass, m 2 ∼gT 2 , is too small to act as a good cutoff and the perturbation theory breaks down beyond some order in the coupling constant g. However, we find that an explicit summation of the leading infrared divergent diagrams gives a result which is not very different from the perturbative approach

  13. Energy-momentum tensor correlation function in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yusuke; Ejiri, Shinji; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Suzuki, Asobu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Umeda, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    We measure correlation functions of the nonperturbatively renormalized energy-momentum tensor in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature by applying the gradient flow method both to the gauge and quark fields. Our main interest is to study the conservation law of the energy-momentum tensor and to test whether the linear response relation is properly realized for the entropy density. By using the linear response relation we calculate the specific heat from the correlation function. We adopt the nonperturba-tively improved Wilson fermion and Iwasaki gauge action at a fine lattice spacing = 0:07 fm. In this paper the temperature is limited to a single value T ≃ 232 MeV. The u, d quark mass is rather heavy with mπ=mρ ≃ 0:63 while the s quark mass is set to approximately its physical value.

  14. Energy-momentum tensor correlation function in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniguchi Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure correlation functions of the nonperturbatively renormalized energy-momentum tensor in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature by applying the gradient flow method both to the gauge and quark fields. Our main interest is to study the conservation law of the energy-momentum tensor and to test whether the linear response relation is properly realized for the entropy density. By using the linear response relation we calculate the specific heat from the correlation function. We adopt the nonperturba-tively improved Wilson fermion and Iwasaki gauge action at a fine lattice spacing = 0:07 fm. In this paper the temperature is limited to a single value T ≃ 232 MeV. The u, d quark mass is rather heavy with mπ=mρ ≃ 0:63 while the s quark mass is set to approximately its physical value.

  15. Topological transitions at finite temperatures: A real-time numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    We study topological transitions at finite temperatures within the (1+1)-dimensional abelian Higgs model by a numerical simulation in real time. Basic ideas of the real-time approach are presented and some peculiarities of the Metropolis technique are discussed. It is argued that the processes leading to topological transitions are of classical origin; the transitions can be observed by solving the classical field equations in real time. We show that the topological transitions actually pass via the sphaleron configuration. The transition rate as a function of temperature is found to be in good agreement with the analytical predictions. No extra suppression of the rate is observed. The conditions of applicability of our approach are discussed. The temperature interval where the low-temperature broken phase persists is estimated. (orig.)

  16. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Troyer, Matthias; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model. (paper)

  17. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model.

  18. The properties of W-boson condensation induced by fermion density at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Rojas, H.; Kalashnikov, O.K.

    1987-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of W bosons induced by fermion density is discussed within models of unified interactions at T ≠ 0. We study in detail the Weinberg-Salam model in wich chemical potentials related to lepton number, electric charge and weak neutral charge are introduced. The one-loop thermodynamic potential is calculated and a set of equations representing the necessary condition for condensation is solved thogether with the corresponding chemical equilibrium conditions. The boundary of the condensate phase is established and estimations for the critical lepton density are given. It is found that for small lepton density W-boson condensation exists only in the finite temperature region, evaporating when T goes to zero. (orig.)

  19. Bootstrap calculation of the dynamical quark mass in QCD4 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Kalashnikov, O.K.; Veliev, E.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Nonperturbative calculations of the dynamical quark mass m(T) are given in QCD 4 , based on the bootstrap solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark Green function at finite temperatures. A closed nonlinear equation is obtained for m(T) whose solution is found under some simplifying assumptions. We used a particular approximation for the effective charge and the nonperturbative expressions of the gluon magnetic and electric masses. The singular behavior of m(T) is established and its parameters are determined numerically. The singularity found is shown to correctly reproduce the chiral phase transition and the temperature limits obtained for m(T) are qualitatively correct. The complete phase diagram of QCD 4 in the (μ,T) plane is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  20. Dominant two-loop corrections to the MSSM finite temperature effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    We show that two-loop corrections to the finite temperature effective potential in the MSSM can have a dramatic effect on the strength of the electroweak phase transition, making it more strongly first order. The change in the order parameter v/Tc can be as large as 75% of the one-loop daisy improved result. This effect can be decisive to widen the region in parameter space where erasure of the created baryons by sphaleron processes after the transition is suppressed and hence, where electroweak baryogenesis might be successful. We find an allowed region with tan β< or∼4.5 and a Higgs boson with standard couplings and mass below 80 GeV within the reach of LEP II. (orig.)

  1. Renormalization in self-consistent approximation schemes at finite temperature I: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hees, H. van; Knoll, J.

    2001-07-01

    Within finite temperature field theory, we show that truncated non-perturbative self-consistent Dyson resummation schemes can be renormalized with local counter-terms defined at the vacuum level. The requirements are that the underlying theory is renormalizable and that the self-consistent scheme follows Baym's Φ-derivable concept. The scheme generates both, the renormalized self-consistent equations of motion and the closed equations for the infinite set of counter terms. At the same time the corresponding 2PI-generating functional and the thermodynamic potential can be renormalized, in consistency with the equations of motion. This guarantees the standard Φ-derivable properties like thermodynamic consistency and exact conservation laws also for the renormalized approximation scheme to hold. The proof uses the techniques of BPHZ-renormalization to cope with the explicit and the hidden overlapping vacuum divergences. (orig.)

  2. Response of Bose-Einstein condensates to external perturbations at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theory of the linear response of a Bose-Einstein-condensed gas to external perturbations at finite temperature. The theory developed here is the basis of a recent quantitative explanation of the measurements of condensate excitations and decay rates made at JILA [D. S. Jin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 764 (1997)]. The formalism is based on a dynamic, number-conserving, mean-field scheme and is valid in the collisionless limit of well-defined quasiparticles. The theory is gapless, consistent with the generalized Kohn theorem for the dipole modes, and includes the time-dependent normal and anomalous averages, Beliaev and Landau processes, and all relevant finite-size effects. The important physical process where the thermal cloud is driven directly by the external perturbation is explicitly included. This is required for consistency with the dipole modes and is also needed to explain the JILA observations

  3. Faithful state transfer between two-level systems via an actively cooled finite-temperature cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, Lőrinc; Fortágh, József; Petrosyan, David

    2018-03-01

    We consider state transfer between two qubits—effective two-level systems represented by Rydberg atoms—via a common mode of a microwave cavity at finite temperature. We find that when both qubits have the same coupling strength to the cavity field, at large enough detuning from the cavity mode frequency, quantum interference between the transition paths makes the swap of the excitation between the qubits largely insensitive to the number of thermal photons in the cavity. When, however, the coupling strengths are different, the photon-number-dependent differential Stark shift of the transition frequencies precludes efficient transfer. Nevertheless, using an auxiliary cooling system to continuously extract the cavity photons, we can still achieve a high-fidelity state transfer between the qubits.

  4. Zeta-function regularization approach to finite temperature effects in Kaluza-Klein space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsenko, A.A.; Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S.

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of heat-kernel approach to zeta-function regularization, in this paper the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature for scalar and spinor fields on Kaluza-Klein space-time of the form M p x M c n , where M p is p-dimensional Minkowski space-time is evaluated. In particular, when the compact manifold is M c n = H n /Γ, the Selberg tracer formula associated with discrete torsion-free group Γ of the n-dimensional Lobachevsky space H n is used. An explicit representation for the thermodynamic potential valid for arbitrary temperature is found. As a result a complete high temperature expansion is presented and the roles of zero modes and topological contributions is discussed

  5. Some aspects of thermal inflation: The finite temperature potential and topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, T.; Copeland, E.J.; Lyth, D.H.; Prokopec, T.

    1996-01-01

    Currently favored extensions of the standard model typically contain open-quote open-quote flaton fields close-quote close-quote defined as fields with large vacuum expectation values (VEV close-quote s) and almost flat potentials. If a flaton field is trapped at the origin in the early Universe, one expects open-quote open-quote thermal inflation close-quote close-quote to take place before it rolls away to the true vacuum, because the finite-temperature correction to the potential will hold it at the origin until the temperature falls below 1 TeV or so. In the first part of the paper, that expectation is confirmed by an estimate of the finite-temperature corrections and of the tunneling rate to the true vacuum, paying careful attention to the validity of the approximations that are used. The second part of the paper considers topological defects which may be produced at the end of an era of thermal inflation. If the flaton fields associated with the era are grand unified theory (GUT) Higgs fields, then its end corresponds to the GUT phase transition. In that case monopoles (as well as GUT Higgs particles) will have to be diluted by a second era of thermal inflation. Such an era will not affect the cosmology of GUT strings, for which the crucial parameter is the string mass per unit length. Because of the flat Higgs potential, the GUT symmetry-breaking scale required for the strings to be a candidate for the origin of large scale structure and the CMB anisotropy is about three times bigger than usual, but given the uncertainties it is still compatible with the one required by the unification of the standard model gauge couplings. The cosmology of textures and of global monopoles is unaffected by the flatness of the potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Decisive role of nuclear quantum effects on surface mediated water dissociation at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Yair; Donadio, Davide; Ceriotti, Michele; Rossi, Mariana

    2018-03-01

    Water molecules adsorbed on inorganic substrates play an important role in several technological applications. In the presence of light atoms in adsorbates, nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) influence the structural stability and the dynamical properties of these systems. In this work, we explore the impact of NQEs on the dissociation of water wires on stepped Pt(221) surfaces. By performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with van der Waals corrected density functional theory, we note that several competing minima for both intact and dissociated structures are accessible at finite temperatures, making it important to assess whether harmonic estimates of the quantum free energy are sufficient to determine the relative stability of the different states. We thus perform ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) in order to calculate these contributions taking into account the conformational entropy and anharmonicities at finite temperatures. We propose that when adsorption is weak and NQEs on the substrate are negligible, PIMD simulations can be performed through a simple partition of the system, resulting in considerable computational savings. We then calculate the full contribution of NQEs to the free energies, including also anharmonic terms. We find that they result in an increase of up to 20% of the quantum contribution to the dissociation free energy compared with the harmonic estimates. We also find that the dissociation process has a negligible contribution from tunneling but is dominated by zero point energies, which can enhance the rate of dissociation by three orders of magnitude. Finally we highlight how both temperature and NQEs indirectly impact dipoles and the redistribution of electron density, causing work function changes of up to 0.4 eV with respect to static estimates. This quantitative determination of the change in the work function provides a possible approach to determine experimentally the most stable configurations of water

  7. I. Surface properties of neutron-rich nuclei. II. Pion condensation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolehmainen, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    In part I, the energy density formalism, the Thomas-Fermi approximation, and Skyrme-type interactions were used to describe the energy density of a semi-infinite slab of neturon-rich nuclear matter at zero temperature. The existence of a drip phase at low proton fractions is allowed in addition to the more dense nuclear phase, and various bulk properties of both phases are found when the system is in equilibrium. The usual definition of the surface energy is extended to apply to the case where drip is present. Assuming a Fermi function type density profile, a constrained variational calculation is performed to determine the neutron and proton surface diffuseness parameters, the thickness of the neutron skin, and the surface energy. Results are obtained for proton fractions reanging from 0.5 (symmetric nuclear matter) to zero (pure neutron matter) for most Skyrme-type interactions in common use. The results are in close agreement with the predictions of the droplet model, as well as with the results of more exact calculations in those cases where the more exact results exist (only for symmetric or nearly symmetric matter in most cases). Significantly different asymmetry dependences for different interactions are found. In part II, several simple but increasingly complex models are used to calculate the threshold for charged pion condensation in neutron-rich nuclear matter at finite temperature. Unlike in mean field theory descriptions of pion condensation, the effects of thermal excitations of the pion field are included. The thermal pion excitations have two important effects: first, to modify the phase diagram qualitatively from that predicted by mean field theory, and second, to make the phase transition to a spatially nonuniform condensed state at finite temperature always first, rather than second, order

  8. Magnetic field influence on the spin-density wave of the organic conductor (TMTSF)2NO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, S.; Biskup, N.; Korin-Hamzic, B.; Basletic, M.; Hamzic, A.; Maki, K.; Fabre, J.M.; Bechgaard, K.

    1993-01-01

    We present the influence of a transverse magnetic field on the spin-density wave (SDW) ground state of the organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 NO 3 . Magnetic field increases the single-particle activation energy. A finite magnetic field (H C ) induces discontinuities in the magnetoresistance behaviour and its value is temperature dependent. The threshold electric field (E T ) for the SDW sliding increases in a magnetic field. All observed effects are strongly angle-dependent indicating that they are determined by the magnetic field component along the least-conduction (c * ) direction. We discuss these results in the framework of a theoretical model for the SDW with large imperfect nesting. (orig.)

  9. Quantum spin correction scheme based on spin-correlation functional for Kohn-Sham spin density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Shusuke; Takeda, Ryo; Nakata, Kazuto; Takada, Toshikazu; Shoji, Mitsuo; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple quantum correction scheme for ab initio Kohn-Sham spin density functional theory (KS-SDFT). This scheme is based on a mapping from ab initio results to a Heisenberg model Hamiltonian. The effective exchange integral is estimated by using energies and spin correlation functionals calculated by ab initio KS-SDFT. The quantum-corrected spin-correlation functional is open to be designed to cover specific quantum spin fluctuations. In this article, we present a simple correction for dinuclear compounds having multiple bonds. The computational results are discussed in relation to multireference (MR) DFT, by which we treat the quantum many-body effects explicitly

  10. SU(2 color NJL model and EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Wolfram

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the NJL model with the Polyakov loop in the SU(2-color case for the EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density. We consider the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and the diquark condensation together with the behavior of the Polyakov loop for the phase diagram of quark-hadron matter. We discuss the spectrum of mesons and diquark baryons (boson at finite temperature and density.We derive also the linear sigma model Lagrangian for diquark baryon and mesons.

  11. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitouche, F. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Bouarab, S., E-mail: bouarab_said@mail.ummto.d [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Tazibt, S. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Demangeat, C. [Institut de Physique, 3 rue de l' Universite 67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-03

    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X{sub 2}/Cr{sub 36}(001) and X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}(001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe{sub 3}/X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}/X{sub 1}(001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  12. Superconductor to spin-density-wave transition in quasi-one-dimensional metals with repulsive anisotropic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism for superconductivity in a quasi-one-dimensional system with repulsive Ising-anisotropic interaction is studied. The Ising anisotropy opens the gap Δ s in the spin sector of the model. This gap allows the triplet superconductivity and the spin-density wave as the only broken symmetry phases. These phases are separated by the first order transition. The transport properties of the system are investigated in different parts of the phase diagram. The calculation of DC conductivity σ(T) in the high-temperature phase shows that the function σ(T) cannot be used as an indicator of a superconducting ground state: even if σ(T) is a decreasing function at high temperature, yet, the ground state may be insulating spin-density wave; the opposite is also true. The calculation of the spin dynamical structure factor S zz (q, ω) demonstrates that it is affected by the superconducting phase transition in a qualitative fashion: below T c the structure factor develops a gap with a coherent excitation inside this gap

  13. Extension of the Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory to finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonis, A.; Däne, M.

    2018-05-01

    Based on Mermin's extension of the Hohenberg and Kohn theorems to non-zero temperature, the Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT) is generalized to finite temperature. We show that present formulations are inconsistent with Mermin's functional containing expressions, in particular describing the Coulomb energy, that defy derivation and are even in violation of rules of logical inference. More; current methodology is in violation of fundamental laws of both quantum and classical mechanics. Based on this feature, we demonstrate the impossibility of extending the KS formalism to finite temperature through the self-consistent solutions of the single-particle Schrödinger equation of T > 0. Guided by the form of Mermin's functional that depends on the eigenstates of a Hamiltonian, determined at T = 0, we base our extension of KS-DFT on the determination of the excited states of a non-interacting system at the zero of temperature. The resulting formulation is consistent with that of Mermin constructing the free energy at T > 0 in terms of the excited states of a non-interacting Hamiltonian (system) that, within the KS formalism, are described by Slater determinants. To determine the excited states at T = 0 use is made of the extension of the Hohenberg and Kohn theorems to excited states presented in previous work applied here to a non-interacting collection of replicas of a non-interacting N-particle system, whose ground state density is taken to match that of K non-interacting replicas of an interacting N-particle system at T = 0 . The formalism allows for an ever denser population of the excitation spectrum of a Hamiltonian, within the KS approximation. The form of the auxiliary potential, (Kohn-Sham potential), is formally identical to that in the ground state formalism with the contribution of the Coulomb energy provided by the derivative of the Coulomb energy in all excited states taken into account. Once the excited states are determined, the

  14. Finite-temperature correlation function for the one-dimensional quantum Ising model:The virial expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S. A.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2006-06-01

    We rewrite the exact expression for the finite-temperature two-point correlation function for the magnetization as a partition function of some field theory. This removes singularities and provides a convenient form to develop a virial expansion (expansion in powers of the soliton density).

  15. Finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Varun; Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Sarkar, Swarnendu

    2017-01-01

    We continue with the analysis of finite temperature corrections to the Tachyon mass in intersecting branes which was initiated in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063. In this paper we extend the computation to the case of intersecting D3 branes by considering a setup of two intersecting branes in flat-space background. A holographic model dual to BCS superconductor consisting of intersecting D8 branes in D4 brane background was proposed in https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2011.07.011. The background considered here is a simplified configuration of this dual model. We compute the one-loop Tachyon amplitude in the Yang-Mills approximation and show that the result is finite. Analyzing the amplitudes further we numerically compute the transition temperature at which the Tachyon becomes massless. The analytic expressions for the one-loop amplitudes obtained here reduce to those for intersecting D1 branes obtained in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063 as well as those for intersecting D2 branes.

  16. Scanning tunnelling microscope light emission: Finite temperature current noise and over cut-off emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Vijith; Dawson, Paul; Mitra, J

    2017-06-14

    The spectral distribution of light emitted from a scanning tunnelling microscope junction not only bears its intrinsic plasmonic signature but is also imprinted with the characteristics of optical frequency fluc- tuations of the tunnel current. Experimental spectra from gold-gold tunnel junctions are presented that show a strong bias (V b ) dependence, curiously with emission at energies higher than the quantum cut-off (eV b ); a component that decays monotonically with increasing bias. The spectral evolution is explained by developing a theoretical model for the power spectral density of tunnel current fluctuations, incorporating finite temperature contribution through consideration of the quantum transport in the system. Notably, the observed decay of the over cut-off emission is found to be critically associated with, and well explained in terms of the variation in junction conductance with V b . The investigation highlights the scope of plasmon-mediated light emission as a unique probe of high frequency fluctuations in electronic systems that are fundamental to the electrical generation and control of plasmons.

  17. Brane-antibrane systems at finite temperature and phase transition near the Hagedorn temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the thermodynamic properties of brane-antibrane systems, we compute the finite temperature effective potential of tachyon T in this system on the basis of boundary string field theory. At low temperature, the minimum of the potential shifts towards T=0 as the temperature increases. In the D9-anti-D9 case, the sign of the coefficient of vertical bar T vertical bar 2 term of the potential changes slightly below the Hagedorn temperature. This means that a phase transition occurs near the Hagedorn temperature. On the other hand, the coefficient is kept negative in the Dp-anti-Dp case with p≤8, and thus a phase transition does not occur. This leads us to the conclusion that only a D9-anti-D9 pair and no other (lower dimensional) brane-antibrane pairs are created near the Hagedorn temperature. We also discuss a phase transition in NS9B-anti-NS9B case as a model of the Hagedorn transition of closed strings. (author)

  18. Second RPA dynamics at finite temperature: time-evolutions of dynamical operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.

    1989-01-01

    Time-evolutions of dynamical operators, in particular the generalized density matrix comprising both diagonal and off-diagonal elements, are investigated within the framework of second RPA dynamics at finite temperature. The calculation of the density matrix previously carried out through the appliance of the second RPA master equation by retaining only the slowly oscillating coupling terms is extended to include in the interaction Hamiltonian both the rapidly and slowly oscillating coupling terms. The extended second RPA master equation, thereby formulated without making use of the so-called resonant approximation, is analytically solved and a closed expression for the generalized density matrix is extracted. We provide illustrative examples of the generalized density matrix for various specific initial conditions. We turn particularly our attention to the Poisson distribution type of initial condition for which we deduce specifically a particular form of the density matrix from the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for the coherent state representation. The relation of the Fokker-Planck equation to the second RPA master equation and its properties are briefly discussed. The oversight incurred in the time-evolution of operators by the resonant approximation is elucidated. The first and second moments of collective coordinates are also computed in relation to the expectation value of various dynamical operators involved in the extended master equation

  19. Quark matter and quark stars at finite temperature in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Jia, Yu-Yue; Wang, Shu-Mei; Ma, Hong-Yang [Qingdao Technological University, School of Science, Qingdao (China); Li, Xiao-Hua [University of South China, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Cooperative Innovation Center for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology and Equipment, Hengyang (China)

    2017-08-15

    We extend the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to include two types of vector interaction. Using these two types of vector interaction in NJL model, we study the quark symmetry free energy in asymmetric quark matter, the constituent quark mass, the quark fraction, the equation of state (EOS) for β-equilibrium quark matter, the maximum mass of QSs at finite temperature, the maximum mass of proto-quark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution, and the effects of the vector interaction on the QCD phase diagram. We find that comparing zero temperature case, the values of quark matter symmetry free energy get larger with temperature increasing, which will reduce the difference between the fraction of u, d and s quarks and stiffen the EoS for β-equilibrium quark matter. In particular, our results indicate that the maximum masses of the quark stars increase with temperature because of the effects of the quark matter symmetry free energy, and we find that the heating(cooling) process for PQSs will increase (decrease) the maximum mass within NJL model. (orig.)

