WorldWideScience

Sample records for financial conflict-of-interest disclosure

  1. Financial Conflicts of Interest, Disclosure, and Academic Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Samuel V; Sacco, Donald F; Didlake, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Peer assessments of researchers' financial conflicts of interest (FCOIs) are crucial to effective FCOI management. We sought to determine how academics perceive FCOI disclosure and whether their perceptions vary depending on discipline and educational backgrounds. Participants (faculty and staff members from a multi-disciplinary academic medical center) responded to a questionnaire involving 10 hypothetical scenarios in which researchers either disclosed or failed to disclose a financial conflict (between-participants manipulation). Participants viewed disclosure as important and believed that researchers' objectivity would be affected by undisclosed FCOIs. In contrast to non-physicians, physicians showed greater recognition that the existence of an FCOI does not depend on its disclosure. This suggests that physicians are relatively well informed about FCOIs, which is likely attributable to more education about them. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Disclosure of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Edward A; Jackman, Carye A

    2017-09-01

    Recent articles in the scientific literature have expressed concerns about financial conflicts of interest in the profession of medicine in general and the specialty of plastic surgery in particular. Disclosure of financial ties to industry has been regarded as an address of a possible bias. The policies of medical journals places responsibility on authors for self-reporting of financial conflicts of interest, yet underreporting of conflicts of interest has occurred. The investigative hypothesis was that authors in the plastic surgery literature, in particular, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, underreported financial conflicts of interest. A review of articles published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from July of 2015 through April of 2016 for author disclosures was accomplished. The disclosure statements were compared to the information available in the Open Payments database for 2015. The lack of disclosure on the part of an author, when present, was individually examined for relevance of the corporate conflicts of interest to the subject matter of the involved article. A total of 302 articles authored by 1262 individuals were reviewed. One hundred thirty-nine (45.5 percent) had neither a disclosed nor an actual conflict of interest. In 61 articles (20.2 percent), one or more authors disclosed; 105 articles (34.8 percent) did not provide disclosure of a financial conflict of interest. In assessment of relevance, 10 undisclosed conflicts of interest (9.5 percent) were determined relevant, and one-third of that total were non-plastic surgeons. Nondisclosure of financial conflicts of interest is common, but only a small minority pose a potential for harm from bias.

  3. Requirements of Clinical Journals for Authors’ Disclosure of Financial and Non-Financial Conflicts of Interest: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawwa, Khaled; Kallas, Romy; Koujanian, Serge; Agarwal, Arnav; Neumann, Ignacio; Alexander, Paul; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance It is unclear how medical journals address authors’ financial and non-financial conflict of interest (COI). Objective To assess the policies of clinical journals for disclosure of financial and non-financial COI. Methods Cross sectional study that included both review of public documents as well as a simulation of a manuscript submission for the National Library of Medicine’s “core clinical journals”. The study did not involve human subjects. Investigators who abstracted the data, reviewed “instructions for authors” on the journal website and, in order to reflect the actual implementation of the COI disclosure policy, simulated the submission of a manuscript. Two individuals working in duplicate and independently to abstract information using a standardized data abstraction form, resolved disagreements by discussion or with the help of a third person. Results All but one of 117 core clinical journals had a COI policy. All journals required disclosure of financial COI pertaining to the authors and a minority (35%) asked for financial COI disclosure pertaining to the family members or authors' institution (29%). Over half required the disclosure of at least one form of non-financial COI (57%), out of which only two (3%) specifically referred to intellectual COI. Small minorities of journals (17% and 24% respectively) described a potential impact of disclosed COI and of non-disclosure of COI on the editorial process. Conclusion While financial COI disclosure was well defined by the majority of the journals, many did not have clear policies on disclosure of non-financial COI, disclosure of financial COI of family members and institutions of the authors, and effect of disclosed COI or non-disclosure of COI on editorial policies. PMID:27030966

  4. Requirements of Clinical Journals for Authors' Disclosure of Financial and Non-Financial Conflicts of Interest: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawwa, Khaled; Kallas, Romy; Koujanian, Serge; Agarwal, Arnav; Neumann, Ignacio; Alexander, Paul; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how medical journals address authors' financial and non-financial conflict of interest (COI). To assess the policies of clinical journals for disclosure of financial and non-financial COI. Cross sectional study that included both review of public documents as well as a simulation of a manuscript submission for the National Library of Medicine's "core clinical journals". The study did not involve human subjects. Investigators who abstracted the data, reviewed "instructions for authors" on the journal website and, in order to reflect the actual implementation of the COI disclosure policy, simulated the submission of a manuscript. Two individuals working in duplicate and independently to abstract information using a standardized data abstraction form, resolved disagreements by discussion or with the help of a third person. All but one of 117 core clinical journals had a COI policy. All journals required disclosure of financial COI pertaining to the authors and a minority (35%) asked for financial COI disclosure pertaining to the family members or authors' institution (29%). Over half required the disclosure of at least one form of non-financial COI (57%), out of which only two (3%) specifically referred to intellectual COI. Small minorities of journals (17% and 24% respectively) described a potential impact of disclosed COI and of non-disclosure of COI on the editorial process. While financial COI disclosure was well defined by the majority of the journals, many did not have clear policies on disclosure of non-financial COI, disclosure of financial COI of family members and institutions of the authors, and effect of disclosed COI or non-disclosure of COI on editorial policies.

  5. Disclosure, Evaluation and Management of Financial Conflict of Interest in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Winona; Strong, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult aspect of financial conflict of interest (FCOI) and compliance with federal regulations involves the assessment and management of identified FCOIs. While some federal agencies provide examples of the structure and content of management plans, it is up to institutions to evaluate FCOI to determine whether and how research may be…

  6. Views of potential research participants on financial conflicts of interest: barriers and opportunities for effective disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurt, Kevin P; Friedman, Joëlle Y; Allsbrook, Jennifer S; Dinan, Michaela A; Hall, Mark A; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2006-09-01

    There is little guidance regarding how to disclose researchers' financial interests to potential research participants. To determine what potential research participants want to know about financial interests, their capacity to understand disclosed information and its implications, and the reactions of potential research participants to a proposed disclosure statement. Sixteen focus groups in 3 cities, including 6 groups of healthy adults, 6 groups of adults with mild chronic illness, 1 group of parents of healthy children, 1 group of parents of children with leukemia or brain tumor, 1 group of adults with heart failure, and 1 group of adults with cancer. Focus group discussions covered a range of topics including financial relationships in clinical research, whether people should be told about them, and how they should be told. Audio-recordings of focus groups were transcribed, verified, and coded for analysis. Participants wanted to know about financial interests, whether or not those interests would affect their participation. However, they varied in their desire and ability to understand the nature and implications of financial interests. Whether disclosure was deemed important depended upon the risk of the research. Trust in clinicians was also related to views regarding disclosure. If given the opportunity to ask questions during the consent process, some participants would not have known what to ask; however, after the focus group sessions, participants could identify information they would want to know. Financial interests are important to potential research participants, but obstacles to effective disclosure exist.

  7. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  8. EPA's Revised Interim Financial Assistance Conflict of Interest Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has established the following revised interim policy governing disclosure of actual and potential conflicts of interest (COI Policy) by applicants for, and recipients of, federal financial assistance awards from EPA.

  9. EPA's Final Financial Assistance Conflict of Interest Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has established the following revised interim policy governing disclosure of actual and potential conflicts of interest (COI Policy) by applicants for, and recipients of, federal financial assistance awards from EPA.

  10. 78 FR 57130 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Conflict of Interest Disclosure for Nonfederal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Conflict of Interest Disclosure for Nonfederal Government Individuals Who Are... subject to Federal ethics requirements). For peer review purposes, the term ``conflicts of interest'' means any financial or other [[Page 57131

  11. [Disclosure of conflicts of interest in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoets, M; Pieters, G

    2009-01-01

    Between March 2000 and December 2008 authors disclosed conflicts of interest in 9% of articles in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie. For the same period, in the articles dealing with pharmaceuticals, the percentage of articles containing disclosures of conflict of interest was considerably higher, namely 24%. The policy of the journal with regard to the disclosure of conflicts of interest has helped to promote transparency. Further efforts are needed to encourage authors to disclose conflicts of interest.

  12. Disclosures of Conflicts of Interest in Psychiatric Review Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Andrew M.; Gorelick, David A.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    To characterize disclosures of conflicts of interest in review articles in psychiatry, we identified 285 reviews from ten high-impact journals in psychiatry and two in general medicine. Disclosures were reliably coded as biotech/pharmaceutical/other material interests, nonprofit/government, communication companies, or other. Authors in both types of journals frequently reported industry ties. However, reviews in psychiatric journals were significantly less likely to include industry-related disclosures (32% of reviews; 18% of authors) compared with general medical journals (64% of articles; 40% of authors). The most common types of industry-related disclosures were for consulting, research support, and speaking fees. Disclosures appeared to be of limited utility in helping readers assess possible biases, because the nature and extent of the relationship being disclosed was often unclear. Efforts to screen out authors with significant financial relationships pertaining to the topic under review may be more effective than disclosure in protecting the integrity of the medical literature. PMID:23364114

  13. Author disclosure of conflict of interest in vascular surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas L

    2011-09-01

    Advances in vascular surgery are increasingly technology-driven, and the relationships between surgeons and the medical device industry can be complex. This study reviewed conflict of interest (COI) disclosure in the vascular surgery journals regarding several selected technology-driven topics, including endovascular stent grafts (EV), carotid artery stenting (CAS), and peripheral arterial interventions (PI), to suggest further directions. Authors' COI disclosures were reviewed from all clinical papers published in 2008 and 2009 in each of six vascular surgery journals, and pertaining to three selected topics (EV, CAS, and PI). Rate of COI disclosure was evaluated as a function of journal, topic, article type (randomized trial, case series, case report, review, or meta-analysis), and authors' region of origin. Secondarily, consistency of authors' disclosure was evaluated by reviewing papers by the same author and of the same topic. Six hundred thirty-five papers were reviewed from the six journals. A COI was declared in 125 (19.7%) of these papers. This rate differed between journals (range, 3.2%-34.1%; P journals (46.9%), or in the same journal (25%). Rates of disclosure of COI, and inconsistencies in disclosure in the vascular surgery literature are at least partially due to differences in journals' reporting policies, while a smaller proportion of these inconsistencies are due to individual author behavior. Journals should adopt a consistent requirement for a separate COI declaration where all relevant financial arrangements are disclosed. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of conflict of interest disclosures among peer reviewers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lippert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disclosure of financial conflicts of interest (COI is intended to help reviewers assess the impact of potential bias on the validity of research results; however, there have been no empiric assessments of how reviewers understand and use disclosures in article evaluation. We investigate reviewers' perceptions of potential bias introduced by particular author disclosures, and whether reviewer characteristics are associated with a greater likelihood of perceiving bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 911 active reviewers from the Annals of Emergency Medicine, 410 were randomly selected and invited to complete our web-based, 3-part survey. We completed descriptive analysis of all survey responses and compared those responses across reviewer characteristics using 2 × 2 analyses and the Fisher exact test. We had a response rate of 54%. The majority of reviewers surveyed reported a high level of skepticism regarding financial relationships between authors and industry without a clear or consistent translation of that skepticism into the self-reported actions that characterize manuscript assessment. Only 13% of respondents believed physician consultants authoring articles based on company data are likely to have unlimited data access. 54% believed that bias most likely exists with any honorarium, regardless of monetary amount. Between 46% and 64%, depending on the type of financial relationship disclosed, reported that their recommendation for publication remains unchanged. Respondents reporting personal financial ties to industry were less likely to perceive bias in industry relationships and less likely to believe that bias exists with any monetary amount of honoraria. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that the monetary amount of all financial relationships be reported with manuscript submissions, lead authors certify that they have unrestricted access to data, and reviewers disclose any financial ties to industry whether or not they are

  15. Financial and non-financial conflicts of interests in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Mario

    2010-11-01

    A conflict of interests occurs when a doctor is unduly influenced by a secondary interest (i.e., a personal incentive) in his acts concerning one of the primary interests to which he is professionally committed (the welfare of patients, the progress of science, or the education of students or residents). One specific variety of conflicts of interests has monopolized the attention of the scientific and lay press: the financial conflicts of interests arising from the relationships between doctors and drug companies. A large literature has described the many, sometimes subtle, ways by which a psychiatrist can be influenced in his prescribing habits or research activities by his relationships with the industry. Some empirical evidence is now available in this area. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that the current debate on this issue is sometimes "affectively charged" or fails to take into account that the interests of patients, families and mental health professionals and those of the industry may be often convergent. Other types of conflicts of interests are beginning now to be discussed. There is evidence that the allegiance of a researcher to a given school of thought may influence the results of studies comparing different psychotherapeutic techniques, thus colliding with the primary interest represented by the progress of science. Political commitment is also emerging as a source of conflicts of interests. Financial and non-financial conflicts of interests are widespread in psychiatric practice and research. They cannot be eradicated, but must be managed more effectively than is currently the case.

  16. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Guidelines: Lack of Authors and Disclosures in the AAOMS White Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yisi D; Lahey, Edward T

    2018-03-02

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate current state of authorship, financial disclosures, and conflicts of interest in position papers published by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS). This is a cross-sectional review of the position papers published by the AAOMS from 2013 to 2017. Primary outcome variables include position papers published by the AAOMS. Secondary outcome variables include declaration of authorship, financial disclosures, and financial payments. The Open Payments Database for financial disclosures was reviewed for the year the position paper was published and the immediate preceding year. Ten position papers were published by the AAOMS from 2013 to 2017. Of the 10 papers, authorship was listed in 3, and none explicitly addressed the presence or absence of financial disclosures or conflicts of interest. Contributors to 3 of the 3 authored papers were found at review of the Open Payments Database to have received industry funding in the year the position paper was published and the immediate preceding year. The remuneration ranged from less than $1,000 to $554,006.02. Position papers published by the AAOMS lack standardization for authorship and statements on potential financial disclosure. The authors suggest full disclosures of authorship and authors' conflicts of interest should be stated on all position papers to provide transparency to the process. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 39914 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Conflict of Interest Disclosure for Nonfederal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Conflict of Interest Disclosure for Nonfederal Government Individuals Who Are... interest'' means any financial or other interest which conflicts with the service of the individual because... conflicts and other interests that could impair objectivity or create an unfair advantage. One form is for...

  18. Reporting of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest by authors of systematic reviews: a methodological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoum, Maram B; Anouti, Sirine; Al-Gibbawi, Mounir; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Hasbani, Divina Justina; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Agarwal, Arnav; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2016-08-10

    Conflicts of interest may bias the findings of systematic reviews. The objective of this methodological survey was to assess the frequency and different types of conflicts of interest that authors of Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews report. We searched for systematic reviews using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Ovid MEDLINE (limited to the 119 Core Clinical Journals and the year 2015). We defined a conflict of interest disclosure as the reporting of whether a conflict of interest exists or not, and used a framework to classify conflicts of interest into individual (financial, professional and intellectual) and institutional (financial and advocatory) conflicts of interest. We conducted descriptive and regression analyses. Of the 200 systematic reviews, 194 (97%) reported authors' conflicts of interest disclosures, typically in the main document, and in a few cases either online (2%) or on request (5%). Of the 194 Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews, 49% and 33%, respectively, had at least one author reporting any type of conflict of interest (p=0.023). Institutional conflicts of interest were less frequently reported than individual conflicts of interest, and Cochrane reviews were more likely to report individual intellectual conflicts of interest compared with non-Cochrane reviews (19% and 5%, respectively, p=0.004). Regression analyses showed a positive association between reporting of conflicts of interest (at least one type of conflict of interest, individual financial conflict of interest, institutional financial conflict of interest) and journal impact factor and between reporting individual financial conflicts of interest and pharmacological versus non-pharmacological intervention. Although close to half of the published systematic reviews report that authors (typically many) have conflicts of interest, more than half report that they do not. Authors reported individual conflicts of interest more frequently than institutional and

  19. Financial Conflicts of Interest Checklist 2010 for clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Paula A; Hoey, John; Chan, An-Wen; Ferris, Lorraine E; Lexchin, Joel; Kalkar, Sunila R; Sekeres, Melanie; Wu, Wei; Van Laethem, Marleen; Gruneir, Andrea; Maskalyk, James; Streiner, David L; Gold, Jennifer; Taback, Nathan; Moher, David

    2010-01-01

    A conflict of interest is defined as "a set of conditions in which professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as a patient's welfare or the validity of research) tends to be unduly influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain)" [Thompson DF. Understanding financial conflicts of interest. N Engl J Med 1993;329(8):573-576]. Because financial conflict of interest (fCOI) can occur at different stages of a study, and because it can be difficult for investigators to detect their own bias, particularly retrospectively, we sought to provide funders, journal editors and other stakeholders with a standardized tool that initiates detailed reporting of different aspects of fCOI when the study begins and continues that reporting throughout the study process to publication. We developed a checklist using a 3-phase process of pre-meeting item generation, a stakeholder meeting and post-meeting consolidation. External experts (n = 18), research team members (n = 12) and research staff members (n = 4) rated or reviewed items for some or all of the 7 major iterations. The resulting Financial Conflicts of Interest Checklist 2010 consists of 4 sections covering administrative, study, personal financial, and authorship information, which are divided into 6 modules and contain a total of 15 items and their related sub-items; it also includes a glossary of terms. The modules are designed to be completed by all investigators at different points over the course of the study, and updated information can be appended to the checklist when it is submitted to stakeholder groups for review. We invite comments and suggestions for improvement at http://www.openmedicine.ca/fcoichecklist and ask stakeholder groups to endorse the use of the checklist.

  20. Discordance of conflict of interest self-disclosure and the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Olavarria, Oscar A; Holihan, Julie L; Viso, Cristina Perez; Hannon, Craig; Kao, Lillian S; Ko, Tien C; Liang, Mike K

    2017-10-01

    The Open Payments Database (OPD) discloses financial transactions between manufacturers and physicians. The concordance of OPD versus self-reported conflicts of interest (COI) is unknown. Our objectives were to compare (1) industry and self-disclosed COI in clinical literature, (2) payments within each disclosure level, and (3) industry- and self-disclosed COI and payments by specialty. This was an observational study. PubMed was searched for clinical studies accepted for publication from January 2014 to June 2016. Author and OPD-disclosed COIs were compared. Articles and authors were divided into full disclosure, incomplete industry disclosure, incomplete self-disclosure, and no COI. Primary outcome (differences in reported COI per article) was assessed using McNemar's test. Payment differences were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. OPD- and self-disclosed COI differed (65.0% discordance rate by article, P disclosure category differed between specialties (P self-disclosure ($30,812). Significant discordance exists between self- and OPD-reported COI. Additional research is needed to determine reasons for these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR MATERIALITY: WOULD CONFLICT OF INTEREST DISCLOSURES CHANGE PATIENT DECISIONS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spece, Roy; Yokum, David; Okoro, Andrea-Gale; Robertson Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The law has long been concerned with the agency problems that arise when advisors, such as attorneys or physicians, put themselves in financial relationships that create conflicts of interest. If the financial relationship is "material" to the transactions proposed by the advisor, then non-disclosure of the relationship may be pertinent to claims of malpractice, informed consent, and even fraud, as well as to professional discipline. In these sorts of cases, materiality is closely related to the question of causation, roughly turning on whether the withheld information might have changed the decision of a reasonable advisee (i.e., a patient). The injured plaintiff will predictably testify that the information would have impacted his or her choice, but that self-serving testimony may be unreliable. The fact finder is left to speculate about the counterfactual world in which the information was disclosed. This Article shows how randomized vignette-based experimentation may create a valuable form of evidence to address these questions, for both litigation and policymaking. To demonstrate this method and investigate conflicts of interest in healthcare in particular, we recruited 691 human subjects and asked them to imagine themselves as patients facing a choice about whether to undergo a cardiac stenting procedure recommended by a cardiologist. We manipulated the vignettes in a 2 x 3 between-subjects design, where we systematically varied the appropriateness of the proposed treatment, which was described in terms of patient risk without the procedure (low or high), and manipulated the type of disclosure provided by the physician (none, standard, or enhanced). We used physician ownership of the specialty hospital where the surgery would be performed as the conflict of interest, disclosed or not, and the "enhanced" disclosure included notice that such relationships have been associated with biases in prescribing behavior. We found that the mock patients were

  2. 78 FR 42549 - Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...] Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval of... requirements contained in the proposed Conflict of Interest (COI) and Disclosure Form which will be used to determine whether or not a conflict of interest exists for a potential peer review panel member. DATES...

  3. 75 FR 7522 - Peer Review, Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Request for the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Review, Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Form; Request for the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB... proposal to extend the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) approval of the Conflict of Interest (COI) and Disclosure Form which is used to determine whether or not a conflict of interest exists for a...

  4. Dangers of neglecting non-financial conflicts of interest in health and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Miriam; Kerridge, Ian; Lipworth, Wendy

    2018-05-01

    Non-financial interests, and the conflicts of interest that may result from them, are frequently overlooked in biomedicine. This is partly due to the complex and varied nature of these interests, and the limited evidence available regarding their prevalence and impact on biomedical research and clinical practice. We suggest that there are no meaningful conceptual distinctions, and few practical differences, between financial and non-financial conflicts of interest, and accordingly, that both require careful consideration. Further, a better understanding of the complexities of non-financial conflicts of interest, and their entanglement with financial conflicts of interest, may assist in the development of a more sophisticated approach to all forms of conflicts of interest. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Funding source and conflict of interest disclosures by authors and editors in gastroenterology specialty journals revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, J; Sud, A; Vakil, N

    2012-03-01

    A survey of journals published in the field of Gastroenterology conducted 5 years ago showed marked variability in reporting of conflicts of interest or funding sources in these journals. To re-examine reporting of conflicts of interest and funding sources for original articles and editorials in Gastroenterology and Hepatology journals. We evaluated all original articles and editorials in 15 leading journals (determined by impact factor-Thomson Reuter Science Citation Index) devoted to Gastroenterology and Hepatology for disclosures of conflicts and for editor's self disclosures. We examined each journal's editorial policy by contacting the journal directly if the information was not revealed on the Web site or print versions of the journal. Of the 1574 articles evaluated, a total of 1207 (77%) reported the presence or absence of a potential conflict of interest and 1047 (67%) reported the presence or absence of funding sources. A total of 3 of the 15 (20%) journals (American Journal of Gastroenterology, Gastroenterology, and Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics reported the presence or absence of funding sources in all their published original articles. Only 5 of 15 (33%) journals (Gut, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, American Journal of Gastroenterology, Neurogastroenterology & Motility and Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics) publicly disclosed the conflicts of interest of the editors. (i) Funding sources and conflicts of interest are still reported variably in the GI literature. (ii) Editorials and review articles are influential, but have poor reporting of conflicts of interest. (iii) Editors of many journals still do not report their conflicts of interest. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Financial conflicts of interest and conclusions about neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza: an analysis of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adam G; Arachi, Diana; Hudgins, Joel; Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2014-10-07

    Industry funding and financial conflicts of interest may contribute to bias in the synthesis and interpretation of scientific evidence. To examine the association between financial conflicts of interest and characteristics of systematic reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors. Retrospective analysis. Reviews that examined the use of neuraminidase inhibitors in the prophylaxis or treatment of influenza, were published between January 2005 and May 2014, and used a systematic search protocol. Two investigators blinded to all information regarding the review authors independently assessed the presentation of evidence on the use of neuraminidase inhibitors as favorable or not favorable. Financial conflicts of interest were identified using the index reviews, other publications, and Web-based searches. Associations between financial conflicts of interest, favorability assessments, and presence of critical appraisals of evidence quality were analyzed. Twenty-six systematic reviews were identified, of which 13 examined prophylaxis and 24 examined treatment, accounting for 37 distinct assessments. Among assessments associated with a financial conflict of interest, 7 of 8 (88%) were classified as favorable, compared with 5 of 29 (17%) among those without a financial conflict of interest. Reviewers without financial conflicts of interest were more likely to include statements about the quality of the primary studies than those with financial conflicts of interest. The heterogeneity in populations and outcomes examined in the reviews precluded analysis of the contribution of selective inclusion of evidence on the discordance of the assessments made in the reviews. Many of the systematic reviews had overlapping authorship. Reviewers with financial conflicts of interest may be more likely to present evidence about neuraminidase inhibitors in a favorable manner and recommend the use of these drugs than reviewers without financial conflicts of interest. Australian National Health and

  7. Non-financial conflicts of interests in psychiatric research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Mario

    2008-08-01

    Not all conflicts of interests affecting psychiatry are financial in nature. Our field is vulnerable to some varieties of nonfinancial conflicts of interests. Examples include the possible conflict between a researcher's allegiance to a school of thought and the integrity of psychotherapy research, or between a psychiatrist's political commitment and patients' welfare.

  8. Legislative Issues in Disclosing Financial Conflicts of Interest to Participants in Biomedical Research: Effectiveness and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Sun

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses on the analysis regarding disclosure of financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) after Gelsinger v. University of Pennsylvania (Penn). The main legal issue was that the participants did not have enough opportunity to make an autonomous decision about participating in the research because he was not informed about the researchers' and the institution's substantial FCOI. The disclosure system was adopted by the Code of Federal Regulations. Under the regulation, researchers and institutions need to report FCOI over $5,000 to the institution, and the internal review boards have to report to the federal authority if needed. In case of human research, the disclosure to Food and Drug Administration is mandatory. FCOI disclosure system would help participants to make an autonomous decision, and increase trust to the research process and researchers. Moreover, the system would let researchers keep fiduciary duty while (possibly) lowering legal liability in case of a lawsuit. There were discussions about the disclosure methodology in the United States. However, there have not been a lot of discussions in Korea even after the "Humidifier Disinfectant" case. Therefore, new legislations need to be considered. First, the system requires disclosure funded by not only government but also private institutions. Second, like California Supreme Court, the subject would be reviewed under the reasonable person standard by participants, including patents, equity, and stock. Third, the disclosure needs to include simple or brief explanation to the FCOI to be better understood by the participants. Fourth, the disclosure should be in the informed consent process. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. [Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-04-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  10. Conflicts of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-06-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is neither systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This article provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardized questionnaire, are discussed.

  11. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-06-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  12. Disclosure of industry relationships by anesthesiologists: is the conflict of interest resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofke, W Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Anesthesiologists are flooded with requests that they themselves reveal their associations with industry and other external sources of financial support and also with stories about adverse outcomes related to poorly managed conflict of interest (COI) in research, education, and clinical practice. Guidelines for evaluating COI in these areas are needed and provision of such guidelines is the goal of this review. The medical literature and lay press provide ample publications outlining the extent of the COI problem and recent efforts to manage COI with numerous opinions on how to best accomplish COI management. The Institute of Medicine has provided significant guidance with a recent exhaustive review with recommendations. The central theme of managing COI is disclosure. However, there remains an unsettling void in this simple approach, which is reviewed. Moreover, there is a rising chorus of opposing views suggesting that not all collaborations with industry constitute a conflict. A balanced review of the pros and cons of industry collaboration in research, education, and clinical practice is presented along with recommendations for evaluating potential COI in anesthesia practice. Current guidelines generally call for simple disclosure of the presence of COI and for sponsoring professional societies and institutions to evaluate and manage COIs. However, for the anesthesiologist reading an article or chapter or attending an oral presentation by a conflicted author or presenter, in attempting to ascertain the possibility of bias simple disclosure seems inadequate to enable reliable assessment of potential bias. Information should be made available regarding the extent of industry involvement in the activity and the actual amounts of remuneration rendered to supported authors and speakers.

  13. Thirty years of disclosure of conflict of interest in surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Pascal; Hüttner, Felix J; Klaiber, Ulla; Diener, Markus K; Büchler, Markus W; Knebel, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    A conflict of interest (COI) creates the risk that a professional judgment will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. In practice, the leading concern is the creation of bias by industry sponsorship. Several organizations for ethics in scientific publishing exist, and standardized disclosure forms have been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the present status of the definition, management, and disclosure of COI in journals devoted to general and abdominal surgery. Information on publisher, definition of COI, whether COI disclosure was mandatory, publication of the disclosure statement with the article, and when publication of disclosure statements was introduced were gathered from instructions for authors and from journal editors and presented descriptively. The hypothesis that journals with a disclosure policy have greater impact factors was tested with a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A sample of 64 journals was investigated. In 8 journals (13%) disclosure was deemed unnecessary. In the remaining 56 journals (88%) disclosure of COI was mandatory and in 39 of these journals (61%) the COI statement was published with the article. Journals declaring COI disclosure as mandatory had a greater impact factor (0.626 vs 1.732; P = .006). Transparency is critical to the reliability of evidence-based medicine. All efforts should be made to give the reader the maximum amount of information. We recommend that every surgeon maintain a standardized, up-to-date disclosure form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Disclosure of conflicts of interest in hospital pharmacy posters in France: we still have a long way to go].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Édouard, B; Toth, K; Descout, J

    2013-05-01

    Since 1995, disclosure of conflicts of interest in international scientific publications became systematic, but, in France, there is yet no obligation to mention them in oral communications or posters of pharmacy. To assess the rate of posters in hospital pharmacy meetings which mention potential conflicts of interest. A prospective study. All abstracts presented in printed poster format were evaluated during three hospital pharmacy meetings organized in France between November 2011 and March 2012 for the presence of the conflicts of interest disclosure, even if there were no conflicts of interest. The main outcome was the rate of posters with mentions of potential conflicts of interest. A subgroup analysis was conducted about geographic origin of authors. On 294 announced posters, 263 were displayed, 252 did not mention any conflict of interest, 11 mentioned the possibility or not of conflict of interest (4.2%): the rate ranged from 1.1 to 25% according to the meeting. Posters from France disclosed less often conflicts of interest (40%). The rate of spontaneous disclosure of conflicts of interest is very low within French pharmacists. The instructions given by French meeting organizers should be more directive on the matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Industry sponsorship and financial conflict of interest in the reporting of clinical trials in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Roy H; Perlis, Clifford S; Wu, Yelena; Hwang, Cindy; Joseph, Megan; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2005-10-01

    Financial conflict of interest has been reported to be prevalent in clinical trials in general medicine and associated with a greater likelihood of reporting results favorable to the intervention being studied. The extent and implications of industry sponsorship and financial conflict of interest in psychiatric clinical trials have not been investigated, to the authors' knowledge. The authors examined funding source and author financial conflict of interest in all clinical trials published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, the Archives of General Psychiatry, the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, and the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry between 2001 and 2003. Among 397 clinical trials identified, 239 (60%) reported receiving funding from a pharmaceutical company or other interested party, and 187 studies (47%) included at least one author with a reported financial conflict of interest. Among the 162 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies examined, those that reported conflict of interest were 4.9 times more likely to report positive results; this association was significant only among the subset of pharmaceutical industry-funded studies. Author conflict of interest appears to be prevalent among psychiatric clinical trials and to be associated with a greater likelihood of reporting a drug to be superior to placebo.

  16. Financial conflicts of interest and outcomes and quality of systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Lundh, Andreas; Rasmussen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Methodology). The objectives are as follows: The primary objectives are to investigate to what degree: - funding of systematic reviews by drug, device, and imaging companies and authors' other financial conflicts of interest are associated with effect size...... estimate; and - funding of systematic reviews by drug, device, and imaging companies and authors' other financial conflicts of interest are associated with conclusions that are favourable to the sponsor. The secondary objective is to investigate to what degree: - funding of systematic reviews by drug......, device, and imaging companies and authors' other financial conflicts of interest are associated with the methodological quality of systematic reviews as presented by the reviews....

  17. The Impact of Financial Conflict of Interest on Surgical Research: An Observational Study of Published Manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Viso, Cristina P; Olavarria, Oscar A; Bernardi, Karla; Holihan, Julie L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan; Liang, Mike K; Adams, Sasha D

    2018-02-09

    Substantial discrepancies exist between industry-reported and self-reported conflicts of interest (COI). Although authors with relevant, self-reported financial COI are more likely to write studies favorable to industry sponsors, it is unknown whether undisclosed COI have the same effect. We hypothesized that surgeons who fail to disclose COI are more likely to publish findings that are favorable to industry than surgeons with no COI. PubMed was searched for articles in multiple surgical specialties. Financial COI reported by surgeons and industry were compared. COI were considered to be relevant if they were associated with the product(s) mentioned by an article. Primary outcome was favorability, which was defined as an impression favorable to the product(s) discussed by an article and was determined by 3 independent, blinded clinicians for each article. Primary analysis compared incomplete self-disclosure to no COI. Ordered logistic multivariable regression modeling was used to assess factors associated with favorability. Overall, 337 articles were reviewed. There was a high rate of discordance in the reporting of COI (70.3%). When surgeons failed to disclose COI, their conclusions were significantly more likely to favor industry than surgeons without COI (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p relevance, disclosure, or monetary amount) were significantly associated with favorability. Any financial COI (disclosed or undisclosed, relevant or not relevant) significantly influence whether studies report findings favorable to industry. More attention must be paid to improving research design, maximizing transparency in medical research, and insisting that surgeons disclose all COI, regardless of perceived relevance.

  18. Financial conflicts of interest and reporting bias regarding the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Schulze, Matthias B; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Industry sponsors' financial interests might bias the conclusions of scientific research. We examined whether financial industry funding or the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest influenced the results of published systematic reviews (SRs) conducted in the field of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and weight gain or obesity. We conducted a search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases to identify published SRs from the inception of the databases to August 31, 2013, on the association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. SR conclusions were independently classified by two researchers into two groups: those that found a positive association and those that did not. These two reviewers were blinded with respect to the stated source of funding and the disclosure of conflicts of interest. We identified 17 SRs (with 18 conclusions). In six of the SRs a financial conflict of interest with some food industry was disclosed. Among those reviews without any reported conflict of interest, 83.3% of the conclusions (10/12) were that SSB consumption could be a potential risk factor for weight gain. In contrast, the same percentage of conclusions, 83.3% (5/6), of those SRs disclosing some financial conflict of interest with the food industry were that the scientific evidence was insufficient to support a positive association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. Those reviews with conflicts of interest were five times more likely to present a conclusion of no positive association than those without them (relative risk: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.3-19.3). An important limitation of this study is the impossibility of ruling out the existence of publication bias among those studies not declaring any conflict of interest. However, the best large randomized trials also support a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. Financial conflicts of interest may bias conclusions from SRs on SSB consumption and weight gain

  19. Conflict of interest reporting by authors involved in promotion of off-label drug use: an analysis of journal disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Wang, Bo; Studdert, David M; Avorn, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Litigation documents reveal that pharmaceutical companies have paid physicians to promote off-label uses of their products through a number of different avenues. It is unknown whether physicians and scientists who have such conflicts of interest adequately disclose such relationships in the scientific publications they author. We collected whistleblower complaints alleging illegal off-label marketing from the US Department of Justice and other publicly available sources (date range: 1996-2010). We identified physicians and scientists described in the complaints as having financial relationships with defendant manufacturers, then searched Medline for articles they authored in the subsequent three years. We assessed disclosures made in articles related to the off-label use in question, determined the frequency of adequate disclosure statements, and analyzed characteristics of the authors (specialty, author position) and articles (type, connection to off-label use, journal impact factor, citation count/year). We identified 39 conflicted individuals in whistleblower complaints. They published 404 articles related to the drugs at issue in the whistleblower complaints, only 62 (15%) of which contained an adequate disclosure statement. Most articles had no disclosure (43%) or did not mention the pharmaceutical company (40%). Adequate disclosure rates varied significantly by article type, with commentaries less likely to have adequate disclosure compared to articles reporting original studies or trials (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95%CI = 0.02-0.67, p = 0.02). Over half of the authors (22/39, 56%) made no adequate disclosures in their articles. However, four of six authors with ≥ 25 articles disclosed in about one-third of articles (range: 10/36-8/25 [28%-32%]). One in seven authors identified in whistleblower complaints as involved in off-label marketing activities adequately disclosed their conflict of interest in subsequent journal publications. This is a much

  20. Conflict of interest reporting by authors involved in promotion of off-label drug use: an analysis of journal disclosures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron S Kesselheim

    Full Text Available Litigation documents reveal that pharmaceutical companies have paid physicians to promote off-label uses of their products through a number of different avenues. It is unknown whether physicians and scientists who have such conflicts of interest adequately disclose such relationships in the scientific publications they author.We collected whistleblower complaints alleging illegal off-label marketing from the US Department of Justice and other publicly available sources (date range: 1996-2010. We identified physicians and scientists described in the complaints as having financial relationships with defendant manufacturers, then searched Medline for articles they authored in the subsequent three years. We assessed disclosures made in articles related to the off-label use in question, determined the frequency of adequate disclosure statements, and analyzed characteristics of the authors (specialty, author position and articles (type, connection to off-label use, journal impact factor, citation count/year. We identified 39 conflicted individuals in whistleblower complaints. They published 404 articles related to the drugs at issue in the whistleblower complaints, only 62 (15% of which contained an adequate disclosure statement. Most articles had no disclosure (43% or did not mention the pharmaceutical company (40%. Adequate disclosure rates varied significantly by article type, with commentaries less likely to have adequate disclosure compared to articles reporting original studies or trials (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95%CI = 0.02-0.67, p = 0.02. Over half of the authors (22/39, 56% made no adequate disclosures in their articles. However, four of six authors with ≥ 25 articles disclosed in about one-third of articles (range: 10/36-8/25 [28%-32%].One in seven authors identified in whistleblower complaints as involved in off-label marketing activities adequately disclosed their conflict of interest in subsequent journal publications. This is

  1. Financial Instruments and Conflicts of Interest: Application to French Agricultural Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Declerck

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural co-operatives' governance and economic projects are often misunderstood by external financial investors. The risk of conflicts of interest plays a role in these misunderstandings in the way retained earnings, returns to agricultural products brought by co-op member and returns to equity capital. Such risks are identified and answers are proposed.

  2. Conflict-of-interest disclosure at medical journals in Japan: a nationwide survey of the practices of journal secretariats

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takako; Green, Joseph; Barron, J Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Medical journals in Japan generally have appropriate policies regarding disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI). However, COI management depends on the staff members of each journal's editorial secretariat. This study's objectives were to find out (A) whether COI disclosure and the journal's role in it are clearly understood by the journal’s secretariat staff, (B) how much experience the editorial secretariat has in actually handling issues related to disclosure and (C) what kind...

  3. Scientific journals and conflict of interest disclosure: what progress has been made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Kathleen

    2015-05-30

    The article addresses the failure of the scientific community to create an effective mechanism to protect the integrity of the scientific literature from improper influence by vested interests. The seriousness of this threat is increasingly recognized. Scientists willing to distort scientific research to serve vested interests receive millions of dollars for their services. Organizations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) have launched initiatives to establish international standards for Conflict of Interest (COI) disclosure. COPE requires its 7,000 member journals to comply with its Code of Conduct for Journal Editors. While these initiatives are encouraging, they are internal educational endeavours only. Five examples are given showing failure of COPE member journals to comply with COPE's Code of Conduct. While COPE offers a complaint process, it involves only discussion and voluntary compliance. COPE neither polices nor enforces its Code. Instead of the current feeble, un-resourced process, which delivers neither transparency nor accountability, the article proposes the creation of a mechanism that will employ specific, effective measures to address contraventions of COI disclosure requirements.

  4. Conflict of Interest and Disclosure Policies in Psychiatry and Medicine: A Comparative Study of Peer-Reviewed Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Gauri; Henderson, Schuyler; Walter, Garry; Martin, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors reviewed and characterized conflict of interest (COI) and disclosure policies published in peer-reviewed psychiatric and nonpsychiatric journals. Methods: The authors examined peer-reviewed publications in the psychiatric (N=20) and nonpsychiatric (N=20) literature. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, they…

  5. Financial conflicts of interest and the ethical obligations of medical school faculty and the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Kirsten; Brendel, David H; Brendel, Rebecca W

    2010-01-01

    Despite their potential benefits, relationships linking medical school faculty and the pharmaceutical and device industries may also challenge the professional value of primacy of patient welfare, a point highlighted in a recent Institute of Medicine report. Academic medical centers and professors have the added professional obligation to ensure the unbiased, evidence-based education of future doctors. This essay argues that faculty financial conflicts of interest may threaten this obligation by propagating the bias introduced by these relationships to students. This could occur directly through the process of curriculum determination and delivery, and also indirectly through the "hidden curriculum," which deserves particular attention, as its lessons may conflict with those professed in the formal curriculum. The essay concludes with guiding principles to consider when developing a conflict of interest policy at academic medical centers.

  6. Financial Conflicts of Interest and Study Results in Environmental and Occupational Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee; Friedman, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To date, there is no comprehensive analysis of the relationship between financial conflict of interest (COI) and a potential publication bias in environmental and occupational health studies. We analyzed original research articles published in 2012 in 17 peer-reviewed journals. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the relationship between financial COI and the study outcome. Of the 373 studies included in the analysis, 17.2% had a financial COI associated with organizations involved with the processing, use, or disposal of industrial and commercial products, and studies with this type of COI were more likely to report negative results (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 4.31), as were studies with any COI associated with the military (employment or funding; Adjusted Odds Ratio = 9.15). Our findings show a clear relationship between direction of reported findings and specific types of financial COI.

  7. Association Between Financial Conflicts of Interests and Supportive Opinions for Erectile Dysfunction Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Montisci, Massimo; Secco, Silvia; D'Elia, Carolina; Snenghi, Rosella; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2016-09-01

    A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person has competing loyalties or interests that make it difficult to fulfil his or her duties impartially. Conflict of interest is not categorically improper in itself but requires proper management. A SCOPUS literature search was performed for publications on the efficacy/safety of Phospho-Di-Esterase Inhibitors (PDEIs) for treating erectile dysfunction. A categorization tool (CoOpCaT) was used to review and classify the publications as supportive/not-supportive for the discussed active ingredient and reporting or not reporting a COI for that specific drug or for the remaining PDEIs (i.e. competitors). Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed. In the 419 selected records the prevalence of supportive opinions was higher when a COI for the index label was declared. The CoOpCaT showed good internal consistency, discriminative validity and intra/inter-rater agreement. The strongest predictor for a supportive opinion was the total number of financial COIs for the index label. A mild protective effect of the total number of financial COIs for any competitor label was noted. Financial COIs have frequently been associated with bias, and the measures currently adopted to restrain it lack effectiveness. Some evidence for monitoring and/or compensating this bias is reported here, but the ultimate solution remains distant.

  8. Investigation of Financial Conflict of Interest among Published Ventral Hernia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Olavarria, Oscar A; Bernardi, Karla; Viso, Cristina P; Moses, Maya L; Holihan, Julie L; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2018-03-01

    Discordance exists between author self-disclosure and the Open Payments Database in various surgical fields, but the effects of this discordance on study design and presentation are unknown. We hypothesized that, among ventral hernia publications, discordance exists between industry and physician self-reported conflicts of interest (COIs); authors disclose relevant COIs; and disclosure and relevant COIs affect study favorability. We conducted a double-blinded, prospective, observational study of published articles. PubMed was searched in reverse chronological order for clinical articles pertaining to ventral hernias. Authors' self-disclosed conflicts were compared with those on the Open Payments Database. Two reviewers blinded to article disclosure status determined jointly whether the COIs were relevant to the article. Three blinded referees independently voted whether each article was favorable to discussed subject matter. The primary end point was study favorability. Secondary outcomes included disclosure status and relevance. One hundred articles were included. Compared with authors with no COIs, authors with a COI, self-disclosed or not, were twice as likely to write results favorable to industry. Of those with a COI, most of the articles had a relevant COI (37 of 45 [82.2%]), and 25% of relevant COIs were not disclosed by authors. Among authors with a relevant COI, study favorability remained unchanged at 68.5% (control: no COI 33.3%; p reporting of COI is discordant in 63% of articles. Twenty-five percent of relevant COI are not disclosed. Having a COI increases the chances that an article will cast a favorable impression on the company paying the authors by 200%. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 48 CFR 952.209-8 - Organizational conflicts of interest-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... otherwise impaired, or a person has an unfair competitive advantage. (b) An offeror notified that it is the... negotiations or, where individual contracts are negotiated with all firms in the competitive range, it means... or potential conflict of interest or unfair competitive advantage exists with respect to the advisory...

  10. Requirements of health policy and services journals for authors to disclose financial and non-financial conflicts of interest: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Assem M; Hakoum, Maram B; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Habib, Joseph R; Ali, Ahmed; Guyatt, Gordon; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A

    2017-09-19

    The requirements of the health policy and services journals for authors to report their financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) are unclear. The present article aims to assess the requirements of health policy and services journals for authors to disclose their financial and non-financial COIs. This is a cross-sectional study of journals listed by the Web of Science under the category of 'Health Policy and Services'. We reviewed the 'Instructions for Authors' on the journals' websites and then simulated the submission of a manuscript to obtain any additional relevant information made available during that step. We abstracted data in duplicate and independently using a standardised form. Out of 72 eligible journals, 67 (93%) had a COI policy. A minority of policies described how the disclosed COIs of authors would impact the editorial process (34%). None of the policies had clear-cut criteria for rejection based on the content of the disclosure. Approximately a fifth of policies (21%) explicitly stated that inaccurate or incomplete disclosures might lead to manuscript rejection or retraction. No policy described whether the journal would verify the accuracy or completeness of authors' disclosed COIs. Most journals' policies (93%) required the disclosure of at least one form of financial COI. While the majority asked for specification of source of payment (71%), a minority asked for the amount (18%). Overall, 81% of policies explicitly required disclosure of non-financial COIs. A majority of health policy and services journal policies required the disclosure of authors' financial and non-financial COIs, but few required details on disclosed COIs. Health policy journals should provide specific definitions and instructions for disclosing non-financial COIs. A framework providing clear typology and operational definitions of the different types of COIs will facilitate both their disclosure by authors and reviewers and their assessment and management by

  11. National evaluation of policies on individual financial conflicts of interest in Canadian academic health science centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel; Sekeres, Melanie; Gold, Jennifer; Ferris, Lorraine E; Kalkar, Sunila R; Wu, Wei; Van Laethem, Marleen; Chan, An-Wen; Moher, David; Maskalyk, M James; Taback, Nathan; Rochon, Paula A

    2008-11-01

    Conflicts of interest (COI) in research are an important emerging topic of investigation and are frequently cited as a serious threat to the integrity of human participant research. To study financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) policies for individual investigators working in Canadian academic health centers. Survey instrument containing 61 items related to FCOI. All Canadian academic health science centers (universities with faculties of medicine, faculties of medicine and teaching hospitals) were requested to provide their three primary FCOI policies. Number of all centers and teaching hospitals with policies addressing each of the 61 items related to FCOI. Only one item was addressed by all 74 centers. Thirteen items were present in fewer than 25% of centers. Fewer than one-quarter of hospitals required researchers to disclose FCOI to research participants. The role of research ethics boards (REBs) in hospitals was marginal. Asking centers to identify only three policies may not have inclusively identified all FCOI policies in use. Additionally, policies at other levels might apply. For instance, all institutions receiving federal grant money must comply with the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans. Canadian centers within the same level (for instance, teaching hospitals) differ significantly in the areas that their policies address and these policies differ widely in their coverage. Presently, no single policy in any Canadian center informs researchers about the broad range of individual FCOI issues. Canadian investigators need to understand the environment surrounding FCOI, be able to access and follow the relevant policies and be confident that they can avoid entering into a FCOI.

  12. Intormation disclosure requirements for investigators' financial conflict of interest in clinical trials of United States%美国临床试验中研究者经济利益冲突政策中的信息"公开"要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广宽

    2008-01-01

    Investigators' financial conflict of interest(COI)in clinical trials may compromise the well-being of subjects and the objectivity and accountability of the research results.Lots of COI policies have been made in US to deal with such issues.This paper analyzed tIle policies governing investigators' financial COIs in clinical trials at the 21 medical schools which received the largest amount of research funds from the NIH.critically reviewed the different requirements of disclosure with the principles of respects for persons,justice,and beneficence.%临床试验中研究者的经济利益可能会损害受试者的安全和健康、研究结果的客观性和可靠性.在美国,公开研究者与临床试验相关的经济利益是处理研究者经济利益冲突的主要策略之一.本文通过对21个美国医学院在临床试验中研究者经济利益冲突相关政策的调查,展示了美国临床试验中在研究者经济利益的主体、内容、时间、对象等方面进行公开的一般要求,并结合医学研究的基本伦理原则进行了评析.

  13. The Influence of Industry Funding and Other Financial Conflicts of Interest on the Outcomes and Quality of Systematic Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Lundh, Andreas; Rasmussen, Kristine

    design that investigated samples of systematic reviews with and without industry funding or other financial conflicts of interest, published up to November 2016. For studies to be eligible, they had to investigate at least 1 of our outcomes: effect size estimates, statistically favorable results......, favorable conclusions, and methodological quality. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in relation to study inclusion, data extraction, and comparability of the investigated systematic reviews. We reported our findings on effect size estimates qualitatively. We...... size estimates and frequency of statistically favorable results were similar between systematic reviews with and without financial conflicts of interest (Table). Systematic reviews with financial conflicts of interest more often had favorable conclusions compared with systematic reviews without...

  14. Non-financial conflicts of interest in academic grant evaluation: a qualitative study of multiple stakeholders in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul, Hendy; Perrey, Christophe; Tubach, Florence; Amiel, Philippe; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Alberti, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Peer review is the most widely used method for evaluating grant applications in clinical research. Criticisms of peer review include lack of equity, suspicion of biases, and conflicts of interest (CoI). CoIs raise questions of fairness, transparency, and trust in grant allocation. Few observational studies have assessed these issues. We report the results of a qualitative study on reviewers' and applicants' perceptions and experiences of CoIs in reviews of French academic grant applications. We designed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and direct observation. We asked members of assessment panels, external reviewers, and applicants to participate in semi-structured interviews. Two independent researchers conducted in-depth reviews and line-by-line coding of all transcribed interviews, which were also subjected to Tropes® software text analysis, to detect and qualify themes associated with CoIs. Most participants (73/98) spontaneously reported that non-financial CoIs predominated over financial CoIs. Non-financial CoIs mainly involved rivalry among disciplines, cronyism, and geographic and academic biases. However, none of the participants challenged the validity of peer review. Reviewers who felt they might be affected by CoIs said they reacted in a variety of ways: routine refusal to review, routine attempt to conduct an impartial review, or decision on a case-by-case basis. Multiple means of managing non-financial CoIs were suggested, including increased transparency throughout the review process, with public disclosure of non-financial CoIs, and careful selection of independent reviewers, including foreign experts and methodologists. Our study underscores the importance of considering non-financial CoIs when reviewing research grant applications, in addition to financial CoIs. Specific measures are needed to prevent a negative impact of non-financial CoIs on the fairness of resource allocation. Whether and how public disclosure of non-financial

  15. Non-financial conflicts of interest in academic grant evaluation: a qualitative study of multiple stakeholders in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Abdoul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review is the most widely used method for evaluating grant applications in clinical research. Criticisms of peer review include lack of equity, suspicion of biases, and conflicts of interest (CoI. CoIs raise questions of fairness, transparency, and trust in grant allocation. Few observational studies have assessed these issues. We report the results of a qualitative study on reviewers' and applicants' perceptions and experiences of CoIs in reviews of French academic grant applications. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and direct observation. We asked members of assessment panels, external reviewers, and applicants to participate in semi-structured interviews. Two independent researchers conducted in-depth reviews and line-by-line coding of all transcribed interviews, which were also subjected to Tropes® software text analysis, to detect and qualify themes associated with CoIs. Most participants (73/98 spontaneously reported that non-financial CoIs predominated over financial CoIs. Non-financial CoIs mainly involved rivalry among disciplines, cronyism, and geographic and academic biases. However, none of the participants challenged the validity of peer review. Reviewers who felt they might be affected by CoIs said they reacted in a variety of ways: routine refusal to review, routine attempt to conduct an impartial review, or decision on a case-by-case basis. Multiple means of managing non-financial CoIs were suggested, including increased transparency throughout the review process, with public disclosure of non-financial CoIs, and careful selection of independent reviewers, including foreign experts and methodologists. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underscores the importance of considering non-financial CoIs when reviewing research grant applications, in addition to financial CoIs. Specific measures are needed to prevent a negative impact of non-financial CoIs on the

  16. The Impact of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Plastic Surgery: Are They All Created Equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph; Juan, Ilona; Wu, Adela; Samaha, Georges; Cho, Brian; Luck, J D; Soni, Ashwin; Milton, Jacqueline; May, James W; Tufaro, Anthony P; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2016-08-01

    Recently, several studies have demonstrated that articles that disclose conflicts of interests (COI) are associated with publication of positive results. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the different types of COI as they relate to the general topic of COI in plastic surgery. Specifically, we aimed to examine whether different types of COI are more likely than others to be associated with the presentation of positive findings. We reviewed all original articles in Annals of Plastic Surgery, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, and Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. All scientific articles were analyzed, and several article characteristics were extracted. Disclosed COI were categorized into the following categories: consultant/employee, royalties/stock options, and research support. The findings reported in each article abstract were blindly graded as reporting a positive, negative, neutral, or not applicable result. A multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether an association existed between certain types of COI and publication of positive conclusions. A total of 3124 articles were identified of which 1185 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Financial COI were reported in 153 studies (12.9%). The most common type of COI was "research support" (7.3%), whereas the least common was "royalties/stock options" (1.2%). Rates of different types of COI varied significantly by plastic surgery subspecialty field (P reported COI are uncommon in plastic surgery research. Our results provide evidence that certain types of financial COI are more likely than others to be associated with the presentation of positive findings. This analysis suggests that certain investigators may be more biased, consciously or unconsciously, by the type of financial benefit offered by industry.

  17. The Final Rule: Implementing New Policies for Financial Conflict of Interest at the University of Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Andrea; McClellan, Tammie; Miner, John

    2013-01-01

    Academic institutions modified their financial conflict of interest policies (FCOI) in response to the Public Health Service's (PHS) 2011 revised regulations (42 CFR 50 Subpart F) on "Responsibility of Applicants for Promoting Objectivity in Research and Responsible Prospective Contractors" (45 CFR 94), which were to go into effect on…

  18. Disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest in phase III surgical trials: survey of ten general surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Valérie; Moutel, Grégoire; Schwarz, Lilian; Michot, Francis; Herve, Christian; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Discussions regarding disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest (COI) in published peer-reviewed journal articles are becoming increasingly more common and intense. The aim of the present study was to examine whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in leading surgery journals report funding sources and COI. All articles reporting randomized controlled phase III trials published January 2005 through December 2010 were chosen for review from ten international journals. We evaluated the number of disclosed funding sources and COI, and the factors associated with such disclosures. From a review of 657 RCT from the ten journals, we discovered that presence or absence of a funding source and COI was disclosed by 47 % (309) and 25.1 % (165), respectively. Most articles in "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-affiliated journals" did not disclose COI. Disclosure of funding was associated with a journal impact factor >3 (51.7 vs 41.6 %; p funding sources (i.e., whether or not there was a funding source), and almost three quarters did not disclose whether COI existed. Our findings suggest the need to adopt best current practices regarding disclosure of competing interests to fulfill responsibilities to readers and, ultimately, to patients.

  19. Conflict-of-interest disclosure at medical journals in Japan: a nationwide survey of the practices of journal secretariats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takako; Green, Joseph; Barron, J Patrick

    2015-08-26

    Medical journals in Japan generally have appropriate policies regarding disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI). However, COI management depends on the staff members of each journal's editorial secretariat. This study's objectives were to find out (A) whether COI disclosure and the journal's role in it are clearly understood by the journal's secretariat staff, (B) how much experience the editorial secretariat has in actually handling issues related to disclosure and (C) what kind of help or support they need. In January 2014, questionnaires were sent to the editorial secretariats of journal-publishing societies belonging to the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences (JAMS). The response rate was 100%, and the respondents represented 121 journals published by the 118 JAMS member societies (at the time of the survey). Information was collected on the history of COI policies and on how those policies were implemented. At the end of the questionnaire, there was an open-ended call for comments. Compulsory COI disclosure began between 2010 and 2013 for 60.3% of the journals (73/121). Handling of COI issues was not uniform: 17.4% (21/121) of respondents do not pursue cases of dubious disclosure, and 47.9% (58/121) do not require COI disclosures from editorial board members. Very few of the editorial secretariats had clearly-stated consequences for violations of COI-disclosure policy (33/121, 27.3%), and only 28.9% offered COI education (35/121). Respondents' comments indicated that uniform, easily-searchable guidance regarding COI policies and implementation would be welcome. Although commitment is widespread, policy implementation is inconsistent and COI experience is lacking. Clear, easy-to-use guidelines are desired by many societies. The JAMS is to be commended for supporting this country-wide investigation; other countries and regions are encouraged to perform similar investigations to respond to needs regarding COI management. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  20. Disclosures of funding sources and conflicts of interest in published HIV/AIDS research conducted in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert; Chin, Lisa Judy; Rifai-Bishjawish, Hoda; Kleinert, Kelly; Leu, Cheng-Shiun

    2010-08-01

    Disclosures of funding sources and conflicts of interests (COI) in published peer-reviewed journal articles have recently begun to receive some attention, but many critical questions remain, for example, how often such reporting occurs concerning research conducted in the developing world and what factors may be involved. Of all articles indexed in Medline reporting on human subject HIV research in 2007 conducted in four countries (India, Thailand, Nigeria and Uganda), this study explored how many disclosed a funding source and COI, and what factors are involved. Of 221 articles that met the criteria, 67.9% (150) disclosed the presence or absence of a funding source, but only 20% (44) disclosed COI. Studies from Uganda were more likely, and those from Nigeria were less likely to mention a funding source (pfunding was more likely when: > or = 50% of the authors and the corresponding author were from the sponsoring country, the sponsor country was the USA, and the articles were published in journals in which more of the editors were from the sponsoring countries. Of the published studies examined, over a third did not disclose funding source (ie, whether or not there was a funding source) and 80% did not disclose whether COI existed. Most articles in ICMJE-affiliated journals did not disclose COI. These data suggest the need to consider alteration of policies to require that published articles include funding and COI information, to allow readers to assess articles as fully as possible.

  1. Reporting of financial conflicts of interest in clinical practice guidelines: a case study analysis of guidelines from the Canadian Medical Association Infobase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Romero, Mirna; Brown, Kevin

    2016-08-15

    Clinical practice guidelines are widely distributed by medical associations and relied upon by physicians for the best available clinical evidence. International findings report that financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) with drug companies may influence drug recommendations and are common among guideline authors. There is no comparable study on exclusively Canadian guidelines; therefore, we provide a case study of authors' FCOI declarations in guidelines from the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) Infobase. We also assess the financial relationships between guideline-affiliated organizations and drug companies. Using a population approach, we extracted first-line drug recommendations and authors' FCOI disclosures in guidelines from the CMA Infobase. We contacted the corresponding authors on guidelines when FCOI disclosures were missing for some or all authors. We also extracted guideline-affiliated organizations and searched each of their websites to determine if they had financial relationships with drug companies. We analyzed 350 authors from 28 guidelines. Authors were named on one, two, or three guidelines, yielding 400 FCOI statements. In 75.0 % of guidelines at least one author, and in 21.4 % of guidelines all authors, disclosed FCOI with drug companies. In 54.0 % of guidelines at least one author, and in 28.6 % of guidelines over half of the authors, disclosed FCOI with manufacturers of drugs that they recommended. Twenty of 48 authors on multiple guidelines reported different FCOI in their disclosures. Eight guidelines identified affiliated organizations with financial relationships with manufacturers of drugs recommended in those guidelines. This is the first study to systematically describe FCOI disclosures by authors of Canadian guidelines and financial relationships between guideline-affiliated organizations and pharmaceutical companies. These financial relationships are common. Because authoritative value is assigned to guidelines distributed by

  2. Solicitors' conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Brief overview of the need for the Law Society of England and Wales to formulate new rules to address conflicts of interest situations and accommodate modern practices which have followed from the merger of firms of solicitors resulting for example in requests to act in a dispute with a former client or to represent several parties in the same commercial or financial transaction. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal ...

  3. A cross-sectional study of all clinicians' conflict of interest disclosures to NHS hospital employers in England 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Harriet Ruth; DeVito, Nicholas J; Mendel, Jonathan; Carroll, David E; Goldacre, Ben

    2018-03-05

    We set out to document how NHS trusts in the UK record and share disclosures of conflict of interest by their employees. Cross-sectional study of responses to a Freedom of Information Act request for Gifts and Hospitality Registers. NHS Trusts (secondary/tertiary care organisations) in England. 236 Trusts were contacted, of which 217 responded. We assessed all disclosures for completeness and openness, scoring them for achieving each of five measures of transparency. 185 Trusts (78%) provided a register. 71 Trusts did not respond within the 28 day time limit required by the FoIA. Most COI registers were incomplete by design, and did not contain the information necessary to assess conflicts of interest. 126/185 (68%) did not record the names of recipients. 47/185 (25%) did not record the cash value of the gift or hospitality. Only 31/185 registers (16%) contained the names of recipients, the names of donors, and the cash amounts received. 18/185 (10%) contained none of: recipient name, donor name, and cash amount. Only 15 Trusts had their disclosure register publicly available online (6%). We generated a transparency index assessing whether each Trust met the following criteria: responded on time; provided a register; had a register with fields identifying donor, recipient, and cash amount; provided a register in a format that allowed further analysis; and had their register publicly available online. Mean attainment was 1.9/5; no NHS trust met all five criteria. Overall, recording of employees' conflicts of interest by NHS trusts is poor. None of the NHS Trusts in England met all transparency criteria. 19 did not respond to our FoIA requests, 51 did not provide a Gifts and Hospitality Register and only 31 of the registers provided contained enough information to assess employees' conflicts of interest. Despite obligations on healthcare professionals to disclose conflicts of interest, and on organisations to record these, the current system for logging and

  4. Residents' perceptions about surrogate decision makers' financial conflicts of interest in ventilator withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastila, Lisa J; Farber, Neil J

    2014-05-01

    There have been no studies to date that examine physicians' decisions to withdraw life-sustaining treatment for patients based on their surrogates' financial gain. The authors' objective was to ascertain physician attitudes about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment when financial considerations are involved. A survey was developed and pretested containing eight scenarios in which a terminally ill patient's spouse had a decision to make regarding withdrawal of the ventilator, which was deemed medically futile. Nested variables included agreement or disagreement between the spouse and patient, decision to withdraw or continue the ventilator, and financial gain or no financial gain for the spouse. The authors surveyed all internal medicine residents at the University of California, San Diego in the autumn of 2011 and winter of 2012. The responses on each of the three variables for which respondents were likely to withdraw the ventilator were analyzed via student's t-tests. Residents were more likely to withdraw the ventilator when requested to do so than when it was requested to be continued. They were also more likely to withdraw the ventilator when there was agreement in the decision between the spouse and the patient. Residents were more likely to withdraw the ventilator when the spouse would not benefit financially. Internal medicine residents make some decisions about whether to withdraw life-sustaining treatment based on financial considerations. There needs to be ongoing communication with residents about end-of-life decisions where conflicts may exist between the surrogate decision makers and patients or physicians.

  5. Authors of clinical trials reported individual and financial conflicts of interest more frequently than institutional and nonfinancial ones: a methodological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoum, Maram B; Jouni, Nahla; Abou-Jaoude, Eliane A; Hasbani, Divina Justina; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Khaldieh, Mariam; Hammoud, Mira Z; Al-Gibbawi, Mounir; Anouti, Sirine; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2017-07-01

    Conflicts of interest (COIs) are increasingly recognized as important to disclose and manage in health research. The objective of this study was to assess the reporting of both financial and nonfinancial COI by authors of randomized controlled trials published in a representative sample of clinical journals. We searched Ovid Medline and included a random sample of 200 randomized controlled trials published in 2015 in one of the 119 Core Clinical Journals. We classified COI using a comprehensive framework that includes the following: individual COIs (financial, professional, scholarly, advocatory, personal) and institutional COIs (financial, professional, scholarly, and advocatory). We conducted descriptive and regression analyses. Of the 200 randomized controlled trials, 188 (94%) reported authors' COI disclosures that were available in the main document (92%) and as International Committee of Medical Journal Editors forms accessible online (12%). Of the 188 trials, 57% had at least one author reporting at least one COI; in all these trials, at least one author reported financial COI. Institutional COIs (11%) and nonfinancial COIs (4%) were less commonly reported. References to COI disclosure statements for editors (1%) and medical writers (0%) were seldom present. Regression analyses showed positive associations between reporting individual financial COI and higher journal impact factor (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.10), larger number of authors (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.20), affiliation with an institution from a high-income country (OR = 16.75, 95% CI 3.38-82.87), and trials reporting on pharmacological interventions (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.13-4.62). More than half of published randomized controlled trials report that at least one author has a COI. Trial authors report financial COIs more often than nonfinancial COIs and individual COIs more frequently than institutional COIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Reporting of conflicts of interests in meta-analyses of trials of pharmacological treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseman, M.; Milette, K.; Bero, A.B.; Coyne, J.C.; Lexchin, J.; Turner, E.H.; Thombs, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract CONTEXT: Disclosure of conflicts of interest (COIs) from pharmaceutical industry study funding and author-industry financial relationships is sometimes recommended for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in biomedical journals. Authors of meta-analyses, however, are not required

  7. Underreporting of conflicts of interest in clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Julie Bolette Brix; Schroll, Jeppe; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts of interest affect recommendations in clinical guidelines and disclosure of such conflicts is important. However, not all conflicts of interest are disclosed. Using a public available disclosure list we determined the prevalence and underreporting of conflicts of interest among authors...

  8. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Guidelines: Update of U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Policies and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Moyer, Virginia; Grossman, David; Ebell, Mark; Woo, Meghan; Miller, Therese; Brummer, Tana; Chowdhury, Joya; Kato, Elisabeth; Siu, Albert; Phillips, William; Davidson, Karina; Phipps, Maureen; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) provides independent, objective, and scientifically rigorous recommendations for clinical preventive services. A primary concern is to avoid even the appearance of members having special interests that might influence their ability to judge evidence and formulate unbiased recommendations. The conflicts of interest policy for the USPSTF is described, as is the formal process by which best practices were incorporated to update the policy. The USPSTF performed a literature review, conducted key informant interviews, and reviewed conflicts of interest policies of ten similar organizations. Important findings included transparency and public accessibility; full disclosure of financial relationships; disclosure of non-financial relationships (that create the potential for bias and compromise a member's objective judgment); disclosure of family members' conflicts of interests; and establishment of appropriate reporting periods. Controversies in best practices include the threshold of financial disclosures, ease of access to conflicts of interest policies and declarations, vague definition of non-financial biases, and request for family members' conflicts of interests (particularly those that are non-financial in nature). The USPSTF conflicts of interest policy includes disclosures for immediate family members, a clear non-financial conflicts of interest definition, long look-back period and application of the policy to prospective members. Conflicts of interest is solicited from all members every 4 months, formally reviewed, adjudicated, and made publicly available. The USPSTF conflicts of interest policy is publicly available as part of the USPSTF Procedure Manual. A continuous improvement process can be applied to conflicts of interest policies to enhance public trust in members of panels, such as the USPSTF, that produce clinical guidelines and recommendations. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine

  9. Financial interest and its disclosure in scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimsky, S; Rothenberg, L S

    1998-07-15

    Journal policies and requirements of funding agencies on financial disclosure of authors and grant applicants have divided editors and scientists who disagree on whether such policies can improve the integrity of science or manage conflicts of interest. Those opposed to such disclosure policies argue that financial interest is one of many interests held by scientists, is the least scientifically dangerous, and should not be singled out. Those who favor open reporting of financial interests argue that full disclosure removes the suspicion that something of relevance to objectivity is being hidden and allows readers to form their own opinions on whether a conflict of interest exists and what relevance that has to the study. The authors believe that the scientific community and the public will be best served by open publication of financial disclosures for readers and reviewers to evaluate.

  10. Diagnosing Conflict-of-Interest Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In June 2010, the Association of American Medical Colleges issued the third and final portion of its conflict-of-interest policy initiatives. The task force on "Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Care" did not mince words when it described the impetus for these initiatives: "It is imperative that the possibility or perception of [financial conflict…

  11. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  12. 24 CFR 572.415 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... considered only after the applicant or recipient has provided a disclosure of the nature of the conflict... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 572.415...) Other Federal Requirements § 572.415 Conflict of interest. (a) Conflict of interest. In addition to the...

  13. 24 CFR 585.503 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the nature of the conflict, accompanied by an assurance that there has been public disclosure of the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 585.503... § 585.503 Conflict of interest. (a)(1) In addition to the conflict of interest requirements in 24 CFR...

  14. 24 CFR 574.625 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following: (1) A disclosure of the nature of the conflict, accompanied by an assurance that there has been... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 574.625... Requirements § 574.625 Conflict of interest. (a) In addition to the conflict of interest requirements in OMB...

  15. Dependability of results in conference abstracts of randomized controlled trials in ophthalmology and author financial conflicts of interest as a factor associated with full publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Ian J; Scherer, Roberta W; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Jampel, Henry D; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-04-26

    Discrepancies between information in conference abstracts and full publications describing the same randomized controlled trial have been reported. The association between author conflicts of interest and the publication of randomized controlled trials is unclear. The objective of this study was to use randomized controlled trials in ophthalmology to evaluate (1) the agreement in the reported main outcome results by comparing abstracts and corresponding publications and (2) the association between the author conflicts of interest and publication of the results presented in the abstracts. We considered abstracts describing results of randomized controlled trials presented at the 2001-2004 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology conferences as eligible for our study. Through electronic searching and by emailing abstract authors, we identified the earliest publication (journal article) containing results of each abstract's main outcome through November 2013. We categorized the discordance between the main outcome results in the abstract and its paired publication as qualitative (a difference in the direction of the estimated effect) or as quantitative. We used the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology categories for conflicts of interest: financial interest, employee of business with interest, consultant to business with interest, inventor/developer with patent, and receiving ≥ 1 gift from industry in the past year. We calculated the relative risks (RRs) of publication associated with the categories of conflicts of interest for abstracts with results that were statistically significant, not statistically significant, or not reported. We included 513 abstracts, 230 (44.8 %) of which reached publication. Among the 86 pairs with the same main outcome domain at the same time point, 47 pairs (54.7 %) had discordant results: qualitative discordance in 7 pairs and quantitative discordance in 40 pairs. Quantitative discordance was indicated

  16. Extent and impact of industry sponsorship conflicts of interest in dermatology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Clifford S; Harwood, Michael; Perlis, Roy H

    2005-06-01

    Many published clinical trials are authored by investigators with financial conflicts of interest. The general medical literature documents the pervasive extent and sometimes problematic impact of these conflicts. Accordingly, there is renewed discussion about author disclosure and clinical trial registry to minimize publication bias from financial conflicts of interest. Despite this evolving discussion in the general medical literature, little is known about the extent or role of financial conflicts of interest in dermatology research. Our purpose was to determine the extent and impact of industry sponsorship conflicts of interest in dermatology research. We recorded potential financial conflicts of interest, study design, and study outcome in 179 clinical trials published between Oct 1, 2000 and Oct 1, 2003 in four leading dermatology journals. Forty-three percent of analyzed studies included at least one author with a reported conflict of interest. These studies were more likely to report a positive result, demonstrate higher methodological quality, and include a larger sample size. Conflict of interest in clinical investigations in dermatology appears to be prevalent and associated with potentially significant differences in study methodology and reporting.