  20. Heavy-quark potential at finite temperature using the holographic correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the calculation of a heavy-quark potential in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature using the AdS/CFT correspondence. As is widely known, the potential calculated in the pioneering works of Rey et al.[Nucl. Phys. B527, 171 (1998)] and Brandhuber et al.[Phys. Lett. B 434, 36 (1998)] is zero for separation distances r between the quark and the antiquark above a certain critical separation, at which the potential has a kink. We point out that by analytically continuing the string configurations into the complex plane, and using a slightly different renormalization subtraction, one obtains a smooth nonzero (negative definite) potential without a kink. The obtained potential also has a nonzero imaginary (absorptive) part for separations r>r c =0.870/πT. Most importantly, at large separations r the real part of the potential does not exhibit the exponential Debye falloff expected from perturbation theory and instead falls off as a power law, proportional to 1/r 4 for r>r 0 =2.702/πT.

  1. Breaking of nucleon Cooper pairs at finite temperature in 93-98Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Mitchell, G. E.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The S shape of the canonical heat-capacity curve is known as a signature of the pairing transition, and along an isotopic chain it is significantly more pronounced for nuclei with an even number of neutrons than for those with an odd number. Although the heat capacities extracted from experimental level densities in 93-98 Mo exhibit a clear S shape, they do not show such an odd-even staggering. To understand the underlying physics, we analyze thermal quantities evaluated from the partition function calculated using the static-path plus random-phase approximation (SPA+RPA) in a monopole pairing model with number-parity projection. The calculated level densities reproduce very well the experimental data, and they also agree with estimates made using the back-shifted Fermi-gas model. We clarify the reason why the heat capacities for Mo isotopes do not show odd-even staggering of the S shape. We also discuss thermal odd-even mass differences in 94-97 Mo that were calculated using the three-, four-, and five-point formulas. These thermal mass differences are regarded as indicators of pairing correlations at finite temperature

  2. Perturbation theory of the quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon number density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    At very high energy densities, hadronic matter becomes an almost ideal gas of quarks and gluons. In these circumstances, the effects of particle interactions are small, and to some order in perturbation theory are computable by methods involving weak coupling expansions. To illustrate the perturbative methods which may be used to compute the thermodynamic potential, the results and methods which are employed to compute to first order in α/sub s/ are reviewed. The problem of the plasmon effect, and the necessity of using non-perturbative methods when going beyond first order in α/sub s/ in evaluating the thermodynamic potential are discussed. The results at zero temperature and finite baryon number density to second order in α/sub s/ are also reviewed. The method of renormalization group improving the weak coupling expansions by replacing the expansion by an expansion in a temperature and baryon number density dependent coupling which approaches zero at high energy densities is discussed. Non-perturbative effects such as instantons are briefly mentioned and the breakdown of perturbation theory for the thermodynamical at order α/sub s/ 3 for finite temperature is presented

  3. Finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Varun [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi,Delhi 110007 (India); Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Sarkar, Swarnendu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi,Delhi 110007 (India)

    2017-04-19

    We continue with the analysis of finite temperature corrections to the Tachyon mass in intersecting branes which was initiated in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063. In this paper we extend the computation to the case of intersecting D3 branes by considering a setup of two intersecting branes in flat-space background. A holographic model dual to BCS superconductor consisting of intersecting D8 branes in D4 brane background was proposed in https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2011.07.011. The background considered here is a simplified configuration of this dual model. We compute the one-loop Tachyon amplitude in the Yang-Mills approximation and show that the result is finite. Analyzing the amplitudes further we numerically compute the transition temperature at which the Tachyon becomes massless. The analytic expressions for the one-loop amplitudes obtained here reduce to those for intersecting D1 branes obtained in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)063 as well as those for intersecting D2 branes.

  4. Beyond-proximity-force-approximation Casimir force between two spheres at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    A recent experiment [J. L. Garrett, D. A. T. Somers, and J. N. Munday, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 040401 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.040401] measured for the first time the gradient of the Casimir force between two gold spheres at room temperature. The theoretical analysis of the data was carried out using the standard proximity force approximation (PFA). A fit of the data, using a parametrization of the force valid for the sphere-plate geometry, was used by the authors to place a bound on deviations from PFA. Motivated by this work, we compute the Casimir force between two gold spheres at finite temperature. The semianalytic formula for the Casimir force that we construct is valid for all separations, and can be easily used to interpret future experiments in both the sphere-plate and sphere-sphere configurations. We describe the correct parametrization of the corrections to PFA for two spheres that should be used in data analysis.

  5. Electric control of emergent magnonic spin current and dynamic multiferroicity in magnetic insulators at finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Chotorlishvili, L.; Guo, Guang-hua; Berakdar, J.

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of thermal energy into magnonic spin currents and/or effective electric polarization promises new device functionalities. A versatile approach is presented here for generating and controlling open circuit magnonic spin currents and an effective multiferroicity at a uniform temperature with the aid of spatially inhomogeneous, external, static electric fields. This field applied to a ferromagnetic insulator with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya type coupling changes locally the magnon dispersion and modifies the density of thermally excited magnons in a region of the scale of the field inhomogeneity. The resulting gradient in the magnon density can be viewed as a gradient in the effective magnon temperature. This effective thermal gradient together with local magnon dispersion result in an open-circuit, electric field controlled magnonic spin current. In fact, for a moderate variation in the external electric field the predicted magnonic spin current is on the scale of the spin (Seebeck) current generated by a comparable external temperature gradient. Analytical methods supported by full-fledge numerics confirm that both, a finite temperature and an inhomogeneous electric field are necessary for this emergent non-equilibrium phenomena. The proposal can be integrated in magnonic and multiferroic circuits, for instance to convert heat into electrically controlled pure spin current using for example nanopatterning, without the need to generate large thermal gradients on the nanoscale.

  6. Vibronic Boson Sampling: Generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling for Molecular Vibronic Spectra at Finite Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Yung, Man-Hong

    2017-08-07

    Molecular vibroic spectroscopy, where the transitions involve non-trivial Bosonic correlation due to the Duschinsky Rotation, is strongly believed to be in a similar complexity class as Boson Sampling. At finite temperature, the problem is represented as a Boson Sampling experiment with correlated Gaussian input states. This molecular problem with temperature effect is intimately related to the various versions of Boson Sampling sharing the similar computational complexity. Here we provide a full description to this relation in the context of Gaussian Boson Sampling. We find a hierarchical structure, which illustrates the relationship among various Boson Sampling schemes. Specifically, we show that every instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling with an initial correlation can be simulated by an instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling without initial correlation, with only a polynomial overhead. Since every Gaussian state is associated with a thermal state, our result implies that every sampling problem in molecular vibronic transitions, at any temperature, can be simulated by Gaussian Boson Sampling associated with a product of vacuum modes. We refer such a generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling motivated by the molecular sampling problem as Vibronic Boson Sampling.

  7. Coherent tunneling of atoms from Bose-condensed gases at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, David L.; Griffin, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Tunneling of atoms between two trapped Bose-condensed gases at finite temperatures is explored using a many-body linear-response tunneling formalism similar to that used in superconductors. To lowest order, the tunneling currents can be expressed quite generally in terms of the single-particle Green's functions of isolated Bose gases. A coherent first-order tunneling Josephson current between two atomic Bose-Einstein condensates is found, in addition to coherent and dissipative contributions from second-order condensate-noncondensate and noncondensate-noncondensate tunneling. Our work is a generalization of Meier and Zwerger, who recently treated tunneling between uniform atomic Bose gases. We apply our formalism to the analysis of an out-coupling experiment induced by light wave fields, using a simple Bogoliubov-Popov quasiparticle approximation for the trapped Bose gas. For tunneling into the vacuum, we recover the results of Japha, Choi, Burnett, and Band, who recently pointed out the usefulness of studying the spectrum of out-coupled atoms. In particular, we show that the small tunneling current of noncondensate atoms from a trapped Bose gas has a broad spectrum of energies, with a characteristic structure associated with the Bogoliubov quasiparticle u 2 and v 2 amplitudes

  8. Entanglement negativity and sudden death in the toric code at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, O.; Castelnovo, C.

    2018-04-01

    We study the fate of quantum correlations at finite temperature in the two-dimensional toric code using the logarithmic entanglement negativity. We are able to obtain exact results that give us insight into how thermal excitations affect quantum entanglement. The toric code has two types of elementary excitations (defects) costing different energies. We show that an O (1 ) density of the lower energy defect is required to degrade the zero-temperature entanglement between two subsystems in contact with one another. However, one type of excitation alone is not sufficient to kill all quantum correlations, and an O (1 ) density of the higher energy defect is required to cause the so-called sudden death of the negativity. Interestingly, if the energy cost of one of the excitations is taken to infinity, quantum correlations survive up to arbitrarily high temperatures, a feature that is likely shared with other quantum spin liquids and frustrated systems in general, when projected down to their low-energy states. We demonstrate this behavior both for small subsystems, where we can prove that the negativity is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability, as well as for extended subsystems, where it is only a necessary condition. We further observe that the negativity per boundary degree of freedom at a given temperature increases (parametrically) with the size of the boundary, and that quantum correlations between subsystems with extended boundaries are more robust to thermal fluctuations.

  9. Iterative optimized effective potential and exact exchange calculations at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Modine, Normand Arthur; Muller, Richard Partain; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Lippert, Ross A.; Sears, Mark P.; Wright, Alan Francis

    2006-01-01

    We report the implementation of an iterative scheme for calculating the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP). Given an energy functional that depends explicitly on the Kohn-Sham wave functions, and therefore, implicitly on the local effective potential appearing in the Kohn-Sham equations, a gradient-based minimization is used to find the potential that minimizes the energy. Previous work has shown how to find the gradient of such an energy with respect to the effective potential in the zero-temperature limit. We discuss a density-matrix-based derivation of the gradient that generalizes the previous results to the finite temperature regime, and we describe important optimizations used in our implementation. We have applied our OEP approach to the Hartree-Fock energy expression to perform Exact Exchange (EXX) calculations. We report our EXX results for common semiconductors and ordered phases of hydrogen at zero and finite electronic temperatures. We also discuss issues involved in the implementation of forces within the OEP/EXX approach.

  10. Magnetic hyperfine field at a Cd impurity diluted in RCo{sub 2} at finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A.L. de, E-mail: alexandre.oliveira@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Nilópolis – RJ (Brazil); Chaves, C.M., E-mail: cmch@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física Armando Dias Tavares, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Troper, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    The local magnetic moments and the magnetic hyperfine fields at an s–p Cd impurity diluted in inter-metallic Laves phase compounds RCo{sub 2} (R=Gd, Tb) at finite temperatures are calculated. For other rare earth elements (light or heavy) the pure compounds display a magnetic first order transition and are not describable by our formalism. The host has two coupled lattices (R and Co) both having itinerant d electrons but only the rare earth lattice has localized f electrons. They all contribute to the magnetization of the host and also to the local moment and to the magnetic hyperfine field at the impurity. The investigation of magnetic hyperfine field in these materials then provides valuable information on the d-itinerant electrons and also on the localized (4f) magnetic moments. For the d–d electronic interaction we use the Hubbard–Stratonovich identity thus allowing the employment of functional integral in the static saddle point approximation. Our model reproduces quite well the experimental data. - Highlights: • A functional integral method in the static limit, producing site disorder, is used. • The site disorder is treated with the coherent potential approximation (CPA) • A Friedel sum rule gives a self-consistency condition for the impurity energy. • The experimental curve of hyperfine fields×temperature is very well reproduced.

  11. Finite-temperature behavior of an impurity in the spin-1/2 XXZ chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahagi, Ryoko; Deguchi, Tetsuo; Sato, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We study the zero- and the finite-temperature behavior of the integrable spin-1/2 XXZ periodic chain with an impurity by the algebraic and thermal Bethe ansatz methods. We evaluate the local magnetization on the impurity site at zero temperature analytically and derive the impurity susceptibility exactly from it. In the graphs of the impurity specific heat versus temperature, we show how the impurity spin becomes more liberated from the bulk many-body effect as the exchange coupling between the impurity spin and other spins decreases and that at low temperature it couples strongly to them such as in the Kondo effect. Thus, we observe not only the crossover behavior from the high- to the low-temperature regime, but another from the N-site chain to the (N − 1)-site chain with a free impurity spin. We also show that the estimate of the Wilson ratio at a given low temperature is independent of the impurity parameter if its absolute value is small enough with respect to the temperature and the universality class is described by the XXZ anisotropy in terms of the dressed charge. (paper)

  12. Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K.

    2017-07-01

    Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.

  13. Effect of external magnetic field on superconducting and spin density wave gaps of high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, B., E-mail: brunda@iopb.res.i [Govt. Science College, Malkangiri 764 048 (India); Raj, B.K. [B.J.B. College, Bhubaneswar 751 014 (India); Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group P.G. Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F.M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India)

    2009-07-01

    A theoretical model is addressed here to study the interplay of the superconductivity (SC) and the spin density wave (SDW) long range orders in underdoped region in the vicinity of on-set of superconductivity in presence of an external magnetic field. The order parameters are calculated by using Zubarev's technique of Green's functions and determined numerically self-consistently. The gap parameters are found to be strongly coupled to each other through their coupling constants. The interplay displays BCS type two gaps in the quasi-particle density of states (DOS) which resemble the tunneling conductance of STM experiments. The gap edges in the DOS appear at +-(z+z{sub 1}) and +-(z-z{sub 1}). The applied magnetic field further induces Zeeman splitting which is explained on the basis of spin-filter effect of tunneling experiment.

  14. Effect of external magnetic field on superconducting and spin density wave gaps of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, B.; Raj, B.K.; Rout, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model is addressed here to study the interplay of the superconductivity (SC) and the spin density wave (SDW) long range orders in underdoped region in the vicinity of on-set of superconductivity in presence of an external magnetic field. The order parameters are calculated by using Zubarev's technique of Green's functions and determined numerically self-consistently. The gap parameters are found to be strongly coupled to each other through their coupling constants. The interplay displays BCS type two gaps in the quasi-particle density of states (DOS) which resemble the tunneling conductance of STM experiments. The gap edges in the DOS appear at ±(z+z 1 ) and ±(z-z 1 ). The applied magnetic field further induces Zeeman splitting which is explained on the basis of spin-filter effect of tunneling experiment.

  15. A temperature dependent tunneling study of the spin density wave gap in EuFe2As2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Anupam; Hossain, Z; Gupta, Anjan K

    2013-09-18

    We report temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements on single crystals of EuFe2As2 in the 15-292 K temperature range. The in situ cleaved crystals show atomic terraces with homogeneous tunnel spectra that correlate well with the spin density wave (SDW) transition at a temperature, TSDW ≈ 186 K. Above TSDW the local tunnel spectra show a small depression in the density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy (EF). The gap becomes more pronounced upon entering the SDW state with a gap value ∼90 meV at 15 K. However, the zero bias conductance remains finite down to 15 K indicating a finite DOS at the EF in the SDW phase. Furthermore, no noticeable change is observed in the DOS at the antiferromagnetic ordering transition of Eu(2+) moments at 19 K.

  16. Atomic structures of the rare-earths and actinides via relativistic current- and spin-density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, M.; Onuki, Y.; Osaka Univ., Toyonaka; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    A new single-particle equation of the Kohn-Sham-Dirac type is derived from a relativistic current- and spin-density functional theory (RCSDFT), and is here applied to the calculations of the atomic structures of the rare-earth elements. Both the relativistic effects and the magnetic effects are taken into account on an equal footing, and the numerical calculation is carried out by modifying the method of Cortona et al. Because of the presence of the effective magnetic field, the degeneracies in all orbits are completely resolved like the Zeeman splittings. Total spin and orbital angular momenta over all the occupied states are shown to agree reasonably well with the Hund's rules for the rare-earth ions. (orig.)

  17. Chiral ward-Takahashi identities at finite temperature and chiral phase transition in (2+1) dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Kun; Qiu Zhongping

    1993-01-01

    Chiral Ward-Takahashi identities at finite temperature are derived in (2+1) dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model. In terms of these identities, fermion mass generation and the mass spectra of bound states are investigate at finite temperature. Taking the fermion mass as an order parameter, the authors discuss the phase structure and chiral phase transition and obtain the critical temperature

  18. Importance of finite-temperature exchange correlation for warm dense matter calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasiev, Valentin V; Calderín, Lázaro; Trickey, S B

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an explicit temperature dependence in the exchange correlation (XC) free-energy functional upon calculated properties of matter in the warm dense regime are investigated. The comparison is between the Karasiev-Sjostrom-Dufty-Trickey (KSDT) finite-temperature local-density approximation (TLDA) XC functional [Karasiev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.076403] parametrized from restricted path-integral Monte Carlo data on the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and the conventional Monte Carlo parametrization ground-state LDA XC [Perdew-Zunger (PZ)] functional evaluated with T-dependent densities. Both Kohn-Sham (KS) and orbital-free density-functional theories are used, depending upon computational resource demands. Compared to the PZ functional, the KSDT functional generally lowers the dc electrical conductivity of low-density Al, yielding improved agreement with experiment. The greatest lowering is about 15% for T=15 kK. Correspondingly, the KS band structure of low-density fcc Al from the KSDT functional exhibits a clear increase in interband separation above the Fermi level compared to the PZ bands. In some density-temperature regimes, the deuterium equations of state obtained from the two XC functionals exhibit pressure differences as large as 4% and a 6% range of differences. However, the hydrogen principal Hugoniot is insensitive to the explicit XC T dependence because of cancellation between the energy and pressure-volume work difference terms in the Rankine-Hugoniot equation. Finally, the temperature at which the HEG becomes unstable is T≥7200 K for the T-dependent XC, a result that the ground-state XC underestimates by about 1000 K.

  19. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2015-09-14

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  20. Isovector pairing effect on nuclear moment of inertia at finite temperature in N = Z even–even systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ami, I.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M.R.; Belabbas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Expressions of temperature-dependent perpendicular (ℑ⊥) and parallel (ℑ‖) moments of inertia, including isovector pairing effects, have been established using the cranking method. They are derived from recently proposed temperature-dependent gap equations. The obtained expressions generalize the conventional finite-temperature BCS (FTBCS) ones. Numerical calculations have been carried out within the framework of the schematic Richardson model as well as for nuclei such as N = Z, using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of a deformed Woods–Saxon mean-field. ℑ⊥ and ℑ‖ have been studied as a function of the temperature. It has been shown that the isovector pairing effect on both the perpendicular and parallel moments of inertia is non-negligible at finite temperature. These correlations must thus be taking into account in studies of warm rotating nuclei in the N ≃ Z region. (author)

  1. Perturbative study in quantum field theory at finite temperature, application to lepton pair production from a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altherr, T.

    1989-12-01

    The main topic of this thesis is a perturbative study of Quantum Field Theory at Finite Temperature. The real-time formalism is used throughout this work. We show the cancellation of infrared and mass singularities in the case of the first order QCD corrections to lepton pair production from a quark-gluon plasma. Two methods of calculation are presented and give the same finite result in the limit of vanishing quark mass. These finite terms are analysed and give small corrections in the region of interest for ultra-relativistic heavy ions collisions, except for a threshold factor. Specific techniques for finite temperature calculations are explicited in the case of the fermionic self-energy in QED [fr

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ca-Sn system based on finite temperature quantities from first-principles and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, M.; Kozlov, A.; Arroyave, R.; Liu, Z.K.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic model of the Ca-Sn system was obtained, utilizing the first-principles total energies and heat capacities calculated from 0 K to the melting points of the major phases. Since the first-principles result for the formation energy of the dominating Ca 2 Sn intermetallic phase is drastically different from the reported experimental data, we performed two types of thermodynamic modeling: one based on the first-principles output and the other based on the experimental data. In the former modeling, the Gibbs energies of the intermetallic compounds were fully quantified from the first-principles finite temperature properties and the superiority of the former thermodynamic description is demonstrated. It is shown that it is the combination of finite temperature first-principle calculations and the Calphad modeling tool that provides a sound basis for identifying and deciding on conflicting key thermodynamic data in the Ca-Sn system

  3. Finite-temperature dynamic structure factor of the spin-1 XXZ chain with single-ion anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Ejima, Satoshi; Fehske, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Improving matrix-product state techniques based on the purification of the density matrix, we are able to accurately calculate the finite-temperature dynamic response of the infinite spin-1 XXZ chain with single-ion anisotropy in the Haldane, large-D , and antiferromagnetic phases. Distinct thermally activated scattering processes make a significant contribution to the spectral weight in all cases. In the Haldane phase, intraband magnon scattering is prominent, and the on-site anisotropy causes the magnon to split into singlet and doublet branches. In the large-D phase response, the intraband signal is separated from an exciton-antiexciton continuum. In the antiferromagnetic phase, holons are the lowest-lying excitations, with a gap that closes at the transition to the Haldane state. At finite temperatures, scattering between domain-wall excitations becomes especially important and strongly enhances the spectral weight for momentum transfer π .

  4. Phase structure of lattice QCD at finite temperature for 2+1 flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Fukugita, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Kaneda, T.; Kaya, S.; Kuramashi, Y.; Okawa, M.; Onogi, T.; Tominaga, S.; Tsutsui, N.; Ukawa, A.; Yamada, N.; Yoshie, T.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a study of the finite-temperature chiral transition on an N t = 4 lattice for 2 + 1 flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks. We find the point of physical quark masses to lie in the region of crossover, in agreement with results of previous studies. Results of a detailed examination of the m u,d = m s case indicate vanishing of the screening mass of σ meson at the end point of the first-order transition

  5. Extended Holstein-Primakoff mapping for the next-to-leading order of the 1/N expansion at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhioev, Alan; Storozhenko, A.; Vdovin, A.; Aouissat, Z.; Wambach, J.

    2004-01-01

    An extended Holstein-Primakoff mapping which incorporates both single- and double-fermion mappings is used in the context of thermofield dynamics to study the next-to-leading order of the 1/N expansion at finite temperature. For the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model it is shown that the extended mapping naturally leads to the correct Fermi statistics both in leading and next-to-leading order

  6. Finite temperature magnon spectra in yttrium iron garnet from a mean field approach in a tight-binding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ka

    2018-04-01

    We study magnon spectra at finite temperature in yttrium iron garnet using a tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor exchange interaction. The spin reduction due to thermal magnon excitation is taken into account via the mean field approximation to the local spin and is found to be different at two sets of iron atoms. The resulting temperature dependence of the spin wave gap shows good agreement with experiment. We find that only two magnon modes are relevant to the ferromagnetic resonance.

  7. Low-frequency permittivity of spin-density wave in (TMTSF)2PF6 at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nad, F.; Monceau, P.; Bechgaard, K.

    1995-01-01

    Conductivity and permittivity epsilon of(TMTSF)(2)PF6 have been measured at low frequencies of (10(2)-10(7) Hz) at low temperatures below the spin-density wave (SDW) transition temperature T-p. The temperature dependence of the conductivity shows a deviation from thermally activated behavior at T...

  8. Effective field theories of QCD for heavy quarkonia at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo

    2011-01-01

    Quarkonia, i.e. heavy quark-antiquark bound states, represent one of the most important probes in the experimental investigation, through heavy-ion collisions, of the high-temperature region of the phase diagram of QCD, where the onset of a deconfined medium, the quark-gluon plasma, is expected. Such bound states were hypothesized to dissociate in this plasma due to the screening of the colour charges and experimental data from SPS, RHIC and very recently also LHC indeed show a suppression pattern. In this thesis we extend the well-established and successful zero temperature framework of Non-Relativistic (NR) Effective Field Theories (EFTs) (NRQCD, pNRQCD) for the study of heavy quarkonia (production, spectroscopy, decays,..) to finite temperatures. This is achieved by integrating out in sequence the scales that characterize a NR bound state and those that are typical of a thermal medium, in the possible hierarchies that are relevant for quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma. Within this framework we show how the potential that governs the evolution of the quark-antiquark pair is derived from QCD in a modern and rigorous way, thereby bridging the gap between phenomenological potential models and QCD. We show how the EFTs can be systematically improved and how effects that cannot be encoded in a potential arise naturally in the EFT, giving rise to new mechanisms of dissociation. We use this EFT framework to compute the spectrum and width of quarkonia in a particular setting that is relevant for the phenomenology of the ground states of bottomonium at the LHC. We also analyze within this framework the correlator of Polyakov loops, which is related to the thermodynamical free energy of heavy quark-antiquark pairs in the medium. As such, lattice computations thereof were frequently used as input for potential models. With our approach we are able to clarify the relation between these free energies and the real-time potential describing the dynamics of quarkonia, finding

  9. Effective field theories of QCD for heavy quarkonia at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo

    2011-07-27

    Quarkonia, i.e. heavy quark-antiquark bound states, represent one of the most important probes in the experimental investigation, through heavy-ion collisions, of the high-temperature region of the phase diagram of QCD, where the onset of a deconfined medium, the quark-gluon plasma, is expected. Such bound states were hypothesized to dissociate in this plasma due to the screening of the colour charges and experimental data from SPS, RHIC and very recently also LHC indeed show a suppression pattern. In this thesis we extend the well-established and successful zero temperature framework of Non-Relativistic (NR) Effective Field Theories (EFTs) (NRQCD, pNRQCD) for the study of heavy quarkonia (production, spectroscopy, decays,..) to finite temperatures. This is achieved by integrating out in sequence the scales that characterize a NR bound state and those that are typical of a thermal medium, in the possible hierarchies that are relevant for quarkonia in the quark-gluon plasma. Within this framework we show how the potential that governs the evolution of the quark-antiquark pair is derived from QCD in a modern and rigorous way, thereby bridging the gap between phenomenological potential models and QCD. We show how the EFTs can be systematically improved and how effects that cannot be encoded in a potential arise naturally in the EFT, giving rise to new mechanisms of dissociation. We use this EFT framework to compute the spectrum and width of quarkonia in a particular setting that is relevant for the phenomenology of the ground states of bottomonium at the LHC. We also analyze within this framework the correlator of Polyakov loops, which is related to the thermodynamical free energy of heavy quark-antiquark pairs in the medium. As such, lattice computations thereof were frequently used as input for potential models. With our approach we are able to clarify the relation between these free energies and the real-time potential describing the dynamics of quarkonia, finding

  10. Pressure effects on spin density wave in Cr rich Cr-Al, Si, Mn, Fe and Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuki, Jun-ichiro; Endoh, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the spin density wave (SDW) state in Cr rich Cr-Al, Si, Nn, Fe and Co alloys has been elucidated by neutron diffraction studies. We found that the change of the SDW wave vector Q, by applying pressure, 1/Q. delta Q/ delta P, is linearly related to the decrease of T sub(N) with increasing pressure 1/T sub(N). delta T sub(N)/ delta P and that all the results from the Cr-Si, Fe and Co alloys fall on a single straight line independent of their concentrations. Their magnetic phase diagrams in a temperature-pressure coordinate system can be related to the alloy phase diagram by employing an empirical rule that applying pressure corresponds to a decrese in the electron to atom ratio. The non transition metal Si impurity has been found to act as an electron donor, while the effect of Al is not interpreted by the two band nesting model. (author)

  11. Switching of the Spin-Density-Wave in CeCoIn5 probed by Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Weickert, Franziska; Bauer, Eric D.; Ronning, Filip; Thompson, Joe D.; Movshovich, Roman

    Unconventional superconductor CeCoIn5 orders magnetically in a spin-density-wave (SDW) in the low-temperature and high-field corner of the superconducting phase. Recent neutron scattering experiment revealed that the single-domain SDW's ordering vector Q depends strongly on the direction of the magnetic field, switching sharply as the field is rotated through the anti-nodal direction. This switching may be manifestation of a pair-density-wave (PDW) p-wave order parameter, which develops in addition to the well-established d-wave order parameter due to the SDW formation. We have investigated the hypersensitivity of the magnetic domain with a thermal conductivity measurement. The heat current (J) was applied along the [110] direction such that the Q vector is either perpendicular or parallel to J, depending on the magnetic field direction. A discontinuous change of the thermal conductivity was observed when the magnetic field is rotated around the [100] direction within 0 . 2° . The thermal conductivity with the Q parallel to the heat current (J ∥Q) is approximately 15% lager than that with the Q perpendicular to the heat current (J ⊥Q). This result is consistent with additional gapping of the nodal quasiparticle by the p-wave PDW coupled to SDW. Work at Los Alamos was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  12. Exact-exchange spin-density functional theory of Wigner localization and phase transitions in quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thorsten; Siegmund, Marc; Pankratov, Oleg

    2011-08-24

    We apply exact-exchange spin-density functional theory in the Krieger-Li-Iafrate approximation to interacting electrons in quantum rings of different widths. The rings are threaded by a magnetic flux that induces a persistent current. A weak space and spin symmetry breaking potential is introduced to allow for localized solutions. As the electron-electron interaction strength described by the dimensionless parameter r(S) is increased, we observe-at a fixed spin magnetic moment-the subsequent transition of both spin sub-systems from the Fermi liquid to the Wigner crystal state. A dramatic signature of Wigner crystallization is that the persistent current drops sharply with increasing r(S). We observe simultaneously the emergence of pronounced oscillations in the spin-resolved densities and in the electron localization functions indicating a spatial electron localization showing ferrimagnetic order after both spin sub-systems have undergone the Wigner crystallization. The critical r(S)(c) at the transition point is substantially smaller than in a fully spin-polarized system and decreases further with decreasing ring width. Relaxing the constraint of a fixed spin magnetic moment, we find that on increasing r(S) the stable phase changes from an unpolarized Fermi liquid to an antiferromagnetic Wigner crystal and finally to a fully polarized Fermi liquid. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  13. Semiclassical approach to finite-temperature quantum annealing with trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raventós, David; Graß, Tobias; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that an ensemble of trapped ions may serve as a quantum annealer for the number-partitioning problem [Nat. Commun. 7, 11524 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms11524]. This hard computational problem may be addressed by employing a tunable spin-glass architecture. Following the proposal of the trapped-ion annealer, we study here its robustness against thermal effects; that is, we investigate the role played by thermal phonons. For the efficient description of the system, we use a semiclassical approach, and benchmark it against the exact quantum evolution. The aim is to understand better and characterize how the quantum device approaches a solution of an otherwise difficult to solve NP-hard problem.

  14. Non-Markovian finite-temperature two-time correlation functions of system operators of a pure-dephasing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Jian, Chung-Chin; Chen, Po-Wen

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the non-Markovian finite-temperature two-time correlation functions (CF's) of system operators of a pure-dephasing spin-boson model in two different ways, one by the direct exact operator technique and the other by the recently derived evolution equations, valid to second order in the system-environment interaction Hamiltonian. This pure-dephasing spin-boson model that is exactly solvable has been extensively studied as a simple decoherence model. However, its exact non-Markovian finite-temperature two-time system operator CF's, to our knowledge, have not been presented in the literature. This may be mainly due to the fact, illustrated in this article, that in contrast to the Markovian case, the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of the system (or the reduced quantum master equation) alone is not sufficient to calculate the two-time system operator CF's of non-Markovian open systems. The two-time CF's obtained using the recently derived evolution equations in the weak system-environment coupling case for this non-Markovian pure-dephasing model happen to be the same as those obtained from the exact evaluation. However, these results significantly differ from the non-Markovian two-time CF's obtained by wrongly directly applying the quantum regression theorem (QRT), a useful procedure to calculate the two-time CF's for weak-coupling Markovian open systems. This demonstrates clearly that the recently derived evolution equations generalize correctly the QRT to non-Markovian finite-temperature cases. It is believed that these evolution equations will have applications in many different branches of physics.

  15. Proper energy of an electron in a topologically massive (2 + 1) quantum electrodynamics system at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskii, K.V.; Eminov, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The one-loop approximation is used to calculate the effects of finite temperature and nonzero chemical potential on the electron energy shift in a (2 + 1)-quantum electrodynamic system containing a Churn-Simon term. The induced electron mass is derived with a massless (2 + 1)-quantum electrodynamic system together with the exchange correction to the thermodynamic potential for a completely degenerate electron gas. It is shown that in the last case, incorporating the Churn-Simon term leads to loss of the gap in the direction law

  16. Study of the O(N) linear σ model at finite temperature using the 2PPI expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschelde, H.; De Pessemier, J.

    2002-01-01

    We show that a new expansion, which sums seagull and bubble graphs to all orders, can be applied to the O(N) linear σ-model at finite temperature. We prove that this expansion can be renormalized with the usual counterterms in a mass independent scheme and that Goldstone's theorem is satisfied at each order. At the one loop order of this expansion, the Hartree result for the effective potential (daisy and superdaisy graphs) is recovered. We show that at one loop 2PPI order, the self-energy of the σ-meson can be calculated exactly and that diagrams are summed beyond the Hartree approximation. (orig.)

  17. A mean field theory of study of lattice gauge theory with finite temperature and with finite fermion density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, S.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a mean field theory technique to study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition and chiral symmetry restoring phase transition with dynamical fermions and with finite chemical potential and finite temperature. The approximation scheme concerns the saddle point scenario and large space dimension. The static quark-antiquark potentials are identified from the Wilson loop correlation functions in both the fundamental and the adjoint representation of the gauge group with different temperatures. The difference between the responses of the chemical potential to the fermion number with singlet and non-singlet isospin configuration is found. We compare our results with recent Monte Carlo data. (orig.)

  18. Finite temperature effective action, AdS5 black holes, and 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Gomez, Cesar; Liu Hong; Wadia, Spenta R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological matrix model to study string theory in AdS 5 xS 5 in the canonical ensemble. The model reproduces all the known qualitative features of the theory. In particular, it gives a simple effective potential description of Euclidean black hole nucleation and the tunneling between thermal anti-de Sitter (AdS) and the big black hole. It also has some interesting predictions. We find that there exists a critical temperature at which the Euclidean small black hole undergoes a Gross-Witten phase transition. We identify the phase transition with the Horowitz-Polchinski point where the black hole horizon size becomes comparable to the string scale. The appearance of the Hagedorn divergence of thermal AdS is due to the merger of saddle points corresponding to the Euclidean small black hole and thermal AdS. The merger can be described in terms of a cusp (A 3 ) catastrophe and divergences at the perturbative string level are smoothed out at finite string coupling using standard techniques of catastrophe theory

  19. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W.; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model

  20. 1H NMR studies in the regime of the field-induced spin-density wave phases of (TMTSF)2PF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.E.; Pieper, M.; Clark, W.G.; Chow, D.S.; Alavi, B.

    1999-01-01

    We report 1 H proton spin-lattice relaxation measurements T 1 -1 on pressurized (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 in high magnetic fields. Maxima in T 1 -1 identify the phase transition to the field-induced spin-density wave (FISDW) state. Fluctuation effects are evident at temperatures above the transition, and vanish continuously in strength as the field is lowered to the critical field B c for the onset of the FISDW cascade. (orig.)

  1. Finite-Temperature Non-equilibrium Quasicontinuum Method based on Langevin Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marian, J; Venturini, G; Hansen, B; Knap, J; Ortiz, M; Campbell, G

    2009-05-08

    The concurrent bridging of molecular dynamics and continuum thermodynamics presents a number of challenges, mostly associated with energy transmission and changes in the constitutive description of a material across domain boundaries. In this paper, we propose a framework for simulating coarse dynamic systems in the canonical ensemble using the Quasicontinuum method (QC). The equations of motion are expressed in reduced QC coordinates and are strictly derived from dissipative Lagrangian mechanics. The derivation naturally leads to a classical Langevin implementation where the timescale is governed by vibrations emanating from the finest length scale occurring in the computational cell. The equations of motion are integrated explicitly via Newmark's ({beta} = 0; {gamma} = 1/2) method, leading to a robust numerical behavior and energy conservation. In its current form, the method only allows for wave propagations supported by the less compliant of the two meshes across a heterogeneous boundary, which requires the use of overdamped dynamics to avoid spurious heating due to reflected vibrations. We have applied the method to two independent crystallographic systems characterized by different interatomic potentials (Al and Ta) and have measured thermal expansion in order to quantify the vibrational entropy loss due to homogenization. We rationalize the results in terms of system size, mesh coarseness, and nodal cluster diameter within the framework of the quasiharmonic approximation. For Al, we find that the entropy loss introduced by mesh coarsening varies linearly with the element size, and that volumetric effects are not critical in driving the anharmonic behavior of the simulated systems. In Ta, the anomalies of the interatomic potential employed result in negative and zero thermal expansion at low and high temperatures, respectively.

  2. Structural flexibility of the sulfur mustard molecule at finite temperature from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Joanna; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the most dangerous chemical compounds used against humans, mostly at war conditions but also in terrorist attacks. Even though the sulfur mustard has been synthesized over a hundred years ago, some of its molecular properties are not yet resolved. We investigate the structural flexibility of the SM molecule in the gas phase by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough conformation analysis of 81 different SM configurations using density functional theory is performed to analyze the behavior of the system at finite temperature. The conformational diversity is analyzed with respect to the formation of intramolecular blue-shifting CH⋯S and CH⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that all structural rearrangements between SM local minima are realized either in direct or non-direct way, including the intermediate structure in the last case. We study the lifetime of the SM conformers and perform the population analysis. Additionally, we provide the anharmonic dynamical finite temperature IR spectrum from the Fourier Transform of the dipole moment autocorrelation function to mimic the missing experimental IR spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exact effective action for (1+1)-dimensional fermions in an Abelian background at finite temperature and chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Soraya G.; Perez, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of a nonzero chemical potential in (1+1)-dimensional quantum field models at finite temperature. We particularly consider massless fermions in an Abelian gauge field background and calculate the effective action by evaluating the n-point functions. We find that the structure of the amplitudes corresponds to a generalization of the structure noted earlier in a calculation without a chemical potential (the associated integrals carry the dependence on the chemical potential). Our calculation shows that the chiral anomaly is unaffected by the presence of a chemical potential at finite temperature. However, unlike in the absence of a chemical potential, odd point functions do not vanish. We trace this to the fact that in the presence of a chemical potential the generalized charge conjugation symmetry of the theory allows for such amplitudes. In fact, we find that all the even point functions are even functions of μ, while the odd point functions are odd functions of μ which is consistent with this generalized charge conjugation symmetry. We show that the origin of the structure of the amplitudes is best seen from a formulation of the theory in terms of left- and right-handed spinors. The calculations are also much simpler in this formulation and it clarifies many other aspects of the theory.

  4. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  5. Metal-ligand delocalization and spin density in the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} molecules: Some insights from wave function theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giner, Emmanuel, E-mail: gnrmnl@unife.it; Angeli, Celestino, E-mail: anc@unife.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Famaceutiche, Universita di Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this paper is to unravel the physical phenomena involved in the calculation of the spin density of the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} systems using wave function methods. Various types of wave functions are used here, both variational and perturbative, to analyse the effects impacting the spin density. It is found that the spin density on the chlorine ligands strongly depends on the mixing between two types of valence bond structures. It is demonstrated that the main difficulties found in most of the previous studies based on wave function methods come from the fact that each valence bond structure requires a different set of molecular orbitals and that using a unique set of molecular orbitals in a variational procedure leads to the removal of one of them from the wave function. Starting from these results, a method to compute the spin density at a reasonable computational cost is proposed.

  6. The second RPA description for the decay of the one-phonon nuclear collective states at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannouleas, C.; Jang, S.

    1986-01-01

    The zero-temperature second RPA is generalized to finite temperatures through the use of the method of linearization of the equations of motion. After elimination of the quadruples, for low enough temperatures and within the subspace spanned by the doubles, a proper symmetrization yields an eigenvalue equation which exhibits formal properties like the simple RPA. From this second RPA eigenvalue equation, a closed formula for the spreading width of an isolated collective state is extracted. The second RPA can be recast in the form of a generalized collision term and be compared with the method of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the two-body Green function. However, the second RPA method (and results) contrasts with the approach (and corresponding results) of the Boltzmann collision term, which is usually viewed as the appropriate agent for nuclear dissipation. (orig.)

  7. System of equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with allowance for phonon scattering at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of giant resonances in reactions of nuclei with heavy ions and in deep inelastic processes has stimulated interest in the study of the properties of highly excited nuclei. By taking into account exactly the population numbers of the single-phonon levels, the authors obtain a system of equations describing the interaction with the configurations in even-even spherical nuclei at a finite temperature. The Pauli principle is taken into account for the two-phonon components of the wave function of the excited states in accordance with an approximate procedure. The new diagrams associated with the introduction of the temperature are analyzed, and a comparison is made with the diagrams of nuclear field theory and the results of the theory of finite Fermi systems

  8. Deconfinement and universality in the 3DU(1) lattice gauge theory at finite temperature: study in the dual formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisenko, O.; Chelnokov, V. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,UA-03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Gravina, M.; Papa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and INFN - Gruppo collegato di Cosenza,I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

    2015-09-10

    We study analytically and numerically the three-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory at finite temperature in the dual formulation. For an appropriate disorder operator, we obtain the renormalization group equations describing the critical behavior of the model in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition. These equations are used to check the validity of the Svetitsky-Yaffe conjecture regarding the critical behavior of the lattice U(1) model. Furthermore, we perform numerical simulations of the model for N{sub t}=1,2,4,8 and compute, by a cluster algorithm, the dual correlation functions and the corresponding second moment correlation length. In this way we locate the position of the critical point and calculate critical indices.

  9. Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior and Continuously Tunable Resistivity Exponents in the Anderson-Hubbard Model at Finite Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Niravkumar D. [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mukherjee, Anamitra [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni (India); Kaushal, Nitin [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Moreo, Adriana [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Here, we employ a recently developed computational many-body technique to study for the first time the half-filled Anderson-Hubbard model at finite temperature and arbitrary correlation U and disorder V strengths. Interestingly, the narrow zero temperature metallic range induced by disorder from the Mott insulator expands with increasing temperature in a manner resembling a quantum critical point. Our study of the resistivity temperature scaling Tα for this metal reveals non-Fermi liquid characteristics. Moreover, a continuous dependence of α on U and V from linear to nearly quadratic is observed. We argue that these exotic results arise from a systematic change with U and V of the “effective” disorder, a combination of quenched disorder and intrinsic localized spins.