  17. 20 CFR 632.116 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 632.116 Section 632.116... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Prevention of Fraud and Program Abuse § 632.116 Conflict of interest. (a) No... contractor shall avoid personal and organizational conflict of interest in awarding financial assistance and...

  18. Reporting of Conflicts of Interest in Meta-analyses of Trials of Pharmacological Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Bero, Lisa A.; Coyne, James C.; Lexchin, Joel; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Context Disclosure of conflicts of interest (COIs) from pharmaceutical industry study funding and author-industry financial relationships is sometimes recommended for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in biomedical journals. Authors of meta-analyses, however, are not required to report

  19. 24 CFR 1003.606 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nature of the possible conflict, accompanied by an assurance that there has been public disclosure of the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 1003.606... Requirements § 1003.606 Conflict of interest. (a) Applicability. (1) In the procurement of supplies, equipment...

  20. 24 CFR 570.611 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: (i) A disclosure of the nature of the conflict, accompanied by an assurance that there has been... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 570.611... § 570.611 Conflict of interest. (a) Applicability. (1) In the procurement of supplies, equipment...

  1. Relationship between Research Outcomes and Risk of Bias, Study Sponsorship, and Author Financial Conflicts of Interest in Reviews of the Effects of Artificially Sweetened Beverages on Weight Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mandrioli

    Full Text Available Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has steadily increased in the last 40 years. Several reviews examining the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight outcomes have discrepancies in their results and conclusions.To determine whether risk of bias, results, and conclusions of reviews of effects of artificially sweetened beverage consumption on weight outcomes differ depending on review sponsorship and authors' financial conflicts of interest.We performed a systematic review of reviews of the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight. Two assessors independently screened articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We compared risk of bias, results and conclusions of reviews by different industry sponsors, authors' financial conflict of interest and journal sponsor. We also report the concordance between review results and conclusions.Artificial sweetener industry sponsored reviews were more likely to have favorable results (3/4 than non-industry sponsored reviews (1/23, RR: 17.25 (95% CI: 2.34 to 127.29, as well as favorable conclusions (4/4 vs. 15/23, RR: 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14 to 2.06. All reviews funded by competitor industries reported unfavorable conclusions (4/4. In 42% of the reviews (13/31, authors' financial conflicts of interest were not disclosed. Reviews performed by authors that had a financial conflict of interest with the food industry (disclosed in the article or not were more likely to have favorable conclusions (18/22 than reviews performed by authors without conflicts of interest (4/9, RR: 7.36 (95% CI: 1.15 to 47.22. Risk of bias was similar and high in most of the reviews.Review sponsorship and authors' financial conflicts of interest introduced bias affecting the outcomes of reviews of artificially sweetened beverage effects on weight that could not be explained by other sources of bias.

  2. 5 CFR 2634.901 - Policies of confidential financial disclosure reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) The confidential financial reporting system set forth in this subpart is designed to complement... Government duties involve the exercise of significant discretion in certain sensitive areas, report their... apparent conflicts of interest. The confidential financial disclosure system promotes that goal, with...

  3. 78 FR 49267 - Conflict of Interest Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Conflict of Interest Waiver AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of waiver of section 4(b) of the Communications Act of 1934. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Commission granted a waiver of the financial relationship prohibition contained in...

  4. Can We Trust Positive Findings of Intervention Research? The Role of Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased attention to the issue of conflict of interest within prevention research. The aims of this paper are to discuss these developments and to relate them to discussions of conflict of interest in the broader scientific literature. Although there has been concern expressed about the extent to which conflicts of interest can be defined and measured, empirical research suggests that financial conflicts can be easily identified and assessed in meta-analyses focused on their effects on research quality. Research evidence also shows that conflict of interest is associated with use of flexible data analysis practices and the reporting of chance positive findings, both within prevention research and related disciplines such as public health and psychology. However, the overwhelming majority of published studies report positive results, and there are a number of other influences within academia (such as pressure to publish) that account for this and for the use of flexible data analysis practices. Accordingly, introducing measures to improve research quality in general, rather than just focusing on problems specific to research in which there is a clearly identifiable conflict of interest, may prove more effective and less controversial. Most such efforts focus on introducing greater transparency into research design, practice, and reporting. These both curtail employment of flexible data analysis practices and make their use transparent to investigators seeking to assess their effects on research quality. Also, requiring detailed disclosures of conflicts be reported by all investigators (not just senior authors) would improve current disclosure practices.

  5. Conflict of interest and professional medical associations: the North American Spine Society experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome A; Eskay-Auerbach, Marjorie L; Sawyer, Laura S; Herring, Stanley A; Arnold, Paul M; Muehlbauer, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    Recently the financial relationships between industry and professional medical associations have come under increased scrutiny because of the concern that industry ties may create real or perceived conflicts of interest. Professional medical associations pursue public advocacy as well as promote medical education, develop clinical practice guidelines, fund research, and regulate professional conduct. Therefore, the conflicts of interest of a professional medical association and its leadership can have more far-reaching effects on patient care than those of an individual physician. Few if any professional medical associations have reported their experience with implementing strict divestment and disclosure policies, and among the policies that have been issued, there is little uniformity. We describe the experience of the North American Spine Society (NASS) in implementing comprehensive conflicts of interest policies. A special feature article. We discuss financial conflicts of interest as they apply to professional medical associations rather than to individual physicians. We describe the current policies of disclosure and divestment adopted by the NASS and how these policies have evolved, been refined, and have had no detrimental impact on membership, attendance at annual meetings, finances, or leadership recruitment. No funding was received for this work. The authors report no potential conflict-of-interest-associated biases in the text. The NASS has shown that a professional medical association can manage its financial relationships with industry in a manner that minimizes influence and bias. The NASS experience can provide a template for other professional medical associations to help manage their own possible conflicts of interest issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relation between publication rate and financial conflict of interest among physician authors of high-impact oncology publications: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Victoria; Edmiston, Jonathan B; Prasad, Vinay

    2018-01-30

    Despite the abundant research on financial conflict of interest regarding provider behaviour and the interpretation and results of research, little is known about the relation between these conflicts in academia and the trajectory of one's academic career. We performed a study to examine whether the presence of financial ties to drug makers among academics is associated with research productivity. We hand-searched 3 high-impact general medical journals ( New England Journal of Medicine , JAMA and The Lancet ) and 3 high-impact oncology journals that publish original science ( The Lancet Oncology , Journal of Clinical Oncology and Journal of the National Cancer Institute ) to identify physicians based in the United States who were first or last authors on original papers on hematologic or oncologic topics that appeared in 2015. We ascertained their publication history from Scopus and their personal and research payments from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Open Payments Web site (2013-2015). The strength of association between general (personal) financial payments from 2013 to 2015 and publications from 2013 to 2016 was determined by multivariate regression. Our sample consisted of 435 physicians who had authored a median of 140 publications, earning a median h-index of 36 and a median of 5639 citations. The median total of general payments from 2013 to 2015 was US$3282 (range $0-$3.4 million), and the median amount of research payments was US$3500 (range $0-$23 million). General payments were associated with contemporary publications, with an increase of 1.99 papers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.9) per $10 000 in payments. This association persisted in multivariate analysis after adjustment for prior publications, seniority and research payments (0.84 papers [95% CI 0.15 to 1.5] per $10 000 in payments). The findings suggest that there is a positive association between personal payments from drug makers and publications, and that this

  7. [Conflict of interest and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer De Carlucci, Aida

    2014-06-01

    "Conflicts of interests" is a multi-meaning expression. To give a juridical concept is not easy because this concept is applied in public and private law. Maybe this is the reason of not having a law giving a valid definition in any case In health area, a conflict of interests is present many times, i.e. at the beginning of a research, when informing its results, etc. This conflict of interests may affect different aspects of the research work, economic or not; sometimes totally or partially. The economic resources is one of the most common reasons of the conflict of interests. The mass media often cause conflicts of interests informing the general public about new scientific discovery in a simple way to be understood but without been quite assertive. Other times, great enterprises hide information about new and better medicines due to the fact that they have many old medicines that should be sold before introducing in the market the new ones. From the academic point of view, conflicts may arise when the public funds are wrongly used to support unworthy researches.

  8. 34 CFR 73.2 - Conflict of interest waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest waiver. 73.2 Section 73.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 73.2 Conflict of interest waiver. If a financial interest arises from ownership by an employee—or other person or enterprise...

  9. 12 CFR 1805.807 - Conflict of interest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest requirements. 1805.807 Section 1805.807 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Conflict of interest requirements. (a) Provision of credit to Insiders. (1) An Awardee that is a Non...

  10. 23 CFR 1.33 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflicts of interest. 1.33 Section 1.33 Highways... § 1.33 Conflicts of interest. No official or employee of a State or any other governmental... project shall have, directly or indirectly, any financial or other personal interest in any such contract...

  11. 24 CFR 511.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflicts of interest. 511.12... Requirements § 511.12 Conflicts of interest. (a) No person who is an employee, agent, consultant, officer, or... such activities, may obtain a personal or financial interest or benefit from the activity, or have an...

  12. FDA publishes conflict of interest rules for clinical trials. Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-03-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published new rules defining conflict of interests between drug companies and medical researchers and clinicians. Certain financial arrangements will need to be disclosed, although the FDA estimates that only one to ten percent of pharmaceutical companies will need to submit disclosures for one or more of their investigators. The purpose of the new rule is to prevent bias in safety and efficacy studies of drugs and medical devices. The full rule is published in the Federal Register.

  13. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  14. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 4. Managing conflicts of interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the fourth of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on conflicts of interest to answer the following questions: 1. What is the best way to obtain complete and accurate disclosures on financial ties and other competing interests? 2. How to determine when a disclosed financial tie or other competing interest constitutes a conflict of interest? 3. When a conflict of interest is identified, how should the conflict be managed? 4. How could conflict of interest policies be enforced? Methods We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Methodology Register and selectively searched for the published policies of several organizations, We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers What is the best way to obtain complete and accurate disclosures on financial ties and other competing interests? • Although there is little empirical evidence to guide the development of disclosure forms, minimal or open-ended formats are likely to be uninformative. We recommend the development of specific, detailed, structured forms that solicit as much information as possible about the nature and extent of the competing interests. How to determine when a disclosed financial tie or other competing interest constitutes a conflict of interest? • There is no empirical evidence to suggest that explicit criteria are preferable to ad hoc committee decisions when deciding if a disclosed financial tie is a conflict of

  15. Conflict of interest and bias in publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    In his excellent article about commercial conflict of interest, Mark Wilson quotes Dennis Thompson, a political scientist who provided a searching analysis of the concept of conflict of interest (Col). Using Thompson's analysis, Wilson writes: "Determining whether factors such as ambition, the pursuit of fame and financial gain had biased a judgment was challenging. Motives are not always clear to either the conflicted party or to an outside observer." In this commentary, I aim to broaden the discussion beyond the narrowly commercial aspects of Col. I argue that bias can be introduced in major scientific journals by the editors' choices and policies. The context is a controversy that erupted in 2013 over the adequacy of informed consent in a clinical trial involving extremely premature infants. In this, as in Wilson's example, the players included the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), as well as the highest officials of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).

  16. Conflicts of interest at medical journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2010-01-01

    for journals. We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: we sampled six major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM]). For each journal......BACKGROUND: transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest......, we identified randomised trials published in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 using PubMed, and categorized the type of financial support. Using Web of Science, we investigated citations of industry-supported trials and the influence on journal impact factors over a ten-year period. We contacted journal...

  17. Quantifying the variability of financial disclosure information reported by authors presenting at annual spine conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Brian L; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, greater attention has been directed toward determining how potential financial conflicts of interest may affect the integrity of biomedical research. To address this issue, various disclosure policies have been adopted in an attempt to increase the transparency of this process. However, the consistency of such reporting among spine surgeons remains unknown. This study quantifies the variability in the self-reported disclosures of individual authors presenting at multiple spine conferences during the same year. The author disclosure information published for the 2008 North American Spine Society (NASS), Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS), and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), conferences were compiled into a database. We evaluated the disclosure policy for each society and compared the disclosure listings of authors who presented at more than one of these meetings. Disclosure records were available for 1,231 authors at NASS, 550 at CSRS, and 642 at SRS. Of these individuals, 278 (NASS), 129 (CSRS), and 181 (SRS) presented at one of the other conferences and 40 presented at all three conferences. North American Spine Society and CSRS required disclosure of all financial relationships, whereas SRS only requested disclosures pertinent to authors' presentations. Of the 153 authors who presented at the NASS and CSRS meetings, 51% exhibited discrepancies in their disclosure information. In contrast, only 9% of the 205 individuals whose data was listed at both the NASS and SRS conferences demonstrated irregularities. Similarly, 18% of the 56 authors who had provided information to both CSRS and SRS were inconsistent in their reporting. These findings emphasize the significant variability that currently exists in the reporting of financial conflicts of interest by authors who presented at three major spine conferences within the past year. We believe these discrepancies are likely because of confusion regarding what relationships should be acknowledged

  18. Financial Disclosure Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must take...

  19. Financial Statements: Disclosures and Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    may be rendered when the financial statements are p;eaed in full compliance with GAAP , consistently applied. Inadequate disclosures as well as other...a bond payable. A valuation account would be similar to the following: Equipment $18,000,000 Less accumulated depreciation (1o625,000) $16,375,00010...accounting to depreciation accounting.24 The disclosures required are the nature and justification for the change. The justification is necessary to

  20. Public health journals' requirements for authors to disclose funding and conflicts of interest: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Karim N; Hakoum, Maram B; Khamis, Assem M; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Ali, Ahmed; Habib, Joseph R; Semaan, Aline T; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2018-04-23

    Public health journals need to have clear policies for reporting the funding of studies and authors' personal financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) disclosures. This study aims to assess the policies of public health journals on reporting of study funding and the disclosure of authors' COIs. This is a cross-sectional study of "Public, Environmental & Occupational Health" journals. Teams of two researchers abstracted data in duplicate and independently using REDCap software. Of 173 public health journals, 155 (90%) had a policy for reporting study funding information. Out of these, a majority did not require reporting of the phase of the study for which funding was received (88%), nor the types of funding sources (87%). Of the 173 journals, 163 (94%) had a policy requiring disclosure of authors' COI. However, the majority of these journals did not require financial conflicts of interest disclosures relating to institutions (75%) nor to the author's family members (90%) while 56% required the disclosure of at least one form of non-financial COI. The policies of the majority of public health journals do not require the reporting of important details such as the role of the funder, and non-financial COI. Journals and publishers should consider revising their editorial policies to ensure complete and transparent reporting of funding and COI.

  1. Conflict of interest in online point-of-care clinical support websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Kyle T; Dhiman, Gaurav; Goodman, Kenneth W

    2014-08-01

    Point-of-care evidence-based medicine websites allow physicians to answer clinical queries using recent evidence at the bedside. Despite significant research into the function, usability and effectiveness of these programmes, little attention has been paid to their ethical issues. As many of these sites summarise the literature and provide recommendations, we sought to assess the role of conflicts of interest in two widely used websites: UpToDate and Dynamed. We recorded all conflicts of interest for six articles detailing treatment for the following conditions: erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, hypogonadism, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. These diseases were chosen as their medical management is either controversial, or they are treated using biological drugs which are mostly available by brand name only. Thus, we hypothesised that the role of conflict of interest would be more significant in these conditions than in an illness treated with generic medications or by strict guidelines. All articles from the UpToDate articles demonstrated a conflict of interest. At times, the editor and author would have a financial relationship with a company whose drug was mentioned within the article. This is in contrast with articles on the Dynamed website, in which no author or editor had a documented conflict. We offer recommendations regarding the role of conflict of interest disclosure in these point-of-care evidence-based medicine websites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS IN PSYCHIATRY CONFLICTOS DE INTERESES FINANCIEROS Y NO FINANCIEROS EN PSIQUIATRÍA CONFLITOS DE INTERESSES FINANCEIROS E NÃO FINANCEIROS EM PSIQUIATRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Maj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A conflict of interests occurs when a doctor is unduly influenced by a secondary interest (i.e., a personal incentive in his acts concerning one of the primary interests to which he is professionally committed (the welfare of patients, the progress of science or the education of students or residents. One specific variety of conflicts of interests has monopolized the attention of the scientific and lay press: the financial conflicts of interests arising from the relationships between doctors and drug companies. A large literature has described the many, sometimes subtle, ways by which a psychiatrist can be influenced in his prescribing habits or research activities by his relationships with the industry. Some empirical evidence is now available in this area. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that the current debate on this issue is sometimes "affectively charged", or fails to take into account that the interests of patients, families and mental health professionals and those of the industry may be often convergent. Other types of conflicts of interests are beginning now to be discussed. There is evidence that the allegiance of a researcher to a given school of thought may influence the results of studies comparing different psychotherapeutic techniques, thus colliding with the primary interest represented by the progress of science. Political commitment is also emerging as a source of conflicts of interests. Financial and non-financial conflicts of interests are widespread in psychiatric practice and research. They cannot be eradicated, but must be managed more effectively than is currently the case.Se produce un conflicto de intereses cuando un médico se siente indebidamente influenciado por un interés secundario (i.e., un incentivo personal en relación con sus deberes primarios con los cuales está comprometido profesionalmente (el bienestar de los pacientes, el progreso de la ciencia o la educación de los estudiantes o residentes

  3. Conflicts of interest in research: looking out for number one means keeping the primary interest front and center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    Conflicts of interest represent circumstances in which professional judgments or actions regarding a primary interest, such as the responsibilities of a medical researcher, may be at risk of being unduly influenced by a secondary interest, such as financial gain or career advancement. The secondary interest may be financial or non-financial, and the resultant bias may be conscious or unconscious. The presence of conflicts of interest poses a problem for professional, patient, and public trust in research and the research enterprise. Effective means of identifying and managing conflicts are an important element in successfully achieving the goals of research. These strategies typically focus on the investigator and rely upon disclosure, which has substantial limitations. Additional management strategies include process-oriented steps and outcomes-oriented strategies. More attention to identifying and managing non-financial conflicts is needed. Future empirical research will be important for defining which conflicts need to be better addressed and how to achieve this goal.

  4. Global nursing management. Avoiding conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, the healthcare industry has been no stranger to some conflicts of interest. However, as healthcare responds to demands to contain costs and adapts business models that resemble those of the corporate world, new conflicts of interest arise. Nurse executives operating in healthcare systems today must have an understanding of conflicts of interest in order to promptly identify actual as well as potential conflicts. It is imperative that strategies are set in place to prevent or handle conflicts of interest as they occur in order to build trusting relationships with patients, suppliers, and communities.

  5. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... conflict may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of conflict, the scope of work under the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... interim rule that provided guidance on conflicts of interest pursuant to Section 108 of the Emergency...

  6. Look Inside for Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses conflicts of interest in higher education, offering rules of thumb for judging individual situations, tools to help board members address such conflicts, and possible standards to apply when considering conflicts of interest. Also touches on the need to be realistic and the importance of collegiality and trust. (EV)

  7. Towards Patient-Centered Conflicts of Interest Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Young

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Financial conflicts of interest exist between industry and physicians, and these relationships have the power to influence physicians’ medical practice. Transparency about conflicts matters for ensuring adequate informed consent, controlling healthcare expenditure, and encouraging physicians’ reflection on professionalism. The US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS launched the Open Payments Program (OPP to publicly disclose and bring transparency to the relationships between industry and physicians in the United States. We set out to explore user awareness of the database and the ease of accessibility to disclosed information, however, as we show, both awareness and actual use are very low. Two practical policies can greatly enhance its intended function and help alleviate ethical tension. The first is to provide data for individual physicians not merely in absolute terms, but in meaningful context, that is, in relation to the zip code, city, and state averages. The second increases access to the OPP dataset by adding hyperlinks from physicians’ professional websites directly to their Open Payments disclosure pages. These changes considerably improve transparency and the utility of available data, and can furthermore enhance professionalism and accountability by encouraging physicians to reflect more actively on their own practices.

  8. Conflict of Interest Policies and Industry Relationships of Guideline Development Group Members: A Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Krimsky, Sheldon; Wheeler, Emily E; Peters, Shannon M; Brodt, Madeline; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Because of increased attention to the issue of trustworthiness of clinical practice guidelines, it may be that both transparency and management of industry associations of guideline development groups (GDGs) have improved. The purpose of the present study was to assess a) the disclosure requirements of GDGs in a cross-section of guidelines for major depression; and, b) the extent and type of conflicts of panel members. Treatment guidelines for major depression were identified and searched for conflict of interest policies and disclosure statements. Multi-modal screens for undeclared conflicts were also conducted. Fourteen guidelines with a total of 172 panel members were included in the analysis. Eleven of the 14 guidelines (78%) had a stated conflict of interest policy or disclosure statement, although the policies varied widely. Most (57%) of the guidelines were developed by panels that had members with industry financial ties to drug companies that manufacture antidepressant medication. However, only a minority of total panel members (18%) had such conflicts of interest. Drug company speakers bureau participation was the most common type of conflict. Although some progress has been made, organizations that develop guidelines should continue to work toward greater transparency and minimization of financial conflicts of interest.

  9. Conflict of interest reporting in biomedical journals published in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Wang, Panzhi; Yang, Rongwang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the current status and policy of Conflict of interest (COI) reporting in biomedical journals in China. Thirty Chinese-language medical journals and 37 English-language biomedical journals indexed by Journal Citation Reports categories were included into this study. These 67 journals were all published in China. All articles published in the most recent two issues were checked for identifying the disclosure statement in the text or not. Twenty-one of 30 (70%) Chinese-language journals required a disclosure of author's potential COI. No journals require editors or referees to disclose the conflicts of interest to the readers. In total, 1,212 publications in Chinese-language were evaluated. Only two journals reported COI in their publications. For the 37 English-language journals, 32 (86.5%) required author's potential COI disclosure, and four of them required only research articles or original articles to disclose COI. A total of 1,170 publications were evaluated. Among them, 50% editorials, 79.3% review articles, and 73.6% original articles reported presence or absence of COI. In our studied journals, the percentage of the policies requiring author COI disclosure is still low. Biomedical journals published in China should enforce COI disclosure policies to authors, editors, and referees.

  10. 25 CFR 900.234 - What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal officers, employees or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of personal conflicts of interest involving... ASSISTANCE ACT Conflicts of Interest § 900.234 What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal... in which that person has a financial or employment interest that conflicts with that of the trust...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.463 - What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal officers, employees or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of personal conflicts of interest involving...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Conflicts of Interest § 1000.463 What types of personal conflicts of interest... financial or employment interest that conflicts with that of the trust beneficiary, whether the tribe...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.106 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 4280.106 Section 4280.106... Efficiency Improvements Program § 4280.106 Conflict of interest. No conflict of interest or appearance of conflict of interest will be allowed. For purposes of this subpart, conflict of interest includes, but is...

  13. Conflict of interest: nurses at risk!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlen, Judith A

    2008-01-01

    Conflict of interest as it relates to healthcare is gaining increasing attention. Pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers that produce medical devices are coming under greater scrutiny because of the influence that their marketing practices may have on the patient management decisions made by healthcare professionals. The result is that healthcare agency administrators are developing conflict of interest policies and procedures for their professional employees. The driving force behind many of these policies is the need to maintain the trust of the public by refraining from questionable professional conduct. This article presents 2 hypothetical cases to provide nurses with an understanding of the concept of conflict of interest and the ethical considerations this issue raises, and describes the subtle and not-so-subtle influences on professional practice decisions. Recommendations are offered to help nurses avoid conflict of interest and preserve their professional integrity. It is incumbent upon nurses to become cognizant of the types of situations that may present a conflict of interest for them and to take the necessary steps to avoid such professional impropriety.

  14. [Conflict of interests in clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elaine Maria de Oliveira; Tubino, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    In clinical research there is a real possibility to have some conflict of interests. Even for the researcher, the identification of these conflicts cannot be clear. There are many aspects to be considered, involving all participants of the process: the research subject, the researcher, the institution where the research is carried through, the sponsor, the ethics committees, the regulating agencies, the scientific community and the society. The conclusion is that conflicts of interests are common and inevitable in the academic field. The challenge is not to eradicate them, but to recognize them and to manage them properly. The only acceptable way to do this is to expose clearly the conflicts of interests and always to submit the clinical research projects to the ethics committees.

  15. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Conflict of Interest in Industry-Sponsored Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Heather Brodie

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of industry-sponsored research has led to significant concerns about financial conflicts of interest and the impact on research findings. This case study sought to examine how students considered conflict of interest when establishing the cognitive authority of a journal article. The case study used a mixed methods pretest and…

  16. 48 CFR 2009.570 - NRC organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conflicts of interest. 2009.570 Section 2009.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570 NRC organizational conflicts of interest. ...

  17. Conflicts of interest in randomised controlled surgical trials: systematic review and qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probst Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts of interest may lead to biased trial designs and unbalanced interpretation of study results. We aimed to evaluate the reporting of potential conflicts of interest in full publications of surgical randomised controlled trials (RCTs. A systematic literature search was performed in CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE (1985–2014 to find all surgical RCTs of medical devices and perioperative pharmacological or nutritional interventions. The information on conflicts of interest was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively, and the development of stated conflicts over time was studied. Of 7934 articles, 444 met the inclusion criteria. In 93 of 444 trials (20.9%, conflicts of interest were disclosed. In half of the cases, the information provided was insufficient to permit conclusions regarding possible influence on the trials. Information about conflicts of interest has increased continuously during the last decades (1985–1994: 0%, 1995–2004: 2.8% and 2005–2014: 33.0%; p<0.001. Among the 115 industry-funded trials, industry participation was considered as a potential conflict of interest in 24 cases (20.9%. Over the past three decades, only every 10th trial has provided appropriate information on conflicts of interest. However, transparency is crucial for the reliability of evidence-based medicine. There is an urgent need for the full disclosure of all conflicts of interest in surgical publishing and for transparency regarding cooperation between academia and industry.

  18. 10 Rules for Avoiding Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Anne H.; Eisenberg, Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Government investigations into alleged conflicts of interest in student-aid programs continue and now have widened to include study-abroad programs. It seems as if almost every day the news contains reports concerning possible questionable practices by colleges and universities. In this article, the authors discuss current scandals and possible…

  19. Professional medical organizations and commercial conflicts of interest: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has recently been criticized for accepting a large corporate donation from Coca-Cola to fund patient education on obesity prevention. Conflicts of interest, whether individual or organizational, occur when one enters into arrangements that reasonably tempt one to put aside one's primary obligations in favor of secondary interests, such as financial self-interest. Accepting funds from commercial sources that seek to influence physician organizational behavior in a direction that could run counter to the public health represents one of those circumstances and so constitutes a conflict of interest. Most of the defenses offered by AAFP are rationalizations rather than ethical counterarguments. Medical organizations, as the public face of medicine and as formulator of codes of ethics for their physician members, have special obligations to adhere to high ethical standards.

  20. Unconscious conflict of interest: a Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    In contemporary medicine, it is not always obvious whether the acceptance of a benefit constitutes a conflict of interest. A particular area of controversy has been the impact of small gifts or other benefits from pharmaceutical companies on physicians' behaviour. Typically, in such cases, the gift is not an explicit reward for cooperation; the physician does not perceive the gift as an attempt to influence his or her judgement; and the reward is relatively minor. Under these circumstances, physicians are generally of the view that acceptance of gifts will not affect their behaviour, notwithstanding findings from social psychology and neuroscience that the impact of gifts is often unconscious, shaping action without a person's awareness. Here, we draw on traditional texts of Jewish law pertaining to the prohibition of taking a gift to illustrate recognition by the ancients of unconscious conflicts of interest, and their approach to dealing with the problem.

  1. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section... Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board. CMS may establish and convene a Conflicts of Interest Review Board to assist the contracting officer in resolving organizational conflicts of interest. (b...

  2. 7 CFR 800.199 - Conflict-of-interest provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict-of-interest provisions. 800.199 Section 800... Delegations, Designations, Approvals, Contracts, and Conflicts of Interest § 800.199 Conflict-of-interest...) Prohibited conflicts of interest. Unless waived on a case-by-case basis by the Administrator under section 11...

  3. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of Interest Review Board to assist in resolving organizational conflicts of interest. (b) Resolution: Resolution of...

  4. 12 CFR 747.8 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 747.8 Section 747.8... of Practice and Procedure § 747.8 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest in representation... any stage of a proceeding to cure a conflict of interest in representation, including the issuance of...

  5. 25 CFR 700.515 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflicts of interest. 700.515 Section 700.515 Indians... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.515 Conflicts of interest. (a) A conflict of interest may exist... or herself, close friends, relatives, or business associates. A conflict of interest may also exist...

  6. 12 CFR 19.8 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 19.8 Section 19.8 Banks... Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.8 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest in... measures at any stage of a proceeding to cure a conflict of interest in representation, including the...

  7. 12 CFR 1780.73 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 1780.73 Section 1780.73... Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight § 1780.73 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest... corrective measures at any stage of a proceeding to cure a conflict of interest in representation, including...

  8. 22 CFR 1203.735-301 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Conflicts of interest. 1203.735-301 Section 1203....735-301 Conflicts of interest. Special Government employees are subject to the conflicts of interest statutes (18 U.S.C. 202). An explanation of these conflicts of interest statutes their effects upon special...

  9. 31 CFR 31.212 - Personal conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal conflicts of interest. 31... RELIEF PROGRAM Conflicts of Interest § 31.212 Personal conflicts of interest. (a) Retained entity's... arrangement and key individuals have no personal conflicts of interest unless mitigation measures have...

  10. 12 CFR 908.73 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 908.73 Section 908.73... Board § 908.73 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest in representation. No representative... to cure a conflict of interest in representation, including the issuance of an order limiting the...

  11. Banks’ disclosure and financial stability (110KB)

    OpenAIRE

    Sowerbutts, Rhiannon; Zimmerman, Peter; Zer, Ilknur

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate public disclosure by banks contributed to the financial crisis. This is because investors, unable to judge the risks that banks are bearing, withdraw lending in times of systemic stress. This article presents quantitative indices which allow for the comparison of disclosure between banks and over time. Internationally, disclosure has improved since 2000, particularly around banks’ valuation methods and funding risk. However, more information alone is not sufficient to solve the pro...

  12. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Kitas, George D

    2013-12-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs.

  13. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers, and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs. PMID:24382859

  14. Evidence Regarding the Impact of Conflicts of Interest on Environmental and Occupational Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M

    2017-06-01

    This review describes published literature providing evidence for financial conflicts of interest in environmental and occupational health research. Secondary goals were to describe evidence that (a) utilized quantitative methods to evaluate the association of conflicts with study outcomes, and (b) assessed undisclosed as well as disclosed conflicts of interest. Forty-three studies were identified which contained descriptions of the impact of financial conflicts of interest on research results; 11 of these conducted quantitative analyses to demonstrate these relationships. All 11 articles which quantified associations identified significant associations of the presence of financial conflicts of interest with study findings. In studies which measured undisclosed conflicts, these comprised a substantial proportion of all conflicts. Suggestions for improving understanding and interpretation of research results are presented.

  15. Physician and stakeholder perceptions of conflict of interest policies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, A Craig; Brose, Marcia S; Kim, Edward S; Johnson, David H; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Michels, Dina L; Storm, Courtney D; Schuchter, Lynn M; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2013-05-01

    The landscape of managing potential conflicts of interest (COIs) has evolved substantially across many disciplines in recent years, but rarely are the issues more intertwined with financial and ethical implications than in the health care setting. Cancer care is a highly technologic arena, with numerous physician-industry interactions. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognizes the role of a professional organization to facilitate management of these interactions and the need for periodic review of its COI policy (Policy). To gauge the sentiments of ASCO members and nonphysician stakeholders, two surveys were performed. The first asked ASCO members to estimate opinions of the Policy as it relates to presentation of industry-sponsored research. Respondents were classified as consumers or producers of research material based on demographic responses. A similar survey solicited opinions of nonphysician stakeholders, including patients with cancer, survivors, family members, and advocates. The ASCO survey was responded to by 1,967 members (1% of those solicited); 80% were producers, and 20% were consumers. Most respondents (93% of producers; 66% of consumers) reported familiarity with the Policy. Only a small proportion regularly evaluated COIs for presented research. Members favored increased transparency about relationships over restrictions on presentations of research. Stakeholders (n = 264) indicated that disclosure was "very important" to "extremely important" and preferred written disclosure (77%) over other methods. COI policies are an important and relevant topic among physicians and patient advocates. Methods to simplify the disclosure process, improve transparency, and facilitate responsiveness are critical for COI management.

  16. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  17. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS IN TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Osvald

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization all the companies try to find the effective ways of maximizing their profit. One of the instruments is the system of the transfer pricing that helps to optimize the costs and allocate effective the resources of the company. Transfer pricing has detrimental effect on the economy of countries, though the governments use the regulations to minimize this effect on their economy. In this case the conflict of interests appears. Paper deals with an analysis of the functions and reasons of the economic agents which use the transfer prices to demonstrate the conflict of interests in transfer pricing. The purpose of the study is the determination of the best ways to solve the conflict situations in the process of transfer pricing according to the economic interests of the agents: company and government and within the company: headquarters and subsidiaries. The main point of resolving the conflict between company and government is to make clear regulations of transfer pricing for enterprises and productive relations between company and government. The methods to resolve the conflict within the company are: clear guidelines, decentralization and motivation for stuff members.

  18. Quantifying the variability of financial disclosure information reported by authors presenting research at multiple sports medicine conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Kolawole A; Ju, Brian; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2011-11-01

    In the study reported here, we compared self-reported industry relationships of authors who attended 3 major orthopedic sports medicine conferences during a single calendar year. Our goal was to calculate the variability between disclosure information over time. A significant percentage of authors who attended these meetings were inconsistent in submitting their disclosure information. In addition, most authors with irregularities had more than 1 discrepancy. We believe that the vast majority of the observed discrepancies did not result from intentional deception on the part of the authors but instead from ongoing confusion regarding which industry relationships should be acknowledged for particular meetings (some specialty societies require that all relationships be divulged, whereas others require only those affiliations directly applicable to research being presented). In the absence of a uniform disclosure policy that is widely adopted by many specialty societies, these findings suggest that the disclosure process will continue to be plagued by inconsistent reporting of financial conflicts of interest.