  10. Sudden transitions and scaling behavior of geometric quantum correlation for two qubits in quantum critical environments at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transitions in geometric quantum correlation of two qubits in spin chain environments at finite temperature. It is shown that when only one qubit is coupled to the spin environment, the geometric discord exhibits a double sudden transition behavior, which is closely related to the quantum criticality of the spin chain environment. When two qubits are uniformly coupled to a common spin chain environment, the geometric discord is found to display a sudden transition behavior whereby the system transits from pure classical decoherence to pure quantum decoherence. Moreover, an interesting scaling behavior is revealed for the frozen time, and we also present a scheme to prolong the time during which the discord remains constant by applying bang–bang pulses. (paper)

  11. Overcoming the sign problem at finite temperature: Quantum tensor network for the orbital eg model on an infinite square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2017-07-01

    The variational tensor network renormalization approach to two-dimensional (2D) quantum systems at finite temperature is applied to a model suffering the notorious quantum Monte Carlo sign problem—the orbital eg model with spatially highly anisotropic orbital interactions. Coarse graining of the tensor network along the inverse temperature β yields a numerically tractable 2D tensor network representing the Gibbs state. Its bond dimension D —limiting the amount of entanglement—is a natural refinement parameter. Increasing D we obtain a converged order parameter and its linear susceptibility close to the critical point. They confirm the existence of finite order parameter below the critical temperature Tc, provide a numerically exact estimate of Tc, and give the critical exponents within 1 % of the 2D Ising universality class.

  12. Concurrence of dynamical phase transitions at finite temperature in the fully connected transverse-field Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Johannes; Frank, Bernhard; Halimeh, Jad C.

    2018-05-01

    We construct the finite-temperature dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected transverse-field Ising model from the vantage point of two disparate concepts of dynamical criticality. An analytical derivation of the classical dynamics and exact diagonalization simulations are used to study the dynamics after a quantum quench in the system prepared in a thermal equilibrium state. The different dynamical phases characterized by the type of nonanalyticities that emerge in an appropriately defined Loschmidt-echo return rate directly correspond to the dynamical phases determined by the spontaneous breaking of Z2 symmetry in the long-time steady state. The dynamical phase diagram is qualitatively different depending on whether the initial thermal state is ferromagnetic or paramagnetic. Whereas the former leads to a dynamical phase diagram that can be directly related to its equilibrium counterpart, the latter gives rise to a divergent dynamical critical temperature at vanishing final transverse-field strength.

  13. Improved ring potential of QED at finite temperature and in the presence of weak and strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadooghi, N.; Anaraki, K. Sohrabi

    2008-01-01

    Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor Π μν (k 0 ,k) in the infrared (IR) limit, k 0 →0, the ring contribution to the QED effective potential at finite temperature and the nonzero magnetic field is determined beyond the static limit, (k 0 →0, k→0). The resulting ring potential is then studied in weak and strong magnetic field limits. In the weak magnetic field limit, at high temperature and for α→0, the improved ring potential consists of a term proportional to T 4 α 5/2 , in addition to the expected T 4 α 3/2 term arising from the static limit. Here, α is the fine structure constant. In the limit of the strong magnetic field, where QED dynamics is dominated by the lowest Landau level, the ring potential includes a novel term consisting of dilogarithmic function (eB)Li 2 (-(2α/π)(eB/m 2 )). Using the ring improved (one-loop) effective potential including the one-loop effective potential and ring potential in the IR limit, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking of QED is studied at finite temperature and in the presence of the strong magnetic field. The gap equation, the dynamical mass and the critical temperature of QED in the regime of the lowest Landau level dominance are determined in the improved IR as well as in the static limit. For a given value of the magnetic field, the improved ring potential is shown to be more efficient in decreasing the critical temperature arising from the one-loop effective potential.

  14. Symmetric minimally entangled typical thermal states, grand-canonical ensembles, and the influence of the collapse bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas

    Based on DMRG, strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). Here, we show how symmetries of the system can be exploited to considerably reduce computation costs in the METTS algorithm. While this is straightforward for the canonical ensemble, we introduce a modification of the algorithm to efficiently simulate the grand-canonical ensemble under utilization of symmetries. In addition, we construct novel symmetry-conserving collapse bases for the transitions in the Markov chain of METTS that improve the speed of convergence of the algorithm by reducing autocorrelations.

  15. Spin contamination analogy, Kramers pairs symmetry and spin density representations at the 2-component unrestricted Hartree-Fock level of theory

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský, Lukáš

    2015-05-11

    "Kramers pairs symmetry breaking" is evaluated at the 2-component (2c) Kramers unrestricted and/or general complex Hartree-Fock (GCHF) level of theory, and its analogy with "spin contamination" at the 1-component (1c) unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) level of theory is emphasized. The GCHF "Kramers pairs symmetry breaking" evaluation is using the square of overlaps between the set of occupied spinorbitals with the projected set of Kramers pairs. In the same fashion, overlaps between α and β orbitals are used in the evaluation of "spin contamination" at the UHF level of theory. In this manner, UHF Š2 expectation value is made formally extended to the GCHF case. The directly evaluated GCHF expectation value of the Š2 operator is considered for completeness. It is found that the 2c GCHF Kramers pairs symmetry breaking has a very similar extent in comparison to the 1c UHF spin contamination. Thus higher excited states contributions to the 1c and 2c unrestricted wave functions of open shell systems have almost the same extent and physical consequences. Moreover, it is formally shown that a single determinant wave function in the restricted open shell Kramers case has the expectation value of K2 operator equal to the negative number of open shell electrons, while the eigenvalue of K2 for the series of simple systems (H, He, He*-triplet, Li and Li*-quartet) are found to be equal to minus the square of the number of open shell electrons. The concept of unpaired electron density is extended to the GCHF regime and compared to UHF and restricted open shell Hartree-Fock spin density. The "collinear" and "noncollinear" analogs of spin density at the GCHF level of theory are considered as well. Spin contamination and/or Kramers pairs symmetry breaking, spin populations and spin densities are considered for H2O+, Cl, HCl+, phenoxyl radical (C6H5O) as well as for Cu, Cu2+, Fe and the [OsCl5(1H-pyrazole)]- anion. The 1c and 2c unpaired electron density representation is found

  16. Measurement of the spin density matrix for the $\\rho^0$, $K^{*0}(892)$ and $\\phi$ produced in $Z^0$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Yi, J; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1997-01-01

    The spin density matrix elements for the $\\rho^0$, K$^{*0}(892)$ and $\\phi$ produced in hadronic Z$^0$ decays are measured in the DELPHI detector. There is no evidence for spin alignment of the K$^{*0}(892)$ and $\\phi$ in the region $x_p \\leq 0.3$ ($x_p = p/p_{beam}$), where $\\rho_{00} = 0.33 \\pm 0.05$ and $\\rho_{00} = 0.30 \\pm 0.04$, respectively. In the fragmentation region, $x_p \\geq 0.4$, there is some indication for spin alignment of the $\\rho^0$ and K$^{*0}(892)$, since $\\rho_{00} = 0.43 \\pm 0.05$ and $\\rho_{00} = 0.46 \\pm 0.08$, respectively. These values are compared with those found in meson-induced hadronic reactions. For the $\\phi$, $\\rho_{00} = 0.30 \\pm 0.04$ for $x_p \\geq 0.4$ and $0.55 \\pm 0.10$ for $x_p \\geq 0.7$. The off-diagonal spin density matrix element $\\rho_{1-1}$ is consistent with zero in all cases.

  17. Spin density wave in (Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x})S{sub 4} and the coexistence of normal and condensate states: A Moessbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embaid, B.P., E-mail: pembaid@fisica.ciens.ucv.ve [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez-Jimenez, F. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Iron-vanadium sulfides of the monoclinic system Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4} (1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) have been investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy in the temperature range 30-300 K. Incommensurate spin density waves (SDW) have been found in this system. An alternative treatment of the spectra allows a direct measurement of the temperature evolution of condensate density of the SDW state which follows the Maki-Virosztek formula. For composition (x=1.0) the SDW condensate is unpinned while for compositions (x>1.0) the SDW condensate is pinned. Possible causes of the pinning-unpinning SDW will be discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4}(1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) system was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) has been found in this system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the temperature evolution of the condensate density of SDW state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For composition (x=1.0) the SDW is unpinned while for (x>1.0) is pinned.

  18. Electronic structure of PrBa2Cu3O7: A local-spin-density approximation with on-site Coulomb interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, M.; Calandra, C.; Ossicini, S.

    1995-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations based on the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA) fail to reproduce the antiferromagnetic ground state of PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (PBCO). We have performed linear muffin-tin orbital--atomic sphere approximation calculations, based on the local-spin-density approximation with on-site Coulomb correlation applied to Cu(1) and Cu(2) 3d states. We have found that inclusion of the on-site Coulomb interaction modifies qualitatively the electronic structure of PBCO with respect to the LSDA results, and gives Cu spin moments in good agreement with the experimental values. The Cu(2) upper Hubbard band lies about 1 eV above the Fermi energy, indicating a Cu II oxidation state. On the other hand, the Cu(1) upper Hubbard band is located across the Fermi level, which implies an intermediate oxidation state for the Cu(1) ion, between Cu I and Cu II . The metallic character of the CuO chains is preserved, in agreement with optical reflectivity [K. Takenaka et al., Phys. Rev. B 46, 5833 (1992)] and positron annihilation experiments [L. Hoffmann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4047 (1993)]. These results support the view of an extrinsic origin of the insulating character of PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7

  19. Quantum and classical vacuum forces at zero and finite temperature; Quantentheoretische und klassische Vakuum-Kraefte bei Temperatur Null und bei endlicher Temperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekerken, Ole

    2009-06-15

    In this diploma thesis the Casimir-Polder force at zero temperature and at finite temperatures is calculated by using a well-defined quantum field theory (formulated in position space) and the method of image charges. For the calculations at finite temperature KMS-states are used. The so defined temperature describes the temperature of the electromagnetic background. A one oscillator model for inhomogeneous dispersive absorbing dielectric material is introduced and canonically quantized to calculate the Casimir-Polder force at a dielectric interface at finite temperature. The model fulfils causal commutation relations and the dielectric function of the model fulfils the Kramer-Kronig relations. We then use the same methods to calculate the van der Waals force between two neutral atoms at zero temperature and at finite temperatures. It is shown that the high temperature behaviour of the Casimir-Polder force and the van der Waals force are independent of {Dirac_h}. This means that they have to be understood classically, what is then shown in an algebraic statistical theory by using classical KMS states. (orig.)

  20. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  1. Entropy of network ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we generalize the concept of random networks to describe network ensembles with nontrivial features by a statistical mechanics approach. This framework is able to describe undirected and directed network ensembles as well as weighted network ensembles. These networks might have nontrivial community structure or, in the case of networks embedded in a given space, they might have a link probability with a nontrivial dependence on the distance between the nodes. These ensembles are characterized by their entropy, which evaluates the cardinality of networks in the ensemble. In particular, in this paper we define and evaluate the structural entropy, i.e., the entropy of the ensembles of undirected uncorrelated simple networks with given degree sequence. We stress the apparent paradox that scale-free degree distributions are characterized by having small structural entropy while they are so widely encountered in natural, social, and technological complex systems. We propose a solution to the paradox by proving that scale-free degree distributions are the most likely degree distribution with the corresponding value of the structural entropy. Finally, the general framework we present in this paper is able to describe microcanonical ensembles of networks as well as canonical or hidden-variable network ensembles with significant implications for the formulation of network-constructing algorithms.

  2. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  3. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Application of hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) to time dependent quantum transport at zero and finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Heng; Chen, GuanHua

    2013-10-01

    Going beyond the limitations of our earlier works [X. Zheng, F. Wang, C.Y. Yam, Y. Mo, G.H. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195127 (2007); X. Zheng, G.H. Chen, Y. Mo, S.K. Koo, H. Tian, C.Y. Yam, Y.J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 114101 (2010)], we propose, in this manuscript, a new alternative approach to simulate time-dependent quantum transport phenomenon from first-principles. This new practical approach, still retaining the formal exactness of HEOM framework, does not rely on any intractable parametrization scheme and the pole structure of Fermi distribution function, thus, can seamlessly incorporated into first-principles simulation and treat transient response of an open electronic systems to an external bias voltage at both zero and finite temperatures on the equal footing. The salient feature of this approach is surveyed, and its time complexity is analysed. As a proof-of-principle of this approach, simulation of the transient current of one dimensional tight-binding chain, driven by some direct external voltages, is demonstrated.

  5. Finite temperature Casimir energy in closed rectangular cavities: a rigorous derivation based on a zeta function technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2007-01-01

    We derive rigorously explicit formulae of the Casimir free energy at finite temperature for massless scalar field and electromagnetic field confined in a closed rectangular cavity with different boundary conditions by a zeta regularization method. We study both the low and high temperature expansions of the free energy. In each case, we write the free energy as a sum of a polynomial in temperature plus exponentially decay terms. We show that the free energy is always a decreasing function of temperature. In the cases of massless scalar field with the Dirichlet boundary condition and electromagnetic field, the zero temperature Casimir free energy might be positive. In each of these cases, there is a unique transition temperature (as a function of the side lengths of the cavity) where the Casimir energy changes from positive to negative. When the space dimension is equal to two and three, we show graphically the dependence of this transition temperature on the side lengths of the cavity. Finally we also show that we can obtain the results for a non-closed rectangular cavity by letting the size of some directions of a closed cavity go to infinity, and we find that these results agree with the usual integration prescription adopted by other authors

  6. Casimir interaction between a cylinder and a plate at finite temperature: Exact results and comparison to proximity force approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, L. P.

    2011-01-01

    We study the finite temperature Casimir interaction between a cylinder and a plate using the exact formula derived from the Matsubara representation and the functional determinant representation. We consider the scalar field with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The asymptotic expansions of the Casimir free energy and the Casimir force when the separation a between the cylinder and the plate is small are derived. As in the zero temperature case, it is found that the leading terms of the Casimir free energy and the Casimir force agree with those derived from the proximity force approximation when rT>>1, where r is the radius of the cylinder. Specifically, when aT 5/2 whereas, for the Casimir force, it is of order T 7/2 . In this case, the leading terms are independent of the separation a. When 1 3/2 , whereas, for the force, it is inversely proportional to a 5/2 . The first order corrections to the proximity force approximations in different temperature regions are computed using the perturbation approach. In the zero temperature case, the results agree with those derived in [M. Bordag, Phys. Rev. D 73, 125018 (2006)].

  7. The bosonic thermal Green function, its dual, and the fermion correlators of the massive Thirring model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Leonardo; Marino, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Despite the fact that quantum field theories are usually formulated in coordinate space, calculations, in both T = 0 and T ≠ 0 cases, are almost always performed in momentum space. However, when we are faced with the exact calculation of correlation functions we are naturally led to the problem of finding closed-form expressions for Green functions in coordinate space. In the present work, we derive an exact closed-form representation for the Euclidian thermal Green function of the two-dimensional (2D) free massless scalar field in coordinate space. This can be interpreted as the real part of a complex analytic function of a variable that conformally maps the infinite strip -∞ < x < ∞ (0 < τ < β of the z = x + iτ (τ: imaginary time) plane into the upper-half-plane. Use of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions, then allows us to identify the dual thermal Green function as the imaginary part of that function. Using both the thermal Green function and its dual, we obtain an explicit series expression for the fermionic correlation functions of the massive Thirring model (MTM) at a finite temperature. (author)

  8. Finite temperature effects on anisotropic pressure and equation of state of dense neutron matter in an ultrastrong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A. A.; Yang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-polarized states in dense neutron matter with the recently developed Skyrme effective interaction (BSk20 parametrization) are considered in the magnetic fields H up to 10 20 G at finite temperature. In a strong magnetic field, the total pressure in neutron matter is anisotropic, and the difference between the pressures parallel and perpendicular to the field direction becomes significant at H>H th ∼10 18 G. The longitudinal pressure decreases with the magnetic field and vanishes in the critical field 10 18 c 19 G, resulting in the longitudinal instability of neutron matter. With increasing temperature, the threshold H th and critical H c magnetic fields also increase. The appearance of the longitudinal instability prevents the formation of a fully spin-polarized state in neutron matter and only the states with moderate spin polarization are accessible. The anisotropic equation of state is determined at densities and temperatures relevant to the interiors of magnetars. The entropy of strongly magnetized neutron matter turns out to be larger than the entropy of nonpolarized matter. This is caused by some specific details in the dependence of the entropy on the effective masses of neutrons with spin up and spin down in a polarized state.

  9. QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Keiji

    1983-01-01

    The varidity of the perturbation method in the high temperature QCD is discussed. The skeleton expansion method takes account of plasmon effects and eliminates the electric infrared singularity but not the magnetic one. A possibility of eliminating the latter, which was recently proposed, is examined by a gauge invariant skeleton expansion. The magnetic singularity is unable to be eliminated by the perturbation method. This implies that some non-perturbative approaches must be incorporated in the high temperature QCD. (author)

  10. Hadrons at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, Samirnath

    2016-01-01

    High energy laboratories are performing experiments in heavy ion collisions to explore the structure of matter at high temperature and density. This elementary book explains the basic ideas involved in the theoretical analysis of these experimental data. It first develops two topics needed for this purpose, namely hadron interactions and thermal field theory. Chiral perturbation theory is developed to describe hadron interactions and thermal field theory is formulated in the real-time method. In particular, spectral form of thermal propagators is derived for fields of arbitrary spin and used to calculate loop integrals. These developments are then applied to find quark condensate and hadron parameters in medium, including dilepton production. Finally, the non-equilibrium method of statistical field theory to calculate transport coefficients is reviewed. With technical details explained in the text and appendices, this book should be accessible to researchers as well as graduate students interested in thermal ...

  11. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  12. Novel collective excitations and the quasi-particle picture of quarks coupled with a massive boson at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the observation that there may exist hadronic excitations even in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase, we investigate how the properties of quarks, especially within the quasi-particle picture, are affected by the coupling with bosonic excitations at finite temperature (T), employing Yukawa models with a massive scalar (pseudoscalar) and vector (axial-vector) boson of mass m. The quark spectral function and the quasi-dispersion relations are calculated at one-loop order. We find that there appears at three-peak structure in the quark spectral function with a collective nature when T is comparable with m, irrespective of the type of boson considered. Such a multi-peak structure was first found in a chiral model yielding scalar composite bosons with a decay width. We elucidate the mechanism through which the new quark collective excitations are realized in terms of the Landau damping of a quark (an antiquark) induced by scattering with the thermally excited boson, which gives rise to mixing and hence a level repulsion between a quark (antiquark) and an antiquark-hole (quark-hole) in the thermally excited antiquark (quark) distribution. Our results suggest that the quarks in the QGP phase can be described within an interesting quasi-particle picture with a multi-peak spectral function. Because the models employed here are rather generic, our findings may represent a universal phenomenon for fermions coupled to a massive bosonic excitation with a vanishing or small width. The relevance of these results to other fields of physics, such as neutrino physics, is also briefly discussed. In addition, we describe a new aspect of the plasmino excitation obtained in the hard-thermal loop approximation. (author)

  13. Investigations of α-helix↔β-sheet transition pathways in a miniprotein using the finite-temperature string method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Karplus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A parallel implementation of the finite-temperature string method is described, which takes into account the invariance of coordinates with respect to rigid-body motions. The method is applied to the complex α-helix↔β-sheet transition in a β-hairpin miniprotein in implicit solvent, which exhibits much of the complexity of conformational changes in proteins. Two transition paths are considered, one derived from a linear interpolant between the endpoint structures and the other derived from a targeted dynamics simulation. Two methods for computing the conformational free energy (FE) along the string are compared, a restrained method, and a tessellation method introduced by E. Vanden-Eijnden and M. Venturoli [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194103 (2009)]. It is found that obtaining meaningful free energy profiles using the present atom-based coordinates requires restricting sampling to a vicinity of the converged path, where the hyperplanar approximation to the isocommittor surface is sufficiently accurate. This sampling restriction can be easily achieved using restraints or constraints. The endpoint FE differences computed from the FE profiles are validated by comparison with previous calculations using a path-independent confinement method. The FE profiles are decomposed into the enthalpic and entropic contributions, and it is shown that the entropy difference contribution can be as large as 10 kcal/mol for intermediate regions along the path, compared to 15–20 kcal/mol for the enthalpy contribution. This result demonstrates that enthalpic barriers for transitions are offset by entropic contributions arising from the existence of different paths across a barrier. The possibility of using systematically coarse-grained representations of amino acids, in the spirit of multiple interaction site residue models, is proposed as a means to avoid ad hoc sampling restrictions to narrow transition tubes

  14. Chiral Spin-Density Wave, Spin-Charge-Chern Liquid, and d+id Superconductivity in 1/4-Doped Correlated Electronic Systems on the Honeycomb Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghan Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two interesting candidate quantum phases—the chiral spin-density wave state featuring anomalous quantum Hall effect and the d+id superconductor—were proposed for the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. Using a combination of exact diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group, the variational Monte Carlo method, and quantum field theories, we study the quantum phase diagrams of both the Hubbard model and the t-J model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. The main advantage of our approach is the use of symmetry quantum numbers of ground-state wave functions on finite-size systems (up to 32 sites to sharply distinguish different quantum phases. Our results show that for 1≲U/t<40 in the Hubbard model and for 0.1spin-density wave state or a spin-charge-Chern liquid, but not a d+id superconductor. However, in the t-J model, upon increasing J, the system goes through a first-order phase transition at J/t=0.80(2 into the d+id superconductor. Here, the spin-charge-Chern liquid state is a new type of topologically ordered quantum phase with Abelian anyons and fractionalized excitations. Experimental signatures of these quantum phases, such as tunneling conductance, are calculated. These results are discussed in the context of 1/4-doped graphene systems and other correlated electronic materials on the honeycomb lattice.

  15. Unidirectional spin density wave state in metallic (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang; Schmehr, Julian L.; Islam, Zahirul; Porter, Zach; Zoghlin, Eli; Finkelstein, Kenneth; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Wilson, Stephen D.

    2018-01-09

    Materials that exhibit both strong spin–orbit coupling and electron correlation effects are predicted to host numerous new electronic states. One prominent example is the Jeff = 1/2 Mott state in Sr2IrO4, where introducing carriers is predicted to manifest high temperature superconductivity analogous to the S=1/2 Mott state of La2CuO4. While bulk super- conductivity currently remains elusive, anomalous quasiparticle behaviors paralleling those in the cuprates such as pseudogap formation and the formation of a d-wave gap are observed upon electron-doping Sr2IrO4. Here we establish a magnetic parallel between electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 by unveiling a spin density wave state in electron-doped Sr2IrO4. Our magnetic resonant X-ray scattering data reveal the presence of an incom- mensurate magnetic state reminiscent of the diagonal spin density wave state observed in the monolayer cuprate (La1-xSrx)2CuO4. This link supports the conjecture that the quenched Mott phases in electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 support common competing electronic phases.

  16. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  17. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  18. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  19. Effects of thermal and particle-number fluctuations on the giant isovector dipole modes for the 58Ni nucleus in the finite-temperature random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinhdang; Nguyen Zuythang

    1988-01-01

    Using the realistic single-particle energy spectrum obtained in the Woods-Saxon nucleon mean-field potential, we calculate the BCS pairing gap for 58 Ni as a function of temperature taking into account the thermal and particle-number fluctuations. The strength distributions of the electric dipole transitions and the centroids of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are computed in the framework of the finite-temperature random-phase approximation (RPA) based on the Hamiltonian of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with separate dipole forces. It is shown that the change of the pairing gap at finite temperature can noticeably influence the IV-GDR localisation in realistic nuclei. By taking both thermal and quasiparticle fluctuations in the pairing gap into account the effect of the phase transition from superfluid to normal in the temperature dependence of the IV-GDR centroid is completely smeared out. (author)

  20. 'Lazy' quantum ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfionov, George; Zapatrin, Roman

    2006-01-01

    We compare different strategies aimed to prepare an ensemble with a given density matrix ρ. Preparing the ensemble of eigenstates of ρ with appropriate probabilities can be treated as 'generous' strategy: it provides maximal accessible information about the state. Another extremity is the so-called 'Scrooge' ensemble, which is mostly stingy in sharing the information. We introduce 'lazy' ensembles which require minimal effort to prepare the density matrix by selecting pure states with respect to completely random choice. We consider two parties, Alice and Bob, playing a kind of game. Bob wishes to guess which pure state is prepared by Alice. His null hypothesis, based on the lack of any information about Alice's intention, is that Alice prepares any pure state with equal probability. Then, the average quantum state measured by Bob turns out to be ρ, and he has to make a new hypothesis about Alice's intention solely based on the information that the observed density matrix is ρ. The arising 'lazy' ensemble is shown to be the alternative hypothesis which minimizes type I error

  1. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  2. Symmetric minimally entangled typical thermal states for canonical and grand-canonical ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Based on the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). When a system features symmetries, these can be utilized to substantially reduce MPS computation costs. It is conceptually straightforward to simulate canonical ensembles using symmetric METTS. In practice, it is important to alternate between different symmetric collapse bases to decrease autocorrelations in the Markov chain of METTS. To this purpose, we introduce symmetric Fourier and Haar-random block bases that are efficiently mixing. We also show how grand-canonical ensembles can be simulated efficiently with symmetric METTS. We demonstrate these approaches for spin-1 /2 X X Z chains and discuss how the choice of the collapse bases influences autocorrelations as well as the distribution of measurement values and, hence, convergence speeds.

  3. The Se–H bond of benzeneselenols (ArSe-H): Relationship between bond dissociation enthalpy and spin density of radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Pham Cam; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► BDE(Se–H)s of C 6 H 5 SeH and its para and meta-substituted derivatives are calculated. ► A relationship between the BDE(Se–H)s and Mulliken atomic spin densities of YC 6 H 4 Se radical is found. ► Good correlations are also observed between the BDE(Se–H)s and the Hammett’s parameters. ► The proton affinity of C 6 H 5 SeH is evaluated to be in the range of 814–818 kJ/mol. ► Ionization energies (IE) of the substituted benzeneselenols are also evaluated. - Abstract: Bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of benzeneselenol (ArSe-H) and its para and meta-substituted derivatives are calculated using the (RO)B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p)//(U)B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) procedure. The computed BDE(Se–H) = 308 ± 8 kJ/mol for the parent PhSe-H is significantly smaller than the experimental value of 326.4 ± 16.7 kJ/mol [Kenttamaa and coworkers, J. Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 6608] but larger than a previous value of 280.3 kJ/mol [Newcomb et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113 (1991) 949]. The substituent effects on BDE’s are analyzed in terms of a relationship between BDE(Se–H) and Mulliken atomic spin densities at the Se radical centers of ArSe (π radicals). Good correlations between Hammett’s substituent constants with BDE(Se–H) are established. Proton affinity and ionization energy amount to PA(C 6 H 5 SeH) = 814 ± 4 kJ/mol and IE(C 6 H 5 SeH) = 8.0 ± 0.1 eV. IEs of the substituted benzeneselenols are also determined. Calculated results thus suggest that 4-amino-benzeneselenol derivatives emerge as efficient antioxidants

  4. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  5. Neural Network Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Salamon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We propose several means for improving the performance an training of neural networks for classification. We use crossvalidation as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. We show further that the remaining generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar...... networks....

  6. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  7. Implication of nonintegral occupation number and Fermi-Dirac statistics in the local-spin-density approximation applied to finite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, S.

    1989-01-01

    In electronic-structure calculations for finite systems using the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, it is assumed that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation should obey Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. In order to comply with this assumption for some of the transition-metal atoms, a nonintegral occupation number is used which also minimizes the total energy. It is shown here that for finite systems it is not necessary that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation obey FD statistics. It is also shown that the Kohn-Sham exchange potential used in all LSD models is correct only for integer occupation number. With a noninteger occupation number the LSD exchange potential will be smaller than that given by the Kohn-Sham potential. Ab initio self-consistent spin-polarized calculations have been performed numerically for the total energy of an iron atom. It is found that the ground state belongs to the 3d 6 4s 2 configuration. The ionization potentials of all the Fe/sup n/ + ions are reported and are in agreement with experiment

  8. Particle-particle and hole-hole RPA correlations at finite temperature and the temperature dependence of the level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh Mau, N.

    1987-11-01

    The pp-hh RPA equations obtained by summing the infinite series of ladder, upwards and backwards going diagrams in the temperature two particle Green's functions are derived at finite temperature. The contribution to the thermodynamic grand potential due to pp-hh RPA correlations is calculated simultaneously to that of ph RPA correlations. A schematic model is constructed which shows that, as for ph RPA states, the energies of pp and hh RPA states have no temperature dependence at not too high temperature. Within the same model, the temperature dependence of the level density parameter is discussed

  9. A comparison of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of finite temperature field theory for 2,3, and 4-point Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Becherrawy, T.

    1991-07-01

    The predictions of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of Finite Temperature Field Theory is compared. Retarded and advanced amplitudes are constructed in the real-time formalism which are linear combinations of the usual time-ordered thermo-field dynamics amplitudes. These amplitudes can be easily compared to the various analytically continued amplitudes of the imaginary-time formalism. Explicit calculation of the 2,3 and 4-point Green's functions in φ 3 field theory is done in the one and two-loop approximations, and the compatibility of the two formalisms is shown. (author) 17 refs., 12 figs

  10. Metastability of the ({phi}{sub i}{phi}{sub i}){sub 3}{sup 2} model at finite temperature and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananos, G.N.J.; Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1996-11-01

    Using concurrently the dimensional and analytic regularization methods we applied the Gross-Neveu model at finite temperature and density (chemical potential) in a D-dimensional spacetime. The renormalized effective potential is presented at the one-loop approximation. In the case of non-zero chemical potential we show that the effective potential acquires an imaginary part, which means that the system becomes metastable, indicating the possibility of a first phase transition. (author). 13 refs.; e-mail: nfuxsvai at lca1.drp.cbpf.br.

  11. On the finite temperature λφ4 model. Is there a first order phase transition in (λφ4)3?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1995-11-01

    We investigate the behavior at finite temperature of the massive λ φ 4 model in a D-dimensional spacetime, performing a renormalization up to the order of one loop. In this approximation we show that the thermal mass increase with the temperature, while the thermal coupling constant decrease with the temperature. We establish that in the (λφ 4 ) 3 model there is a temperature β * -1 above which the coupling constant becomes negative. We argue that the system could develop a first order phase transition, where the origin corresponds to a metastable vacuum. (author). 29 refs

  12. Inertial mass of the chiral quark-loop soliton in the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleif, M.; Wuensch, R.

    1996-04-01

    We consider the mass of the one-loop hedgehog soliton of the bosonized SU(2) Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model embedded in hot nuclear matter minimiced by a gas of constituent quarks. We prove that the proper-time regularized and self-consistently determined soliton in a heat bath obeys Poincare's invariance up order V 2 . At finite temperature and chemical potential, we show that the inertial mass obtained in the perturbative pushing approach coincides with the total internal energy of the soliton. (orig.)

  13. Particle-particle and hole-hole RPA correlations at finite temperature and the temperature dependence of the level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh Mau, N.

    1989-01-01

    The pp-hh RPA equations obtained by summing the infinite series of ladder, upwards- and backwards-going diagrams in the temperature two-particle Green functions are derived at finite temperature. The contribution to the thermodynamic grand potential due to pp-hh RPA correlations is calculated simultaneously to that of ph RPA correlations. A schematic model is constructed which shows that, as for ph RPA states, the energies of pp and hh RPA states have no temperature dependence at not too high temperature. Within the same model, the temperature dependence of the level density parameter is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  15. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C

    2013-01-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  16. Properties of quarks and mesons in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model (NJL model) for finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebauer, R.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents a detailed overview of the thermodynamical properties of the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio. In fact, this model can be interpreted as a low energy approximation of QCD. The NJL model has the advantage to be solvable at finite temperature and density. Comparison with QCD lattice calculations show that the NJL model reproduces correctly the feature of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. We present the chiral phase diagram of the NJL model for three flavors and study the influence of the parameters on the order of the phase transition. The properties of the mesons in a hot and dense medium are another topic of this thesis. We discuss the behaviour of the chiral partners and the influence of the symmetries. A point of special interest are the masses of the kaons in a dense medium. We compare the masses of the kaons with other models like RMF and ChPT. The last part of the thesis is devoted to the low temperature - high density region of the QCD phase diagram. In this region, the formation of a diquark condensate and a superconducting phase are expected. We discuss the structure of the diquark condensate and present the results of the numerical calculations at finite temperature and density. (author)

  17. Development of the Tagger Microscope & Analysis of Spin Density Matrix Elements in gamma-p -> phi-p for the GlueX Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Alexander E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The quark model has been successful in classifying the spectrum of mesons observed since the 1960s, however, it fails to explain some of the measured bound states. Lattice QCD predictions have shown that an excited gluonic field may contribute to the quantum numbers of the bound state and form hybrid mesons, qq-bar-g, where g is a constituent gluon. It is possible for some hybrids to possess quantum numbers forbidden by the quark model and are known as \\smoking gun" hybrids due to their lack of mixing with conventional qq-bar states. The GlueX photoproduction experiment at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA is designed to study hybrid mesons and to map their spectrum. A 12 GeV electron beam produces 9 GeV linearly polarized photons via coherent bremsstrahlung in a diamond radiator which are incident on a liquid H2 target. In order to determine the photon energy, the use of a tagging spectrometer which measures the energy of the post-bremsstrahlung electron is required. The tagger microscope is a scintillating fiber detector designed to measure the energy of electrons corresponding to the polarized photons. The main focus of this work is the design and construction of the tagger microscope electronics as well as the calibration of the microscope within the experiment. Additionally, the analysis of the reaction gamma-p -> phi-p, where phi (1020) -> K+K-, is discussed. This analysis provides a high-level calibration for GlueX in regards to understanding the acceptance and sensitivity of the detectors to mesons with strange quark content. By studying the phi with linearly polarized photons, information on the production mechanism can be extracted. The measurement of the phi spin-density matrix elements are shown and compared with past data which are found to be in agreement.

  18. Symmetry-Breaking Orbital Anisotropy Observed for Detwinned Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 above the Spin Density Wave Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Nematicity, defined as broken rotational symmetry, has recently been observed in competing phases proximate to the superconducting phase in the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Similarly, the new iron-based high temperature superconductors exhibit a tetragonal to orthorhombic structural transition (i.e. a broken C 4 symmetry) that either precedes or is coincident with a collinear spin density wave (SDW) transition in undoped parent compounds, and superconductivity arises when both transitions are suppressed via doping. Evidence for strong in-plane anisotropy in the SDW state in this family of compounds has been reported by neutron scattering, scanning tunneling microscopy, and transport measurements. Here we present an angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of detwinned single crystals of a representative family of electron-doped iron-arsenide superconductors, Ba(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 As 2 in the underdoped region. The crystals were detwinned via application of in-plane uniaxial stress, enabling measurements of single domain electronic structure in the orthorhombic state. At low temperatures, our results clearly demonstrate an in-plane electronic anisotropy characterized by a large energy splitting of two orthogonal bands with dominant d xz and d yz character, which is consistent with anisotropy observed by other probes. For compositions x > 0, for which the structural transition (T S ) precedes the magnetic transition (T SDW ), an anisotropic splitting is observed to develop above T SDW , indicating that it is specifically associated with T S . For unstressed crystals, the band splitting is observed close to T S , whereas for stressed crystals the splitting is observed to considerably higher temperatures, revealing the presence of a surprisingly large in-plane nematic susceptibility in the electronic structure.

  19. Data analysis techniques, differential cross sections, and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γp →ϕp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Bellis, M.; Williams, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moriya, K.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    High-statistics measurements of differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γp →ϕp have been made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. We cover center-of-mass energies (√s ) from 1.97 to 2.84 GeV, with an extensive coverage in the ϕ production angle. The high statistics of the data sample made it necessary to carefully account for the interplay between the ϕ natural lineshape and effects of the detector resolution, that are found to be comparable in magnitude. We study both the charged- (ϕ →K+K-) and neutral- (ϕ →KS0KL0) KK ¯ decay modes of the ϕ. Further, for the charged mode, we differentiate between the cases where the final K- track is directly detected or its momentum reconstructed as the total missing momentum in the event. The two charged-mode topologies and the neutral-mode have different resolutions and are calibrated against each other. Extensive usage is made of kinematic fitting to improve the reconstructed ϕ mass resolution. Our final results are reported in 10- and mostly 30-MeV-wide √s bins for the charged- and the neutral-modes, respectively. Possible effects from K+Λ* channels with pKK ¯ final states are discussed. These present results constitute the most precise and extensive ϕ photoproduction measurements to date and in conjunction with the ω photoproduction results recently published by CLAS, will greatly improve our understanding of low energy vector meson photoproduction.

  20. Spin Density Distribution in Open-Shell Transition Metal Systems: A Comparative Post-Hartree-Fock, Density Functional Theory, and Quantum Monte Carlo Study of the CuCl2 Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel, Michel; Giner, Emmanuel; Scemama, Anthony; Ramírez-Solís, Alejandro

    2014-12-09

    We present a comparative study of the spatial distribution of the spin density of the ground state of CuCl2 using Density Functional Theory (DFT), quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), and post-Hartree-Fock wave function theory (WFT). A number of studies have shown that an accurate description of the electronic structure of the lowest-lying states of this molecule is particularly challenging due to the interplay between the strong dynamical correlation effects in the 3d shell and the delocalization of the 3d hole over the chlorine atoms. More generally, this problem is representative of the difficulties encountered when studying open-shell metal-containing molecular systems. Here, it is shown that qualitatively different results for the spin density distribution are obtained from the various quantum-mechanical approaches. At the DFT level, the spin density distribution is found to be very dependent on the functional employed. At the QMC level, Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) results are strongly dependent on the nodal structure of the trial wave function. Regarding wave function methods, most approaches not including a very high amount of dynamic correlation effects lead to a much too high localization of the spin density on the copper atom, in sharp contrast with DFT. To shed some light on these conflicting results Full CI-type (FCI) calculations using the 6-31G basis set and based on a selection process of the most important determinants, the so-called CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction with Perturbative Selection done Iteratively) are performed. Quite remarkably, it is found that for this 63-electron molecule and a full CI space including about 10(18) determinants, the FCI limit can almost be reached. Putting all results together, a natural and coherent picture for the spin distribution is proposed.

  1. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  3. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  4. Investigation of the antiferromagnetic - ferromagnetic dimer chain compound BaCu{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} at zero and finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyushina, Ekaterina; Lake, Bella [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Tiegel, Alexander; Manmana, Salvatore [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Islam, Nazmul; Klemke, Bastian [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany); Park, Jitae [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Honecker, Andreas [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise (France)

    2016-07-01

    Highly dimerized quantum magnets have attracted a great deal of attention in the recently due to the unconventional temperature behavior of their magnetic excitations. Here we present our investigations of the highly dimerized antiferromagnet-ferromagnetic 1D chain BaCu{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} both at base and at finite temperatures. The single crystal inelastic neutron scattering measurements at base temperature reveal that there are two excitation branches which disperse along the L direction over the energy range of 36-46 meV. The comparison with DMRG simulations indicates that the antiferromagnetic dimers are coupled ferromagnetically along the c axis. The line shape of the excitations at the dispersion minima was found to become asymmetry with increasing temperature. Thus unconventional thermal behavior also exists in dimer compounds with ferromagnetic interdimer coupling.

  5. The finite temperature QCD phase transition and the thermodynamic equation of state. An investigation employing lattice QCD with Nf=2 twisted mass quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Florian

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we report about an investigation of the finite temperature crossover/phase transition of quantum chromodynamics and the evaluation of the thermodynamic equation of state. To this end the lattice method and the Wilson twisted mass discretisation of the quark action are used. This formulation is known to have an automatic improvement of lattice artifacts and thus an improved continuum limit behaviour. This work presents first robust results using this action for the non-vanishing temperature case. We investigate the chiral limit of the two flavour phase transition with several small values of the pion mass in order to address the open question of the order of the transition in the limit of vanishing quark mass. For the currently simulated pion masses in the range of 300 to 700 MeV we present evidence that the finite temperature transition is a crossover transition rather than a genuine phase transition. The chiral limit is investigated by comparing the scaling of the observed crossover temperature with the mass including several possible scenarios. Complementary to this approach the chiral condensate as the order parameter for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is analysed in comparison with the O(4) universal scaling function which characterises a second order transition. With respect to thermodynamics the equation of state is obtained from the trace anomaly employing the temperature integral method which provides the pressure and energy density in the crossover region. The continuum limit of the trace anomaly is studied by considering several values of N τ and the tree-level correction technique.

  6. Diversity in random subspacing ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsymbal, A.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Cunningham, P.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Wöß, W.

    2004-01-01

    Ensembles of learnt models constitute one of the main current directions in machine learning and data mining. It was shown experimentally and theoretically that in order for an ensemble to be effective, it should consist of classifiers having diversity in their predictions. A number of ways are

  7. PSO-Ensemble Demo Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the PSO-Ensemble project (FU2101) a demo application has been created. The application use ECMWF ensemble forecasts. Two instances of the application are running; one for Nysted Offshore and one for the total production (except Horns Rev) in the Eltra area. The output...

  8. New concept of statistical ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    An extension of the standard concept of the statistical ensembles is suggested. Namely, the statistical ensembles with extensive quantities fluctuating according to an externally given distribution is introduced. Applications in the statistical models of multiple hadron production in high energy physics are discussed.