  19. Assessment by human research ethics committees of potential conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, J P; Kerridge, I H

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical research have the potential to bias research outcomes and ultimately prejudice patient care. It is unknown how Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HREC) assess and manage such conflicts of interest. We aimed to gain an understanding of how HREC approach the problem of potential conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship of clinical research. We conducted a survey of HREC chairpersons in New South Wales. HREC vary widely in their approaches to conflicts of interest, including in their use of National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines, which were often misinterpreted or overlooked. Many committees rely primarily on researchers disclosing potential conflicts of interest, whereas a majority of HREC use disclosure to research participants as the primary tool for preventing and managing conflicts of interest. Almost no HREC place limitations on researcher relationships with pharmaceutical companies. These findings suggest reluctance on the part of HREC to regulate many potential conflicts of interest between researchers and pharmaceutical sponsors, which may arise from uncertainty regarding the meaning or significance of conflicts of interest in research, from ambiguity surrounding the role of HREC in assessing and managing conflicts of interest in research or from misinterpretation or ignorance of current National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Further review of policies and practices in this important area may prove beneficial in safeguarding clinical research and patient care while promoting continuing constructive engagement with the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Universities' Conflict-of-Interest Policies Are Doomed to Fail, Scholar Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Kevin C. Elliott, an assistant professor of philosophy at the University of South Carolina at Columbia, asserts in the January issue of the journal "Accountability in Research" that the three pillars of academe's attempts to police conflict of interest--disclosure, management, and elimination of conflicts--are beset by serious flaws. Charges of…

  1. Reporting of conflicts of interest in guidelines of preventive and therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakakis Ioannis A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines published in major medical journals are very influential in determining clinical practice. It would be essential to evaluate whether conflicts of interests are disclosed in these publications. We evaluated the reporting of conflicts of interest and the factors that may affect such disclosure in a sample of 191 guidelines on therapeutic and/or preventive measures published in 6 major clinical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Pediatrics in 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1999. Results Only 7 guidelines (3.7% mentioned conflicts of interest and all were published in 1999 (17.5% (7/40 of guidelines published in 1999 alone. Reporting of conflicts of interest differed significantly by journal (p=0.026, availability of disclosure policy by the journal (p=0.043, source of funding (p Conclusions Despite some recent improvement, reporting of conflicts of interest in clinical guidelines published in influential journals is largely neglected.

  2. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents of...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.5 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1216.5 Section 1216.5... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.5 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee of the Board has a direct or indirect...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.5 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1221.5 Section 1221.5... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.5 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a representative or employee of the Board has a direct or...

  5. 49 CFR 659.41 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest. 659.41 Section 659.41... Agency § 659.41 Conflict of interest. The oversight agency shall prohibit a party or entity from providing services to both the oversight agency and rail transit agency when there is a conflict of interest...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.10 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 3560.10 Section 3560.10... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.10 Conflict of interest. To reduce the potential for employee conflict of interest, all RHS activities will be...

  7. 29 CFR 4002.8 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 4002.8 Section 4002.8 Labor... BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4002.8 Conflict of interest. Any Board Member may disqualify himself or... have a conflict of interest. The Board Member shall notify the other Board Members of a...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1206.3 Section 1206.3... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.3 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee of the Board has a direct or indirect...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1219.3 Section 1219.3..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.3 Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a Board member or employee has a direct...

  10. 7 CFR 761.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 761.4 Section 761.4 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.4 Conflict of interest. The Agency enforces conflict of interest policies to maintain high standards of honesty, integrity, and...

  11. 24 CFR 92.356 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 92.356... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.356 Conflict of interest. (a... subrecipients, the conflict of interest provisions in 24 CFR 85.36 and 24 CFR 84.42, respectively, apply. In all...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1218.3 Section 1218.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Conflict of interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee of the U.S...

  13. 42 CFR 421.310 - Conflict of interest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest requirements. 421.310 Section... Conflict of interest requirements. Offerors for MIP contracts and MIP contractors are subject to the following: (a) The conflict of interest standards and requirements of the Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  14. 42 CFR 52h.5 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest. 52h.5 Section 52h.5 Public... RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.5 Conflict of interest. (a) This section applies only to conflicts of interest involving members of peer review groups. This...

  15. 31 CFR 31.211 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conflict may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of conflict, the scope of work under the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organizational conflicts of interest... ASSET RELIEF PROGRAM Conflicts of Interest § 31.211 Organizational conflicts of interest. (a) Retained...

  16. 42 CFR 455.238 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest. 455.238 Section 455.238... Conflict of interest. (a) Offerors for Medicaid integrity audit program contracts, and Medicaid integrity audit program contractors, are subject to the following requirements: (1) The conflict of interest...

  17. 34 CFR 303.604 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 303.604 Section 303.604 Education... DISABILITIES State Interagency Coordinating Council General § 303.604 Conflict of interest. No member of the... otherwise give the appearance of a conflict of interest. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  18. 16 CFR 1018.34 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1018.34 Section 1018... Administration of Advisory Committees § 1018.34 Conflict of interest. Members of the Commission's statutory advisory committees are not legally subject to the standards of conduct and conflict of interest statutes...

  19. 24 CFR 1006.360 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 1006.360... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.360 Conflict of interest. In the procurement of property and services by the DHHL and contractors, the conflict of interest...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.104 - Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of Interest. 1280.104 Section 1280.104... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.104 Conflict of Interest. Conflict of interest means a situation in which a member or employee of a board has a direct or indirect...

  1. 24 CFR 982.161 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 982.161... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.161 Conflict of interest. (a) Neither the PHA nor any of its... prospective interest to the PHA and HUD. (c) The conflict of interest prohibition under this section may be...

  2. 32 CFR 776.28 - Conflict of interest: Former client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest: Former client. 776.28... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.28 Conflict of interest: Former client. (a) Conflict of interest: Former client. A covered attorney who has represented a client in a matter shall not...

  3. 13 CFR 313.10 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 313.10... COMMUNITY TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE Administrative Provisions § 313.10 Conflicts of interest. Communities that receive assistance under this part are subject to the conflicts of interest provisions as set out...

  4. 5 CFR 950.109 - Avoidance of conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avoidance of conflict of interest. 950... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.109 Avoidance of conflict of interest. Any... affiliation with a charitable organization, there could be or appear to be a conflict of interest under any...

  5. 32 CFR 776.26 - Conflict of interest: General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest: General rule. 776.26... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.26 Conflict of interest: General rule. (a) Conflict of... involved. (b) Reserve judge advocates. These conflict of interest rules only apply when Reservists are...

  6. 12 CFR 509.8 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 509.8 Section 509.8... PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 509.8 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest in representation. No person shall appear as counsel for another person in...

  7. 7 CFR 1789.161 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 1789.161 Section 1789.161... Consultant Services Funded by Borrowers-General § 1789.161 Conflicts of interest. The standard for determining organizational conflicts of interest shall be as set forth in the FAR subpart 9.5 (48 CFR part 9...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.209-71 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1552.209-71 Organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed in 1509.507-2, insert the following... immediately that, to the best of its knowledge and belief, no actual or potential conflict of interest exists or to identify to the Contracting Officer any actual or potential conflict of interest the firm may...

  9. 45 CFR 73.735-1003 - Conflicts of interest statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflicts of interest statutes. 73.735-1003...-1003 Conflicts of interest statutes. (a) Each consultant should acquaint himself or herself with... related to conflicts of interest. The restraints imposed by the four criminal sections are summarized in...

  10. 12 CFR 263.8 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 263.8 Section 263.8... RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 263.8 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict of interest in representation. No person shall appear as counsel for another person in an...

  11. 42 CFR 414.912 - Conflicts of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflicts of interest 414.912 Section 414.912... Biologicals Under Part B § 414.912 Conflicts of interest (a) Approved CAP vendors and applicants that bid to participate in the CAP are subject to the following: (1) The conflict of interest standards and requirements...

  12. 48 CFR 852.209-70 - Organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 852.209-70 Organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed in 809.507-1(b), insert the following provision: Organizational Conflicts of Interest (JAN 2008) (a) It is in the best interest of the Government to avoid situations which might create an organizational conflict of interest or where the offeror...

  13. 12 CFR 651.2 - Conflict-of-interest policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict-of-interest policy. 651.2 Section 651... CORPORATION GOVERNANCE § 651.2 Conflict-of-interest policy. The Corporation shall establish and administer a conflict-of-interest policy that will provide reasonable assurance that the directors, officers, employees...

  14. 12 CFR 308.8 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 308.8 Section 308.8... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.8 Conflicts of interest. (a) Conflict... judge may take corrective measures at any stage of a proceeding to cure a conflict of interest in...

  15. 48 CFR 1503.101-370 - Personal conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 1503.101-370 Personal conflicts of interest. (a) Each EPA employee (including special employees) engaged in source... conflicts of interest. The employee shall inform the Source Selection Authority (SSA) in writing if his/her...

  16. 42 CFR 51.26 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflicts of interest. 51.26 Section 51.26 Public... Priorities § 51.26 Conflicts of interest. The P&A system must develop appropriate policies and procedures to avoid actual or apparent conflict of interest involving clients, employees, contractors and...

  17. 12 CFR 1291.10 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 1291.10 Section 1291.10...' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.10 Conflicts of interest. (a) Bank directors and employees. (1) Each Bank's... conflict of interest policies required by this section. ...

  18. THE CONFLICT OF INTEREST AND THE INFLUENCE ON THE FINACIAL STATEMENTS OF A COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral KAGITCI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis revealed serious imperfections in the integrity of the financial system, exposing major cases of fraud and conflict of interest. This integrity deficitis a cause for con-cern,given the roles of the information in the decision making process and on the financial-market. Further more, the European audit system has been questioned following the fact that the quality of audits has been criticised by the investors. These events have revealed the failure of the auditing system to deliver true independent assurance, being based in many cases by a certain degree of conflict of interests.

  19. 39 CFR 10.4 - Financial disclosure reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial disclosure reports. 10.4 Section 10.4... CONDUCT FOR POSTAL SERVICE GOVERNORS (ARTICLE X) § 10.4 Financial disclosure reports. (a) Requirement of submission of reports. At the time of their nomination, Governors complete a financial disclosure report...

  20. Conflicts of interest in research involving human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Dirceu; Diniz, Nilza Maria

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts of interest are inherent to the majority of relationships among individuals and of these with companies and institutions and, certainly, research involving human beings is no exception. In relation to clinical research, the main focus of this manuscript, conflicts of interest occur at different levels and usually permeate among them: In the pharmaceutical industry in their decisions to invest to develop new products, especially vaccines and drugs, and also in relation to marketing of these products; Among the investigators the conflicts may be related to the financial gains to participate in pharma sponsored trials, or to the expected academic career boost attained with the publication of the results of the trials and also to personal interests such as the financial support for trips to international conferences. Often the participation of host country investigators is restricted to performing phase III or IV protocols developed abroad, many times with low scientific relevance, and even lower relevance to public health; Universities or research institutes themselves also have conflicts of interest, as the sponsored projects may help increase their budgets, both directly (taxes) and indirectly (e.g., improvement of physical infrastructure of laboratories or out patient clinics); For the trial volunteers in developing countries, and Brazil is no exception despite free and universal access to its health system, participation in clinical trials is many times seen as, and can really be, an unique opportunity of receiving better health care, better treatment by the health professionals, easier access to costly lab exams and also to receiving certain medications which would otherwise be difficult to have access to. In order to handle these conflicts of interest, Brazil has a well-established and respected legal support and ethical normatization. The latter is represented by Resolution 196/96 of the Brazilian National Research Ethics Committee (CONEP). This

  1. Managing conflicts of interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines programme: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Tanya; Alderson, Phil; Stokes, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is international concern that conflicts of interest (COI) may bias clinical guideline development and render it untrustworthy. Guideline COI policies exist with the aim of reducing this bias but it is not known how such policies are interpreted and used by guideline producing organisations. This study sought to determine how conflicts of interest (COIs) are disclosed and managed by a national clinical guideline developer (NICE: the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 key informants: 8 senior staff of NICE's guideline development centres and 6 chairs of guideline development groups (GDGs). We conducted a thematic analysis. Participants regard the NICE COI policy as comprehensive leading to transparent and independent guidance. The application of the NICE COI policy is, however, not straightforward and clarity could be improved. Disclosure of COI relies on self reporting and guideline developers have to take "on trust" the information they receive, certain types of COI (non-financial) are difficult to categorise and manage and disclosed COI can impact on the ability to recruit clinical experts to GDGs. Participants considered it both disruptive and stressful to exclude members from GDG meetings when required by the COI policy. Nonetheless the impact of this disruption can be minimised with good group chairing skills. We consider that the successful implementation of a COI policy in clinical guideline development requires clear policies and procedures, appropriate training of GDG chairs and an evaluation of how the policy is used in practice.

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of Undisclosed Conflicts of Interest in Pharmacology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Telku, Hassenet M; Lambert, Drew A

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (CoI) is a standard practice for many biomedical journals but not for educational materials. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether the authors of pharmacology textbooks have undisclosed financial CoIs and to identify author characteristics associated with CoIs. The presence of potential CoIs was evaluated by submitting author names (N = 403; 36.3% female) to a patent database (Google Scholar) as well as a database that reports on the compensation ($USD) received from 15 pharmaceutical companies (ProPublica's Dollars for Docs). All publications (N = 410) of the ten highest compensated authors from 2009 to 2013 and indexed in Pubmed were also examined for disclosure of additional companies that the authors received research support, consulted, or served on speaker's bureaus. A total of 134 patents had been awarded (Maximum = 18/author) to textbook authors. Relative to DiPiro's Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, contributors to Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics and Katzung's Basic and Clinical Pharmacology were more frequently patent holders (OR = 6.45, P 1 patent (OR = 0.15, P < .0005). A total of $2,411,080 USD (28.3% for speaking, 27.0% for consulting, and 23.9% for research), was received by 53 authors (Range = $299 to $310,000/author). Highly compensated authors were from multiple fields including oncology, psychiatry, neurology, and urology. The maximum number of additional companies, not currently indexed in the Dollars for Docs database, for which an author had potential CoIs was 73. Financial CoIs are common among the authors of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy textbooks. Full transparency of potential CoIs, particularly patents, should become standard procedure for future editions of educational materials in pharmacology.

  3. Conflicts of interest in medicine: taking diversity seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane; Mayes, Christopher; Komesaroff, Paul; Kerridge, Ian; Lipworth, Wendy

    2017-07-01

    Conflicts of interest (COI) are considered ubiquitous in many healthcare arrangements, 1 but there is disagreement on how COI should be defined, whether non-financial conflicts deserve attention and the relationship between COI and harm. We conducted a study of Australian healthcare professionals and students to gain a better understanding of the way that COI are understood in practice. In this paper, we outline an empirically derived taxonomy of the understanding of, and attitudes towards, COI. We carried out 25 semistructured interviews with clinicians working in several fields across Australia and held six focus group discussions with medical students in New South Wales. Interviewees and focus groups followed similar question routes investigating participants' understanding of COI and views of management. All data were compared and analysed using a matrix of pre-determined questions. There were, broadly, two views of COI: that COI were potentially harmful and morally compromising and another that saw COI as less serious and easily managed through existing structures. Definitions of COI varied widely and were both financial and non-financial. Causes of COI were, variously, systemic, individual and/or relational. Some participants associated COI with moral wrongdoing, and a variety of potential harms was identified. Views on how COI should be managed were similarly varied. We found considerable heterogeneity in how COI are understood in practice. This has implications for management systems that are currently in place, and we suggest a more sophisticated system for considering and mitigating COI. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. 7 CFR 800.138 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 800.138 Section 800.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Inspection Services § 800.138 Conflict of interest. Official personnel cannot perform or participate in...

  5. 29 CFR 1912.6 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 1912.6 Section 1912.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Organizational Matters § 1912.6 Conflict of interest. No members...

  6. 5 CFR 2601.203 - Conflict of interest analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest analysis. 2601.203 Section 2601.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... Acceptance of Gifts § 2601.203 Conflict of interest analysis. (a) A gift shall not be solicited or accepted...

  7. 19 CFR 111.31 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 111.31 Section 111.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.31 Conflict of interest. (a...

  8. 12 CFR 412.9 - Conflict of interest analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest analysis. 412.9 Section 412.9 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES § 412.9 Conflict of interest analysis. Eximbank may accept payment from...

  9. 40 CFR 233.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict of interest. 233.4 Section 233.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 233.4 Conflict of interest. Any public officer or employee who has a direct...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1212.3 Section 1212.3..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.3 Conflict of interest. “Conflict of interest” means a situation in which a member or employee of the Board has a direct or indirect...

  11. 20 CFR 220.63 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 220.63 Section 220.63 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.63 Conflict of interest. All implications of possible conflict of...

  12. 7 CFR 62.205 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 62.205 Section 62.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Service § 62.205 Conflict of interest. No USDA official shall review any program documentation or...

  13. 10 CFR 820.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 820.4 Section 820.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.4 Conflict of interest. A DOE Official may not perform functions provided for in this part regarding any matter in which he has a...

  14. 48 CFR 3052.209-72 - Organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... competitive advantage. The nature of the conflict of interest and the limitation on future contracting... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational conflict of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.209-72 Organizational conflict of interest. As...

  15. 12 CFR 563.200 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 563.200 Section 563.200...-OPERATIONS Reporting and Bonding § 563.200 Conflicts of interest. If you are a director, officer, or employee..., or those of others with whom you have a personal or business relationship, at the expense of the...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.209-74 - Organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational conflict of... Organizational conflict of interest. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-2(d), insert the following clause: Organizational Conflict of Interest (APR 2010) (a) Purpose. The purpose of this clause is to ensure that the...

  17. 48 CFR 3452.209-70 - Organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organizational conflict of... Clauses 3452.209-70 Organizational conflict of interest. As prescribed in 3409.570, insert the following provision in all certifications: Organizational Conflict of Interest (OCT 1987) The offeror certifies that...

  18. 24 CFR 964.145 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 964.145 Section 964.145 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Conflict of interest. Resident council officers can not serve as contractors or employees if they are in...

  19. 14 CFR 1259.602 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 1259.602 Section 1259.602 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL SPACE GRANT COLLEGE AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM Space Grant Review Panel § 1259.602 Conflict of interest. Any member of the...

  20. 24 CFR 3282.359 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflict of interest. 3282.359... § 3282.359 Conflict of interest. (a) All submissions by private organizations shall include a statement that the submitting party is independent in that it does not have any actual or potential conflict of...

  1. 7 CFR 3401.14 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3401.14 Section 3401.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.14 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review...

  2. 7 CFR 3415.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3415.12 Section 3415.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.12 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review...

  3. 13 CFR 315.15 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 315.15 Section 315.15 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FIRMS Protective Provisions § 315.15 Conflicts of interest. EDA will...

  4. 7 CFR 3411.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3411.12 Section 3411.12... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.12 Conflicts of interest. (a) Members... which they have an interest. For the purposes of determining whether such a conflict exists, an...

  5. 7 CFR 3400.12 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 3400.12 Section 3400.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.12 Conflicts of interest. Members of peer review groups...

  6. 7 CFR 800.128 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 800.128 Section 800.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Reinspection Services and Review of Weighing Services § 800.128 Conflicts of interest. Official personnel...

  7. 17 CFR 229.909 - (Item 909) Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conflicts of interest. (a) Briefly describe the general partner's fiduciary duties to each partnership subject to the roll-up transaction and each actual or potential material conflict of interest between the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 909) Conflicts of...

  8. The food industry and conflicts of interest in nutrition research: A Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Nestle, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk. Public health organizations and institutions should take measures to identify, manage, and limit (or eliminate) conflicts of interest caused by partnerships with food companies making and marketing unhealthful products.

  9. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest. (a) Disqualification from participating in a particular matter or category of matters...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.464 - What personal conflicts of interest must the standards of conduct regulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct regulate? 1000.464 Section 1000.464 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... interest must the standards of conduct regulate? The personal conflicts of interest standards must: (a... financial interest or an employment relationship; (b) Prohibit such officers, employees, or agents from...

  11. Potential conflict of interest of editorial board members of five leading spine journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Bredenoord, AL; Dhert, W.J.A.; de Kleuver, M.; Oner, FC; Verlaan, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts of interest arising from ties between pharmaceutical industry and physicians are common and may bias research. The extent to which these ties exist among editorial board members of medical journals is not known. This study aims to determine the prevalence and financial magnitude of

  12. Guideline funding and conflicts of interest: article 4 in Integrating and coordinating efforts in COPD guideline development. An official ATS/ERS workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth A; Akl, Elie A; Baumann, Michael; Curtis, J Randall; Field, Marilyn J; Jaeschke, Roman; Osborne, Molly; Schünemann, Holger J

    2012-12-01

    Professional societies, like many other organizations around the world, have recognized the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that healthcare recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the fourth of a series of 14 articles prepared to advise guideline developers in respiratory and other disease. It focuses on commercial funding of guidelines and managing conflict of interest effectively in the context of guidelines. In this review, we addressed the following topics and questions. (1) How are clinical practice guidelines funded? (2) What are the risks associated with commercial sponsorship of guidelines? (3) What relationships should guideline committee members be required to disclose? (4) What is the most efficient way to obtain complete and accurate disclosures? (5) How should disclosures be publicly shared? (6) When do relationships require management? (7) How should individual conflicts of interest be managed? (8) How could conflict of interest policies be enforced? The literature review included a search of PubMed and other databases for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. Our conclusions are based on available evidence, consideration of what guideline developers are doing, and workshop discussions. Professional societies often depend on industry funding to support clinical practice guideline development. In addition, members of guideline committees frequently have financial relationships with commercial entities, are invested in their intellectual work, or have conflicts related to clinical revenue streams. No systematic reviews or other rigorous evidence regarding best practices for funding models, disclosure mechanisms, management strategies, or enforcement presently exist, but the panel drew several conclusions that could improve transparency and process.

  13. [Conflict of interest in medical practice and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Ilhak

    2012-09-25

    In recent years, medical professionals are in charge with multiple roles. They have to work as an educator, researcher, and administrator, as well as medical practitioner. In addition, they experience a conflict between the primary responsibilities that each role requires of them. A conflict of interest (COI) is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. It occurs when an individual or organization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation for an act in the other. The COI should be managed appropriately to preserve the value of public trust, scientific objectivity, and the benefit and safety of patients. Primary interest of medical professionals refers to the principal goals of the medical profession, such as the health and safety of patients, and the integrity of research. Secondary interest includes not only financial gain but also such motives as the desire for professional advancement and the wish to do favors for family and friends, but COI rules usually focus on financial relationships because they are relatively more objective, fungible, and quantifiable. This article will briefly review the COI in medical practice and research, discuss about what is COI, why we should manage it, and how we can manage it.

  14. Conflicts of interest and spin in reviews of psychological therapies: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Klaus; von der Osten-Sacken, Jan; Stoffers-Winterling, Jutta; Reiss, Neele; Barth, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore conflicts of interest (COI) and their reporting in systematic reviews of psychological therapies, and to evaluate spin in the conclusions of the reviews. Methods MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for systematic reviews published between 2010 and 2013 that assessed effects of psychological therapies for anxiety, depressive or personality disorders, and included at least one randomised controlled trial. Required COI disclosure by journal, disclosed COI by review authors, and the inclusion of own primary studies by review authors were extracted. Researcher allegiance, that is, that researchers concluded favourably about the interventions they have studied, as well as spin, that is, differences between results and conclusions of the reviews, were rated by 2 independent raters. Results 936 references were retrieved, 95 reviews fulfilled eligibility criteria. 59 compared psychological therapies with other forms of psychological therapies, and 36 psychological therapies with pharmacological interventions. Financial, non-financial, and personal COI were disclosed in 22, 4 and 1 review, respectively. 2 of 86 own primary studies of review authors included in 34 reviews were disclosed by review authors. In 15 of the reviews, authors showed an allegiance effect to the evaluated psychological therapy that was never disclosed. Spin in review conclusions was found in 27 of 95 reviews. Reviews with a conclusion in favour of psychological therapies (vs pharmacological interventions) were at high risk for a spin in conclusions (OR=8.31 (1.41 to 49.05)). Spin was related in trend to the inclusion of own primary studies in the systematic review (OR=2.08 (CI 0.83 to 5.18) p=0.11) and researcher allegiance (OR=2.63 (0.84 to 8.16) p=0.16). Conclusions Non-financial COI, especially the inclusion of own primary studies into reviews and researcher allegiance, are frequently seen in systematic reviews of psychological therapies and need more transparency and

  15. The Impact of Financial Disclosure on Attendee Assessment of Objectivity in Continuing Medical Education Programs in Psychiatry: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Michael D; Cobourn, Lisa A; Seibert, Jennifer K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of financial conflict of interest disclosures by speakers at continuing medical education (CME) programs is to assist attendees in their assessment of the objectivity of the information presented. This empirical study was undertaken to determine what level of disclosure is optimal to achieve this goal. Attendees at five CME programs were randomly assigned to receive either a standard financial disclosure, an intermediate level that included whether speakers received more or less than 5% of their income from each company they disclosed, or a high level of disclosure that included the percent of their income derived from each company. A total of 169 attendees (85.4% response rate) completed a questionnaire regarding the objectivity of the CME presentation they attended. Attendees receiving the highest level of disclosure came significantly closer to the ratings of speaker bias made by peer reviewers than did attendees receiving medium or low levels of disclosure (p = 0.03; effect size 0.31). Among the minority of attendees who received the highest level of disclosure but whose assessment of bias differed from that of peer reviewers, however, there was a tendency to underestimate bias (5.9 vs 31.4%; p financial disclosure than are currently required for CME programs.

  16. Substantial variation in the interpretation of financial disclosure policies for orthopaedic society meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Kolawole; Whang, Peter; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2011-07-06

    Physician disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is currently controversial. To address this issue, orthopaedic societies have implemented a variety of guidelines related to potential conflict-of-interest disclosure. Transparency is crucial to address the concerns about potential conflict-of-interest disclosure. Nonetheless, prior studies have noted substantial discrepancies in disclosures to societies for individual authors who present their research work at multiple conferences. Our goal was to evaluate the ability of orthopaedic surgeons to interpret disclosure policy statements regarding project-specific or global disclosure instructions. The disclosure policy statements of the ten conferences most frequently attended by this group were collected, and selected statements were compiled into a questionnaire survey that was administered to orthopaedic faculty and trainees at our institution. Subjects were asked to read each statement and identify whether they interpreted the policy to be requesting project-specific disclosures (potential conflict of interest related to the research work in the abstract being submitted) or global disclosure (inclusive of all potential conflicts of interest, including those not associated with the abstract being submitted). The correct responses were identified by communicating with the individual societies and determining the responses desired by the society. The study had a 100% return rate from seventeen orthopaedic faculty, twenty-five orthopaedic residents and fellows, and twenty-five medical students. The average number of incorrect responses to the ten questions was 2.8. Forty-six percent of respondents had three or more incorrect responses, 24% had two incorrect responses, 19% had one incorrect response, and 10% had no incorrect responses. There was no significant difference in responses between those of different training levels. Subjects were no more likely to answer a project-specific question incorrectly than they

  17. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs, often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. Discussion We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Summary Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  18. Addressing conflicts of interest in Public Private Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omobowale, Emmanuel B; Kuziw, Michael; Naylor, Melinda Treurnicht; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-07-08

    Many articles have been written on conflicts of interests (COIs) in fields such as medicine, business, politics, public service and education. With the growing abundance of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), often involving complex relationships among the partners, it is important to understand how COIs can be mitigated and managed in PPPs. We wanted to study PPPs, particularly in the areas of global health and agriculture, but discovered no single source of information available to identify and compare various approaches for avoiding and managing COIs in PPPs. This is a significant gap, especially for those wishing to study, compare and strengthen existing COI policies related to PPPs. In order to bridge this gap, we reviewed how PPPs currently address COIs and highlight what might be considered good practice in developing COI policies. We reviewed the online COI policies of 10 PPPs in global health and agriculture, and interviewed two global health PPP chief executives. Based on our review of policies and interviews, we conclude that there exists a range of good practices including attention to accountability and governance, acknowledgement and disclosure, abstention and withdrawal, reporting and transparency, and independent monitoring. There appears to be a need for PPPs to interact closely and learn from each other on these parameters and to also place more emphasis on independent external monitoring of COIs as a means of strengthening their major social objectives on which their activities are largely predicated. We also recommend the establishment of a web based database, which would serve as a forum to discuss COI issues and how they can be resolved.

  19. Conflict of interest: The elephant in your practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • May 2013. 161. One of the ... psychiatrists are confronted with potential conflicts of interest .... their patients' wishes over the fears of the community.9 In ... pharmaceutical firms.8 Not uncommonly in many meetings.

  20. 13 CFR 302.17 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... costs (e.g., procurement of goods or services) by or to the Recipient. A conflict of interest generally... shall also not, directly or indirectly, solicit or accept any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment or...

  1. Researcher views about funding sources and conflicts of interest in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2012-12-01

    Dependence in nanotechnology on external funding and academic-industry relationships has led to questions concerning its influence on research directions, as well as the potential for conflicts of interest to arise and impact scientific integrity and public trust. This study uses a survey of 193 nanotechnology industry and academic researchers to explore whether they share similar concerns. Although these concerns are not unique to nanotechnology, its emerging nature and the prominence of industry funding lend credence to understanding its researchers' views, as these researchers are shaping the norms and direction of the field. The results of the survey show general agreement that funding sources are influencing research directions in nanotechnology; many respondents saw this influence in their own work as well as other researchers' work. Respondents also agreed that funding considerations were likely to influence whether researchers shared their results. Irrespective of their institutional affiliation or funding status, twice as many researchers as not considered financial conflicts of interest a cause for concern, and three times as many respondents as not disagreed financial conflicts of interest in nanotechnology were uncommon. Only a third was satisfied with the way that conflicts of interest are currently managed and believed current procedures would protect the integrity of nanotechnology research. The results also found differences in views depending on researchers' institutional affiliation and funding status.

  2. SOME DISCLOSURE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirstea Andreea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of consolidated reporting practice harmonization concerning the choice of presenting the income statement, the changes in equity, the methods used for presenting the cash flow statement, the extant methods for evaluating and reporting goodwill, the extant methods in which jointly controlled entities are accounted in the consolidated financial statements, or the choice for recognizing investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates in the separate statements of the parent company. In order to achieve our goal we selected the first 10 groups, in order of their capitalization value, that were listed on each of the following capital markets: London Stock Exchange, NYSE Euronext (Paris Stock Exchange and Deutsche Börse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange and we analyzed, in a qualitative and in a quantitative manner, for a period of six years starting with 2007, their consolidated financial statements with the design to establish exactly which of the aspects stated in the International Financial Reporting Standards were being used for the items presented above. In order to complete the empirical research part of the paper that addresses from a comparative perspective the evaluation of the degree of material harmony between the reporting practices of groups listed on the three stock exchanges above-mentioned, we used statistical and mathematical methods represented by the I Index first described by Van der Tas. Taking into account the fact that since 2005 all listed companies on the European stock exchanges were required to adopt the international accounting standards for their consolidated financial disclosures, the degree of material harmony was studied only in reference to those requirements that presented two methods or possibilities of disclosure.Our findings suggest that the groups analyzed present a high degree of material harmonization with respect to the reporting

  3. 28 CFR 17.42 - Positions requiring financial disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Positions requiring financial disclosure... INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.42 Positions requiring financial disclosure. (a) The Assistant Attorney General for Administration, in consultation with the...

  4. "Members of the same club": challenges and decisions faced by US IRBs in identifying and managing conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts of interest (COIs) in research have received increasing attention, but many questions arise about how Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) view and approach these. I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each with 46 US IRB chairs, administrators, and members, exploring COI and other issues related to research integrity. I contacted leaders of 60 IRBs (every fourth one among the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions (response rate = 55%). Data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods, informed by Grounded Theory. IRBs confront financial and non-financial COIs of PIs, institutions, and IRBs themselves. IRB members may seek to help, or compete with, principal investigators (PIs). Non-financial COI also often appear to be "indirect financial" conflicts based on gain (or loss) not to oneself, but to one's colleagues or larger institution. IRBs faced challenges identifying and managing these COI, and often felt that they could be more effective. IRBs' management of their own potential COI vary, and conflicted members may observe, participate, and/or vote in discussions. Individual IRB members frequently judge for themselves whether to recuse themselves. Challenges arise in addressing these issues, since institutions and PIs need funding, financial information is considered confidential, and COI can be unconscious. This study, the first to explore qualitatively how IRBs confront COIs and probe how IRBs confront non-financial COIs, suggests that IRBs face several types of financial and non-financial COIs, involving themselves, PIs, and institutions, and respond varyingly. These data have critical implications for practice and policy. Disclosure of indirect and non-financial COIs to subjects may not be feasible, partly since IRBs, not PIs, are conflicted. Needs exist to consider guidelines and clarifications concerning when and how, in protocol reviews, IRB members should recuse themselves

  5. Medical device development: managing conflicts of interest encountered by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baim, Donald S; Donovan, Aine; Smith, John J; Briefs, Nancy; Geoffrion, Richard; Feigal, David; Kaplan, Aaron V

    2007-04-01

    New technologies introduced over the past three decades have transformed medical diagnosis and treatment, and significantly improved patient outcomes. These changes have been mediated by the introduction of new medical devices, particularly for the treatment of cardiovascular, orthopedic, and ophthalmic disorders. These devices, in turn, have created large markets and spawned a burgeoning medical device industry, including six Fortune 500 companies whose combined market capitalization now exceeds 400 billion dollars. This success story, which has unquestionably benefited patients and society alike, has been dependent upon an intense collaboration among industry, clinicians, and regulatory authorities. However, when physicians actively involved in patient care participate in such collaborations, they are increasingly vulnerable to creating potential conflicts between these two (clinical and device development) roles. Such conflicts, which may ultimately erode public trust, have important consequences not only for the individual physicians, but also for their parent institutions, their patients, sponsoring companies, and the entire clinical research enterprise that makes the development and introduction of new devices possible. The third Dartmouth Device Development Symposium held in October 2005 brought together thought leaders within the medical device community, including academicians, clinical investigators, regulators from the Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), large and small device manufacturers and the financial (venture capital and investment banks) community. The Symposium examined the conflicts of interest encountered during the early development and commercialization of a medical device. The goal of these discussions was to (1) identify and characterize the conflicts that arise and (2) provide strategies to address these conflicts. This manuscript was prepared by a writing committee to provide a summary

  6. [Conflicts of interests in clinical research in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-de Paz, L; Navarro-Rubio, M D; Sisó-Almirall, A

    2014-03-01

    Conflicts of interests between professionals and patients in biomedical research, is an ethical problem. None of the laws in Spain mention whether the clinical researcher has to clarify to participants the reasons why it proposes them to participate in a clinical trial. In this article, conflicts of interests in research are discussed in the context of primary healthcare. In this area conflicts of interests might alter the confidence between patients and healthcare professionals. Finally, we suggest some practical strategies that can help participants make the decision to participate in a clinical trial more willingly and freely. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing conflicts of interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE clinical guidelines programme: qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Graham

    Full Text Available There is international concern that conflicts of interest (COI may bias clinical guideline development and render it untrustworthy. Guideline COI policies exist with the aim of reducing this bias but it is not known how such policies are interpreted and used by guideline producing organisations. This study sought to determine how conflicts of interest (COIs are disclosed and managed by a national clinical guideline developer (NICE: the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 key informants: 8 senior staff of NICE's guideline development centres and 6 chairs of guideline development groups (GDGs. We conducted a thematic analysis.Participants regard the NICE COI policy as comprehensive leading to transparent and independent guidance. The application of the NICE COI policy is, however, not straightforward and clarity could be improved. Disclosure of COI relies on self reporting and guideline developers have to take "on trust" the information they receive, certain types of COI (non-financial are difficult to categorise and manage and disclosed COI can impact on the ability to recruit clinical experts to GDGs. Participants considered it both disruptive and stressful to exclude members from GDG meetings when required by the COI policy. Nonetheless the impact of this disruption can be minimised with good group chairing skills.We consider that the successful implementation of a COI policy in clinical guideline development requires clear policies and procedures, appropriate training of GDG chairs and an evaluation of how the policy is used in practice.