  9. Ensembl 2002: accommodating comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, M; Andrews, D; Barker, D; Bevan, P; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clark, L; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Hubbard, T; Kasprzyk, A; Keefe, D; Lehvaslaiho, H; Iyer, V; Melsopp, C; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Potter, S; Rust, A; Schmidt, E; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Stupka, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Vastrik, I; Birney, E

    2003-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of human, mouse and other genome sequences, available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. Ensembl also integrates manually annotated gene structures from external sources where available. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. These range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation and installations exist around the world in both companies and at academic sites. With both human and mouse genome sequences available and more vertebrate sequences to follow, many of the recent developments in Ensembl have focusing on developing automatic comparative genome analysis and visualisation.

  10. On Ensemble Nonlinear Kalman Filtering with Symmetric Analysis Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2010-09-19

    The ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) [1, 2, 3, 4] is a popular method for data assimilation in high dimensional systems (e.g., geophysics models). Essentially the EnSRF is a Monte Carlo implementation of the conventional Kalman filter (KF) [5, 6]. It is mainly different from the KF at the prediction steps, where it is some ensembles, rather then the means and covariance matrices, of the system state that are propagated forward. In doing this, the EnSRF is computationally more efficient than the KF, since propagating a covariance matrix forward in high dimensional systems is prohibitively expensive. In addition, the EnSRF is also very convenient in implementation. By propagating the ensembles of the system state, the EnSRF can be directly applied to nonlinear systems without any change in comparison to the assimilation procedures in linear systems. However, by adopting the Monte Carlo method, the EnSRF also incurs certain sampling errors. One way to alleviate this problem is to introduce certain symmetry to the ensembles, which can reduce the sampling errors and spurious modes in evaluation of the means and covariances of the ensembles [7]. In this contribution, we present two methods to produce symmetric ensembles. One is based on the unscented transform [8, 9], which leads to the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) [8, 9] and its variant, the ensemble unscented Kalman filter (EnUKF) [7]. The other is based on Stirling’s interpolation formula (SIF), which results in the divided difference filter (DDF) [10]. Here we propose a simplified divided difference filter (sDDF) in the context of ensemble filtering. The similarity and difference between the sDDF and the EnUKF will be discussed. Numerical experiments will also be conducted to investigate the performance of the sDDF and the EnUKF, and compare them to a well‐established EnSRF, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) [2].

  11. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  12. On Ensemble Nonlinear Kalman Filtering with Symmetric Analysis Ensembles

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Moroz, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    However, by adopting the Monte Carlo method, the EnSRF also incurs certain sampling errors. One way to alleviate this problem is to introduce certain symmetry to the ensembles, which can reduce the sampling errors and spurious modes in evaluation of the means and covariances of the ensembles [7]. In this contribution, we present two methods to produce symmetric ensembles. One is based on the unscented transform [8, 9], which leads to the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) [8, 9] and its variant, the ensemble unscented Kalman filter (EnUKF) [7]. The other is based on Stirling’s interpolation formula (SIF), which results in the divided difference filter (DDF) [10]. Here we propose a simplified divided difference filter (sDDF) in the context of ensemble filtering. The similarity and difference between the sDDF and the EnUKF will be discussed. Numerical experiments will also be conducted to investigate the performance of the sDDF and the EnUKF, and compare them to a well‐established EnSRF, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) [2].

  13. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  14. The Ensembl genome database project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, T; Barker, D; Birney, E; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clark, L; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Huminiecki, L; Kasprzyk, A; Lehvaslaiho, H; Lijnzaad, P; Melsopp, C; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Pocock, M; Potter, S; Rust, A; Schmidt, E; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Stupka, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Vastrik, I; Clamp, M

    2002-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of the human genome sequence, with confirmed gene predictions that have been integrated with external data sources, and is available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. It is also an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation. The Ensembl site is one of the leading sources of human genome sequence annotation and provided much of the analysis for publication by the international human genome project of the draft genome. The Ensembl system is being installed around the world in both companies and academic sites on machines ranging from supercomputers to laptops.

  15. Stochastic mean-field theory: Method and application to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperature and speckle disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissbort, Ulf; Hofstetter, Walter; Thomale, Ronny

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the stochastic mean-field theory (SMFT) method, which is a new approach for describing disordered Bose systems in the thermodynamic limit including localization and dimensional effects. We explicate the method in detail and apply it to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperature, with on-site box disorder, as well as experimentally relevant unbounded speckle disorder. We find that disorder-induced condensation and re-entrant behavior at constant filling are only possible at low temperatures, beyond the reach of current experiments [M. Pasienski, D. McKay, M. White, and B. DeMarco, e-print arXiv:0908.1182]. Including off-diagonal hopping disorder as well, we investigate its effect on the phase diagram in addition to pure on-site disorder. To make connection to present experiments on a quantitative level, we also combine SMFT with an LDA approach and obtain the condensate fraction in the presence of an external trapping potential.

  16. Domain walls at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A. de; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.

    1983-08-01

    It is suggested that the phase transition of lambda phi 4 theory as a function of temperature coincides with the spontaneous appearance of domain walls. Based on one-loop calculations, T sub(c) = 4M/√ lambda is estimated as the temperature for these domains to because energetically favored, to be compared with T sub(c) = 4.9M/√ lambda from effective potential calculations (which are performed directly in the broken phase). Domain walls, as well as other Types of fluctuations, disorder the system above T sub(c), leading to =0. The critical exponent for the specific heat above T sub(c) is computed; and α=2/3 + 0 (√ lambda) is obtained. (Author) [pt

  17. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria & INFN-Cosenza,Ponte Bucci, cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2016-06-07

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm ≃1.6/√σ and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T{sub c}, the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube “evaporation” above T{sub c} has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  18. Selfconsistent calculations at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.; Quentin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have been done for the spherical nuclei 40 Ca, 208 Pb and the hypothetical superheavy nucleus with Z=114, A=298, as well as for the deformed nucleus 168 Yb. The temperature T was varied from zero up to 5 MeV. For T>3 MeV, some numerical problems arise in connection with the optimization of the basis when calculating deformed nuclei. However, at these high temperatures the occupation numbers in the continuum are sufficiently large so that the nucleus starts evaporating particles and no equilibrium state can be described. Results are obtained for excitation energies and entropies. (Auth.)

  19. Wilson fermions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1996-01-01

    The author conjectures on the phase structure expected for lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Wilson fermions, concentrating on large values of the hopping parameter. Numerous phases are expected, including the conventional confinement and deconfinement phases, as well as an Aoki phase with spontaneous breaking of flavor and parity and a large hopping phase corresponding to negative quark masses

  20. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules. We show that, when the spectral sides of the sum rules are calculated correctly, they do not lead to any new results, but reproduce those of the vacuum sum rules.

  1. Study of the picture change error at the 2nd order Douglas Kroll Hess level of theory. Electron and spin density and structure factors of the Bis[bis(methoxycarbimido) aminato] copper (II) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bučinský, Lukáš; Biskupič, Stanislav; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The dependence of the radial distribution of the spin density in the vicinity of the nucleus on the formal oxidation state of the copper atom is shown on the top three figures. Note also the large impact of PCE as well as relativistic effects. The bottom three figures present the relativistic effects and PCE in the electron density of the [CuL 2 ] model compound (of the size 1 bohr 2 ). PCE is very little affecting the relativistic effects in the electron density close to the nucleus of copper atom, i.e. the PCE in the relativistic effects of the electron density are hardly discernable in the case of compounds containing copper. Highlights: ► The extent of PCE in a model compound containing copper atom is presented. ► The spin/electron density along bond the Cu–N is the most affected by PCE only at the nucleus of the copper atom. ► The 2D inspection of relativistic effects in electron/spin densities is not sensitive to PCE. ► Structure factors are an order of magnitude less affected by PCE than by relativistic effects. ► PCE in the Mulliken populations and spin contamination is considered. - Abstract: The analytic correction and the extent of the picture change error (PCE) at the scalar 2nd order Douglas–Kroll–Hess level of theory is considered. The one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) spin/electron densities and/or difference densities, structure factors and Mulliken populations of the Bis [bis-(methoxycarbimido) aminato] copper (II) model compound are presented. For further comparison the radial distributions of the electron and spin density of the copper atom (as well as of the copper di-cation) are presented. In addition, the infinite order two component (IOTC) radial distributions of electron and spin density of the copper atom and copper dication are presented as well. The PCE is almost hidden in the 2D densities of the studied model compound. The 1D electron/spin difference densities along the Cu–N bond show the

  2. The canonical ensemble redefined - 1: Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, R.

    1984-12-01

    For studying the thermodynamic properties of systems we propose an ensemble that lies in between the familiar canonical and microcanonical ensembles. We point out the transition from the canonical to microcanonical ensemble and prove from a comparative study that all these ensembles do not yield the same results even in the thermodynamic limit. An investigation of the coupling between two or more systems with these ensembles suggests that the state of thermodynamical equilibrium is a special case of statistical equilibrium. (author)

  3. Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco

    2018-02-09

    Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.

  4. Ensemble forecasting of species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Miguel B; New, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Concern over implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of bioclimatic models to forecast the range shifts of species under future climate-change scenarios. Recent studies have demonstrated that projections by alternative models can be so variable as to compromise their usefulness for guiding policy decisions. Here, we advocate the use of multiple models within an ensemble forecasting framework and describe alternative approaches to the analysis of bioclimatic ensembles, including bounding box, consensus and probabilistic techniques. We argue that, although improved accuracy can be delivered through the traditional tasks of trying to build better models with improved data, more robust forecasts can also be achieved if ensemble forecasts are produced and analysed appropriately.

  5. Ensemble method for dengue prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczak, Anna L; Baugher, Benjamin; Moniz, Linda J; Bagley, Thomas; Babin, Steven M; Guven, Erhan

    2018-01-01

    In the 2015 NOAA Dengue Challenge, participants made three dengue target predictions for two locations (Iquitos, Peru, and San Juan, Puerto Rico) during four dengue seasons: 1) peak height (i.e., maximum weekly number of cases during a transmission season; 2) peak week (i.e., week in which the maximum weekly number of cases occurred); and 3) total number of cases reported during a transmission season. A dengue transmission season is the 12-month period commencing with the location-specific, historical week with the lowest number of cases. At the beginning of the Dengue Challenge, participants were provided with the same input data for developing the models, with the prediction testing data provided at a later date. Our approach used ensemble models created by combining three disparate types of component models: 1) two-dimensional Method of Analogues models incorporating both dengue and climate data; 2) additive seasonal Holt-Winters models with and without wavelet smoothing; and 3) simple historical models. Of the individual component models created, those with the best performance on the prior four years of data were incorporated into the ensemble models. There were separate ensembles for predicting each of the three targets at each of the two locations. Our ensemble models scored higher for peak height and total dengue case counts reported in a transmission season for Iquitos than all other models submitted to the Dengue Challenge. However, the ensemble models did not do nearly as well when predicting the peak week. The Dengue Challenge organizers scored the dengue predictions of the Challenge participant groups. Our ensemble approach was the best in predicting the total number of dengue cases reported for transmission season and peak height for Iquitos, Peru.

  6. Ensemble method for dengue prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Buczak

    Full Text Available In the 2015 NOAA Dengue Challenge, participants made three dengue target predictions for two locations (Iquitos, Peru, and San Juan, Puerto Rico during four dengue seasons: 1 peak height (i.e., maximum weekly number of cases during a transmission season; 2 peak week (i.e., week in which the maximum weekly number of cases occurred; and 3 total number of cases reported during a transmission season. A dengue transmission season is the 12-month period commencing with the location-specific, historical week with the lowest number of cases. At the beginning of the Dengue Challenge, participants were provided with the same input data for developing the models, with the prediction testing data provided at a later date.Our approach used ensemble models created by combining three disparate types of component models: 1 two-dimensional Method of Analogues models incorporating both dengue and climate data; 2 additive seasonal Holt-Winters models with and without wavelet smoothing; and 3 simple historical models. Of the individual component models created, those with the best performance on the prior four years of data were incorporated into the ensemble models. There were separate ensembles for predicting each of the three targets at each of the two locations.Our ensemble models scored higher for peak height and total dengue case counts reported in a transmission season for Iquitos than all other models submitted to the Dengue Challenge. However, the ensemble models did not do nearly as well when predicting the peak week.The Dengue Challenge organizers scored the dengue predictions of the Challenge participant groups. Our ensemble approach was the best in predicting the total number of dengue cases reported for transmission season and peak height for Iquitos, Peru.

  7. Advanced Atmospheric Ensemble Modeling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Chiswell, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kurzeja, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maze, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Viner, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    Ensemble modeling (EM), the creation of multiple atmospheric simulations for a given time period, has become an essential tool for characterizing uncertainties in model predictions. We explore two novel ensemble modeling techniques: (1) perturbation of model parameters (Adaptive Programming, AP), and (2) data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF). The current research is an extension to work from last year and examines transport on a small spatial scale (<100 km) in complex terrain, for more rigorous testing of the ensemble technique. Two different release cases were studied, a coastal release (SF6) and an inland release (Freon) which consisted of two release times. Observations of tracer concentration and meteorology are used to judge the ensemble results. In addition, adaptive grid techniques have been developed to reduce required computing resources for transport calculations. Using a 20- member ensemble, the standard approach generated downwind transport that was quantitatively good for both releases; however, the EnKF method produced additional improvement for the coastal release where the spatial and temporal differences due to interior valley heating lead to the inland movement of the plume. The AP technique showed improvements for both release cases, with more improvement shown in the inland release. This research demonstrated that transport accuracy can be improved when models are adapted to a particular location/time or when important local data is assimilated into the simulation and enhances SRNL’s capability in atmospheric transport modeling in support of its current customer base and local site missions, as well as our ability to attract new customers within the intelligence community.

  8. Instanton-dyon ensembles reproduce deconfinement and chiral restoration phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Edward

    2018-03-01

    Paradigm shift in gauge topology at finite temperatures, from the instantons to their constituents - instanton-dyons - has recently lead to studies of their ensembles and very significant advances. Like instantons, they have fermionic zero modes, and their collectivization at suffciently high density explains the chiral symmetry breaking transition. Unlike instantons, these objects have electric and magnetic charges. Simulations of the instanton-dyon ensembles have demonstrated that their back reaction on the Polyakov line modifies its potential and generates the deconfinement phase transition. For the Nc = 2 gauge theory the transition is second order, for QCD-like theory with Nc = 2 and two light quark flavors Nf = 2 both transitions are weak crossovers at happening at about the same condition. Introduction of quark-flavor-dependent periodicity phases (imaginary chemical potentials) leads to drastic changes in both transitions. In particulaly, in the so called Z(Nc) - QCD model the deconfinement transforms to strong first order transition, while the chiral condensate does not disappear at all. The talk will also cover more detailed studies of correlations between the dyons, effective eta' mass and other screening masses.

  9. Ensemble of Transition State Structures for the Cis-Trans Isomerization of N-Methylacetamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantz, Yves A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Branduardi, Davide [Italian Inst. of Technology, Genoa (Italy); Bussi, Giovanni [Univ. of Modena and Reggio Emilia and INFM-CNR (Italy); Parrinello, Michele [ETH Zurich, Lugano (Switzerland). Dept. of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences

    2009-09-17

    The cis-trans isomerization of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a model peptidic fragment, is studied theoretically in vacuo and in explicit water solvent at 300 K using the metadynamics technique. The computed cis-trans free energy difference is very similar for NMA(g) and NMA(aq), in agreement with experimental measurements of population ratios and theoretical studies at 0 K. By exploiting the flexibility in the definition of a pair of recently introduced collective variables (Branduardi, D.; Gervasio, F. L.; Parrinello, M. J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 054103), an ensemble of transition state structures is generated at finite temperature for both NMA(g) and NMA(aq), as verified by computing committor distribution functions. Ensemble members of NMA(g) are shown to have correlated values of the backbone dihedral angle and a second dihedral angle involving the amide hydrogen atom. The dynamical character of these structures is preserved in the presence of solvent, whose influence on the committor functions can be modeled using effective friction/noise terms.

  10. Torsion as a source of expansion in a Bianchi type-I universe in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan theory of a perfect fluid with spin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradas, James C.; Fennelly, Alphonsus J.; Smalley, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a generalized (or 'power law') inflationary phase arises naturally and inevitably in a simple (Bianchi type-I) anisotropic cosmological model in the self-consistent Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory with the improved stress-energy-momentum tensor with the spin density of Ray and Smalley (1982, 1983). This is made explicit by an analytical solution of the field equations of motion of the fluid variables. The inflation is caused by the angular kinetic energy density due to spin. The model further elucidates the relationship between fluid vorticity, the angular velocity of the inertially dragged tetrads, and the precession of the principal axes of the shear ellipsoid. Shear is not effective in damping the inflation.

  11. Teaching Strategies for Specialized Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Music, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides a strategy, from the book "Strategies for Teaching Specialized Ensembles," that addresses Standard 9A of the National Standards for Music Education. Explains that students will identify and describe the musical and historical characteristics of the classical era in music they perform and in audio examples. (CMK)

  12. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    , but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24...

  13. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  14. Genetic Algorithm Optimized Neural Networks Ensemble as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marquardt algorithm by varying conditions such as inputs, hidden neurons, initialization, training sets and random Gaussian noise injection to ... Several such ensembles formed the population which was evolved to generate the fittest ensemble.

  15. Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) [1 Deg.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) is a weather forecast model made up of 21 separate forecasts, or ensemble members. The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Localization of atomic ensembles via superfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macovei, Mihai; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    The subwavelength localization of an ensemble of atoms concentrated to a small volume in space is investigated. The localization relies on the interaction of the ensemble with a standing wave laser field. The light scattered in the interaction of the standing wave field and the atom ensemble depends on the position of the ensemble relative to the standing wave nodes. This relation can be described by a fluorescence intensity profile, which depends on the standing wave field parameters and the ensemble properties and which is modified due to collective effects in the ensemble of nearby particles. We demonstrate that the intensity profile can be tailored to suit different localization setups. Finally, we apply these results to two localization schemes. First, we show how to localize an ensemble fixed at a certain position in the standing wave field. Second, we discuss localization of an ensemble passing through the standing wave field

  17. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and Hartree–Fock theories for one-dimensional solids: An application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So

    2014-01-01

    Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the “dimerized” low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature

  18. Squeezing of Collective Excitations in Spin Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund Andersen, Christian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the possibility to create two-mode spin squeezed states of two separate spin ensembles by inverting the spins in one ensemble and allowing spin exchange between the ensembles via a near resonant cavity field. We investigate the dynamics of the system using a combination of numerical an...

  19. Eigenfunction statistics of Wishart Brownian ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pragya

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the eigenfunction fluctuation measures for a Hermitian ensemble which appears as an intermediate state of the perturbation of a stationary ensemble by another stationary ensemble of Wishart (Laguerre) type. Similar to the perturbation by a Gaussian stationary ensemble, the measures undergo a diffusive dynamics in terms of the perturbation parameter but the energy-dependence of the fluctuations is different in the two cases. This may have important consequences for the eigenfunction dynamics as well as phase transition studies in many areas of complexity where Brownian ensembles appear. (paper)

  20. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics ensemble method

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    1998-01-01

    In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium Audience This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena

  1. Statistical Analysis of Protein Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máté, Gabriell; Heermann, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    As 3D protein-configuration data is piling up, there is an ever-increasing need for well-defined, mathematically rigorous analysis approaches, especially that the vast majority of the currently available methods rely heavily on heuristics. We propose an analysis framework which stems from topology, the field of mathematics which studies properties preserved under continuous deformations. First, we calculate a barcode representation of the molecules employing computational topology algorithms. Bars in this barcode represent different topological features. Molecules are compared through their barcodes by statistically determining the difference in the set of their topological features. As a proof-of-principle application, we analyze a dataset compiled of ensembles of different proteins, obtained from the Ensemble Protein Database. We demonstrate that our approach correctly detects the different protein groupings.

  2. Ensemble methods for handwritten digit recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Liisberg, Christian; Salamon, P.

    1992-01-01

    Neural network ensembles are applied to handwritten digit recognition. The individual networks of the ensemble are combinations of sparse look-up tables (LUTs) with random receptive fields. It is shown that the consensus of a group of networks outperforms the best individual of the ensemble....... It is further shown that it is possible to estimate the ensemble performance as well as the learning curve on a medium-size database. In addition the authors present preliminary analysis of experiments on a large database and show that state-of-the-art performance can be obtained using the ensemble approach...... by optimizing the receptive fields. It is concluded that it is possible to improve performance significantly by introducing moderate-size ensembles; in particular, a 20-25% improvement has been found. The ensemble random LUTs, when trained on a medium-size database, reach a performance (without rejects) of 94...

  3. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  4. Self-consistent treatment of interacting spin waves at finite temperatures; Etude a temperature finie d'un systeme d'ondes de spin en interaction dans une approximation self-consistante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    A spin wave theory is developed where account is taken of spin wave interactions at finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the spin wave energies and of the magnetization is derived. The theory is developed for ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnets. (author) [French] On expose une theorie d'ondes de spin en interaction a temperature finie. On en deduit l'evolution avec la temperature du spectre en energie des ondes de spin et de l'aimantation. La theorie est developpee pour les corps ferro-, ferri-, et antiferromagnetiques. (auteur)

  5. Measuring social interaction in music ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gualtiero; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Badino, Leonardo; Camurri, Antonio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2016-05-05

    Music ensembles are an ideal test-bed for quantitative analysis of social interaction. Music is an inherently social activity, and music ensembles offer a broad variety of scenarios which are particularly suitable for investigation. Small ensembles, such as string quartets, are deemed a significant example of self-managed teams, where all musicians contribute equally to a task. In bigger ensembles, such as orchestras, the relationship between a leader (the conductor) and a group of followers (the musicians) clearly emerges. This paper presents an overview of recent research on social interaction in music ensembles with a particular focus on (i) studies from cognitive neuroscience; and (ii) studies adopting a computational approach for carrying out automatic quantitative analysis of ensemble music performances. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Statistical ensembles in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, D.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics presented in this paper is based on the concept of quantum ensembles. This concept differs essentially from the canonical one by that the interference of the observer into the state of a microscopic system is of no greater importance than in any other field of physics. Owing to this fact, the laws established by quantum mechanics are not of less objective character than the laws governing classical statistical mechanics. The paradoxical nature of some statements of quantum mechanics which result from the interpretation of the wave functions as the observer's notebook greatly stimulated the development of the idea presented. (Auth.)

  7. Wind Power Prediction using Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Badger, Jake; Landberg, Lars

    2005-01-01

    offshore wind farm and the whole Jutland/Funen area. The utilities used these forecasts for maintenance planning, fuel consumption estimates and over-the-weekend trading on the Leipzig power exchange. Othernotable scientific results include the better accuracy of forecasts made up from a simple...... superposition of two NWP provider (in our case, DMI and DWD), an investigation of the merits of a parameterisation of the turbulent kinetic energy within thedelivered wind speed forecasts, and the finding that a “naïve” downscaling of each of the coarse ECMWF ensemble members with higher resolution HIRLAM did...

  8. EnsembleGASVR: A novel ensemble method for classifying missense single nucleotide polymorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Rapakoulia, Trisevgeni; Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Likothanasis, Spiridon D.; Tsakalidis, Athanasios K.; Mavroudi, Seferina P.

    2014-01-01

    do not support their predictions with confidence scores. Results: To overcome these limitations, a novel ensemble computational methodology is proposed. EnsembleGASVR facilitates a twostep algorithm, which in its first step applies a novel

  9. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  10. Urban runoff forecasting with ensemble weather predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Wied; Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca

    This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice.......This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice....

  11. Joys of Community Ensemble Playing: The Case of the Happy Roll Elastic Ensemble in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Kao, Kai-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The Happy Roll Elastic Ensemble (HREE) is a community music ensemble supported by Tainan Culture Centre in Taiwan. With enjoyment and friendship as its primary goals, it aims to facilitate the joys of ensemble playing and the spirit of social networking. This article highlights the key aspects of HREE's development in its first two years…

  12. Properties of quarks and mesons in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model (NJL model) for finite temperature and density; Proprietes des quarks et mesons a temperature et densite finies dans le cadre du modele NJL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebauer, R

    2000-09-29

    This thesis presents a detailed overview of the thermodynamical properties of the model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio. In fact, this model can be interpreted as a low energy approximation of QCD. The NJL model has the advantage to be solvable at finite temperature and density. Comparison with QCD lattice calculations show that the NJL model reproduces correctly the feature of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. We present the chiral phase diagram of the NJL model for three flavors and study the influence of the parameters on the order of the phase transition. The properties of the mesons in a hot and dense medium are another topic of this thesis. We discuss the behaviour of the chiral partners and the influence of the symmetries. A point of special interest are the masses of the kaons in a dense medium. We compare the masses of the kaons with other models like RMF and ChPT. The last part of the thesis is devoted to the low temperature - high density region of the QCD phase diagram. In this region, the formation of a diquark condensate and a superconducting phase are expected. We discuss the structure of the diquark condensate and present the results of the numerical calculations at finite temperature and density. (author)

  13. Popular Music and the Instrumental Ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, George

    1999-01-01

    Discusses popular music, the role of the musical performer as a creator, and the styles of jazz and popular music. Describes the pop ensemble at the college level, focusing on improvisation, rehearsals, recording, and performance. Argues that pop ensembles be used in junior and senior high school. (CMK)

  14. Layered Ensemble Architecture for Time Series Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Islam, Md Monirul; Murase, Kazuyuki; Yao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Time series forecasting (TSF) has been widely used in many application areas such as science, engineering, and finance. The phenomena generating time series are usually unknown and information available for forecasting is only limited to the past values of the series. It is, therefore, necessary to use an appropriate number of past values, termed lag, for forecasting. This paper proposes a layered ensemble architecture (LEA) for TSF problems. Our LEA consists of two layers, each of which uses an ensemble of multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks. While the first ensemble layer tries to find an appropriate lag, the second ensemble layer employs the obtained lag for forecasting. Unlike most previous work on TSF, the proposed architecture considers both accuracy and diversity of the individual networks in constructing an ensemble. LEA trains different networks in the ensemble by using different training sets with an aim of maintaining diversity among the networks. However, it uses the appropriate lag and combines the best trained networks to construct the ensemble. This indicates LEAs emphasis on accuracy of the networks. The proposed architecture has been tested extensively on time series data of neural network (NN)3 and NN5 competitions. It has also been tested on several standard benchmark time series data. In terms of forecasting accuracy, our experimental results have revealed clearly that LEA is better than other ensemble and nonensemble methods.

  15. Ensemble methods for seasonal limited area forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Takle, Eugene S.

    2004-01-01

    The ensemble prediction methods used for seasonal limited area forecasts were examined by comparing methods for generating ensemble simulations of seasonal precipitation. The summer 1993 model over the north-central US was used as a test case. The four methods examined included the lagged-average...

  16. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-01-01

    We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well-defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes (2004 J. Funct. Anal. 209 388) to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states

  17. Characterizing Ensembles of Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeff; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Weber, Steven; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Kerman, Jamie; Gustavsson, Simon; Kamal, Archana; Yan, Fei; Oliver, William

    We investigate ensembles of up to 48 superconducting qubits embedded within a superconducting cavity. Such arrays of qubits have been proposed for the experimental study of Ising Hamiltonians, and efficient methods to characterize and calibrate these types of systems are still under development. Here we leverage high qubit coherence (> 70 μs) to characterize individual devices as well as qubit-qubit interactions, utilizing the common resonator mode for a joint readout. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  18. Spin density projection-assisted R2 magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in the management of body iron stores in patients receiving multiple red blood cell transfusions: an audit and retrospective study in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G C; Patton, W N; Tapp, H E; Taylor, D J; St Pierre, T G

    2012-09-01

    To assess the impact of non-invasive monitoring of liver iron concentration (LIC) on management of body iron stores in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions. A retrospective audit was conducted on clinical data from 40 consecutive subjects with haemolytic anaemias or ineffective haematopoiesis who had been monitored non-invasively for LIC over a period of at least 1 year. LIC was measured with spin density projection-assisted proton transverse relaxation rate-magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen clinical decisions were explicitly documented in the case notes as being based on LIC results. Decisions comprised initiation of chelation therapy, increasing chelator dose, decreasing chelator dose and change of mode of delivery of deferioxamine from subcutaneous to intravenous. The geometrical mean LIC for the cohort dropped significantly (P= 0.008) from 6.8 mg Fe/g dry tissue at initial measurement to 4.8 mg Fe/g dry tissue at final measurement. The proportion of subjects with LIC in the range associated with greatly increased risk of cardiac disease and death (>15 mg Fe/g dry tissue) dropped significantly (P= 0.01) from 14 of 40 subjects at initial measurement to 5 of 40 subjects at final measurement. No significant changes in the geometrical mean of serum ferritin or the proportion of subjects with serum ferritin above 2500 or 1500 µg/L were observed. The data are consistent with previous observations that introduction of non-invasive monitoring of LIC can contribute to a decreased body iron burden through improved clinical decision making and improved feedback to patients and hence improved adherence to chelation therapy.

  19. MSEBAG: a dynamic classifier ensemble generation based on `minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kamel, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic classifier system, MSEBAG, which is characterised by searching for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging at the ensemble level. It adopts an 'over-generation and selection' strategy and aims to achieve a good bias-variance trade-off. In the training phase, MSEBAG first searches for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', which maximises the in-sample fitness with the minimal number of base classifiers. Then, starting from the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', a backward stepwise algorithm is employed to generate a collection of ensembles. The objective is to create a collection of ensembles with a descending fitness on the data, as well as a descending complexity in the structure. MSEBAG dynamically selects the ensembles from the collection for the decision aggregation. The extended adaptive aggregation (EAA) approach, a bagging-style algorithm performed at the ensemble level, is employed for this task. EAA searches for the competent ensembles using a score function, which takes into consideration both the in-sample fitness and the confidence of the statistical inference, and averages the decisions of the selected ensembles to label the test pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed MSEBAG outperforms the benchmarks on average.

  20. Creating ensembles of decision trees through sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Chandrika; Cantu-Paz, Erick

    2005-08-30

    A system for decision tree ensembles that includes a module to read the data, a module to sort the data, a module to evaluate a potential split of the data according to some criterion using a random sample of the data, a module to split the data, and a module to combine multiple decision trees in ensembles. The decision tree method is based on statistical sampling techniques and includes the steps of reading the data; sorting the data; evaluating a potential split according to some criterion using a random sample of the data, splitting the data, and combining multiple decision trees in ensembles.

  1. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula. (paper)

  2. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  3. Ensemble Weight Enumerators for Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    Recently LDPC codes with projected graph, or protograph structures have been proposed. In this paper, finite length ensemble weight enumerators for LDPC codes with protograph structures are obtained. Asymptotic results are derived as the block size goes to infinity. In particular we are interested in obtaining ensemble average weight enumerators for protograph LDPC codes which have minimum distance that grows linearly with block size. As with irregular ensembles, linear minimum distance property is sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. In this paper the derived results on ensemble weight enumerators show that linear minimum distance condition on degree distribution of unstructured irregular LDPC codes is a sufficient but not a necessary condition for protograph LDPC codes.

  4. Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, X.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Covariance inflation and localisation are two important techniques that are used to improve the performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) by (in effect) adjusting the sample covariances of the estimates in the state space. In this work

  5. Ensemble Machine Learning Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2012-01-01

    It is common wisdom that gathering a variety of views and inputs improves the process of decision making, and, indeed, underpins a democratic society. Dubbed “ensemble learning” by researchers in computational intelligence and machine learning, it is known to improve a decision system’s robustness and accuracy. Now, fresh developments are allowing researchers to unleash the power of ensemble learning in an increasing range of real-world applications. Ensemble learning algorithms such as “boosting” and “random forest” facilitate solutions to key computational issues such as face detection and are now being applied in areas as diverse as object trackingand bioinformatics.   Responding to a shortage of literature dedicated to the topic, this volume offers comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art ensemble learning techniques, including various contributions from researchers in leading industrial research labs. At once a solid theoretical study and a practical guide, the volume is a windfall for r...

  6. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  7. Multivariate localization methods for ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Roh, S.; Jun, M.; Szunyogh, I.; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    the Schur (element-wise) product of the ensemble-based sample covariance matrix and a correlation matrix whose entries are obtained by the discretization of a distance-dependent correlation function. While the proper definition of the localization function

  8. Polarized ensembles of random pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise. (paper)

  9. Polarized ensembles of random pure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise.

  10. Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length

    OpenAIRE

    Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...

  11. Multivariate localization methods for ensemble Kalman filtering

    OpenAIRE

    S. Roh; M. Jun; I. Szunyogh; M. G. Genton

    2015-01-01

    In ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), the small number of ensemble members that is feasible to use in a practical data assimilation application leads to sampling variability of the estimates of the background error covariances. The standard approach to reducing the effects of this sampling variability, which has also been found to be highly efficient in improving the performance of EnKF, is the localization of the estimates of the covariances. One family of ...

  12. Impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on ensemble flood forecasting over Lanjiang basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble flood forecasting driven by numerical weather prediction products is becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications.In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system based on Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated.The hydrological model is optimized by parallel programmed ɛ-NSGAII multi-objective algorithm and two respectively parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows coupled with a modular approach.The results indicatethat the ɛ-NSGAII algorithm permits more efficient optimization and rational determination on parameter setting.It is demonstrated that the multimodel ensemble streamflow mean have better skills than the best singlemodel ensemble mean (ECMWF) and the multimodel ensembles weighted on members and skill scores outperform other multimodel ensembles. For typical flood event, it is proved that the flood can be predicted 3-4 days in advance, but the flows in rising limb can be captured with only 1-2 days ahead due to the flash feature. With respect to peak flows selected by Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from either singlemodel or multimodels are generally underestimated as the extreme values are smoothed out by ensemble process.

  13. Towards a GME ensemble forecasting system: Ensemble initialization using the breeding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Keller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative forecast of precipitation requires a probabilistic background particularly with regard to forecast lead times of more than 3 days. As only ensemble simulations can provide useful information of the underlying probability density function, we built a new ensemble forecasting system (GME-EFS based on the GME model of the German Meteorological Service (DWD. For the generation of appropriate initial ensemble perturbations we chose the breeding technique developed by Toth and Kalnay (1993, 1997, which develops perturbations by estimating the regions of largest model error induced uncertainty. This method is applied and tested in the framework of quasi-operational forecasts for a three month period in 2007. The performance of the resulting ensemble forecasts are compared to the operational ensemble prediction systems ECMWF EPS and NCEP GFS by means of ensemble spread of free atmosphere parameters (geopotential and temperature and ensemble skill of precipitation forecasting. This comparison indicates that the GME ensemble forecasting system (GME-EFS provides reasonable forecasts with spread skill score comparable to that of the NCEP GFS. An analysis with the continuous ranked probability score exhibits a lack of resolution for the GME forecasts compared to the operational ensembles. However, with significant enhancements during the 3 month test period, the first results of our work with the GME-EFS indicate possibilities for further development as well as the potential for later operational usage.

  14. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Price, Harry E; Smedley, Eric M; Meals, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor's gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble's articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble's performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  15. Rotationally invariant family of Levy-like random matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jinmyung; Muttalib, K A

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a family of rotationally invariant random matrix ensembles characterized by a parameter λ. While λ = 1 corresponds to well-known critical ensembles, we show that λ ≠ 1 describes 'Levy-like' ensembles, characterized by power-law eigenvalue densities. For λ > 1 the density is bounded, as in Gaussian ensembles, but λ < 1 describes ensembles characterized by densities with long tails. In particular, the model allows us to evaluate, in terms of a novel family of orthogonal polynomials, the eigenvalue correlations for Levy-like ensembles. These correlations differ qualitatively from those in either the Gaussian or the critical ensembles. (fast track communication)

  16. Ensemble data assimilation in the Red Sea: sensitivity to ensemble selection and atmospheric forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Toye, Habib

    2017-05-26

    We present our efforts to build an ensemble data assimilation and forecasting system for the Red Sea. The system consists of the high-resolution Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to simulate ocean circulation and of the Data Research Testbed (DART) for ensemble data assimilation. DART has been configured to integrate all members of an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) in parallel, based on which we adapted the ensemble operations in DART to use an invariant ensemble, i.e., an ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI) algorithm. This approach requires only single forward model integration in the forecast step and therefore saves substantial computational cost. To deal with the strong seasonal variability of the Red Sea, the EnOI ensemble is then seasonally selected from a climatology of long-term model outputs. Observations of remote sensing sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) are assimilated every 3 days. Real-time atmospheric fields from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used as forcing in different assimilation experiments. We investigate the behaviors of the EAKF and (seasonal-) EnOI and compare their performances for assimilating and forecasting the circulation of the Red Sea. We further assess the sensitivity of the assimilation system to various filtering parameters (ensemble size, inflation) and atmospheric forcing.

  17. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Thielen, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Schaake, J. C.; Hartman, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). With support from the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC), the HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support in emergency management and water resources sectors. The strategy to meet this goal includes meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. HEPEX has organized about a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Today, the HEPEX mission is to demonstrate the added value of hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) for emergency management and water resources sectors to make decisions that have important consequences for economy, public health, safety, and the environment. HEPEX is now organised around six major themes that represent core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  18. Understanding ensemble protein folding at atomic detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Stefan; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2008-01-01

    Although far from routine, simulating the folding of specific short protein chains on the computer, at a detailed atomic level, is starting to become a reality. This remarkable progress, which has been made over the last decade or so, allows a fundamental aspect of the protein folding process to be addressed, namely its statistical nature. In order to make quantitative comparisons with experimental kinetic data a complete ensemble view of folding must be achieved, with key observables averaged over the large number of microscopically different folding trajectories available to a protein chain. Here we review recent advances in atomic-level protein folding simulations and the new insight provided by them into the protein folding process. An important element in understanding ensemble folding kinetics are methods for analyzing many separate folding trajectories, and we discuss techniques developed to condense the large amount of information contained in an ensemble of trajectories into a manageable picture of the folding process. (topical review)

  19. Lattice gauge theory in the microcanonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, D.J.E.; Rahman, A.

    1983-01-01

    The microcanonical-ensemble formulation of lattice gauge theory proposed recently is examined in detail. Expectation values in this new ensemble are determined by solving a large set of coupled ordinary differential equations, after the fashion of a molecular dynamics simulation. Following a brief review of the microcanonical ensemble, calculations are performed for the gauge groups U(1), SU(2), and SU(3). The results are compared and contrasted with standard methods of computation. Several advantages of the new formalism are noted. For example, no random numbers are required to update the system. Also, this update is performed in a simultaneous fashion. Thus the microcanonical method presumably adapts well to parallel processing techniques, especially when the p action is highly nonlocal (such as when fermions are included)

  20. Ensemble Network Architecture for Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-liang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The popular deep Q learning algorithm is known to be instability because of the Q-value’s shake and overestimation action values under certain conditions. These issues tend to adversely affect their performance. In this paper, we develop the ensemble network architecture for deep reinforcement learning which is based on value function approximation. The temporal ensemble stabilizes the training process by reducing the variance of target approximation error and the ensemble of target values reduces the overestimate and makes better performance by estimating more accurate Q-value. Our results show that this architecture leads to statistically significant better value evaluation and more stable and better performance on several classical control tasks at OpenAI Gym environment.

  1. Embedded random matrix ensembles in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2014-01-01

    Although used with increasing frequency in many branches of physics, random matrix ensembles are not always sufficiently specific to account for important features of the physical system at hand. One refinement which retains the basic stochastic approach but allows for such features consists in the use of embedded ensembles.  The present text is an exhaustive introduction to and survey of this important field. Starting with an easy-to-read introduction to general random matrix theory, the text then develops the necessary concepts from the beginning, accompanying the reader to the frontiers of present-day research. With some notable exceptions, to date these ensembles have primarily been applied in nuclear spectroscopy. A characteristic example is the use of a random two-body interaction in the framework of the nuclear shell model. Yet, topics in atomic physics, mesoscopic physics, quantum information science and statistical mechanics of isolated finite quantum systems can also be addressed using these ensemb...

  2. Ensemble Kalman methods for inverse problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Marco A; Law, Kody J H; Stuart, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) was introduced by Evensen in 1994 (Evensen 1994 J. Geophys. Res. 99 10143–62) as a novel method for data assimilation: state estimation for noisily observed time-dependent problems. Since that time it has had enormous impact in many application domains because of its robustness and ease of implementation, and numerical evidence of its accuracy. In this paper we propose the application of an iterative ensemble Kalman method for the solution of a wide class of inverse problems. In this context we show that the estimate of the unknown function that we obtain with the ensemble Kalman method lies in a subspace A spanned by the initial ensemble. Hence the resulting error may be bounded above by the error found from the best approximation in this subspace. We provide numerical experiments which compare the error incurred by the ensemble Kalman method for inverse problems with the error of the best approximation in A, and with variants on traditional least-squares approaches, restricted to the subspace A. In so doing we demonstrate that the ensemble Kalman method for inverse problems provides a derivative-free optimization method with comparable accuracy to that achieved by traditional least-squares approaches. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the accuracy is of the same order of magnitude as that achieved by the best approximation. Three examples are used to demonstrate these assertions: inversion of a compact linear operator; inversion of piezometric head to determine hydraulic conductivity in a Darcy model of groundwater flow; and inversion of Eulerian velocity measurements at positive times to determine the initial condition in an incompressible fluid. (paper)

  3. Cluster ensembles, quantization and the dilogarithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Vladimir; Goncharov, Alexander B.

    2009-01-01

    A cluster ensemble is a pair of positive spaces (i.e. varieties equipped with positive atlases), coming with an action of a symmetry group . The space is closely related to the spectrum of a cluster algebra [ 12 ]. The two spaces are related by a morphism . The space is equipped with a closed -form......, possibly degenerate, and the space has a Poisson structure. The map is compatible with these structures. The dilogarithm together with its motivic and quantum avatars plays a central role in the cluster ensemble structure. We define a non-commutative -deformation of the -space. When is a root of unity...