  8. 76 FR 27648 - Submission for OMB Review; Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for Contractor Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ...; Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for Contractor Employees Performing Acquisition Functions AGENCY... approve a new information collection requirement regarding Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for... Conflicts of Interest for Contractor Employees Performing Acquisition Functions by any of the following...

  9. Conflict of interest: A tenacious ethical dilemma in public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the ethical practice of individual health professionals, bioethical debate about conflict of interest (CoI) must include the institutional ethics of public policy-making, as failure to establish independence from powerful stakeholder influence may pervert public health goals. All involved in public policy processes are ...

  10. Conflict of Interest Arises as Concern in Standards Push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    A respected literacy-research organization is asking that a process be put in place to make more transparent potential conflicts of interest that writers of the common national academic standards might have, and to address them. The Literacy Research Association sent a letter Oct. 21 to the groups overseeing the development of common standards…

  11. Legalistic or Inspirational? Comparing University Conflict of Interest Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2009-01-01

    In response to growing public and policy concern about conflicts of interest (COI) in university research, academic institutions in North America and Europe have introduced policies to manage COI. However, depending on their form and content, COI policies can be more or less helpful in the effective management of COI. In this paper, we examine and…

  12. Towards understanding the nature of conflict of interest and its application to the discipline of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2009-10-01

    Most incidences of dishonesty in research, financial investments that promote personal financial gain, and kickback scandals begin as conflicts of interest (COI). Research indicates that healthcare professionals who maintain COI relationships make less optimal and more expensive patient care choices. The discovery of COI relationships also negatively impact patient and public trust. Many disciplines are addressing this professional issue, but little work has been done towards understanding and applying this moral category within a nursing context. Do COIs occur in nursing and are they problematic? What are the morally appropriate responses to COI for our discipline and for individual practicing nurses? In this paper I examine the nature of 'conflict of interest' as a general ethical category, its characteristics and its application to our discipline. Conflict of interest is an odd moral category that may actually or potentially result in immoral decisions. The moral justification for COI is grounded prime facie by the moral value of respect for persons and principle of fidelity from which trust is developed and maintained. In review of the historical development, there appears to be consensus on some qualities of COI that are presented. I conclude that making judgements about COI are challenging and often difficult to determine from a nursing perspective. Improving nurses' and professional organizations' awareness of COI and sharpening our ability to respond appropriately when COI arise can reduce potential harm and promote trust in those whom we serve.

  13. Conflicts of interest in business: A review of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu D. Dragomir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All companies admit in their codes of conduct that conflicts of interest (CIs are a threat to their efficiency, integrity and reputation. Except for insider trading, definitions of CIs are strictly particular to each business and publicly expressed through their codes of ethics. I propose an interpretative analysis of what is understood by conflict of interest in the codes of ethics of the world’s ten largest companies, along with a comprehensive review of CIs in several sections: employment, contracting, corporate assets, insider trading and personal investments, competitors, and corporate image. The present paper offers solutions to avoid or resolve CIs in a business context, by combining economic preference with the psychological cognitivist view of self-interest. The conclusion is that a code of ethics and relevant training are protective measures for a company wishing to convince its employees that they are better off not entering CIs.

  14. Conflicts of interest in divisions of general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, N; Braunack‐Mayer, A; Rogers, W; Provis, C; Cullity, G

    2006-01-01

    Community‐based healthcare organisations manage competing, and often conflicting, priorities. These conflicts can arise from the multiple roles these organisations take up, and from the diverse range of stakeholders to whom they must be responsive. Often such conflicts may be titled conflicts of interest; however, what precisely constitutes such conflicts and what should be done about them is not always clear. Clarity about the duties owed by organisations and the roles they assume can help i...

  15. Conflict of interest in Health Technology Assessment decisions: case law in France and impact on reimbursement decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frybourg, Sandrine; Remuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The slow reaction of French authorities to the so-called Mediator® saga in 2009 in France led to investigations that questioned the way conflicts of interest are reported. France implemented the Loi Bertrand ('Bertrand Law') in May 2013, known as the 'French Sunshine Act', with the aim of specifying the scope of disclosure obligations. This policy research reviewed the Loi Bertrand and reported case law from the French Council of State (COS) related to conflicts of interest in French Health technology assessment (HTA) opinion. The Loi Bertrand requires the publication of most of the agreements concluded between health-care professionals and companies and covers a vast range of health products. Commercial sales agreements of goods and services concluded between manufacturers and health-care professionals are a strong exception to this disclosure obligation. Six cases examined by the COS were analyzed, most of them related to the publication of guidelines or the removal of products from the list of reimbursed drugs and devices. These cases have been reviewed, as well as the impact of the ruling on reimbursement decisions. Four cases led to suspension or invalidation of decisions based on the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) recommendations due to conflicts of interest. In the two other cases, the HAS provided post hoc declarations of interest when required by the COS, and the COS considered the conflicts of interest as irrelevant for the decision. It appears that the COS based its decisions on two main criteria: the acknowledgement of negative conflicts of interest (a link with competitors) and the absence of declarations of conflicts of interest, which have to be presented when required by legal authorities irrespective of when they were completed (even posterior to the HAS opinion). However, the number of cases that have been decided against the HAS remains very limited with respect to the volume of assessments performed yearly. The strengthening of the regulation

  16. Integrity at CERN – Conflict of Interest Policy

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, a working group was established to develop a policy on conflicts of interest at CERN and to review the related obligations under Article S I.3.13 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. The group was composed of the Director for Administration and General Infrastructure, the heads of the Human Resources Department, the Internal Audit and the Legal Service, and other representatives from these services.   In March 2015, the Director-General approved the working group’s recommendation to adopt a global conflict of interest prevention and management policy that is based on established best practices, that further implements CERN’s core value of integrity, and that, like the CERN Code of Conduct, applies to all CERN contributors. The Conflict of Interest Policy, together with implementation guidelines, was presented to the Enlarged Directorate in April and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 10 April 2015. It has been integrated with the existing A...

  17. INCRIMINATING THE CONFLICT OF INTERESTS IN ROMANIA: RECENT LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MAREȘ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at outlining the evolution of the Romanian criminal law provisions incriminating the conflict of interests, starting from its insertion, as of 2006, into the Criminal Code of 1968, until the up-to-date version of the offence as per the Criminal Code in force, renamed as use of the position for favouring persons, as amended by Law no. 193/2017. In this context, the approaches of the legal text in the well-established case-law of the judicial bodies as well as of the Constitutional Court and legal literature are highly relevant in order to explain the rationale behind the shaping of the legal content of the offence. The diachronic delineation shall be supplemented by elements of comparative law. Where appropriate, reference shall also be made to the administrative type of liability that may be incurred in a conflict of interest case and the relationship thereof with the proceedings in criminal matters or to distinctions between the analysed offence and other offences falling into the category of malfeasance in office or corruption offences. The conclusions of this examination emphasise the need for predictability and proper understanding of the criminological layer in tackling the conflict of interest phenomenon.

  18. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Kevin C., E-mail: ke@sc.edu [University of South Carolina, Department of Philosophy, USC NanoCenter (United States); Volz, David C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  19. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345–1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  20. Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health: ExxonMobil, Equatorial Guinea, and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naman K

    2013-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea, the most prosperous country in Africa, still bears a large malaria burden. With massive wealth from oil reserves, and nearly half its population living in island ecotypes favourable for malaria control, only poor governance can explain continued parasite burden. By financially backing the country's dictator and other officials through illicit payments, the oil company ExxonMobil contributed to the state's failure. Now ExxonMobil, having helped perpetuate malaria in Equatorial Guinea, gives money to non-governmental organizations, charitable foundations, and universities to advocate for and undertake malaria work. How, and on what terms, can public health engage with such an actor? We discuss challenges in the identification and management of conflicts of interest in public health activities. We reviewed the business and foundation activities of ExxonMobil and surveyed organizations that received ExxonMobil money about their conflict of interest policies. Reforms in ExxonMobil's business practices, as well as its charitable structure, and reforms in the way public health groups screen and manage conflicts of interest are needed to ensure that any relationship ultimately improves the health of citizens.

  1. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  2. Internet Financial and Environmental Disclosures by Malaysian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saleh Alarussi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether determinants of financial disclosure are similar to environmental disclosure through the Internet. In other words, this paper examines the relationship between Internet financial disclosure (IFD, Internet environmental disclosures (IED and six variables, namely, ethnic of chief executive officer (CEO, leverage, level of technology, listing status, profitability, and firm size. Six hypotheses formulated in this study were analyzed using data collected from the websites of 189 Malaysian listed companies in 2006. The results indicate that level of technology, ethnic of CEO and firm size are significant factors in explaining both IFD and IED. It is also observed that listing status is positively related to the level of IFD but not IED. On the other hand, profitability is significant factor in explaining the level of IED but not IFD. Finally, leverage is not significantly related to both IFD and IED.

  3. Issues in the Recognition versus Disclosure of Financial Information Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Aleš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence from the academic literature on capital market effects of financial information placement (i.e., recognition on the face of the primary financial statements versus disclosure in the notes to the financial statements is not straightforward. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the recognition versus required disclosure debate in a standard-setting context by exploring possible reasons for perceived differences between recognized and disclosed amounts. These differences, in our view, arise due to demonstrated auditors’ greater tolerance for misstatement in disclosed amounts, allowed noncompliance with disclosure requirements even in strong enforcement regimes, lesser care that preparers of financial statements devote to disclosures relative to recognized items as well as behavioural factors and differential processing costs related to the users of financial information. We believe that these arguments strengthen the case for the general preference for the recognition of financial information in the standard-setting context. The original scientific contribution of this paper is to systematically identify the reasons for the differences between recognized and disclosed amounts in financial statements. As such, this paper may provide a suitable basis for the justification of certain conceptual changes in the field of international accounting standards that are currently underway.

  4. Inventing conflicts of interest: a history of tobacco industry tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Allan M

    2012-01-01

    Confronted by compelling peer-reviewed scientific evidence of the harms of smoking, the tobacco industry, beginning in the 1950s, used sophisticated public relations approaches to undermine and distort the emerging science. The industry campaign worked to create a scientific controversy through a program that depended on the creation of industry-academic conflicts of interest. This strategy of producing scientific uncertainty undercut public health efforts and regulatory interventions designed to reduce the harms of smoking. A number of industries have subsequently followed this approach to disrupting normative science. Claims of scientific uncertainty and lack of proof also lead to the assertion of individual responsibility for industrially produced health risks.

  5. Perceptions of conflict of interest: surgeons, internists, and learners compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gara, Christopher J; Rennick, Kim C; Hanson, John

    2013-05-01

    Making a conflict of interest declaration is now mandatory at continuing medical education CME accredited events. However, these declarations tend to be largely perfunctory. This study sought to better understand physician perceptions surrounding conflict of interest. The same PowerPoint (Microsoft, Canada) presentation (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQSOvch7Yg0&feature=g-upl) was delivered at multiple University of Alberta and Royal College CME-accredited events to surgeons, internists, and learners. After each talk, the audience was invited to complete an anonymous, pretested, and standardized 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) questionnaire. A total of 136 surveys were analyzed from 31 surgeons, 49 internists, and 56 learners. In response to the question regarding whether by simply making a declaration, the speaker had provided adequate proof of any conflicts of interest, 71% of surgeons thought so, whereas only 35% of internists and 39% of learners agreed or strongly agreed (P = .004). Further probing this theme, the audience was asked whether a speaker must declare fees or monies received from industry for consulting, speaking, and research support. Once again there was a variance of opinion, with only 43% of surgeons agreeing or strongly agreeing with this statement; yet, 80% of internists and 71% of learners felt that such a declaration was necessary (P = .013). On the topic of believability (a speaker declaration makes him or her and the presentation more credible), the 3 groups were less polarized: 50% of surgeons, 41% of internists, and 52% of learners (P = .2) felt that this was the case. Although two thirds of surgeons (68%) and learners (66%) and nearly all internists (84%) felt that industry-sponsored research was biased, these differences were not significant (P = .2). Even when they are completely open and honest, conflict of interest declarations do not negate the biases inherent in a speaker's talk or research when it is

  6. Family Financial Hardship and Adolescent Girls' Adjustment: The Role of Maternal Disclosure of Financial Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2002-01-01

    A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…

  7. Conflicts of interests in the area of healthcare products and technology. Current state of affairs and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarez, Jean-Paul; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Molimard, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The handling of conflicts of interest in the area of healthcare products and technology has become a major issue for all of those involved in healthcare. Round Table N°4 at the Giens Workshops 2011 has put forward concrete proposals to clarify and optimise the handling of conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest cannot be defined by the individuals consulted or applying for funds since each institution, whether public or private, that puts out a call for projects or that requests advice, analyses or expert testimony in the healthcare field has different degrees of what it defines as a conflict of interest, depending on the context of the proposal or specific request that it puts out. In contrast, each individual has ties of personal interest that can and must be openly disclosed. The ties are much more diverse than what is commonly found in the conflict of interest statements of large institutions operating in the healthcare field and are not limited to financial and operational ties between companies and individuals. In addition, the statements are difficult to manage because of their sheer number. The Round Table recommends that each individual should openly disclose all of his or her ties of personal interest in a Single Statement of Ties of personal Interest (SSTI). The SSTI would be updated regularly and accessible on line. Each institution could then determine whether or not the reported ties represent a conflict in the context of the mission proposed. Each institution could publish in advance the conditions that would give rise to a conflict and, in this way, an individual could refrain from applying for the mission. Other practical approaches to handling conflicts of interest were put forward. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. 50 CFR 600.235 - Financial disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Financial interest in harvesting, processing, or marketing (1) includes: (i) Stock, equity, or other... interest in harvesting, processing, or marketing activity, and of any such financial interest of the... substantially disproportionate benefit to the financial interest in harvesting, processing, or marketing of any...

  9. Disclosure of Non-Financial Information: Relevant to Financial Analysts?

    OpenAIRE

    ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The decline in the relevance of financial statement information to value firms leads to calls from organizational stakeholders to convey non-financial information in order to be able to judge firms' financial performance and value. This literature review aims to report extant literature findings on the use of corporate non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts, the information intermediaries between corporate management and investors. Prior studies highlight that financial ana...

  10. [Conflicts of interest: should we lower our guard?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiore, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Conflicts of interest affect the scientific communication and information: their effects on the physician's prescribing behavior have been frequently studied and clearly documented. Recently, the New England Journal of Medicine published a series of papers questioning the radical positions on this topic, asking to reconsider the most intransigent approach, so that it may be possible a productive collaboration between academic medicine and pharmaceutical industry, in the interest of the patient. The papers published in the New England Journal of Medicine confirm the difficulties experienced by the biomedical journals: the support of the industry is essential and most of the authors and referees has ties with pharmaceutical or biotech companies. The debate among the various stakeholders is vital but should be open and transparent, with the aim to restore credibility to all the parties concerned: academic medicine, pharmaceutical industry and scientific publishers.

  11. Navigating conflicts of interest for the medical device entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Aine; Kaplan, Aaron V

    2012-01-01

    The past fifty years has witnessed dramatic progress in the understanding and treatment of patients suffering from cardiovascular disease leading to symptomatic relief and impressive increases in longevity. These advances have been due in large part to the development, study and implementation of new technology. Within interventional cardiology in particular, these advances have been driven by the availability of new technology in the form of medical devices. Successful device development efforts require close collaboration among basic scientist, clinician-inventors/entrepreneurs, clinician-investigators and corporations. Though the role of the clinician is central to this process, these activities present important conflicts-of-interest (COIs). The purpose of this paper is to 1) characterize these conflicts, 2) provide a context from which to approach their management and 3) recommend management strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Defining directors’ conflict of interests in code of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Di Carlo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a definition of directors’ conflict of interests (CoI by critically reviewing the academic literature. Then, we present an exploratory study, based on a content analysis of the leading Italian listed companies that sought to empirically assess the directors’ CoI definitions provided by corporate codes of ethics. We found that despite the presence of CoI statement within corporate codes of ethics, CoI definition is often absent, when present it is not always clear, and differs widely among firms. The consequence is that CoI recognition could be not easy and remedies to prevent and resolve directors’ CoI lose their practical utility.

  13. Conflict of interest from a Romanian geneticist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, Ioana

    2002-07-01

    This paper examines Romanian bioethics regulations for biomedical sciences, looking in particular at the genetics area as a source for conflict of interest. The analysis is focused on the organizational level, national regulations, the sources for generating conflicts of interest, and management of conflicts. Modern biotechnology and gene technology are among the key technologies of the twenty-first century. The application of gene technology for medical and pharmaceutical purposes is widely accepted by society, but the same cannot be said of the development and application of gene technology in agriculture and food processing. Because the use of a technology in the production and processing of food is regarded more sceptically than in the production of biomedical products, there can be areas of conflict in many cases when communication is undertaken about gene technology in the agro-food sector. Ethical concerns play an important factor in this, but a society's attitude to a developing technology is an amalgam of many effects which are beyond ethics as such. This paper contains a study carried out by the author for the Romanian Association for Consumer Protection about the attitudes of consumers towards genetically modified (GM) foods. This study revealed that in Romania more than 98% of consumers did not know anything about GM foods and frequently were confused about the definitions of these terms. In conclusion, it is necessary to say that there is a low level of knowledge regarding biotechnology in Romania and this is an important reason why there is neither public acceptance of gene technology products nor is there a rejection.

  14. 75 FR 63110 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... conflict of interest exemption for a particular type of transaction. This change is expected to reduce the...--Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... rules, unless it first obtains a conflict of interest exemption from SBA. The revision would eliminate...

  15. 77 FR 20292 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... conflict of interest, unless the SBIC obtains a prior written exemption from SBA. The most common type of...--Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final..., unless it first obtains a conflict of interest exemption from SBA. The revision eliminates the...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.209-70 - Potential organizational conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Consultant Conflicts of Interest) due to [state the nature of the potential conflict]. Accordingly... conflict of interest. 1352.209-70 Section 1352.209-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....209-70 Potential organizational conflict of interest. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1309.507-1(a), insert...

  17. 76 FR 3853 - National Science Foundation Rules of Practice and Statutory Conflict-of-Interest Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Practice and Statutory Conflict-of-Interest Exemptions AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Final... provisions concerning statutory conflict-of- interest exemptions. DATES: The final rule is effective on.... List of Subjects in 45 CFR Part 680 Conflict of interests. Accordingly, 45 CFR part 680 is amended as...

  18. 48 CFR 1552.209-72 - Organizational conflict of interest certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1552.209-72 Organizational conflict of interest certification. As prescribed in 1509... Conflict of Interest Certification (APR 1984) The offeror [] is [] is not aware of any information bearing on the existence of any potential organizational conflict of interest. If the offeror is aware of...

  19. 78 FR 39820 - Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given... Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration...'s equity. Therefore this transaction is considered a financing constituting a conflict of interest...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.209-70 - Organizational conflict of interest notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 1552.209-70 Organizational conflict of interest notification. As prescribed in 1509.507-1(b) insert the following solicitation provision in all solicitations. Organizational Conflict of Interest... subcontractor) may have a potential organizational conflict of interest. (b) Prospective Contractors should...

  1. 75 FR 70152 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... proposed regulations establish conflicts of interest requirements for futures commission merchants (FCMs... comments, identified by RIN number 3038-AC96 and FCM-IB Conflicts of Interest, by any of the following... rulemaking relates to the conflicts of interest provisions set forth in section 732 of the Dodd-Frank Act. In...

  2. “Members of the Same Club”: Challenges and Decisions Faced by US IRBs in Identifying and Managing Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts of interest (COIs) in research have received increasing attention, but many questions arise about how Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) view and approach these. Methods I conducted in-depth interviews of 2 hours each with 46 US IRB chairs, administrators, and members, exploring COI and other issues related to research integrity. I contacted leaders of 60 IRBs (every fourth one among the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions (response rate = 55%). Data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods, informed by Grounded Theory. Results IRBs confront financial and non-financial COIs of PIs, institutions, and IRBs themselves. IRB members may seek to help, or compete with, principal investigators (PIs). Non-financial COI also often appear to be “indirect financial” conflicts based on gain (or loss) not to oneself, but to one's colleagues or larger institution. IRBs faced challenges identifying and managing these COI, and often felt that they could be more effective. IRBs' management of their own potential COI vary, and conflicted members may observe, participate, and/or vote in discussions. Individual IRB members frequently judge for themselves whether to recuse themselves. Challenges arise in addressing these issues, since institutions and PIs need funding, financial information is considered confidential, and COI can be unconscious. Conclusions This study, the first to explore qualitatively how IRBs confront COIs and probe how IRBs confront non-financial COIs, suggests that IRBs face several types of financial and non-financial COIs, involving themselves, PIs, and institutions, and respond varyingly. These data have critical implications for practice and policy. Disclosure of indirect and non-financial COIs to subjects may not be feasible, partly since IRBs, not PIs, are conflicted. Needs exist to consider guidelines and clarifications concerning when and how, in protocol reviews, IRB

  3. Conflict of interest in the assessment of hyaluronic acid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Jonathon O; Lee, John J; Knesek, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew G

    2013-09-01

    The search results of a recent systematic review of prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on hyaluronic acid injections for knee arthritis were updated and reviewed for funding source and qualitative conclusions. Forty-eight studies were identified; 30 (62.5%) were industry funded, and 3 (6.25%) were not. Fifteen (31.3%) studies did not identify a funding source. An association was observed between a reported potential financial conflict of interest of the author and the qualitative conclusion (P=0.018). None of the studies with a reported financial conflict of interest of at least one author had an unfavorable conclusion; 11 (35%) of the 31 studies with no industry-affiliated authors indicated that hyaluronic acid injection for knee osteoarthritis was no more effective than a placebo injection. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Financial disclosure and clinical research: what is important to participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Anastasia; Rubinfeld, Abe R

    2008-08-18

    To assess what participants in company-sponsored clinical trials wish to know about financial aspects of the study. Cross-sectional questionnaire administered to 324 participants in six clinical trials conducted at the Royal Melbourne Hospital in 1999-2000 and 2006 for non-acute conditions (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and influenza vaccine efficacy). Participants' desire for information on study funding, investigators' conflicts of interest, and use of accrued funds. 259 participants (80%) completed the survey. Participants wanted to be informed about the identity of the project sponsor (148 participants; 57%), whether the investigators owned shares in the company (105; 41%) or received travel grants (83; 32%), how much funding was accrued at study completion (88; 34%), how accrued funds were used (98; 38%), and who approved their use (91; 35%). After adjusting for year of survey and level of education, younger subjects (aged informed more often than older participants of who sponsored the project (odds ratio [OR], 2.35 [95% CI, 1.21-4.55]; P=0.012), whether the investigators owned shares in the company (OR, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.27-4.60]; P=0.007) and how much funding was available for other uses (OR, 1.79 [95% CI, 0.94-3.41]; P=0.078). While most participants indicated that they would take part in clinical research again regardless of whether they received financial information, providing information on the sponsor, the investigators' financial interest in the company, whether accrual of funds is expected, and how these funds will be spent should satisfy the interests of participants in company-sponsored clinical trials.

  5. Confronting conflict: addressing institutional conflicts of interest in academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Individual conflicts of interest are rife in healthcare, and substantial attention has been given to address them. Yet a more substantive concern-institutional conflicts of interest ("ICOIs") in academic medical centers ("AMCs") engaged in research and clinical care-have yet to garner sufficient attention, despite their higher stakes for patient safety and welfare. ICOIs are standard in AMCs, are virtually unregulated, and have led to patient deaths. Upon review of ICOIs, we find a clear absence of substantive efforts to confront these conflicts. We also assess the Jesse Gelsinger case, which resulted in the death of a study participant exemplifying a deep-seated culture of institutional indifference and complicity in unmanaged conflicts. Federal policy, particularly the Bayh-Dole Act, also creates and promotes ICOIs. Efforts to address ICOIs are narrow or abstract, and do not provide for a systemic infrastructure with effective enforcement mechanisms. Hence, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive proposal to address ICOIs utilizing a "Centralized System" model that would proactively review, manage, approve, and conduct assessments of conflicts, and would have independent power to evaluate and enforce any violations via sanctions. It would also manage any industry funds and pharmaceutical samples and be a condition of participation in public healthcare reimbursement and federal grant funding. The ICOI policy itself would provide for disclosure requirements, separate management of commercial enterprise units from academic units, voluntary remediation of conflicts, and education on ICOIs. Finally, we propose a new model of medical education-academic detailing-in place of current marketing-focused "education." Using such a system, AMCs can wean themselves from industry reliance and promote a culture of accountability and independence from industry influence. By doing so, clinical research and treatment can return to a focus on patient care, not profits.

  6. Perspective: Conflict of interest and professional organizations: considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Parke, David W

    2010-01-01

    There are differences in conflicts of interest (COIs) in professional organizations compared with academic medical centers. The authors discuss nine major questions pertaining to industry relationships of professional organizations: (1) What makes COI management different in professional membership organizations? (2) What COI challenges are specific to professional organizations? (3) What are potential impacts of perceived or real COIs involving professional organizations and the management of COIs? (4) Is regulation necessary, or should professional organizations proactively resolve COI issues independently? (5) Are guidelines portable from academic medical centers to professional organizations? (6) What approaches may be considered for managing COIs of the organization's leaders? (7) What approaches are reasonable for managing COI issues at professional meetings? (8) What approaches are important for integrity of educational programs, publications, and products? and (9) What approaches are reasonable for managing and enforcing COI guidelines on an ongoing basis? Responses to these questions focus on four principles: First, a code of ethics governing general behavior of members and safeguarding the interest of patients must be in place; second, the monitoring and management of COI for leadership, including, in some cases, recusal from certain activities; third, the pooling and consistent, transparent management of unrestricted grants from corporate sponsors; and, fourth, the management of industry marketing efforts at membership meetings to ensure their appropriateness. The perspectives offered are intended to encourage individuals and learned bodies to further study and provide commentary and recommendations on managing COIs of a professional organization.

  7. Research between conflicts of interest in a small German municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinikmann, Karin; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Lake eutrophication is a traditional topic in hydrology which attracts the attention of scientists all over the world to date. However, in single cases of lakes experiencing severe consequences of nutrient overloads (e.g., toxic algae blooms, loss of species richness…) also a non-scientific public arouses interest in processes behind and reasons for these phenomena. This interest results from the various effects of eutrophication on the anthropogenic use of the lake, such as loss of the lakés recreational value, potential health impairments from contact with lake water, changes of the ecological/esthetical status, etc. We present our manifold experiences in communicating with different actors who are or at least feel affected by our research to identify sources for elevated phosphorus loads to Lake Arendsee in Germany. Among those are supporters and opponents of restoration plans as there are for example • representatives of different public authorities, • inhabitants of local communities making their income from tourism around the lake, • farmers, • fishermen, • etc. We describe different conflicts of interest arising from this situation and describe problems we had interacting with single actors. A citizen-science action was initiated which increased both, the research output and the awareness of the problem within the general local public. We conclude that even in small municipalities a complex structure of stakeholders may develop who might act in unpredictable ways to achieve their personal or political goals.

  8. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2016-01-01

    Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  9. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  10. Policies on Conflicts of Interest in Health Care Guideline Development: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Cristina; Basevi, Vittorio; Faralli, Carla; Hilton Boon, Michele; Tonon, Sabina; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether organisations that develop health care guidelines have conflict of interest (COI) policies and to review the content of the available COI policies. Methods Survey and content analysis of COI policies available in English, French, Spanish, and Italian conducted between September 2014 and June 2015. A 24-item data abstraction instrument was created on the basis of guideline development standards. Results The survey identified 29 organisations from 19 countries that met the inclusion criteria. From these organisations, 19 policies were eligible for inclusion in the content analysis. Over one-third of the policies (7/19, 37%) did not report or did not clearly report whether disclosure was a prerequisite for membership of the guideline panel. Strategies for the prevention of COI such as divestment were mentioned by only two organisations. Only 21% of policies (4/19) used criteria to determine whether an interest constitutes a COI and to assess the severity of the risk imposed. Conclusions The finding that some organisations, in contradiction of widely available standards, still do not have COI policies publicly available is concerning. Also troubling were the findings that some policies did not clearly report critical steps in obtaining, managing and communicating disclosure of relationships of interest. This in addition to the variability encountered in content and accessibility of COI policies may cause confusion and distrust among guideline users. It is in the interest of guideline users and developers to design an agreed-upon, comprehensive, clear, and accessible COI policy. PMID:27846255

  11. Medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Nicholas S; Olson, Tyler S; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-07-11

    Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the 'hidden' medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy have not been compared in detail. The authors surveyed first year medical students and medical school teaching faculty at one academic medical center. The response rate was 98.7% (150/152) for students and 34.2% (69/202) for faculty. Students were less likely than faculty to agree that lecturers should disclose COI to any learners (4.06 vs. 4.31, p = 0.01), but more likely to agree that COI disclosure decreases the presentation of biased material (3.80 vs. 3.21, p < 0.001). Student and faculty responses for all other questions were not different. Many of these responses suggest student and faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers. Students and faculty perceptions regarding COI and COI policy are largely similar, but differ in terms of the perceived effectiveness of COI disclosure. This study also suggests that medical students and medical school teaching faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers.

  12. Exploring factors affecting shareholders’ funds within the conflict of interest posed by the executives of the company

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between several factors and the shareholders’ funds within the conflict of interest posed by the executives of the company in 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE). Management decision on corporate performance may affect shareholders’ funds under manager-shareholders conflict arising from asymmetric information. We found a significant relationship between provisions and shareholders’ funds. Furthermore, we also found financial distres...

  13. The concept of disclosure in the notes to financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ozeran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notes to Financial Statements are one of the most powerful sources of information for management decisions concerning a business entity. The tendency to overload informative notes causes rethinking of their role and content. The aim of the study is to discuss a number of ideas that set the requirements for disclosure in the notes to financial statements in order to prevent duplication of information in financial reporting as a whole and eliminate irrelevant disclosure to achieve clarity, consistency and effectiveness of the information contained in the notes. Based on the proposed clarified definition of «the notes to financial statements», we concluded that the notes should: a provide details and explanations of primary financial statements; b apply only to transactions and events existing at the reporting date; c focus on the needs of specific users and reflect reporting information specific to each entity. The development of the paper concepts will help strengthen the usefulness of company financial statements and increase their transparency.

  14. SOME DISCLOSURE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea Andreea; Baltariu Carmen-Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of consolidated reporting practice harmonization concerning the choice of presenting the income statement, the changes in equity, the methods used for presenting the cash flow statement, the extant methods for evaluating and reporting goodwill, the extant methods in which jointly controlled entities are accounted in the consolidated financial statements, or the choice for recognizing investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled en...

  15. Environmental Financial Information: differences in disclosure levels among Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína da Silva Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the environment and sustainability have motivated interests of the academic community and organizations. The current model of society is permeated by excessive production and consumption, which is exacerbating man's relationship with nature. It is a fact that, to subsist, society needs the manufacturing of products and delivery of services, but it is also known that manufacturing products and providing services impact the environment. The impact also differs according to the activity that is developed. In Brazil, Law No. 10.165/2000 determines on the National Environmental Policy and ranks companies according to the environmental impact they cause. This research analyzed the voluntary disclosure of environmental financial information in Brazilian companies, classified into sectors with different environmental impacts. Therefore, we investigated the Standardized Financial Statements of the companies that make up the IBRX-50 index, in its portfolio from May to August 2014, in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The measure ranked the environmental financial information, distributing the data into seven categories and 30 subcategories. The most evidenced category relates to environmental investments, with 58% of the information disclosed. The highest amount presented was in the category of environmental liabilities and contingencies, with R$259.84 billion. The results show that there is a difference in the disclosure of environmental financial information compared to the amount of sentences disclosed without the number of subcategories evidenced. The nonparametric test and content analysis showed that, in the years analyzed, companies with high environmental impact disclose more environmental financial information.

  16. Trends on port concession disclosures in concessionaire financial statements in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Sabcheva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the port concession disclosure of concessionaire financial statements in Bulgaria. The research is based on disclosure index development. The empirical study is based on publicly available information from annual financial statements. The results testify a higher level of disclosure to IFRS adoption entities than the domestic standards entities. There is a need to raise and specify the disclosure requirements for domestic standards applying companies.

  17. Under-reporting of conflicts of interest among trialists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristine; Schroll, Jeppe; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    compared to what was registered on the Danish Health and Medicines Authority's public disclosure list. PARTICIPANTS: Trial authors who are Danish physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of disclosed and undisclosed COIs. RESULTS: One observer screened 928 articles and two observers assessed 120 articles...... in journals adhering to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' manuscript guidelines. Self-declared COIs cannot be trusted, but public registries may assist editors in ensuring that more COIs are being reported....

  18. 76 FR 30175 - Draft Guidance for Clinical Investigators, Industry, and FDA Staff: Financial Disclosure by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... consider public release of financial disclosure information related to an approved marketing application...] (Formerly FDA-1999-D-0792) Draft Guidance for Clinical Investigators, Industry, and FDA Staff: Financial... entitled ``Guidance for Clinical Investigators, Industry, and FDA Staff: Financial Disclosure by Clinical...

  19. 32 CFR 776.27 - Conflict of interests: Prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to or result from the attorney-client relationship; or (ii) Provide any financial assistance to a client or otherwise serve in a financial or proprietorial fiduciary or bailment relationship, unless... giving the covered attorney or a person related to the covered attorney as parent, child, sibling, or...

  20. 7 CFR 1951.867 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (including immediate family) holds any legal or financial interest or influence in the intermediary. FmHA or...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.867... the intermediary or its principal officers (including immediate family) hold any legal or financial...

  1. 24 CFR 1000.32 - May exceptions be made to the conflict of interest provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conflict of interest provisions? 1000.32 Section 1000.32 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.32... conflict of interest provisions set forth in § 1000.30(b) on a case-by-case basis when it determines that...

  2. 75 FR 20954 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Definition: Adding a new definition of ``organizational conflict of interest'' refers to the types of... necessary to identify conflicts are contained in section 203.1204, entitled Types of organizational... conflicts of interest. This section explains the three types of OCIs as recognized by the GAO and the Court...

  3. 48 CFR 2052.209-72 - Contractor organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conflicts of interest. 2052.209-72 Section 2052.209-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Clauses 2052.209-72 Contractor organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed at 2009.570-5(a) and..., contracts, and simplified acquisitions of the types described; 2009.570-4(b): Contractor Organizational...

  4. 48 CFR 1552.209-73 - Notification of conflicts of interest regarding personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Contractor. A personal conflict of interest is defined as a relationship of an employee... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Notification of conflicts... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.209-73 Notification of conflicts of interest regarding personnel...

  5. 76 FR 78181 - Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 3235-AL04 Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations AGENCY: Securities and...'') on material conflicts of interest in connection with certain securitizations (the ``ABS Conflicts... the ABS Conflicts Proposal until January 13, 2012. This action will allow interested persons...

  6. 77 FR 24 - Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... 3235-AL04 Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations AGENCY: Securities and...'') on material conflicts of interest in connection with certain securitizations (the ``ABS Conflicts... Conflicts Proposal until February 13, 2012. This action will allow interested persons additional time to...

  7. 10 CFR 1706.11 - Organizational conflicts of interest certificate-Advisory or assistance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and belief, no actual or potential conflict of interest or unfair competitive advantage exists with... that any actual or potential conflict of interest or unfair competitive advantage that does or may... or assistance services. 1706.11 Section 1706.11 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD...

  8. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C; Bero, Lisa A; Thombs, Brett D

    2012-08-16

    To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Cross sectional study. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Systematic reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with review content classified as up to date in 2008 or later and with results from one or more randomised controlled trials. Of 151 included Cochrane reviews, 46 (30%, 95% confidence interval 24% to 38%) reported information on the funding sources of included trials, including 30 (20%, 14% to 27%) that reported information on trial funding for all included trials and 16 (11%, 7% to 17%) that reported for some, but not all, trials. Only 16 of the 151 Cochrane reviews (11%, 7% to 17%) provided any information on trial author-industry financial ties or trial author-industry employment. Information on trial funding and trial author-industry ties was reported in one to seven locations within each review, with no consistent reporting location observed. Most Cochrane reviews of drug trials published in 2010 did not provide information on trial funding sources or trial author-industry financial ties or employment. When this information was reported, location of reporting was inconsistent across reviews.

  9. Credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Atanassova; Nadezhda Popova-Yosifova

    2018-01-01

    The paper analyzes the credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks for 2015 and 2016. Banks are ranked according to the level of credit risk disclosure, in accordance with the requirements of international accounting regulations and in relation to financial and regulatory ratios linked to capital adequacy. As a result of the conducted empirical study, it is concluded that banks' management is not particularly inclined to make full disclosures and actively to d...

  10. 3 CFR 100.1 - Ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... § 100.1 Ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Executive Office of the President are subject to the executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR...

  11. Navigating the Murky Waters of Conflict of Interest: Searching for the Middle Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonia, Susan C

    2016-02-01

    On August 23, 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued the Final Rule on conflict of interest. The purpose of the rule was to provide a clear framework for federally funded studies to identify, reduce, avoid, and/or manage researchers' external commercial relationships that could appear to impact the design, conduct, or reporting of research. Since the issuance of the final rule, colleges and universities have been tasked with closely monitoring external commercial relations of faculty to ensure that potential biases in research are minimized. The monitoring has become an even greater challenge as federal dollars for research decline, along with colleges and universities' ability to internally fund research. External commercial relations, including faculty start-up companies, are often an easy go-to source for funding to continue research and development. In such cases, sources of funding vary from crowdfunding to commercial incubator or innovation project start-up funds. There have been many lessons learned since implementation. This article will site some common examples encountered at one university of commercial relationships that have the potential to affect human subject research. Every industry tie to academically based research must be closely reviewed to ensure appropriate interactions between researchers and sponsors. Equally imperative is to build a collaborative relationship with faculty and conflict of interest administrators. Transparency and partnership are key to developing workable management plans. Even when there is the presence of a significant financial interest, much can be done to protect human subjects as well as the integrity of the research. Independent oversight, prohibiting the principal investigator (PI) from recruiting patients, limiting access to data, replication of results, review of annual progress reports, informing patients of potential financial gain, and so forth, are just a few of the safeguards we can put

  12. Reporting of funding sources and conflict of interest in the supportive and palliative oncology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David; Reddy, Akhila; Parsons, Henrique A; Bruera, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    The reporting of funding support and conflict of interest has not been examined in the supportive/palliative oncology literature. We examined the frequency of funding and conflict of interest reporting and various study characteristics associated with such reporting. We systematically searched MEDLINE PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL for original studies related to palliative care and cancer in the first six months of 2004 and 2009. For each article, we reviewed the study design, research topic, journal type, and reporting of funding and conflict of interest. Three hundred forty-four (41%) and 504 (59%) of 848 articles were from 2004 and 2009, respectively. Five hundred two of 848 (59%) studies reported no funding sources, whereas 216 (26%), 70 (8%), 34 (4%), and 26 (3%) reported one, two, three, and four or more sources, respectively. Key funding sources included governmental agencies (n=182/848, 21%), philanthropic foundations (n=163/848, 19%), university departments (n=76/848, 9%), and industry (n=27/848, 3%). Conflict of interest was not reported in 436 of 848 (51%) studies, and only 94 of 848 (11%) explicitly stated no conflict of interest. Other than extramural funding, conflict of interest reporting of any kind was extremely rare (mostly less than 1%). Conflict of interest reporting increased between 2004 and 2009 (39% vs. 55%, Pfunding and conflict of interest reporting were associated with prospective studies, larger sample sizes, nontherapeutic studies, North American authors, and publication in palliative care/oncology journals (P≤0.008 for all comparisons). A majority of supportive/palliative oncology studies did not report funding sources and conflict of interest, raising the need for standardization. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR) interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward. PMID:27637269

  14. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash R. Patwardhan MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward.

  15. Political environment in the effect of the regional government financial performance on disclosure of financial information on website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Hiola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effect of financial performance of local governments towards the disclosure compliance of financial information on the website, as well as the political environment as a moderating variable for the effect of the financial performance of local governments towards disclosure compliance of financial infor-mation on the website. The study was conducted at the local government in Sulawesi with the sample consisting of 53 governments. The data were analyzed by partial least square (PLS. The results showed that good financial performance of local governments can encourage disclosure compliance of financial information on the website. This study also found that the political environment cannot moderate the effect of the financial performance towards the disclosure compliance of financial information on the website. This is due to the people who are interested more in paper-based reporting. The implication of this study was to encourage related re-search as well as encouraging local governments to use website as a media for finan-cial information reporting. Gorontalo district government is local government, which has excellent financial performance with complete disclosure of financial information on the website.

  16. 36 CFR 400.1 - Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other conduct rules. 400.1 Section 400.1... CONDUCT § 400.1 Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations... executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct and financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR parts 2634...

  17. 18 CFR 3c.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 3c.1 Section 3c.1 Conservation of... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, the Standards of Ethical Conduct for...

  18. 17 CFR 229.304 - (Item 304) Changes in and disagreements with accountants on accounting and financial disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disagreements with accountants on accounting and financial disclosure. 229.304 Section 229.304 Commodity and... accounting and financial disclosure. (a)(1) If during the registrant's two most recent fiscal years or any... any matter of accounting principles or practices, financial statement disclosure, or auditing scope or...

  19. Too Few, Too Weak: Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Mintzes, Barbara; Jutel, Annemarie; Holloway, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI) policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. Methods A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. Results COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9) and for gifts and scholarships (0.8). Discussion This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate. PMID:23861928

  20. Medical merchants: conflict of interest, office product sales and notifiable conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm H; Wardle, Jon L; Weir, Michael; Stewart, Cameron L

    2011-01-03

    Professional ethical codes identify the issue of conflict of interest, which can distort doctors' objective judgements concerning the best interests of patients. Legal fiduciary duties may be owed by doctors to patients in situations of potential conflict of interest. Prescribing and dispensing functions have been largely legally separated to prevent conflicts of interest arising. The advent of integrative medicine has been accompanied by an apparent growth of in-house selling of therapeutic products. Medical merchandising constitutes a prima-facie conflict of interest and may amount to notifiable conduct under the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law provisions. We believe that doctors who sell therapeutic products should adhere to strict conditions to avoid significantly departing from accepted professional standards. Doctors who have a reasonable belief that a colleague is failing to comply with these conditions could consider notifying the Medical Board of Australia.

  1. Problem solving, contention, and struggle: how siblings resolve a conflict of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, A; Ross, H S

    2001-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, 48 sibling dyads age 4 and 6 or 6 and 8 years negotiated the division of six toys. Findings revealed that, in general, children reached divisions while using a preponderance of constructive problem-solving strategies, rather than contentious tactics. The degree of conflict of interests and the quality of sibling relationships predicted the children's use of problem-solving and contentious negotiation strategies, and was related to the types of resolutions achieved. Dyads experiencing low conflict of interests resolved their differences quickly. High conflict of interests coupled with positive relationships and constructive negotiation resulted in longer negotiations and creative, agreeable resolutions. High conflict of interests coupled with more negative relationships and destructive negotiations resulted in children's failures to reach agreement. Developmental differences indicated that older siblings within the pairs took the lead in negotiation, and benefited slightly more from the divisions. Furthermore, children in older dyads were more sophisticated and other oriented in their negotiations.

  2. 75 FR 71391 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... regulations establish conflicts of interest requirements for swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants...-AC96 and SD-MSP Conflicts of Interest, by any of the following methods: Agency Web site, via its... mandates that the required conflicts of interest systems and procedures ``address such other issues as the...

  3. Effects of Financial Performance and Governance on Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: Evidence from Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Yusoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic financial institutions (IFIs are established based on Islamic foundations and their corporate practices are expected to be aligned with Islamic laws and framework. This study seeks to understand the determinants for the CSR disclosure of IFIs in Malaysia. Using the 2010 annual reports of 37 IFIs, this study investigates the effects of financial performance and corporate governance mechanism (proxied by Shariah supervisory committee or SCC and ownership structure on CSR disclosure. Results reveal that between financial performance and SCC and ownership structure, only the latter significantly influences CSR disclosure. Overall, the findings offer insights into current reporting practices and propose ideas pertaining to the establishment of an Islamic-based CSR reporting framework. The significant factors influencing CSR disclosure may be used to develop effective practice among IFIs in Malaysia and other countries.

  4. 12 CFR 1710.17 - Certification of disclosures by chief executive officer and chief financial officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... officer and chief financial officer. 1710.17 Section 1710.17 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING... Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.17 Certification of disclosures by chief executive officer and chief financial officer. The chief executive officer and the chief financial officer of an Enterprise...

  5. CONFLICT OF INTEREST POLICIES AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AMONG EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY NATIONAL CARDIOVASCULAR JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Раскрытие потенциального конфликта интересов (КИ в биомедицинских журналах призвано обеспечить надежность и прозрачность научного процесса. Тем не менее, большинство журналов не уделяют должного внимания систематическому, последовательному решению проблемы раскрытия КИ. В последние годы, благодаря совместным усилиям редакторов биомедицинских журналов, были разработаны единые механизмы уведомления о КИ. В настоящей статье подробно описывается точка зрения редакторов биомедицинских журналов на проблему КИ. Кроме того, представлены результаты выполненного с помощью стандартизованного вопросника исследования, которое оценивало существующие требования в отношении раскрытия КИ и их практическое внедрение в национальных кардиологических журналах Европейского общества кардиологов.

  6. Disclosure of Financial Statements: A Study on the Level of Accounting Disclosure of Brazilian Soccer Clubs in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Alyson Gomes de; Sousa, Wellington Dantas de; Nascimento, João Carlos Hipólito Bernardes do; Bernardes, Juliana Reis

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to analyze adherence to CFC Resolution No. 1429/13 in elaboration and disclosure of Financial Statements by Brazilian clubs. Through a checklist inspired by Raschka, Wallner and Costa (2008), we analyzed this adherence in 2013. We observed that the specific criteria and procedures for the evaluation, accounting records and structuring of the Financial Statements of professional soccer entities 53.04% of the items recommended by CFC Resolution No. 1429/2013. The result...

  7. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud-now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)-was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of 'globalisation and non-communicable diseases'. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest.

  8. Challenges to generating evidence-informed policy and the role of systematic reviews and (perceived) conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Bero, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple efforts to generate evidence-informed policy have attempted to teach policymakers how to understand and apply scientific research findings in their decision-making. These efforts have had limited success, because policymakers generally do not understand scientific methods. We piloted efforts to teach policy intermediaries - specifically consumer advocacy groups - how to understand and apply health research, anticipating that they might offer such evidence to policymakers in more accessible forms. Four workshops focusing on research design and methods were conducted with consumer advocacy groups in 2010. We coded and analyzed participant responses regarding their confidence in interpreting research findings and assessments of research credibility, and the extent to which their knowledge about research findings changed after completing the workshops. Our findings suggest that although participants expressed strong interest in understanding scientific research, their ability to develop confidence about scientific research methods was limited. However, like policymakers, consumer advocacy group members intuited that financial conflicts of interest could compromise scientific findings, although they initially underestimated their effects on research results. After training, consumer advocates also saw the value of using systematic reviews rather than individual studies. Our findings suggest that although advocates may not feel confident in their understanding of scientific research, they found it easier to understand the value of systematic reviews and the risks of conflicts of interest than other statistical concepts and terminology. Focusing on making these types of information available may offer a useful way for policymakers and consumer advocates to interpret the validity of policy-relevant scientific research.

  9. Effects of Conflicts of Interest on Practice Patterns and Complication Rates in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ralph W; Weiner, Joseph A; Schallmo, Michael S; Chun, Danielle S; Barth, Kathryn A; Singh, Sameer K; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-09-01

    Retrospective cohort study. We sought to determine whether financial relationships with industry had any impact on operative and/or complication rates of spine surgeons performing fusion surgeries. Recent actions from Congress and the Institute of Medicine have highlighted the importance of conflicts of interest among physicians. Orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons have been identified as receiving the highest amount of industry payments among all specialties. No study has yet investigated the potential effects of disclosed industry payments with quality and choices of patient care. A comprehensive database of spine surgeons in the United States with compiled data of industry payments, operative fusion rates, and complication rates was created. Practice pattern data were derived from a publicly available Medicare-based database generated from selected CPT codes from 2011 to 2012. Complication rate data from 2009 to 2013 were extracted from the ProPublica-Surgeon-Scorecard database, which utilizes postoperative inhospital mortality and 30-day-readmission for designated conditions as complications of surgery. Data regarding industry payments from 2013 to 2014 were derived from the Open Payments website. Surgeons performing rate, and/or complication rate. A total of 2110 surgeons met the inclusion criteria for our database. The average operative fusion rate was 8.8% (SD 4.8%), whereas the average complication rate for lumbar and cervical fusion was 4.1% and 1.9%, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant but negligible relationship between disclosed payments/transactions and both operative fusion and complication rates. Our findings do not support a strong correlation between the payments a surgeon receives from industry and their decisions to perform spine fusion or associated complication rates. Large variability in the rate of fusions performed suggests a poor consensus for indications for spine fusion surgery. 3.

  10. "We can't get along without each other": Qualitative interviews with physicians about device industry representatives, conflict of interest and patient safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Gagliardi

    Full Text Available Physician relationships with device industry representatives have not been previously assessed. This study explored interactions with device industry representatives among physicians who use implantable cardiovascular and orthopedic devices to identify whether conflict of interest (COI is a concern and how it is managed.A descriptive qualitative approach was used. Physicians who implant orthopedic and cardiovascular devices were identified in publicly available directories and web sites, and interviewed about their relationships with device industry representatives. Sampling was concurrent with data collection and analysis. Data were analyzed and discussed using constant comparative technique by all members of the research team.Twenty-two physicians (10 cardiovascular, 12 orthopedic were interviewed. Ten distinct representative roles were identified: purchasing, training, trouble-shooting, supplying devices, assisting with device assembly and insertion, supporting operating room staff, mitigating liability, conveying information about recalls, and providing direct and indirect financial support. Participants recognized the potential for COI but representatives were present for the majority of implantations. Participants revealed a tension between physicians and representatives that was characterized as "symbiotic", but required physicians to be vigilant about COI and patient safety, particularly because representatives varied regarding disclosure of device defects. They described a concurrent tension between hospitals, whose policies and business practices were focused on cost-control, and physicians who were required to comply with those policies and use particular devices despite concerns about their safety and effectiveness.Given the potential for COI and threats to patient safety, further research is needed to establish the clinical implications of the role of, and relationship with device industry representatives; and whether and how

  11. 36 CFR 811.1 - Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial interests regulations and other conduct... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 811.1 Cross-references to employees' ethical conduct standards... Council on Historic Preservation are subject to the executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct...

  12. The association between corporate social responsibility disclosure of cigarette company and company’s financial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Ratna Yuwita Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the association between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure and financial performances-Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Stock Return-within the cigarette companies listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange. This research used 3 cigarettes companies; PT Gudang Garam Tbk., PT Hanjaya Mandala Sampoerna Tbk., and PT Bentoel Internasional Investama. Simple linear regression is used to examine the association between CSR disclosure and the cigarettes companies’ financial performance. The study reveals that the disclosure of CSR only has positive influences toward Return on Assets; yet, it does not correlate with the Return on Equity and Stock Return.

  13. From disclosure to transparency: the use of company payment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimonas, Susan; Frosch, Zachary; Rothman, David J

    2011-01-10

    It has become standard practice in medical journals to require authors to disclose their relationships with industry. However, these requirements vary among journals and often lack specificity. As a result, disclosures may not consistently reveal author-industry ties. We examined the 2007 physician payment information from 5 orthopedic device companies to evaluate the current journal disclosure system. We compared company payment information for recipients of $1 million or more with disclosures in the recipients' journal articles. Payment data were obtained from Biomet, DePuy, Smith & Nephew, Stryker, and Zimmer. Disclosures were obtained in the acknowledgments section, conflict of interest statements, and financial disclosures of recipients' published articles. We also assessed variations in disclosure by authorship position, payment-article relatedness, and journal disclosure policies. Of the 41 individuals who received $1 million or more in 2007, 32 had published articles relating to orthopedics between January 1, 2008, and January 15, 2009. Disclosures of company payments varied considerably. Prominent authorship position and article-payment relatedness were associated with greater disclosure, although nondisclosure rates remained high (46% among first-, sole-, and senior-authored articles and 50% among articles directly or indirectly related to payments). The accuracy of disclosures did not vary with the strength of journals' disclosure policies. Current journal disclosure practices do not yield complete or consistent information regarding authors' industry ties. Medical journals, along with other medical institutions, should consider new strategies to facilitate accurate and complete transparency.

  14. Disclosure of Financial Statements: A Study on the Level of Accounting Disclosure of Brazilian Soccer Clubs in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Gomes de Souza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to analyze adherence to CFC Resolution No. 1429/13 in elaboration and disclosure of Financial Statements by Brazilian clubs. Through a checklist inspired by Raschka, Wallner and Costa (2008, we analyzed this adherence in 2013. We observed that the specific criteria and procedures for the evaluation, accounting records and structuring of the Financial Statements of professional soccer entities 53.04% of the items recommended by CFC Resolution No. 1429/2013. The results pointed that there is a significant variation in the disclosure process between the clubs, which makes it difficult to understand accounting records and assess the shareholders’ equity of soccer clubs. This lack of standardization to the accounting practices in accordance with NBC ITG 2003 complicates any interpretation of accounting records and assessment of the heritage of soccer bodies, increasing the risk of a wrong decision making on the purchase, sale or training players. These decisions affect the club’s finances, and create barriers to investors, since they cannot identify the real situation of the club and calculate investments. Due to the economic importance, cultural and social development of soccer clubs, this study has greatly contributed to the development of a discussion on accounting level disclosure practiced in the club, as this new standard of conduct seeks to maximize the level of accounting disclosure as a requirement for behavioral change of both the leaders and the organizational, economical and financial development of sports entities.

  15. ANALYSIS OF COMPANY SIZE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, AND PROFITABILITY AND ITS EFFECT TO CSR DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suskim Riantani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and recognize the effect of financial performance measured through company size, financial leverage and profitability to Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD. The research was done in Tobacco Company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during period of 2007-2011. Descriptive analysis and verification method was used as the research method. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain the sample and there are three cigarette companies as the sample. Multiple linear regression and correlation analysis using t test and F test were applied as a technique of analysis. The test of the classical assumption such as the normality, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation applied before the multiple linear regression. The result shows that the company size had positive and significant effect to the CSR disclosure, financial leverage does not show significant effect to the CSR disclosure, profitability does not have significant effect to the CSR disclosure during the investigation.

  16. OWNERSHIP CONCENTRATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DISCLOSURE – THE CASE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Cristina Alexandrina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure and the quality of corporate governance system are more often appreciated as closely related concepts - the higher the level of transparency, the better the quality corporate governance practices. As regards disclosure, if in a widely held company (ownership dispersion its role is to signal that the managers are acting in the best interests of the principals, in a highly concentrated company (ownership concentration, it comes to annihilate the conflicts of interest between “insiders” (controlling shareholders and managers and outside investors. Basing on this background, we focused on corporate governance disclosure, analyzing possible influences over it coming from corporate governance dimensions. Therefore, the objective of our paper is to identify possible associations between corporate governance features and the level of disclosure through annual reports in case of banking institutions listed at London Stock Exchange focusing on ownership concentration. Most empirical studies that have tested the correlation between ownership concentration and the level of disclosure reached to a negative relationship (Barako et al., 2006; Tsamenyi, et al., 2007; Haniffa and Cooke, 2002; Huafang and Jianguo, 2007; Patelli and Prencipe, 2007; Chau and Gray, 2002; Cooke, 1989. However, there are also studies that could not find any association (Arcay and Vazquez, 2005; Ghazali and Weetman, 2006; Holm and Scholer, 2010; Parsa, et al., 2007; Baek, et al., 2009; Makhija and Patton, 2004; Depoers, 2000. Basing both on assertions supported by the agency theory that companies with concentrated ownership do not have to rely on external disclosures to the same extent as companies with dispersed ownership, as well as on most prior empirical findings that provide evidence in this respect, we proposed the following hypothesis: “(H: There is a negative association between ownership concentration and the extent of disclosure”. The

  17. The New England Journal of Medicine: commercial conflict of interest and revisiting the Vioxx scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    At a recent cardiology conference in New Delhi, the cardiologist Deepak Natarajan raised the concern that commercial conflicts of interest (COIs) were corrupting medical journals. Natarajan cited "manipulated" publications in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) as one example to support his view. His comments were met with silence and an air of indignation. Natarajan's medical colleagues were stunned, disbelieving, and then, angry.

  18. 24 CFR 1000.30 - What prohibitions regarding conflict of interest are applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What prohibitions regarding conflict of interest are applicable? 1000.30 Section 1000.30 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.30...

  19. Conflicts of Interest: An Indispensable Element of Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegard, Iann; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2007-01-01

    A central concept introduced in the Nordic debate on sustainable development is "action competence". The concept has been defined as a competence of learners, i.e. the ability to take into consideration the social factors and human conflict of interest that lies behind environmental questions and sustainable development. The concern of…

  20. A Review of Conflict of Interest, Competing Interest, and Bias for Toxicologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the issues often associated with scientific misconduct is conflict of interest (CoI). Although there is a lack of uniformity in the definition of CoI, many express concerns that competing interests may bias research methods and the interpretation of data and conclusions. ...

  1. 76 FR 60319 - Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... do not constitute the type of `material conflicts' intended to be regulated by Section 621''). \\26... terms. Pool selection may also involve conflicts * * * We believe that conflicts of this type, relating... Part 230 Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest in Certain Securitizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  2. 47 CFR 1.3003 - Mandatory factors for evaluating conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations, designated agency ethics officials shall consider the following factors: (a) Whether the benefits... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory factors for evaluating conflicts of... Unconditional Gifts, Donations and Bequests § 1.3003 Mandatory factors for evaluating conflicts of interest. No...

  3. "Clones," Codes, and Conflicts of Interest in Cartooning: Cartoonists and Editors Look at Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffe, Daniel; And Others

    A study examined differences between political cartoonists and op-ed page editors on both traditional ethical issues (such as conflicts of interest) and the special, style-related concerns of editorial cartoonists. Hypotheses proposed were that editors and cartoonists (1) would condemn "cloning" or copying, reflecting an ethical…

  4. Conflicts of interest, institutional corruption, and pharma: an agenda for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    When physicians' conflicts of interest arise from ties with drug firms, we should shift our focus to the pharmaceutical industry and improper dependencies that cause institutional corruption. This article analyzes eight forms of improper dependencies on pharma and proposes reforms. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. 13 CFR 107.730 - Financings which constitute conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financings which constitute... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Determining the Eligibility of A Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.730 Financings which constitute conflicts of interest...

  6. 76 FR 68017 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Contractor Employees Performing Acquisition Functions AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... personal conflicts of interest by employees of Government contractors as required by statute. DATES... clause for future orders. In the event that a contractor refuses to accept such a modification, the...

  7. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews : cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H.; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C.; Bero, Lisa A.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Design Cross sectional study. Data sources

  8. "We Got to Figure It out": Information-Sharing and Siblings' Negotiations of Conflicts of Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Avigail; Ross, Hildy

    2008-01-01

    Given the importance of mutual understanding for constructive conflict resolution, this study investigated the influence of information-sharing on siblings faced with conflicts of interests. Thirty-two sibling dyads (ages 4.5 to 8) participated. Siblings were asked to negotiate the division of five toys between themselves. Half of the pairs first…

  9. Addressing the Conflict of Interest between Aggregators and DSOs in Deregulated Energy Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Carsten; Ziras, Charalampos; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates potential conflicts of interest between distribution system operators (DSOs) and aggregators. We propose a method to quantify the allowed operating range of residential flexible loads in a local distribution network. The calculated bounds can be used to formulate DSO...

  10. 75 FR 33752 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Conflicts of Interest in Major Defense Acquisition Programs AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... extended an additional 30 days to provide additional time for interested parties to review the proposed... interested parties to review the proposed DFARS changes. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition...

  11. Disciplinary Differences in Conflict of Interest Policy Communication, Attitudes, and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Heather E.; Hansen, Kody D.; Rinehart, Marc D.; May, Kristal; Barlow, Jahn

    2015-01-01

    Research institutions are charged with developing and managing conflict of interest (COI) policies regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of research. Prior research indicates that university researchers may not understand the purpose of these policies and may resent the time taken to demonstrate compliance. Policy communication is not a…

  12. Hubris in Grantland: Languor and Laissez-faire Greet Conflict of Interest at the NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    New rules are coming for sanitizing conflicts of interest in research financed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), dispenser of the government's biggest budget for civilian science, some $31 billion this year. The conflicted need not fear. The draft rules, soon to be made final, continue the NIH's longtime practice of trust but don't…

  13. 15 CFR 270.106 - Conflicts of interest related to service on a Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service on a Team. 270.106 Section 270.106 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.106 Conflicts of interest related to service on a Team. (a) Team members who are not Federal employees will be...

  14. Conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research: an international legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Recently adopted international texts have given a new focus on conflicts of interests and access to information resulting from biomedical research. They confirmed ethical review committees as a central point to guarantee individual rights and the effective application of ethical principles. Therefore specific attention should be paid in giving such committees all the facilities necessary to keep them independent and qualified.

  15. Conflicts of Interest in Purchasing: An Aggressive Plan for Prevention and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles E.; Race, Susan L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of a conflicts of interest policy is to ensure that a school is obtaining goods and services at the best available price. Summarizes the requirements of a policy and explains how a "Right-to-Audit" clause in all purchase orders and contracts is a way to monitor policy adherence. (MLF)

  16. TIAA's Commercial Mortgage and Real Estate Investments: The Case for Financial Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigan, Richard T.; Jones, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    The Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association (TIAA) is criticized for inadequate financial disclosure of its mortgage and real estate investments, especially in the current market. A TIAA vice president responds that the company has not been remiss in reporting changes to its constituents and outlines its present financial status. (MSE)

  17. Requirements for The Disclosure of Financial Information for Smes in Accordance With European and National Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila LAPIȚKAIA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the issues of presentation and disclosure the information in financial statements for small enterprises in the EU and requirements for financial statements of such enterprises in Moldova in connection with the drafting of a new law on accounting.

  18. Financial disclosure and toxic products: encouraging wall street to anticipate product risk and exercise precaution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sanford; Byrne, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Amidst discussion by policymakers about how regulators' failure to ensure disclosure of risks contributed to the current financial crisis, we assess how emerging product toxicity risks are addressed in companies' financial reports. Will corporations blindside investors with "the next asbestos?" Existing disclosures are found lacking in the specificity needed to forewarn of liabilities and reputational damage from the use of potentially harmful materials-from nanotechnologies, to asthmagens, to perfluorinated compounds. Improved standards could protect investors while also enhancing corporate incentives to use safer materials. Reforms by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Financial Accounting Standards Board are recommended.

  19. KEBERADAAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN KONDISI FINANCIAL DISTRESSED TERHADAP VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesanti Edie Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm’s operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997.Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdisclosure. This research used a sample of manufacture fi rms listed in Indonesian stockexchange. Based on data processing using sample above, we found that corporate governance andfi nancial distress could be associated with the voluntary disclosure level.

  20. News at Biochemia Medica: research integrity corner, updated guidelines to authors, revised author statement form and adopted ICMJE Conflict-of-Interest Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    From the issue 23(1) we have implemented several major changes in the editorial policies and procedures. We hope that those changes will raise awareness of our potential authors and reviewers for research and publication integrity issues as well as to improve the quality of our submissions and published articles. Among those changes is the launch of a special journal section called Research Integrity Corner. In this section we aim to publish educational articles dealing with different research and publication misconduct issues. Moreover, we have done a comprehensive revision of our Instructions to authors. Whereas our former Instructions to authors have mostly been concerned with recommendations for manuscript preparation and submission, the revised document additionally describes the editorial procedure for all submitted articles and provides exact journal policies towards research integrity, authorship, copyright and conflict of interest. By putting these Guidelines into action, we hope that our main ethical policies and requirements are now visible and available to all our potential authors. We have also revised the former Authorship and copyright form which is now called the Author statement form. This form now contains statements on the authorship, originality of work, research ethics, patient privacy and confidentiality, and copyright transfer. Finally, Journal has adopted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. From this issue, for each submitted article, authors are requested to fill out the "ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest" as well as the Author statement form and upload those forms during the online manuscript submission process. We honestly believe that our authors and readers will appreciate such endeavors. In this Editorial article we briefly explain the background and the nature of those recent major editorial changes.

  1. Keberadaan Corporate Governance Dan Kondisi Financial Distressed Terhadap Voluntary Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Riesanti Edie

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm's operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997).Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdi...

  2. Food for thought? Potential conflicts of interest in academic experts advising government and charities on dietary policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alex; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-08-05

    A conflict of interest (CoI) can occur between public duty and private interest, in which a public official's private-capacity interest could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. The most tangible and commonly considered CoI are financial. However, CoI can also arise due to other types of influence including interpersonal relationships, career progression, or ideology. CoI thus exist in academia, business, government and non-governmental organisations. However, public knowledge of CoI is currently limited due to a lack of information. The mechanisms of managing potential conflicts of interest also remain unclear due to a lack of guidelines. We therefore examined the independence of academic experts and how well potential CoI are identified and addressed in four government and non-governmental organisations in the UK responsible for the development of food policy. Policy analysis. We developed an analytical framework to explore CoI in high-level UK food policy advice, using four case studies. Two government policy-making bodies: Department of Health 'Obesity Review Group' (ORG), 'Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition' (SACN) and two charities: 'Action on Sugar' (AoS), & 'Heart of Mersey' (HoM). Information was obtained from publicly available sources and declarations. We developed a five point ordinal scale based upon the ideology of the Nolan Principles of Public Life. Group members were individually categorised on the ordinal ConScale from "0", (complete independence from the food and drink industry) to "4", (employed by the food and drink industry or a representative organisation). CoI involving various industries have long been evident in policy making, academia and clinical practice. Suggested approaches for managing CoI could be categorised as "deny", "describe", or "diminish". Declared CoI were common in the ORG and SACN. 4 out of 28 ORG members were direct industry employees. In SACN 11 out of 17 members

  3. Post-financial Crisis 1997/1998: Disclosure of Corporate Governance among Banks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Siti Aisyah

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the comprehensiveness of corporate governance disclosure in the annual reports among banks in Malaysia so as to identify the improvements on corporate governance disclosure after the financial crisis 1997/1998. A sample consisting of 17 foreign and domestic commercial banks operated in Malaysia has been selected based on the list obtained from Bank Negara Malaysia for the purpose of conducting this research. From the analysis of the annual reports, a finding shows t...

  4. Credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Atanassova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks for 2015 and 2016. Banks are ranked according to the level of credit risk disclosure, in accordance with the requirements of international accounting regulations and in relation to financial and regulatory ratios linked to capital adequacy. As a result of the conducted empirical study, it is concluded that banks' management is not particularly inclined to make full disclosures and actively to declare internal qualitative and quantitative information. However, the level of disclosure of credit risk for banks in Bulgaria is high. Banks with a low degree of capital adequacy tend to make a more complete disclosure of credit risk, and vice versa. There were no indications of a link between the size of the bank assets, the existence of the bank as a public company and the disclosure of credit risk. We believe that, in the context of increased competition, the disclosure of credit risk from a formal requirement may become one of the many tools to stabilize the position of certain banks and create a positive image of the bank for public information users.

  5. [Nursing and industry relations: literature review and conflicts of interest survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhausen, Thomas; Lins, Sabine; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Köpke, Sascha; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Langer, Gero; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Advanced competencies and tasks of nurses go along with an increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies and manufacturers in nurses as a marketing target. To identify nurses' attitudes, perceptions and behavior regarding industry and marketing strategies. 1) Systematic literature search in Medline via PubMed and CINAHL for international studies on nurses' conflict of interests towards pharmaceutical companies; 2) analysis of a survey with PhD students from two Nursing Science doctoral programs. The review including 16 publications published between 1999 and 2014 and the survey among 82 PhD students revealed comparable results. The majority of nurses already had contact with pharmaceutical companies. Nurses are often uncritical in their attitudes, and suggestibility is claimed to be low. The majority of nurses were not - or at least not sufficiently - provided with conflict of interest training, neither as part of their vocational training nor their continuing education. Conflict of interest seems to be an important topic for nurses. Increasing relevance in the future underpins the need for making nurses more sensitive towards this issue, especially through professional training programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Dazed and confused: sports medicine, conflicts of interest, and concussion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Brad

    2014-03-01

    Professional sports with high rates of concussion have become increasingly concerned about the long-term effects of multiple head injuries. In this context, return-to-play decisions about concussion generate considerable ethical tensions for sports physicians. Team doctors clearly have an obligation to the welfare of their patient (the injured athlete) but they also have an obligation to their employer (the team), whose primary interest is typically success through winning. At times, a team's interest in winning may not accord with the welfare of an injured player, particularly when it comes to decisions about returning to play after injury. Australia's two most popular professional football codes-rugby league and Australian Rules football-have adopted guidelines that prohibit concussed players from continuing to play on the same day. I suggest that conflicts of interest between doctors, patients, and teams may present a substantial obstacle to the proper adherence of concussion guidelines. Concussion management guidelines implemented by a sport's governing body do not necessarily remove or resolve conflicts of interest in the doctor-patient-team triad. The instigation of a concussion exclusion rule appears to add a fourth party to this triad (the National Rugby League or the Australian Football League). In some instances, when conflicts of interest among stakeholders are ignored or insufficiently managed, they may facilitate attempts at circumventing concussion management guidelines to the detriment of player welfare.