  4. Ensemble computing for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annaratone, M.; Dossa, D.

    1995-01-01

    Computer downsizing is one of the most often used buzzwords in today's competitive business, and the petroleum industry is at the forefront of this revolution. Ensemble computing provides the key for computer downsizing with its first incarnation, i.e., workstation farms. This paper concerns the importance of increasing the productivity cycle and not just the execution time of a job. The authors introduce the concept of ensemble computing and workstation farms. The they discuss how different computing paradigms can be addressed by workstation farms

  5. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} microwave resonators for strong collective coupling with spin ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirri, A., E-mail: alberto.ghirri@nano.cnr.it [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Bonizzoni, C.; Affronte, M. [Dipartimento Fisica, Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia and Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Gerace, D.; Sanna, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Cassinese, A. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, 80138 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-04

    Coplanar microwave resonators made of 330 nm-thick superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} have been realized and characterized in a wide temperature (T, 2–100 K) and magnetic field (B, 0–7 T) range. The quality factor (Q{sub L}) exceeds 10{sup 4} below 55 K and it slightly decreases for increasing fields, remaining 90% of Q{sub L}(B=0) for B = 7 T and T = 2 K. These features allow the coherent coupling of resonant photons with a spin ensemble at finite temperature and magnetic field. To demonstrate this, collective strong coupling was achieved by using di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium organic radical placed at the magnetic antinode of the fundamental mode: the in-plane magnetic field is used to tune the spin frequency gap splitting across the single-mode cavity resonance at 7.75 GHz, where clear anticrossings are observed with a splitting as large as ∼82 MHz at T = 2 K. The spin-cavity collective coupling rate is shown to scale as the square root of the number of active spins in the ensemble.

  6. A class of energy-based ensembles in Tsallis statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekar, R; Naina Mohammed, S S

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation is carried out on the class of energy-based ensembles. The eight ensembles are divided into two main classes. In the isothermal class of ensembles the individual members are at the same temperature. A unified framework is evolved to describe the four isothermal ensembles using the currently accepted third constraint formalism. The isothermal–isobaric, grand canonical and generalized ensembles are illustrated through a study of the classical nonrelativistic and extreme relativistic ideal gas models. An exact calculation is possible only in the case of the isothermal–isobaric ensemble. The study of the ideal gas models in the grand canonical and the generalized ensembles has been carried out using a perturbative procedure with the nonextensivity parameter (1 − q) as the expansion parameter. Though all the thermodynamic quantities have been computed up to a particular order in (1 − q) the procedure can be extended up to any arbitrary order in the expansion parameter. In the adiabatic class of ensembles the individual members of the ensemble have the same value of the heat function and a unified formulation to described all four ensembles is given. The nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic ideal gases are studied in the isoenthalpic–isobaric ensemble, the adiabatic ensemble with number fluctuations and the adiabatic ensemble with number and particle fluctuations

  7. Finite temperature effects in primordial inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, G. B.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Olive, K. A.

    1983-11-01

    We present a detailed study of a recently proposed model for primordial inflation based on an N=1 locally supersymmetric potential. For a large class of parameters with which all cosmological constraints are satisfied, the temperature corrections can be neglected during the inflation period. At higher temperatures, the minimum is not at the origin, but very close to it. Address after July 1, 1983: Theory Group, Fermilab, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA.

  8. Causality in finite temperature quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Some properties of various 'real time' formalisms are examined. The authors discuss conceptual (and sometimes very important) differences between the Niemi-Semmenoff method, the Closed Time Path formalism, and Thermo Field Dynamics. (author). 15 refs

  9. Quasi-particles at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.; Requardt, M.

    1983-01-01

    We study the consequences of the KMS-condition on the properties of quasi-particles, assuming their existence. We establish: (i) If the correlation functions decay sufficiently, we can create them by quasi-free field operators. (ii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the; (iii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the number of quasi-particles and its time-monotonicity describes how the quasi-particles travel to infinity. (orig.)

  10. Finite Temperature Lattice QCD with GPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, N.; Cardoso, M.; Bicudo, P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are being used in many areas of physics, since the performance versus cost is very attractive. The GPUs can be addressed by CUDA which is a NVIDIA's parallel computing architecture. It enables dramatic increases in computing performance by harnessing the power of the GPU. We present a performance comparison between the GPU and CPU with single precision and double precision in generating lattice SU(2) configurations. Analyses with single and multiple GPUs, using CUDA and OPENMP, are also presented. We also present SU(2) results for the renormalized Polyakov loop, colour averaged free energy and the string tension as a function of the temperature. (authors)

  11. Relativistic equations of state at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M.S.; Menezes, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we study the effects of temperature on the equations of state obtained within a relativistic model with and without β equilibrium, over a wide range of densities. We integrate the TOV equations. We also compare the results of the equation of state, effective mass and strangeness fraction from the TM1, NL3 and GL sets of parameters, as well as investigating the importance of antiparticles in the treatment. The have checked that TM1 and NL3 are not appropriate for the description of neutron and protoneutron stars. (author)

  12. Describing gluons at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Any description of gluons requires a well-defined gauge. This is complicated non-perturbatively by Gribov copies. A possible method-independent gauge definition to resolve this problem is presented and afterwards used to study the properties of gluons at any temperature. It is found that only chromo-electric properties reflect the phase transition. From these the gauge-invariant phase transition temperature is determined for SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theory independently. (author)

  13. Chromomagnetism and quasiparticles at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1987-01-01

    The necessity for chromomagnetically charged quasiparticles in QCD is discussed. It is shown numerically that such quasiparticles are present in pure continuum QCD. Some effects of the gas of quasiparticles are conjectured. (orig.)

  14. Meson Correlators in Finite Temperature Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Hashimoto, T; Hioki, S; Matsufuru, H; Miyamura, O; Nakamura, A; Takaishi, T; Umeda, T; Stamatescu, I O; CERN. Geneva; Forcrand, Ph. de

    2001-01-01

    We analyze temporal and spatial meson correlators in quenched lattice QCD at T>0. Below T_c we observe little change in the meson properties as compared with T=0. Above T_c we observe new features: chiral symmetry restoration and signals of plasma formation, but also indication of persisting mesonic (metastable) states and different temporal and spatial masses in the mesonic channels. This suggests a complex picture of QGP in the region 1 - 1.5 T_c.

  15. Sphalerons and instantons at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, H.; Goldberg, H.; Ryzak, Z.

    1988-01-01

    A variational Ansatz for a solution of the Euclidean time-dependent Weinberg-Salam field equations which connects topologically distinct vacua is presented. The Ansatz allows a unified description of real-time transitions involving baryon-number nonconservation from the zero-temperature (instanton) limit up to the electroweak transition temperature

  16. Intrinsic retrieval efficiency for quantum memories: A three-dimensional theory of light interaction with an atomic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, Tanvi P.; Wu, Yukai; Duan, Luming

    2018-03-01

    Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller quantum repeater protocol, which was proposed to realize long distance quantum communication, requires usage of quantum memories. Atomic ensembles interacting with optical beams based on off-resonant Raman scattering serve as convenient on-demand quantum memories. Here, a complete free space, three-dimensional theory of the associated read and write process for this quantum memory is worked out with the aim of understanding intrinsic retrieval efficiency. We develop a formalism to calculate the transverse mode structure for the signal and the idler photons and use the formalism to study the intrinsic retrieval efficiency under various configurations. The effects of atomic density fluctuations and atomic motion are incorporated by numerically simulating this system for a range of realistic experimental parameters. We obtain results that describe the variation in the intrinsic retrieval efficiency as a function of the memory storage time for skewed beam configuration at a finite temperature, which provides valuable information for optimization of the retrieval efficiency in experiments.

  17. The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andy; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2015-04-01

    The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment was established in March, 2004, at a workshop hosted by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), and co-sponsored by the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC). The HEPEX goal was to bring the international hydrological and meteorological communities together to advance the understanding and adoption of hydrological ensemble forecasts for decision support. HEPEX pursues this goal through research efforts and practical implementations involving six core elements of a hydrologic ensemble prediction enterprise: input and pre-processing, ensemble techniques, data assimilation, post-processing, verification, and communication and use in decision making. HEPEX has grown through meetings that connect the user, forecast producer and research communities to exchange ideas, data and methods; the coordination of experiments to address specific challenges; and the formation of testbeds to facilitate shared experimentation. In the last decade, HEPEX has organized over a dozen international workshops, as well as sessions at scientific meetings (including AMS, AGU and EGU) and special issues of scientific journals where workshop results have been published. Through these interactions and an active online blog (www.hepex.org), HEPEX has built a strong and active community of nearly 400 researchers & practitioners around the world. This poster presents an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, highlighting case studies that exemplify the focus and objectives of HEPEX.

  18. A method for ensemble wildland fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh; Robert C. Seli; Diane Trethewey; Richard D. Stratton; Stuart Brittain

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble simulation system that accounts for uncertainty in long-range weather conditions and two-dimensional wildland fire spread is described. Fuel moisture is expressed based on the energy release component, a US fire danger rating index, and its variation throughout the fire season is modeled using time series analysis of historical weather data. This analysis...

  19. The Phantasmagoria of Competition in School Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2017-01-01

    Participation in competition festivals--where students and ensembles compete against each other for high scores and accolades--is a widespread practice in North American formal music education. In this article, I use Marx's theories of labor, value, and phantasmagoria to suggest a capitalist logic that structures these competitions. Marx's…

  20. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello-Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M; Howe, Kevin L; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M

    2016-01-04

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. NYYD Ensemble ja Riho Sibul / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2001-01-01

    Gavin Bryarsi teos "Jesus' Blood Never Failed Me Yet" NYYD Ensemble'i ja Riho Sibula esituses 27. detsembril Pauluse kirikus Tartus ja 28. detsembril Rootsi- Mihkli kirikus Tallinnas. Kaastegevad Tartu Ülikooli Kammerkoor (Tartus) ja kammerkoor Voces Musicales (Tallinnas). Kunstiline juht Olari Elts

  2. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eMorrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor’s gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance, articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and nonmajors (N = 285 viewed sixteen 30-second performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble’s articulation, dynamics, technique and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble’s performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  3. Genetic Algorithm Optimized Neural Networks Ensemble as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Improvements in neural network calibration models by a novel approach using neural network ensemble (NNE) for the simultaneous ... process by training a number of neural networks. .... Matlab® version 6.1 was employed for building principal component ... provide a fair simulation of calibration data set with some degree.

  4. A Theoretical Analysis of Why Hybrid Ensembles Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the group decision making process, ensembles or combinations of classifiers have been found favorable in a wide variety of application domains. Some researchers propose to use the mixture of two different types of classification algorithms to create a hybrid ensemble. Why does such an ensemble work? The question remains. Following the concept of diversity, which is one of the fundamental elements of the success of ensembles, we conduct a theoretical analysis of why hybrid ensembles work, connecting using different algorithms to accuracy gain. We also conduct experiments on classification performance of hybrid ensembles of classifiers created by decision tree and naïve Bayes classification algorithms, each of which is a top data mining algorithm and often used to create non-hybrid ensembles. Therefore, through this paper, we provide a complement to the theoretical foundation of creating and using hybrid ensembles.

  5. Ensemble-based Kalman Filters in Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxia PU; Joshua HACKER

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of ensemble Kalman filters in data assimilation with the strongly nonlinear dynamics of the Lorenz-63 model, and in particular their use in predicting the regime transition that occurs when the model jumps from one basin of attraction to the other. Four configurations of the ensemble-based Kalman filtering data assimilation techniques, including the ensemble Kalman filter, ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, ensemble square root filter and ensemble transform Kalman filter, are evaluated with their ability in predicting the regime transition (also called phase transition) and also are compared in terms of their sensitivity to both observational and sampling errors. The sensitivity of each ensemble-based filter to the size of the ensemble is also examined.

  6. Ensemble of classifiers based network intrusion detection system performance bound

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a performance bound of a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) that uses an ensemble of classifiers. Currently researchers rely on implementing the ensemble of classifiers based NIDS before they can determine the performance...

  7. Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) [2.5 Deg.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) is a weather forecast model made up of 21 separate forecasts, or ensemble members. The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Using ensemble forecasting for wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Landberg, L.; Badger, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Sattler, K.

    2003-07-01

    Short-term prediction of wind power has a long tradition in Denmark. It is an essential tool for the operators to keep the grid from becoming unstable in a region like Jutland, where more than 27% of the electricity consumption comes from wind power. This means that the minimum load is already lower than the maximum production from wind energy alone. Danish utilities have therefore used short-term prediction of wind energy since the mid-90ies. However, the accuracy is still far from being sufficient in the eyes of the utilities (used to have load forecasts accurate to within 5% on a one-week horizon). The Ensemble project tries to alleviate the dependency of the forecast quality on one model by using multiple models, and also will investigate the possibilities of using the model spread of multiple models or of dedicated ensemble runs for a prediction of the uncertainty of the forecast. Usually, short-term forecasting works (especially for the horizon beyond 6 hours) by gathering input from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. This input data is used together with online data in statistical models (this is the case eg in Zephyr/WPPT) to yield the output of the wind farms or of a whole region for the next 48 hours (only limited by the NWP model horizon). For the accuracy of the final production forecast, the accuracy of the NWP prediction is paramount. While many efforts are underway to increase the accuracy of the NWP forecasts themselves (which ultimately are limited by the amount of computing power available, the lack of a tight observational network on the Atlantic and limited physics modelling), another approach is to use ensembles of different models or different model runs. This can be either an ensemble of different models output for the same area, using different data assimilation schemes and different model physics, or a dedicated ensemble run by a large institution, where the same model is run with slight variations in initial conditions and

  9. Ensemble data assimilation in the Red Sea: sensitivity to ensemble selection and atmospheric forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Huang, Huang; Knio, Omar; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    We present our efforts to build an ensemble data assimilation and forecasting system for the Red Sea. The system consists of the high-resolution Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to simulate ocean circulation

  10. Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used

  11. Quantum canonical ensemble: A projection operator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Wim; Lemmens, Lucien; Brosens, Fons

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the exact number of particles N, and taking this knowledge into account, the quantum canonical ensemble imposes a constraint on the occupation number operators. The constraint particularly hampers the systematic calculation of the partition function and any relevant thermodynamic expectation value for arbitrary but fixed N. On the other hand, fixing only the average number of particles, one may remove the above constraint and simply factorize the traces in Fock space into traces over single-particle states. As is well known, that would be the strategy of the grand-canonical ensemble which, however, comes with an additional Lagrange multiplier to impose the average number of particles. The appearance of this multiplier can be avoided by invoking a projection operator that enables a constraint-free computation of the partition function and its derived quantities in the canonical ensemble, at the price of an angular or contour integration. Introduced in the recent past to handle various issues related to particle-number projected statistics, the projection operator approach proves beneficial to a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics for which the canonical ensemble offers a natural and appropriate environment. In this light, we present a systematic treatment of the canonical ensemble that embeds the projection operator into the formalism of second quantization while explicitly fixing N, the very number of particles rather than the average. Being applicable to both bosonic and fermionic systems in arbitrary dimensions, transparent integral representations are provided for the partition function ZN and the Helmholtz free energy FN as well as for two- and four-point correlation functions. The chemical potential is not a Lagrange multiplier regulating the average particle number but can be extracted from FN+1 -FN, as illustrated for a two-dimensional fermion gas.

  12. The classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuanmin; Pang Shengshi; Wu Shengjun; Liu Quanhui

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the classicality and quantumness of a quantum ensemble. We define a quantity called ensemble classicality based on classical cloning strategy (ECCC) to characterize how classical a quantum ensemble is. An ensemble of commuting states has a unit ECCC, while a general ensemble can have a ECCC less than 1. We also study how quantum an ensemble is by defining a related quantity called quantumness. We find that the classicality of an ensemble is closely related to how perfectly the ensemble can be cloned, and that the quantumness of the ensemble used in a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is exactly the attainable lower bound of the error rate in the sifted key. - Highlights: → A quantity is defined to characterize how classical a quantum ensemble is. → The classicality of an ensemble is closely related to the cloning performance. → Another quantity is also defined to investigate how quantum an ensemble is. → This quantity gives the lower bound of the error rate in a QKD protocol.

  13. Exploring and Listening to Chinese Classical Ensembles in General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenzhuo

    2017-01-01

    Music diversity is valued in theory, but the extent to which it is efficiently presented in music class remains limited. Within this article, I aim to bridge this gap by introducing four genres of Chinese classical ensembles--Qin and Xiao duets, Jiang Nan bamboo and silk ensembles, Cantonese ensembles, and contemporary Chinese orchestras--into the…

  14. Critical Listening in the Ensemble Rehearsal: A Community of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cindy L.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores a strategy for engaging ensemble members in critical listening analysis of performances and presents opportunities for improving ensemble sound through rigorous dialogue, reflection, and attentive rehearsing. Critical listening asks ensemble members to draw on individual playing experience and knowledge to describe what they…

  15. Improving Climate Projections Using "Intelligent" Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Noel C.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in the climate system have led to growing concern, especially in communities which are highly vulnerable to resource shortages and weather extremes. There is an urgent need for better climate information to develop solutions and strategies for adapting to a changing climate. Climate models provide excellent tools for studying the current state of climate and making future projections. However, these models are subject to biases created by structural uncertainties. Performance metrics-or the systematic determination of model biases-succinctly quantify aspects of climate model behavior. Efforts to standardize climate model experiments and collect simulation data-such as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)-provide the means to directly compare and assess model performance. Performance metrics have been used to show that some models reproduce present-day climate better than others. Simulation data from multiple models are often used to add value to projections by creating a consensus projection from the model ensemble, in which each model is given an equal weight. It has been shown that the ensemble mean generally outperforms any single model. It is possible to use unequal weights to produce ensemble means, in which models are weighted based on performance (called "intelligent" ensembles). Can performance metrics be used to improve climate projections? Previous work introduced a framework for comparing the utility of model performance metrics, showing that the best metrics are related to the variance of top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave radiation. These metrics improve present-day climate simulations of Earth's energy budget using the "intelligent" ensemble method. The current project identifies several approaches for testing whether performance metrics can be applied to future simulations to create "intelligent" ensemble-mean climate projections. It is shown that certain performance metrics test key climate processes in the models, and

  16. Demonstrating the value of larger ensembles in forecasting physical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reason L. Machete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble simulation propagates a collection of initial states forward in time in a Monte Carlo fashion. Depending on the fidelity of the model and the properties of the initial ensemble, the goal of ensemble simulation can range from merely quantifying variations in the sensitivity of the model all the way to providing actionable probability forecasts of the future. Whatever the goal is, success depends on the properties of the ensemble, and there is a longstanding discussion in meteorology as to the size of initial condition ensemble most appropriate for Numerical Weather Prediction. In terms of resource allocation: how is one to divide finite computing resources between model complexity, ensemble size, data assimilation and other components of the forecast system. One wishes to avoid undersampling information available from the model's dynamics, yet one also wishes to use the highest fidelity model available. Arguably, a higher fidelity model can better exploit a larger ensemble; nevertheless it is often suggested that a relatively small ensemble, say ~16 members, is sufficient and that larger ensembles are not an effective investment of resources. This claim is shown to be dubious when the goal is probabilistic forecasting, even in settings where the forecast model is informative but imperfect. Probability forecasts for a ‘simple’ physical system are evaluated at different lead times; ensembles of up to 256 members are considered. The pure density estimation context (where ensemble members are drawn from the same underlying distribution as the target differs from the forecasting context, where one is given a high fidelity (but imperfect model. In the forecasting context, the information provided by additional members depends also on the fidelity of the model, the ensemble formation scheme (data assimilation, the ensemble interpretation and the nature of the observational noise. The effect of increasing the ensemble size is quantified by

  17. Data assimilation in integrated hydrological modeling using ensemble Kalman filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørn; Madsen, H.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater head and stream discharge is assimilated using the ensemble transform Kalman filter in an integrated hydrological model with the aim of studying the relationship between the filter performance and the ensemble size. In an attempt to reduce the required number of ensemble members...... and estimating parameters requires a much larger ensemble size than just assimilating groundwater head observations. However, the required ensemble size can be greatly reduced with the use of adaptive localization, which by far outperforms distance-based localization. The study is conducted using synthetic data...

  18. Statistical ensembles for money and debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaggiu, Stefano; Lionetto, Andrea; Bargigli, Leonardo; Longo, Michele

    2012-10-01

    We build a statistical ensemble representation of two economic models describing respectively, in simplified terms, a payment system and a credit market. To this purpose we adopt the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution where the role of the Hamiltonian is taken by the total money supply (i.e. including money created from debt) of a set of interacting economic agents. As a result, we can read the main thermodynamic quantities in terms of monetary ones. In particular, we define for the credit market model a work term which is related to the impact of monetary policy on credit creation. Furthermore, with our formalism we recover and extend some results concerning the temperature of an economic system, previously presented in the literature by considering only the monetary base as a conserved quantity. Finally, we study the statistical ensemble for the Pareto distribution.

  19. ABCD of Beta Ensembles and Topological Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We study beta-ensembles with Bn, Cn, and Dn eigenvalue measure and their relation with refined topological strings. Our results generalize the familiar connections between local topological strings and matrix models leading to An measure, and illustrate that all those classical eigenvalue ensembles, and their topological string counterparts, are related one to another via various deformations and specializations, quantum shifts and discrete quotients. We review the solution of the Gaussian models via Macdonald identities, and interpret them as conifold theories. The interpolation between the various models is plainly apparent in this case. For general polynomial potential, we calculate the partition function in the multi-cut phase in a perturbative fashion, beyond tree-level in the large-N limit. The relation to refined topological string orientifolds on the corresponding local geometry is discussed along the way.

  20. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.