  7. Towards Systems Thinking in Ethical Management to the Environment: A Solution for Conflict of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Putri Larasati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stakeholders refer to different interests that are vulnerable to create conflict of interest. The condition requires an effective management to satisfy stakeholders without ignoring ethical practices to the environment. It demands systems thinking which makes companies realise that their activities influence stakeholders whilst stakeholders’ actions have impact on companies. However, several companies preclude the systems thinking which gives consequence to unsolved conflict and even creates worse problems. Gunns Limited Company Australia (Gunns is one of example ofthese companies.Gunnsactivities in the Tasmania forest generated public criticisms because Gunns was considered as a firm that deterioratedthe environment, humans’health and communities’ job. Different stakeholders’ views on this case might lead to environmental safety or environmental destructions. With this background, this essay attempts to analyzethe application of systems thinking (under stakeholder theory in the process of ethical management to the environment in order to solve the conflict of interests. Hopefully, this paper will significantly contribute to overcome similar issues in Indonesia and also contributes to further researches related to systems thinking as a solution for conflict of interest.

  8. 23 CFR 636.116 - What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nature of the potential conflict as seen by the owner; (iii) States the nature of the proposed restraint... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What organizational conflict of interest requirements... What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects? (a) State...

  9. 75 FR 51305 - Joint Public Roundtable on Governance and Conflicts of Interest in the Clearing and Listing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... which invited participants will discuss governance and conflicts of interest in the context of certain... conflicts of interest in the context of the Act, may do so via: Paper submission to David Stawick, Secretary... English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to either Agency in any...

  10. 78 FR 26099 - Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest; VPC SBIC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ..., Conflicts of Interest; VPC SBIC I, LP; License No. 05/05-0308 Notice is hereby given that VPC SBIC I, LP... Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 101730... Associate requiring prior SBA approval. Notice is hereby given that any interested person may submit written...

  11. 41 CFR 105-735.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations, and other regulations. 105-735.1... CONDUCT § 105-735.1 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure... executive branch-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, GSA's regulations at 5 CFR part 6701...

  12. 46 CFR 508.101 - Cross-referrence to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-referrence to employee ethical conduct standards... GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS EMPLOYEE ETHICAL CONDUCT STANDARDS AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS § 508.101 Cross-referrence to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

  13. 24 CFR 0.1 - Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.1 Section 0.1 Housing and Urban... Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees...-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Department's regulation at 5 CFR part 7501...

  14. 22 CFR 705.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS EMPLOYEE ETHICAL CONDUCT STANDARDS AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REGULATIONS § 705.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

  15. 14 CFR 1207.101 - Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. 1207.101 Section 1207.101 Aeronautics and Space...-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. Employees of the...

  16. Conflicts of Interest in Medicine. A Systematic Review of Published and Scientifically evaluated Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weißkircher, Janosch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conflicts of interests resulting from interactions with pharmaceutical companies are pervasive in medicine and can result in an undue influence on physicians’ decision-making. The objective of this systematic review is to analyze published and scientifically evaluated curricula for medical students and residents regarding such conflicts of interest. We begin by describing the covered topics and teaching methods; afterwards we analyze the quality of the curricula using the published data on their evaluations and comparing the content with content recommended for such curricula.Methods: We searched Pubmed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, OECD, WISO, SOWI and googlescholar up to and including the 5th of September 2016. Publications describing curricula for residents or medical students on the topic of conflicts of interest in medicine and evaluating them for their effects on the participants’ learning were included. We analyzed the covered topics and the teaching methods used and compared them with recommendations by the American Medical Students’ Association (AMSA and Health Action International (HAI. Results: The literature search resulted in 20 publications that fulfilled our search criteria. In five trials, a control group was used, in no trial the participants were randomized to intervention or control group. 16/20 published curricula primarily covered marketing strategies by pharmaceutical companies, especially the interaction with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs. Most curricula only covered a limited number of topics recommended by AMSA/HAI. The most frequent teaching method was a group discussion, which was used in 18/20 curricula; all curricula used at least one interactive teaching method. The evaluation of the curricula was heterogeneous in results as well as design. Some publications described a change of attitudes toward a stronger skepticism regarding interactions with pharmaceutical companies. Four publications

  17. Conflicts of Interest in Medicine. A Systematic Review of Published and Scientifically evaluated Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißkircher, Janosch; Koch, Cora; Dreimüller, Nadine; Lieb, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Conflicts of interests resulting from interactions with pharmaceutical companies are pervasive in medicine and can result in an undue influence on physicians' decision-making. The objective of this systematic review is to analyze published and scientifically evaluated curricula for medical students and residents regarding such conflicts of interest. We begin by describing the covered topics and teaching methods; afterwards we analyze the quality of the curricula using the published data on their evaluations and comparing the content with content recommended for such curricula. Methods: We searched Pubmed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, OECD, WISO, SOWI and googlescholar up to and including the 5th of September 2016. Publications describing curricula for residents or medical students on the topic of conflicts of interest in medicine and evaluating them for their effects on the participants' learning were included. We analyzed the covered topics and the teaching methods used and compared them with recommendations by the American Medical Students' Association (AMSA) and Health Action International (HAI). Results: The literature search resulted in 20 publications that fulfilled our search criteria. In five trials, a control group was used, in no trial the participants were randomized to intervention or control group. 16/20 published curricula primarily covered marketing strategies by pharmaceutical companies, especially the interaction with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs). Most curricula only covered a limited number of topics recommended by AMSA/HAI. The most frequent teaching method was a group discussion, which was used in 18/20 curricula; all curricula used at least one interactive teaching method. The evaluation of the curricula was heterogeneous in results as well as design. Some publications described a change of attitudes toward a stronger skepticism regarding interactions with pharmaceutical companies. Four publications described improved knowledge

  18. Funding sources and financial disclosures, and their relationship to study outcomes and level of evidence in the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughty, Zachary; Antalis, Matthew S; Ringenberg, Jonathan; Hall, Adam D

    2017-06-01

    Concern exists regarding the reliability of published manuscripts due to influence of industry funding and author financial conflicts of interest (COI). We aim to determine whether COI affect the outcome of a research study or the level of evidence (LOE). We reviewed 244 consecutive original articles in Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. Articles included only those available in the printed journal. For LOE, 178 articles from the Shoulder and Elbow section were used (basic science articles were excluded). COI was determined by comparing financial disclosures and stated funding sources to the study content. COI were present in 44 of 244 articles (18%); of these, 24 (55%) had positive outcomes. Of the 200 without COI, 128 (64%) had positive outcomes. This difference in proportions was determined to be significant (P = .007). COI were present in 27 shoulder and elbow articles; of these, only 1 was LOE I or II (4%). Of the 151 without COI, 34 (23%) were LOE I or II. This difference in proportions was determined to be significant (P = .023). We found that Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery articles with COI are neither more likely to have positive outcomes nor higher LOE than those with no COI. Although the χ 2 analysis found a statistically significant relationship between COI and study outcomes, the study outcomes were more often positive in articles without COI. This is contrary to previously published analyses that found outcomes to be more positive in articles with COI. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ANALYSIS OF COMPANY SIZE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, AND PROFITABILITY AND ITS EFFECT TO CSR DISCLOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Suskim Riantani; Hafidz Nurzamzam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze and recognize the effect of financial performance measured through company size, financial leverage and profitability to Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD). The research was done in Tobacco Company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during period of 2007-2011. Descriptive analysis and verification method was used as the research method. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain the sample and there are three cigarette companies as the sample. M...

  20. Voluntary Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Financially Distressed Companies in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijantini Wijantini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of financially distressed companies in Indonesia. The disclosure score range is between 3 percent and 49 percent with the mean and median score of 25 percent and 26 percent, respectively, at the onset of distress. The score is measured as the ratio of the total items disclosed to the maximum possible items score applicable to the firm. The most disclosed items are in the category of financial highlights and general corporate information whereas the three least disclosed items concern projections, liquidity, and research and development. Moreover, the results of this study reveal that the level of voluntary disclosure in the financially distressed firms is higher than that in non-financially distressed firms. There is no significant difference between the types of information disclosed by the 2  groups. The statistical tests are applied for various years. Consistent with findings in previous studies, the size of the firm appears to be a positive variable significantly affecting the disclosure level.

  1. 28 CFR 45.1 - Cross-reference to ethical standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to ethical standards and...) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.1 Cross-reference to ethical standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Department of Justice are subject to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  2. Bank disclosure and market assessment of financial fragility: Evidence from Turkish banks' equity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumer Alkan, G.; Penas, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether Turkish banks with worsening indicators of financial fragility were subject to market monitoring during the years leading to the 2000/2001 crisis, and how the quality and timeliness of the disclosure affect market reaction. We find that shareholders reacted

  3. Conflito de interesses em pesquisa clínica Conflict of interests in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Maria de Oliveira Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Na pesquisa clínica há um grande potencial para o conflito de interesses e, mesmo para o pesquisador, a identificação desses conflitos pode não ser muito clara. Há muitos aspectos a serem considerados, com implicações que atingem todos os agentes que participam do processo: o sujeito da pesquisa, o pesquisador, a instituição onde a pesquisa é realizada, o patrocinador, os comitês de ética, as agências reguladoras, a comunidade científica e a sociedade em geral. A conclusão é que os conflitos de interesses são generalizados e inevitáveis na vida acadêmica. O desafio não é erradicá-los, mas reconhecê-los e manejá-los adequadamente. A única prática aceitável é que sejam expostos claramente e que todas as pesquisas em seres humanos passem pelo crivo dos comitês de ética em pesquisa.In clinical research there is a real possibility to have some conflict of interests. Even for the researcher, the identification of these conflicts cannot be clear. There are many aspects to be considered, involving all participants of the process: the research subject, the researcher, the institution where the research is carried through, the sponsor, the ethics committees, the regulating agencies, the scientific community and the society. The conclusion is that conflicts of interests are common and inevitable in the academic field. The challenge is not to eradicate them, but to recognize them and to manage them properly. The only acceptable way to do this is to expose clearly the conflicts of interests and always to submit the clinical research projects to the ethics committees.

  4. Research Project on the Design for the Optimum Disclosure System Volume 2: Sustainable Growth of Japanese Companies and the Direction of Non-financial Information Disclosure (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOKUBU Katsuhiko; SAKAUE Manabu; KOGA Chitoshi; KONISHI Noriyuki; HISAMOCHI Eiji; YAO Jun; SHIMADA Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    For quite some time there has been a debate surrounding the issue requiring companies to disclose not only financial information but also non-financial information, as shown in recent efforts for enhanced business reporting (EBR). This discussion paper explores non-financial information in three aspects: social and environmental information, intellectual capital information, and risk information, and it also examines the extent and reasons for the disclosure of non-financial information. In a...

  5. Commercial conflict of interest and medical publication: What should the practising physician do about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Prem

    2016-01-01

    I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson, which deals with possible conflict of interest (CoI) affecting publications in academic medical journals. This comment has specifically targeted the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and its editor-in-chief Jeffrey Drazen on the "Vioxx scandal" which broke 15 years ago. Wilson's comment seems to be in response to a blog by Natarajan on CoI in medical publications. In the blog Natarajan writes of commercial CoI biasing publication of clinical trials and cites, among other examples, a publication in the NEJM on trials of voriconazole.

  6. [Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Private foundations Global Health Philanthropy: the problem of conflicts of interest. Private foundations are in a position where they are granted several privileges and are very powerful and able to influence global health. A recent article published on Plos Medicine, analyzing five of the largest health foundations highlights the network of interests and conflicts. Many private health foundations have associations with private food and pharmaceutical corporations. In some instances, these corporations directly benefit from foundations grants, and foundations in turn are invested in the corporations to which they award these grants.

  7. An examination of the relationship between CSR disclosure and financial performance: The case of Polish banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Matuszak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this study investigates the trends of corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting and financial performance (FP in commercial banks in Poland. Second, this study examines the impact of the CSR disclosure of the banks on their financial performance (ROA, ROE, NIM. Sample consists of 18 banks. The data from annual reports for the period of 8 years (2008 – 2015 were both hand collected and obtained from Notoria Servis Database. A content analysis is used to measure the level of CSR disclosures and a panel data analysis is employed to examine the CSR-FP relationship. Software: GRETL. Two key findings: (1 Positive relationship between banks’ CSR disclosures and their profitability measured by ROA and ROE. However, the relationship between banks’ CSR disclosures and NIM is negative. Statistical analysis did not report any significant effect of CSR activities on ROA, ROE and NIM ratios. (2 Banks’ CSR activities are not dominant predictor of their profitability as compared with control variables. To our best knowledge this research is the first quantitative analysis regarding banking sector in Poland. Further, this study was conducted in emerging market with different socio-economic context and regulations compared to developed market. The findings contribute to and increase the understanding of the relationship between CSR disclosures and FP. Finally, this study has important implications for policy makers, managers, investors, and others.

  8. Physician-industry collaboration: conflicts of interest and the imputation of motive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadmann, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    Policies about physicians' involvement with pharmaceutical companies spawn contradictory ideas. One set of policies aims to stimulate collaboration between private companies and publicly employed researchers to spur innovation and economic growth, another addresses what is seen as the problem of physicians' conflicts of interest stemming from industry collaboration. This article explores how these contradictory policies interact with everyday practice in clinical hypertension research in Denmark. I argue that 'corporate' and 'academic' research is entangled as physicians participate in industry trials to pursue their own research. Building on document analysis, observations of contract research, and interviews with clinician researchers and industry executives, I show how the establishment of industry 'ties' can serve as a way for physicians to navigate the constraints of research infrastructures and live up to intergenerational norms that knit the medical collective together. I discuss how this entanglement shapes medical research in ways that may run counter to the aims of medical innovation policies and that conflicts of interest policies do little to address. I conclude that appreciation of the ways in which economic and moral valuations come together is necessary to understand the conditions for medical research in an intertwined public-private research environment.

  9. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Canella

    Full Text Available Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health.

  10. Professional medical associations and their relationships with industry: a proposal for controlling conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, David J; McDonald, Walter J; Berkowitz, Carol D; Chimonas, Susan C; DeAngelis, Catherine D; Hale, Ralph W; Nissen, Steven E; Osborn, June E; Scully, James H; Thomson, Gerald E; Wofsy, David

    2009-04-01

    Professional medical associations (PMAs) play an essential role in defining and advancing health care standards. Their conferences, continuing medical education courses, practice guidelines, definitions of ethical norms, and public advocacy positions carry great weight with physicians and the public. Because many PMAs receive extensive funding from pharmaceutical and device companies, it is crucial that their guidelines manage both real and perceived conflict of interests. Any threat to the integrity of PMAs must be thoroughly and effectively resolved. Current PMA policies, however, are not uniform and often lack stringency. To address this situation, the authors first identified and analyzed conflicts of interest that may affect the activities, leadership, and members of PMAs. The authors then went on to formulate guidelines, both short-term and long-term, to prevent the appearance or reality of undue industry influence. The recommendations are rigorous and would require many PMAs to transform their mode of operation and perhaps, to forgo valuable activities. To maintain integrity, sacrifice may be required. Nevertheless, these changes are in the best interest of the PMAs, the profession, their members, and the larger society.

  11. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela S; Martins, Ana Paula B; Silva, Hugo F R; Passanha, Adriana; Lourenço, Bárbara H

    2015-10-01

    Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other) often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda) in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health.

  12. Corporate Governance And The Quality Of Financial Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Myring; Rebecca Toppe Shortridge

    2010-01-01

    Congress has recently enacted measures designed to improve corporate governance standards.  Regulators have asserted that strong corporate governance enhances the transparency and validity of financial statements.  Previous studies addressing the relationship between corporate governance and financial reporting quality yield mixed results.  This study employs analyst earnings forecasts to determine whether corporate governance procedures impact the quality of accounting information.  Followin...

  13. Food for thought? Potential conflicts of interest in academic experts advising government and charities on dietary policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Newton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A conflict of interest (CoI can occur between public duty and private interest, in which a public official’s private-capacity interest could improperly influence the performance of their official duties and responsibilities. The most tangible and commonly considered CoI are financial. However, CoI can also arise due to other types of influence including interpersonal relationships, career progression, or ideology. CoI thus exist in academia, business, government and non-governmental organisations. However, public knowledge of CoI is currently limited due to a lack of information. The mechanisms of managing potential conflicts of interest also remain unclear due to a lack of guidelines. We therefore examined the independence of academic experts and how well potential CoI are identified and addressed in four government and non-governmental organisations in the UK responsible for the development of food policy. Methods Policy analysis. We developed an analytical framework to explore CoI in high-level UK food policy advice, using four case studies. Two government policy-making bodies: Department of Health ‘Obesity Review Group’ (ORG, ‘Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition’ (SACN and two charities: ‘Action on Sugar’ (AoS, & ‘Heart of Mersey’ (HoM. Information was obtained from publicly available sources and declarations. We developed a five point ordinal scale based upon the ideology of the Nolan Principles of Public Life. Group members were individually categorised on the ordinal ConScale from “0”, (complete independence from the food and drink industry to “4”, (employed by the food and drink industry or a representative organisation. Results CoI involving various industries have long been evident in policy making, academia and clinical practice. Suggested approaches for managing CoI could be categorised as “deny”, “describe”, or “diminish”. Declared CoI were common in the ORG and SACN

  14. Does source of funding and conflict of interest influence the outcome and quality of spinal research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Amir Reza; Kanesalingam, Kavitha; Cro, Suzie; Casey, Adrian T H

    2014-02-01

    There has been longstanding controversy surrounding the influence of funding source on the conduct and outcome of medical research. In 2011, a systematic review of the use of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 revealed underreporting of unfavorable outcomes in some industry-sponsored trials. We hypothesize that Industrial funding and the presence of potential conflict of interest will be associated with low levels of evidence (LOE) and greater proportions of favorable outcomes in spinal research. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between funding source and potential conflict of interest on the LOE and study outcome in the current spinal research. Systematic review of all the spinal publications in five leading spinal, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and general medical journals during 2010 (print and online). Supplements were included. Outcome and the LOE of research papers. Two reviewers independently assessed all publications. Commentaries, editorials, letters, open operating theatres, case reports, narrative reviews, and study protocols were excluded. The self-reported potential conflict of interest and type of funding was extracted from each paper. Funding type was classified as foundation, industry, public, intramural, multiple (including industry), multiple (without industry), and unfunded. The outcome of each study was classified as favorable, unfavorable, equivocal, or not applicable. Clinical publications were ranked using the LOE guidelines produced by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. Overall, 1356 papers were analyzed, out of which 864 were suitable for LOE grading. There was good interobserver reliability for assignment of LOE grade, κ=0.897 (psource of funding (psource and study outcome (p=.01). The proportion of industry-funded studies with favorable outcomes (88%) was higher than that of publicly and foundation-funded studies (73% and 74%, respectively). The associated odds ratio for reporting favorable outcomes

  15. The Company’s Internal Characteristics and Mandatory Disclosure Size of Web-Based Financial Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weli Weli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new regulation on the Indonesian Capital Market (XK6-Bapepam-LK No. KEP-431/BL/ 2012, related to the disclosure of financial information on the company's website is the main motivation of this study, which is to analyze the extent to which issuers responded to the new regulation. The study was conducted on 50 companies included in the list of 50 companies with the highest score of corporate governance version IICD in 2013 - 2014 and 57 companies in the same industry as a control companies, with the total number of samples is 107 companies. The study was conducted by analyzing the factors (size, listing period, industry, the quality of corporate governance that affect the level of disclosure by the company on their website. The results showed that not all sample companies do a full disclosure and the average disclosure is only 77%. Further, the factor of disclosure size was also influenced by the company's internal characteristics such as company size, type of industry and good corporate governance.

  16. The usefulness of the business model disclosure for investors’ judgements in financial entities. A European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mechelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model concept is a common topic investigated in different fields of research. To participate to the debate around such concept in the accounting field, the objective of this paper is showing whether and how the voluntary disclosure of the non-mandatory IASB (2010 macro-components, that we consider the key elements of a business model of financial entities, increases the value relevance of accounting amounts. Analyzing a sample of 124 European financial entities over the period 2010–2013, the paper shows that the value relevance of accounting amounts of entities that provide a wide disclosure of their business model is higher than the one of entities that provide a limited disclosure of their business model. These findings not only shed lights about the importance of disclosing information relating to the business model to improve the usefulness of accounting amounts for investors’ strategies, but also have implication for regulators and standard setters that from results could learn the opportunity to make the disclosure of IASB (2010 compulsory for all the IAS/IFRS compliant entities.

  17. The ethics of silence: Does conflict of interest explain employee silence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James

    2018-03-01

    Employee silence constitutes a significant threat to organizational success. This article argues that silence is a by-product of a structural Conflict of Interest (COI) between employees and their employers. This argument turns on the claim, also defended here, that employees are in a privileged position vis-à-vis knowledge of their work and that leaders-whether they recognize it or not-are dependent on their employees for reliable information about the work they are doing. Employee voice, therefore, is an organizational necessity. It is also a moral achievement as it involves risking one's personal interests for the sake of the organization. Leaders must take steps to mitigate COI and encourage employee voice; this article provides several strategies for doing exactly that.

  18. Conflict of interests and social stability in the field of labour relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour relations are characterized by strong (existential conflict of interest between the employee and the employer. Therefore, labour relations must represent a legal term of the balance of interest of its entities, in order to be stable and have perspective. In other words, there is reciprocity of rights and obligations of the entities in labour relations. However, the employer is a stronger party, both legally and factually. The traditional task of labour law is to mitigate that legal and factual inequality of the employee and the employer to the extent necessary to ensure social security of employees and the employer himself, and social milieu and stability of the society as a whole. To this effect, appropriate limitations of the employer's authority are incorporated into the labour relations and appropriate principles for the operation of the system of labour relations are determined.

  19. Risk disclosure in the financial statements: an analysis of the notes of portuguese non-financial corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lima e Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the risk disclosure of Portuguese non-financial corporations listed in the Lisbon Euronext in 2011 and 2012. The information characteristics disseminated in risk-related material were analyzed, considering the temporal contexto, the quantitative or qualitative nature of the information, the nature and classification of the risk disclosed. The data for this study were collected through the content analysis of the notes to the reports and accounts (consolidated accounts of the entities in the study population during 2011 and 2012, resulting in a population of 36 entities. The data were then submitted to univariate and bivariate analysis techniques, based on non-parametric tests, namely the Wilcoxon test. The results demonstrate that the qualitative disclosure of financial information is predominant, referring to the past, and classified as “good news”. The research results are intended to contribute to the understanding of the theme, like in the case of the elements in the information disclosure based on risk-related material.

  20. Being Right Isn't Always Enough: NFL Culture and Team Physicians' Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ross

    2016-11-01

    The job of being a sports team physician is difficult, regardless of the level, from high school to the National Football League. When a sports league receives the intensity of attention leveled at the NFL, though, a difficult occupation becomes even more challenging. Even for the NFL players themselves, players' best interests regarding health issues are often unclear. Football players are, as a lot, highly competitive individuals. They want to win, and they want to help the team win. It's a warrior culture, and respect is earned by playing hurt. Should the team physician respect a player's autonomy when this means allowing him to make choices that might lead to further personal harm, especially if the player's choices align with the preference of the coach and management? Or should the doctor set limits and balance the player's choices with a paternalistic set of constraints, perhaps in opposition to both the player's and the team's desires? Simplification of this web of conflicts of interest is the goal of the model proposed by Glenn Cohen, Holly Lynch, and Christopher Deubert. In my view, their proposal is very clever. As an idea, it meets the expectations its authors set, namely, to minimize the problem of conflict of interest in the delivery of health care services to NFL football players. The ethics of the proposal align well with certain moral goals, like treating the player's interests more fairly and treating the player's health as an end instead of as the means to an end. But will such a proposal ever make headway in the pressurized environment of the NFL? © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  1. Level of evidence, sponsorship, conflict of interest policy and commercial impact of PubMed-listed clinical urolithiasis-related trials in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Wilhelm, Konrad; Schlager, Daniel; Schoeb, Dominik Stefan; Adams, Fabian; Dahm, Philipp; Hein, Simon

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate published trials on urolithiasis regarding level of evidence, type of sponsorship and declared conflicts of interest (COIs), and to elucidate a potential commercial impact. We performed a systematic PubMed(®) literature search using a predefined Boolean search term to identify PubMed-listed clinical research studies on urolithiasis in 2014 (fourth quarter). All authors screened the results for eligibility criteria and two independent reviewers evaluated and performed data extraction of predefined endpoints, including level of evidence, declaration of COI and sponsorship/funding (as indicated in the published print version), and commercial impact. A total of 110 clinical trials in urolithiasis listed in PubMed met the inclusion criteria. Levels of evidence 1, 2, 3 and 4 were found in 15%, 14%, 21% and 51% of trials, respectively. A COI was indicated in a total of 90% of publications, 93% of which declared no existing conflict of interest. Sponsorship was indicated in 36% of publications, 55% of which stated public funding, 33% institutional funding, 10% industrial funding and 2% both public and industrial funding. A total of 11% of the published trials were rated as having a high commercial impact. The present study provides evidence of increasing levels of evidence for published clinical trials on urolithiasis in 2014 (as compared with earlier data). Ninety percent of publications indicated conflicts of interest, whereas sponsoring of studies was declared only by one-third. A considerable number of trials involved issues of high commercial impact. Recently established legal programmes and voluntary acts on self-reporting of financial relationships will enhance transparency in the future; however, increased public funding will be needed to further promote the quality of trials on urolithiasis. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Disclosures on control over financial reporting: The reporting practice of banks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Gad, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of the implementation of selected regulations on corporate governance in the reporting practice of banks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The survey examined the disclosures concerning the main features of the internal control and risk management systems in relation to financial reporting in banks. Research studies on disclosures related to control over financial reporting have not yet been conducted. The paper uses a research method in...

  3. Corporate Governance and Islamic Social Responsibility Disclosure In Kuwaiti Shariah Compliant Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shammari, B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between corporate governance characteristics and the extent of Islamic social responsibility disclosure in Kuwait. The annual reports of 40 Shariah-compliant financial institutions listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange in 2010 are examined. Four major corporate governance characteristics are investigated: 1) the existence of a Shariah supervisory board; 2) the number of board members; 3) the proportion of non-executive directors to the total number of di...

  4. The Financial Performance (Profitability and Corporate Governance Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Listed Companies of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rouf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test empirically the relationship between the Financial Performances (Profitability and the level of Corporate Governance Disclosure (CGD by the listed non-financial companies in Bangladesh. Data are taken from annual reports of the listed companies in the 2007. This paper is based on a sample of 94 listed companies and Used OLS as a method of estimation. The extent of corporate governance disclosure level is measured using 40 items of information and financial performance (profitability is measured by return on assets (ROA. Using an unweighted approach for measuring corporate governance disclosure, this approach is most appropriate when no importance is given to any specific user-groups. After establishing the disclosure index, a scoring sheet was developed to assess the extent of corporate governance disclosures. The result shows that the Financial Performances (Profitability and Board Audit Committee are positively correlated with the level of Corporate Governance Disclosure (CGD. Percentage of Equity Owned by the Insiders is negatively associated with the Corporate Governance Disclosure. The study provides empirical evidence to policy makers and regulators in South Asia.

  5.  Transparency and quality of financial disclosures. The case of Romanian listed companies*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Albu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  This paper addresses the transparency and the quality of financial disclosures of listed entities in the case of an emerging economy (i.e. Romania, in order to shed some light on the particular local context of the country and its impact on accounting practices. We analyze the entire population of non-financial entities listed in the first tier of the Bucharest Stock Exchange for the 2012 financial year. We are limited in our research by the size of the sample, which depends, however, on the small size of the Romanian stock market. In order to compensate for the small size of the sample, we assess 50 items related to disclosure, synthesized in two scores, i.e. transparency and quality. Also, we identify some factors associated with disclosure by investigating the correlation with several firm-related factors. Our results reveal a medium level of transparency and quality of Romanian listed companies, with significant variations between firms and between the sub-scores. The most important factors correlated with disclosure are company size and the presence of institutional investors. The results confirm to some extent most of the basic assumptions of the agency theory and also prove the importance of a new variable for emerging econo-mies, specifically the presence of institutional investors *This work was cofinanced from the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013, project number POSDRU/159/1.5/S./134197 a Performance and excellence in doctoral and postdoctoral research in Romanian economics science domaina.

  6. Experiences with a novel policy for managing conflicts of interest of guideline developers: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Ignacio; Karl, Renee; Rajpal, Aman; Akl, Elie A; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The executive committee of the Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (AT9) developed a novel policy for managing conflicts of interest (COIs): Methodologists bore primary responsibility for each chapter, there was equal emphasis on intellectual and financial COI, and content experts with COIs participated, but with restrictions for recommendations on which they had conflicts. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of the methodologists and content experts with the COI policy after its implementation. One investigator conducted two rounds of semistructured interviews with the methodologist and the leading content expert of each chapter until data saturation was achieved. Two investigators analyzed the transcripts of the interviews in duplicate using an immersion-crystallization approach. We also conducted member checking. We interviewed 15 participants and presented the results to the remaining four for verification. In comparison with their views expressed prior to AT9 development, methodologists remained more positive about the policy than content experts. Six of 10 content experts expressed a more positive view than prior to participation in the AT9 process. The other four content experts remained skeptical, especially regarding the emphasis on intellectual COI. The restrictions of the policy on conflicted individuals were not fully implemented. After its implementation, some content experts were more favorable to the policy, but some retained major reservations. The influence of the policy on recommendations may have been more through the leading role of the methodologists than exclusion of conflicted participants in making recommendations.

  7. Corporate social responsibility and conflicts of interest in the alcohol and gambling industries: a post-political discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ben Baumberg; Cuzzocrea, Valentina

    2017-06-01

    The corporate pursuit of social goals - known as Corporate Social Responsibility or 'CSR' - has been subject to critique on a number of grounds. However, a hitherto underexplored potential consequence of CSR has been suggested in a recent paper by C. Garsten and K. Jacobsson ('Post-Political Regulation: Soft Power and Post-political Visions in Global Governance' (2013), Critical Sociology 39: 421-37). They suggest that CSR is part of an international trend towards 'post-political' governance discourses, where an emphasis on different actors' common goals obscures conflicts of interest, subverting the open political conflict necessary for a well-functioning democracy. This paper examines whether such post-political discourses - including an outright denial of conflict of interest - can be found within the alcohol and gambling industries, where conflicts of interest are likely to be particularly acute given the addictive nature of the goods/services in question. Based on interviews with CSR professionals in these industries in Italy, the UK, and at EU-level, we do indeed find evidence of a post-political discourse. In these discourses, alcohol/gambling industry staff deny potential conflicts of interest on the basis that any small benefits from sales to a small number of addicts are seen to be outweighed by the reputational damage that addicts cause. Crucially, however, this coexists with another, less post-political discourse, where addictions CSR professionals emphasize 'common ground' as a basis for CSR, while accepting some instances of possible conflict of interest. Here interviewees make considerable efforts to differentiate good (sustainable) from bad (short-term) self-interest in order to stress the genuineness of their own actions. We conclude the paper by considering whether CSR embedded within a 'common ground' discourse still hides conflicts of interests and subverts democratic debate, or overcomes the problems identified by Garsten and Jacobsson.

  8. The Impact of Financial, Non-Financial, and Corporate Governance Attributes on The Practice of Global Reporting Initiative (gri Based Environmental Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Frendy

    2011-06-01

    The testing results conclude that size of company, economic performance, and industry sensitivity positively affect environmental disclosure. This research is limited by an assumption that Indonesian public companies employ annual report as the primary means to publicize financial and non-financial information to public.

  9. Monitoring of judicial practice in the field of prevention and settlement of conflicts of interest in the municipal service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Shugrina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The article is devoted to enforcement the rules concerning conflicts of interest in the municipal service.The purpose of the article is to identify approaches to resolution of legal disputes concerning conflict of interest in the municipal service.Methodology. The authors use theoretical analysis as well as legal methods including formal legal analysis and the method of linguistic interpretation of judicial acts.Results, scope of application. The courts examine a different range of issues: the concept of conflict of interest, personal interest; features of admission to service; application of measures of responsibility; dismissal from service (termination of employment or service relations – during the legal consideration of cases related to the presence and absence of a conflict of interest.The courts apply similar approaches to the conflict of interest in the state and municipal services, despite the fact that state and municipal employees have significant differences in legal status and different legislative acts are applied to each type of service.The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation has repeatedly resolved the disputes concerning the issues of conflict of interest.Courts of general jurisdiction resolve such cases mostly in the order of action proceedings. However, the courts are also ought to investigate issues related to the conflict of interest when considering disputes arising from public legal relations when challenging normative legal acts. The attempts of local authorities to change the wording, to go beyond the norms established in Federal legislation are the most common violation.Conclusions. Although the legal positions of the Supreme Court concerning conflict of interest are generally quite consistent, courts at other territorial levels may have different positions on such situations. Therefore, we should welcome the preparation by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of A review of court practice

  10. Systematic analysis of the quality of the scientific evidence and conflicts of interest in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Joseph D; Pelsis, Jonathan R; Lloyd, Samuel; Cheifetz, Adam S; Stone, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the validity of the hip and knee osteoarthritis guidelines. A systematic search of PubMed using a combination of Mesh and text terms with limitations to guidelines was performed to identify hip and knee osteoarthritis guidelines. The study was performed from April 17, 2014 to October 1, 2014. Guidelines were reviewed for graded levels of evidence, methods used to grade the evidence, and disclosures of conflicts of interest. Additionally, guidelines were also assessed for key quality measures using the AGREE II system for assessing the quality of guidelines. A total of 13 guidelines relevant to the diagnosis and/or treatment of hip/knee osteoarthritis was identified. The 180 recommendations reviewed were supported by 231 pieces of evidence. In total, 35% (n = 80; range: 0-26) were supported by level A evidence, 15% (n = 35; range: 0-10) were by level B, and 50% (n = 116; range: 0-62) were by level C. Median age of the guidelines was 4 years (±4.8; range: 0-16) with no comments on planned updates. In total, 31% of the guidelines included patients in the development process. Only one guideline incorporated cost consideration, and only 15% of the guidelines addressed the surgical management of osteoarthritis. Additionally, 46% of guidelines did not comment on conflicts of interest (COI). When present, there was an average 29.8 COI. Notably, 82% of the COI were monetary support/consulting. In total, 50% of the hip/knee osteoarthritis guideline recommendations are based on lower quality evidence. Nearly half the guidelines fail to disclose relevant COI and when disclosed, multiple potential COI are present. Future hip/knee osteoarthritis guideline development committees should strive to improve the transparency and quality of evidence used to formulate practice guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed.

  12. [Conflict of interest in the training and practices of nutritionists: regulation is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiane Nunes; Nascimento, Fabiana Alves do; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-12-01

    Transnational "Big Food" companies use advertising strategies to influence nutritionists, professors and students of nutrition. There are, however, conflicts of interest in this relationship. The scope of this study is to conduct a narrative review on the influence of the food industry in training in nutrition. It was revealed that industries seek to induce the recommendation, the prescription and the consumption of products by students and nutritionists through strategies such as sponsorship of scientific meetings, travel funding and the distribution of promotional gifts. However, acceptance of these gifts can generate a moral obligation to reciprocate, thereby jeopardizing the judgment of information and decision on professional conduct. At the University, the advertising occurs mainly through sponsorship of events and research funding, donation of materials and structures and publicity in the classroom. Regulating the conduct of the private sector in the academic arena is essential and, in this perspective, the implementation of regulatory measures to limit the inclusion of the food industry in undergraduate courses in nutrition is recommended to ensure that nutritionists will be better prepared to perform their tasks in and ethical and unbiased manner.

  13. Declarations, accusations and judgement: examining conflict of interest discourses as performative speech-acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over conflicts of interest (COI) in academic research and medical practice continue to provoke a great deal of discussion. What is most obvious in this discourse is that when COIs are declared, or perceived to exist in others, there is a focus on both the descriptive question of whether there is a COI and, subsequently, the normative question of whether it is good, bad or neutral. We contend, however, that in addition to the descriptive and normative, COI declarations and accusations can be understood as performatives. In this article, we apply J.L. Austin's performative speech-act theory to COI discourses and illustrate how this works using a contemporary case study of COI in biomedical publishing. We argue that using Austin's theory of performative speech-acts serves to highlight the social arrangements and role of authorities in COI discourse and so provides a rich framework to examine declarations, accusations and judgements of COI that often arise in the context of biomedical research and practice.

  14. 45 CFR 680.10 - Definitions; cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions; cross-references to employee ethical... Foundation § 680.10 Definitions; cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial...-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members of the...

  15. 13 CFR 105.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 105.101 Section 105.101 Business Credit... RESPONSIBILITIES Standards of Conduct § 105.101 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial... to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch at 5 CFR part 2635 and the...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.34 - What factors must be considered in making an exception to the conflict of interest provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What factors must be considered in making an exception to the conflict of interest provisions? 1000.34 Section 1000.34 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES General § 1000.34 What factors must be considered in making an exception to the conflict of...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.36 - How long must a recipient retain records regarding exceptions made to the conflict of interest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long must a recipient retain records regarding exceptions made to the conflict of interest provisions? 1000.36 Section 1000.36 Housing... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.36 How long must a recipient retain records regarding exceptions...

  18. 12 CFR 721.7 - What are the potential conflicts of interest for officials and employees when credit unions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a conflict of interest. (c) Business associates and family members. All transactions with business... their immediate family member may receive any compensation or benefit, directly or indirectly, in... incentive or bonus to an employee, other than a senior management employee or paid official, in connection...

  19. Intra-household tensions and conflicts of interest in migration decision making: a case study of the Todgha valley, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of intra-household tensions and conflicts of interest in explaining the diverse return and pendulum migration strategies among Moroccan migrants who first migrated to Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. Migration strategies and motivations of migrants and their households are

  20. Conflict of Interest in the Evaluation and Dissemination of "Model" School-Based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Conde, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Conflict of interest refers to a set of conditions in which professional judgment concerning the validity of research might be influenced by a secondary competing interest. The competing interest that has received most attention in the literature addressing the prevalence and effects of such conflicts on the practice of empirical research has been…

  1. Institutional Conflict of Interest: The Role of Interlocking Directorates in the Scientific Relationships between Universities and the Corporate Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sheila; Thomas, Scott L.; Johnson, David R.; Barringer, Sondra N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for institutional conflict of interest between the 26 private universities belonging to the Association of American Universities and the corporations to which they are tied through their boards of trustees. We were interested in the degree to which interlocks may have tightened over three points across an 11-year period…

  2. Scientism, conflicts of interest, and the marginalization of ethics in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Williams, Jane; Kerridge, Ian; Lipworth, Wendy

    2017-11-03

    This paper reports on the findings from 6 focus groups conducted with Australian medical students. The focus groups sought students' perspectives on how the influence of commercial interests on medical practice and education could be managed. We conducted 6 focus groups with medical students in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were recruited via student-run medical society and faculty e-mail lists. Forty-nine students from 6 medical schools in New South Wales participated. The research team reflected on the extent to which students uncritically appealed to science in the abstract as a management solution for conflicts of interest. Data analysis was largely inductive, looking for uses of scientific terminology, EBM, and appeals to "science" in the management of COI and applied theoretical analyses of scientism. The students in our study suggested that science and evidence-based medicine, rather than ethics or professionalism, were the best tools to deal with undue influence and bias. This paper uses philosophy of science literature to critically examine these scientistic appeals to science and EBM as a means of managing the influence of pharmaceutical reps and commercial interests. We argue that a scientistic style of reasoning is reinforced through medical curricula and that students need to be made aware of the epistemological assumptions that underpin science, medicine, and EBM to address the ethical challenges associated with commercialised health care. More work is needed to structure medical curricula to reflect the complexities of practice and realities of science. However, curricula change alone will not sufficiently address issues associated with commercial interests in medicine. For real change to occur, there needs to be a broader social and professional debate about the ways in which medicine and industry interact, and structural changes that restrict or mitigate commercial influences in educational, research, and policy settings. © 2017 John

  3. Managing perceived conflicts of interest while ensuring the continued innovation of medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    If it were not for the ongoing collaboration between vascular surgeons and the medical technology industry, many of these advanced treatments used every day in vascular interventional surgery would not exist. The flip side of this coin is that these vital relationships create multiple roles for surgeons and must be appropriately managed. The dynamic process of innovation, along with factors such as product delivery technique refinement, education, testing and clinical trials, and product support, all make it necessary for ongoing and close collaboration between surgeons and the device industry. This unique relationship sometimes leads to the perception of conflicts of interest for physicians, in part because the competing pressures from the multiple, overlapping roles as clinician/caregiver/investigator/innovator/customer are significant. To address this issue, the Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed), the nation's largest medical technology association representing medical device and diagnostics companies, developed a Code of Ethics to guide medical technology companies in their interactions with health care professionals. First introduced in 1993, the AdvaMed Code strongly encourages both industry and physicians to commit to openness and high ethical standards in the conduct of their business interactions. The AdvaMed Code addresses many of the types of interactions that can occur between companies and health care professionals, including training, consulting agreements, the provision of demonstration and evaluation units, and charitable donations. By following the Code, companies send a strong message that treatment decisions must always be based on the best interest of the patient. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  4. How are clinical commissioning groups managing conflicts of interest under primary care co-commissioning in England? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Allen, Pauline; McDermott, Imelda; Checkland, Kath; Warwick-Giles, Lynsey; Gore, Oz; Bramwell, Donna; Coleman, Anna

    2017-11-08

    From April 2015, NHS England (NHSE) started to devolve responsibility for commissioning primary care services to clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). The aim of this paper is to explore how CCGs are managing potential conflicts of interest associated with groups of GPs commissioning themselves or their practices to provide services. We carried out two telephone surveys using a sample of CCGs. We also used a qualitative case study approach and collected data using interviews and meeting observations in four sites (CCGs). We conducted 57 telephone interviews and 42 face-to-face interviews with general practitioners (GPs) and CCG staff involved in primary care co-commissioning and observed 74 meetings of CCG committees responsible for primary care co-commissioning. Conflicts of interest were seen as an inevitable consequence of CCGs commissioning primary care. Particular problems arose with obtaining unbiased clinical input for new incentive schemes and providing support to GP provider federations. Participants in meetings concerning primary care co-commissioning declared conflicts of interest at the outset of meetings. Different approaches were pursued regarding GPs involvement in subsequent discussions and decisions with inconsistency in the exclusion of GPs from meetings. CCG senior management felt confident that the new governance structures and policies dealt adequately with conflicts of interest, but we found these arrangements face limitations. While the revised NHSE statutory guidance on managing conflicts of interest (2016) was seen as an improvement on the original (2014), there still remained some confusion over various terms and concepts contained therein. Devolving responsibility for primary care co-commissioning to CCGs created a structural conflict of interest. The NHSE statutory guidance should be refined and clarified so that CCGs can properly manage conflicts of interest. Non-clinician members of committees involved in commissioning primary care

  5. [The notion of conflict of interest in the field of health and environment: philosophical and legal approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermitte, M-A; Le Coz, P

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the conflict of interest in philosophical and legal perspective. The philosophical approach comes from two perspectives: political philosophy focuses on the role of the link of interest in the city considered in the light of a broader reflection on the conditions of living together. Antiquity philosophers have enhanced the interest link as privileged vector of humanization and socialization of individuals. In the eighteenth century, Adam Smith considers the pursuit of individual interests a stronger social base that love of neighbor advocated by Christians. Moral philosophy focuses specifically on the passage of interest linked to the conflict of interest. It wondered if we should be impartial in all circumstances or whether it's right to give priority to our friends and loved ones. Thus, it poses the question of whether introspection is sufficient to detect conflicts of interest or if the look of an external third party is still required. The legal process differs from the philosophical approach at two levels; on the one hand, its scope is more limited: the law doesn't envisage the benefits of links of interest on social life even though it may protect some of them (in the context of the family, for example) and is intended to prevent bias that may taint the decision public. On the other hand, the lawyer doesn't enter the interiority of individuals but stands by what appears on the outside: it tracks the suspicion of bias can have serious impacts, such as health and the environment. Somehow, it is more radical. It's noteworthy that despite its many developments, the law can't to stop conflicts of interest in research. Several reasons account for this impasse: scientists receive mission to partner with industry to develop products but they must remain independent in order to assess the risks; there is a tendency to always choose the same experts; there are conflicts of interest intellectuals which are not easy to detect.

  6. Authorship, plagiarism and conflict of interest: views and practices from low/middle-income country health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Anke; Young, Taryn; Wager, Elizabeth; Garner, Paul

    2017-11-22

    To document low/middle-income country (LMIC) health researchers' views about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest and how common poor practice was in their institutions. We developed a questionnaire based on scenarios about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest. We asked participants whether the described practices were acceptable and whether these behaviours were common at their institutions. We conducted in-depth interviews with respondents who agreed to be interviewed. We invited 607 corresponding authors of Cochrane reviews working in LMICs. From the 583 emails delivered, we obtained 199 responses (34%). We carried out in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Seventy-seven per cent reported that guest authorship occurred at their institution, 60% reported text recycling. For plagiarism, 12% of respondents reported that this occurred 'occasionally', and 24% 'rarely'. Forty per cent indicated that their colleagues had not declared conflicts of interest in the past. Respondents generally recognised poor practice in scenarios but reported that they occurred at their institutions. Themes identified from in-depth interviews were (1) authorship rules are simple in theory, but not consistently applied; (2) academic status and power underpin behaviours; (3) institutions and culture fuel bad practices and (4) researchers are uncertain about what conflict of interests means and how this may influence research. LMIC researchers report that guest authorship is widely accepted and common. While respondents report that plagiarism and undeclared conflicts of interest are unacceptable in practice, they appear common. Determinants of poor practice relate to academic status and power, fuelled by institutional norms and culture. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Authorship, plagiarism and conflict of interest: views and practices from low/middle-income country health researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To document low/middle-income country (LMIC) health researchers’ views about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest and how common poor practice was in their institutions. Design We developed a questionnaire based on scenarios about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest. We asked participants whether the described practices were acceptable and whether these behaviours were common at their institutions. We conducted in-depth interviews with respondents who agreed to be interviewed. Participants We invited 607 corresponding authors of Cochrane reviews working in LMICs. From the 583 emails delivered, we obtained 199 responses (34%). We carried out in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Results Seventy-seven per cent reported that guest authorship occurred at their institution, 60% reported text recycling. For plagiarism, 12% of respondents reported that this occurred ‘occasionally’, and 24% ‘rarely’. Forty per cent indicated that their colleagues had not declared conflicts of interest in the past. Respondents generally recognised poor practice in scenarios but reported that they occurred at their institutions. Themes identified from in-depth interviews were (1) authorship rules are simple in theory, but not consistently applied; (2) academic status and power underpin behaviours; (3) institutions and culture fuel bad practices and (4) researchers are uncertain about what conflict of interests means and how this may influence research. Conclusions LMIC researchers report that guest authorship is widely accepted and common. While respondents report that plagiarism and undeclared conflicts of interest are unacceptable in practice, they appear common. Determinants of poor practice relate to academic status and power, fuelled by institutional norms and culture. PMID:29170291

  8. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-10-26

    transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals. We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue. we sampled six major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM]). For each journal, we identified randomised trials published in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 using PubMed, and categorized the type of financial support. Using Web of Science, we investigated citations of industry-supported trials and the influence on journal impact factors over a ten-year period. We contacted journal editors and retrieved tax information on income from industry sources. The proportion of trials with sole industry support varied between journals, from 7% in BMJ to 32% in NEJM in 2005-2006. Industry-supported trials were more frequently cited than trials with other types of support, and omitting them from the impact factor calculation decreased journal impact factors. The decrease varied considerably between journals, with 1% for BMJ to 15% for NEJM in 2007. For the two journals disclosing data, income from the sales of reprints contributed to 3% and 41% of the total income for BMJ and The Lancet in 2005-2006. publication of industry-supported trials was associated with an increase in journal impact factors. Sales of reprints may provide a substantial income. We suggest that journals disclose financial information in the same way that they require them from their authors, so that readers can assess the potential effect of different types of papers on journals' revenue and impact.

  9. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lundh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals. We investigated industry-supported trials' influence on journal impact factors and revenue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: we sampled six major medical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine [NEJM]. For each journal, we identified randomised trials published in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 using PubMed, and categorized the type of financial support. Using Web of Science, we investigated citations of industry-supported trials and the influence on journal impact factors over a ten-year period. We contacted journal editors and retrieved tax information on income from industry sources. The proportion of trials with sole industry support varied between journals, from 7% in BMJ to 32% in NEJM in 2005-2006. Industry-supported trials were more frequently cited than trials with other types of support, and omitting them from the impact factor calculation decreased journal impact factors. The decrease varied considerably between journals, with 1% for BMJ to 15% for NEJM in 2007. For the two journals disclosing data, income from the sales of reprints contributed to 3% and 41% of the total income for BMJ and The Lancet in 2005-2006. CONCLUSIONS: publication of industry-supported trials was associated with an increase in journal impact factors. Sales of reprints may provide a substantial income. We suggest that journals disclose financial information in the same way that they require them from their authors, so that readers can assess the potential effect of different types of papers on journals' revenue and impact.

  10. MANAGEMENT EARNINGS FORECAST DISCLOSURE: A STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EBITDA FORECAST AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Folster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The creation of overly optimistic information can compromise the decision-making process on part of shareholders and other stakeholders. Considering that this type of information can create problems and additional costs stemming from erroneous choices made by users, the present work sought to identify financial indicators associated with the disclosure of Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA estimates in Management Earnings Forecasts (Guidance reporting. The sample examined was composed of 42 companies and analyses were carried out using logistic and multiple linear regression techniques. The results showed that larger (as per total assets and more-leveraged companies show a higher level of disclosure. Companies with higher return on equity (ROE and Current Liquidity ratios, as well as lower Net Margins, present less precise earnings forecast. The companies providing more timely forecasts are also the ones that show higher ROE and Current Liquidity ratios, as well as lower Net Margins. These results indicate that users must take caution when basing decisions on such information, given that the possibility exists that companies bearing these characteristics are more likely to better-timed albeit less-accurate disclosure.

  11. Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure on Financial Performance with Audit Quality as a Moderating Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Dewi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to examine the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure to the financial performance proxy on Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and company value proxy on Price to Book Value (PBV empirically as well as knowing the existence of the audit quality as moderating variable whether it will affect the relationship between CSR disclosure on ROA, ROE, and PBV. The object of this study was mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2010-2012. The sample was selected using a purposive sampling method and obtained samples as many as 26 companies with a total data of 78 data. Hypothesis testing methods used were simple regression analysis and moderated regression analysis. The results of this study showed that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure had an effect on ROA, but had no effect on ROE and PBV, and audit quality as a moderating variable could not affect the relationship of CSR disc losure on ROA, ROE, and PBV.

  12. Social Performance vs. Financial Performance: CSR Disclosures as an indicator of social performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Yılmaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, it is gaining more and more dominance in both academic and business life that the company exists for and has responsibilities toward a wider group of stakeholders and it must have some objectives other than profitability. To achieve sustainable development and growth, the companies must assume more duties, which is called the term “corporate social responsibility (CSR.” In the literature, it is questioned whether CSR activities benefit the company or not; whether there is any relationship exists between CSR activities and the company’s financial performance and the direction of the relationship. We aimed to explore that whether there is any effect corporate social performance (CSP on financial performance and position and vice versa. We performed content analysis through annual reports and derived a social score composed of the items included in disclosure guidelines and some criteria used in CSR ratings. We also used several financial position and financial performance indicators. In order to explore the relationship between CSP and financial indicators, we run panel data regressions. We found significant results for some of the indicators, where some of the indicators gave insignificant results. The reporting of CSR activities is in very low levels. The conscious toward CSR and sustainability must be promoted and the companies must assume more active roles. The reporting of those activities is also important.

  13. Financial Relationships between Organizations That Produce Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Biomedical Industry: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campsall, Paul; Colizza, Kate; Straus, Sharon; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Financial relationships between organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines and biomedical companies are vulnerable to conflicts of interest. We sought to determine whether organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines have financial relationships with biomedical companies and whether there are associations between organizations' conflict of interest policies and recommendations and disclosures provided in guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional survey and review of websites of 95 national/international medical organizations that produced 290 clinical practice guidelines published on the National Guideline Clearinghouse website from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Survey responses were available for 68% (65/95) of organizations (167/290 guidelines, 58%), and websites were reviewed for 100% (95/95) of organizations (290/290 guidelines, 100%). In all, 63% (60/95) of organizations producing clinical practice guidelines reported receiving funds from a biomedical company; 80% (76/95) of organizations reported having a policy for managing conflicts of interest. Disclosure statements (disclosing presence or absence of financial relationships with biomedical companies) were available in 65% (188/290) of clinical practice guidelines for direct funding sources to produce the guideline, 51% (147/290) for financial relationships of the guideline committee members, and 1% (4/290) for financial relationships of the organizations producing the guidelines. Among all guidelines, 6% (18/290) disclosed direct funding by biomedical companies, 40% (117/290) disclosed financial relationships between committee members and biomedical companies (38% of guideline committee members, 773/2,043), and 1% (4/290) disclosed financial relationships between the organizations producing the guidelines and biomedical companies. In the survey responses, 60 organizations reported the procedures that they included in their conflict of interest policies (158 guidelines

  14. The influence of social disclosure on the relationship between Corporate Financial Performance and Corporate Social Performance*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editinete André da Rocha Garcia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study’s general objective is to investigate the moderating effect of Corporate Social Performance Disclosure (D-CSP on the relationship between Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP. Based on this objective, the study presented a model in which D-CSP acts as a moderator in relation to primary stakeholders (employees, community, and suppliers. D-CSP is a mechanism through which the various social aspects involved in discretionary policies, actions, and activities identified in the management for stakeholders process can be evaluated. A sample of 1,147 companies belonging to 10 different sectors and five continents was used to test the model. Data were collected from the Bloomberg database, totaling 5,735 observations, from 2010 to 2014. The relationship was tested using the multiple linear regression model involving panel data with fixed effects, and the Newey-West robust standard errors correction. Three constructs, D-CSP, CSP, and CFP, were used to perform the tests. As a CSP measure, the CSP of the employee, supplier, and community stakeholders was used. As a D-CSP measure, the CSP disclosure scores available from the database were used, and return on assets (ROA was used as a CFP measure. The tests carried out indicated the existence of a positive moderating effect of disclosure on the relationship between the CSP of primary stakeholders and CFP. Besides presenting a positive CSP in relation to the primary stakeholders the results enable it to be inferred that these results need to be disclosed, thus contributing to higher corporate financial performance.

  15. A Proposal to Address NFL Club Doctors’ Conflicts of Interest and to Promote Player Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Deubert, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    How can we ensure that players in the National Football League receive excellent health care they can trust from providers who are as free from conflicts of interest as realistically possible? NFL players typically receive care from the club's own medical staff. Club doctors are clearly important stakeholders in player health. They diagnose and treat players for a variety of ailments, physical and mental, while making recommendations to the player concerning those ailments. At the same time, club doctors have obligations to the club, namely to inform and advise clubs about the health status of players. While players and clubs share an interest in player health—both of them want players to be healthy so they can play at peak performance—there are several areas where their interests can diverge, and the divergence presents legal and ethical challenges. The current structure forces club doctors to have obligations to two parties—the club and the player—and to make difficult judgments about when one party's interests must yield to another's. None of the three parties involved should prefer this conflicted approach. We propose to resolve the problem of dual loyalty by largely severing the club doctor's ties with the club and refashioning that role into one of singular loyalty to the player‐patient. The main idea is to separate the roles of serving the player and serving the club and replace them with two distinct sets of medical professionals: the Players' Medical Staff (with exclusive loyalty to the player) and the Club Evaluation Doctor (with exclusive loyalty to the club). We begin by explaining the broad ethical principles that guide us and that help shape our recommendation. We then provide a description of the role of the club doctor in the current system. After explaining the concern about the current NFL player health care structure, we provide a recommendation for improving this structure. We then discuss how the club medical staff fits into the

  16. 45 CFR 73.735-903 - Action if conflicts of interest or possible conflicts are noted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-903 Action if conflicts... a financial interest statement, a reviewing official believes that additional information is needed... the basis of information submitted, the reporting individual is not in compliance with applicable laws...

  17. Completion of potential conflicts of interest through optimization of Rukoh reservoir operation in Pidie District, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmeri, Hadihardaja, Iwan K.; Shaskia, Nina; Admaja, Kamal Surya

    2017-11-01

    Rukoh Reservoir's construction was planned to be built in Krueng Rukoh Watershed with supplet ion from Krueng Tiro River. Rukoh Reservoir operating system as a multipurpose reservoir raised potential conflict of interest between raw water and irrigation water. In this study, the operating system of Rukoh Reservoirs was designed to supply raw water in Titeu Sub-District and replenish water shortage in Baro Irrigation Area which is not able to be served by the Keumala Weir. Reservoir operating system should be planned optimally so that utilization of water in accordance with service area demands. Reservoir operation method was analyzed by using optimization technique with nonlinear programming. Optimization of reservoir operation is intended to minimize potential conflicts of interest in the operation. Suppletion discharge from Krueng Tiro River amounted to 46.62%, which was calculated based on ratio of Baro and Tiro irrigation area. However, during dry seasons, water demands could not be fully met, so there was a shortage of water. By considering the rules to minimize potential conflicts of interest between raw water and irrigation water, it would require suppletion from Krueng Tiro amounted to 52.30%. The increment of suppletion volume could minimize conflicts of interest. It produced l00% reservoir reliability for raw water and irrigation demands. Rukoh reservoir could serve raw water demands of Titeu Sub-District and irrigation demands of Baro irrigation area which is covering an area of 6,047 hectars. Reservoir operation guidelines can specify reservoir water release to balance the demands and the target storage.

  18. Gifts and influence: Conflict of interest policies and prescribing of psychotropic medications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Bearman, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends roughly 15 billion dollars annually on detailing - providing gifts, information, samples, trips, honoraria and other inducements - to physicians in order to encourage them to prescribe their drugs. In response, several states in the United States adopted policies that restrict detailing. Some states banned gifts from pharmaceutical companies to doctors, other states simply required physicians to disclose the gifts they receive, while most states allowed unrestricted detailing. We exploit this geographic variation to examine the relationship between gift regulation and the diffusion of four newly marketed medications. Using a dataset that captures 189 million psychotropic prescriptions written between 2005 and 2009, we find that uptake of new costly medications was significantly lower in states with marketing regulation than in areas that allowed unrestricted pharmaceutical marketing. In states with gift bans, we observed reductions in market shares ranging from 39% to 83%. Policies banning or restricting gifts were associated with the largest reductions in uptake. Disclosure policies were associated with a significantly smaller reduction in prescribing than gift bans and gift restrictions. In states that ban gift-giving, peer influence substituted for pharmaceutical detailing when a relatively beneficial drug came to market and provided a less biased channel for physicians to learn about new medications. Our work suggests that policies banning or limiting gifts from pharmaceutical representatives to doctors are likely to be more effective than disclosure policies alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ideology versus evidence: Investigating the claim that the literature on e-cigarettes is undermined by material conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Anastasi, Natasha

    2016-04-01

    A review of the health effects of e-cigarettes (EC) by Pisinger and Dossing concluded that any reassuring the evidence on the contents of e-cigarettes cannot be trusted because 'A substantial number of studies were funded or otherwise supported by manufacturers of ECs' and the relevant literature is influenced by 'severe conflicts of interest' (A). The review also asserts that 'Conflict of interest seems to influence the conclusions of these papers' (BC). These claims have been embraced and magnified by EC opponents. The Pisinger and Dossing review included 76 studies and considered 26 (34%) to be 'funded or otherwise supported' by the industry. As the review identifies the 'conflicted' studies, such a claim can be checked. In summary, only 10 (13%) of articles covered by the review were sponsored by the industry and only 5 are published studies. Claim 'A' is misleading. Regarding claim 'B', it appears to have been conceived independent of any empirical support. Recently, anti-EC activists and media started to use conflict of interest accusations to disparage the validity of empirical evidence showing that vaping is much safer than smoking. Evidence needs to be considered on its merits rather than from the perspective of preconceived ideological positions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On the fragility of medical virtue in a neoliberal context: the case of commercial conflicts of interest in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Blakely, Brette; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul; Olver, Ian; Lipworth, Wendy

    2016-02-01

    Social, political, and economic environments play an active role in nurturing professional virtue. Yet, these environments can also lead to the erosion of virtue. As such, professional virtue is fragile and vulnerable to environmental shifts. While physicians are often considered to be among the most virtuous of professional groups, concern has also always existed about the impact of commercial arrangements on physicians' willingness and capacity to enact their professional virtues. This article examines the ways in which commercial arrangements have been negotiated to secure medical virtue from real or perceived threats of erosion. In particular, we focus on the concern surrounding conflicts of interest arising from commercial arrangements that have developed as a result of neoliberal economic and social policies. The deregulation of medical markets and privatization of services have produced new commercial relationships that are often misunderstood by patients, publics, and physicians themselves. 'Conflicts of interest' policies have been introduced in an attempt to safeguard ethical conduct and medical practice. However, a number of virtue ethicists have critiqued these policies as inadequate for securing virtue. We examine the ways in which commercial arrangements have been seen to impact upon medical virtue, both historically and in the context of modern medicine (using the example of fertility services in Australia). We then describe and critique current efforts to restore clinical virtue through both conflict of interest policies and through virtue ethics. Finally, we suggest some possible ways of addressing the corrosive effects of neoliberalism on medical virtue.

  1. Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Barbateskovic, Marija; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2010-01-01

    transparency in reporting of conflict of interest is an increasingly important aspect of publication in medical journals. Publication of large industry-supported trials may generate many citations and journal income through reprint sales and thereby be a source of conflicts of interest for journals...

  2. 15 CFR 0.735-2 - Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to ethical conduct... Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. Employees of the Department of Commerce should refer to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct...

  3. 29 CFR 2703.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and...-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members and employees... of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR part 2635; the Commission's regulations at 5 CFR part 8401, which...

  4. 5 CFR 1900.100 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Officers and employees of the Appalachian Regional Commission Federal Staff are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the...

  5. 12 CFR 264.101 - Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct... § 264.101 Cross-reference to employees' ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations... branch-wide standards of ethical conduct at 5 CFR part 2635 and the Board's regulation at 5 CFR part 6801...

  6. 12 CFR 336.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... and Conduct § 336.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... Branch-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR part 2635, the Corporation regulation at 5 CFR part...

  7. 12 CFR 601.100 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Board members, officers, and other employees of the Farm Credit Administration are subject to the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of...

  8. 29 CFR 1600.101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and... to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) are subject to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical...

  9. 43 CFR 20.101 - Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure and other applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-references to ethical conduct... Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure and other applicable regulations. In addition... Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch, at 5 CFR part 2635; the Department's...

  10. 49 CFR 1019.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Members and employees of the Surface Transportation Board also should refer to the executive branch Standards of Ethical...

  11. 5 CFR 1633.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical... ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board (Board) are subject to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical conduct at 5 CFR part...

  12. 38 CFR 0.735-10 - Cross-reference to employee ethical and other conduct standards and financial disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee ethical and other conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 0.735-10 Section 0.735-10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT AND RELATED RESPONSIBILITIES Standards of Ethical Conduct and Related Responsibilities of...

  13. 39 CFR 3000.735-101 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Postal Regulatory Commission (Commission) are subject and should refer to the executive branch-wide Standards of Ethical...

  14. 29 CFR 0.735-1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other ethics regulations. 0.735-1 Section 0.735-1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ETHICS AND CONDUCT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EMPLOYEES Standards of Conduct for Current...

  15. 5 CFR 1300.1 - Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employees ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 1300.1 Section 1300.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 1300.1 Cross-reference...

  16. 12 CFR 400.101 - Cross-reference to employee financial disclosure and ethical conduct standards regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee financial disclosure and ethical conduct standards regulations. 400.101 Section 400.101 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT.... Employees of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Bank) should refer to: (a) The executive branch...

  17. 16 CFR 1030.101 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL EMPLOYEE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT General § 1030.101 Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. Employees of the Consumer Product... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-references to employee ethical conduct...

  18. The Information Content of Note Disclosures and MD&A Information in the Financial Report – A Study of Market Reactions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Sønderby Jeppesen, Carsten; Madsen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of disclosures in the financial report constitutes a significant cost to most companies, but do the disclosures have information content to investors? This paper examines stock market reactions to the release of note disclosures and MD&A (management discussion and analysis......) information. The study is based on data from the Danish capital market in 2006-2009 because here it is largely possible to isolate the release of such information from other information in the financial report. The primary results suggest that for some companies, note disclosures and information in the MD...

  19. 25 CFR 900.235 - What personal conflicts of interest must the standards of conduct regulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conduct regulate? 900.235 Section 900.235 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... must the standards of conduct regulate? The standards must prohibit an officer, employee, or agent... involving an entity in which such persons have a direct financial interest or an employment relationship. It...

  20. DISCLOSURES ON CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING: THE REPORTING PRACTICE OF BANKS LISTED ON THE WARSAW STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Gad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of the implementation of selected regulations on corporate governance in the reporting practice of banks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The survey examined the disclosures concerning the main features of the internal control and risk management systems in relation to financial reporting in banks. Research studies on disclosures related to control over financial reporting have not yet been conducted. The paper uses a research method involving the analysis of annual reports disclosed by banks. The method of induction was used in the process of inference. The results of the study indicate that in the practice of reporting of banks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in 2011, there was no uniform reporting form in terms of the presentation of information on internal control or risk management systems in relation to financial reporting. The disclosures were different both in terms of level of detail and content. In some banks disclosures were drawn at a high level of generality.

  1. 48 CFR 1503.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 1503.104-5 Disclosure, protection, and... conflict of interest exists that may diminish my capacity to perform an impartial, technically sound, objective review of this proposal(s) or otherwise result in a biased opinion or unfair competitive advantage...

  2. ACCOUNTING PRACTICES FROM FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS DISCLOSURE PERSPECTIVE – THE CASE OF ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Cristina Alexandrina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available International harmonization and convergence of accounting had gradually become one of the most challenging topic of worldwide research and a very hot debated issue in practitioners’ sphere, too. Several studies have addressed both formal and material accounting harmonization along time, a wide range of instruments have been developed and various statistical tools have been used in this respect. Basing on this background, we focused our attention on Romanian banking system which is now experiencing a great challenge by finally entirely adopting IFRS after the first step from 2005 when consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS were required and the second one from 2009 when informative individual financial statements under IFRS begun compulsory. Therefore, the objective of our paper is to empirically measure and compare the levels and progress of material accounting harmonization in Romanian banking sector focusing on financial instruments and their related disclosure requirements. First studies conducted in the measurement of harmonization practices (Nair and Frank, 1981; McKinnon and Janell, 1984; Doupnik and Taylor, 1985 started at the beginning of the 80’s, but were merely descriptive, focused on examining how IAS had been adopted in various countries around the world. In the earliest 90’s, there were developed the first instruments for measuring material harmonization, namely the concentration indices (H, C and I Index (Van der Tas, 1988; 1992 and various other forms of these (Archer et al., 1995, which were widely used in various research studies (Herrmann and Thomas, 1995; Aisbitt, 2001; Taplin, 2004. Basing on these measurement tools and cconsidering the main aim of our study – to measure material accounting harmonization in Romanian banking sector – we stated four hypotheses, thus trying to answer our questions: “Are the accounting practices related to financial instruments

  3. Economic valuation of environmental liabilities and disclosure in the financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosola, M.; Niskala, M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine procedures the enterprises follow when they have to make provisions for future costs in the clean up of contaminated land. It is not especially easy for an enterprise to make a provision for clean up of contaminated land in its financial statement. Because of research and planning activities and authority procedures the purification measures may be implemented after a long time. In the Study, an up-to-date subject has been dealt with: how to recognize liabilities to clean up contaminated land and how to evaluate and deal with them in the annual accounts. Environmental provisions has been examined by enterprise interviews and with other material. It is probable that the future clean up costs of contaminated land will rise up to several bit/ions of Finnish marks. The enterprises have not vet, however, included these expenditures into their annual accounts. One of the reasons for this is that the guidelines concerning recognition, measurement and disclosure of environmental liabilities in the financial statements are under development. Thus, it would be very important to promote the enterprises' and authorities' awareness of their environmental response. This can be done by research and training, and by publishing written guidelines. (orig.)

  4. How Co-Creation Helped Address Hierarchy, Overwhelmed Patients, and Conflicts of Interest in Health Care Quality and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israilov, Sigal; Cho, Hyung J

    2017-11-01

    Co-creation is health professionals' and systems' development of health care together with patients and families. Such collaborations yield an exchange of values, ideas, and priorities that can individualize care for each patient. Co-creation has been discussed interchangeably with co-production and shared decision making; this article explores co-creation through the lens of quality improvement. Although there are barriers to co-creation including physician autonomy, patient overwhelm, and conflicts of interest, co-creation has been shown to promote patient engagement, peer learning, and improved outcomes. Further research is needed in co-creation for systems improvement. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Funding source, conflict of interest and positive conclusions in neuro-oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fabio Y; Mendez, Lucas C; Taunk, Neil K; Raman, Srinivas; Suh, John H; Souhami, Luis; Slotman, Ben; Weltman, Eduardo; Spratt, Daniel E; Berlin, Alejandro; Marta, Gustavo N

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to test any association between authors' conclusions and self-reported COI or funding sources in central nervous system (CNS) studies. A review was performed for CNS malignancy clinical trials published in the last 5 years. Two investigators independently classified study conclusions according to authors' endorsement of the experimental therapy. Statistical models were used to test for associations between positive conclusions and trials characteristics. From February 2010 to February 2015, 1256 articles were retrieved; 319 were considered eligible trials. Positive conclusions were reported in 56.8% of trials with industry-only, 55.6% with academia-only, 44.1% with academia and industry, 77.8% with none, and 76.4% with not described funding source (p = 0.011). Positive conclusions were reported in 60.4% of trials with unrelated COI, 60% with related COI, and 60% with no COI reported (p = 0.997). Factors that were significantly associated with the presence of positive conclusion included trials design (phase 1) [OR 11.64 (95 CI 4.66-29.09), p source [OR 2.45 (95 CI 1.22-5.22), p = 0.011]. In a multivariable regression model, all these factors remained significantly associated with trial's positive conclusion. Funding source and self-reported COI did not appear to influence the CNS trials conclusion. Funding source information and COI disclosure were under-reported in 14.1 and 17.2% of the CNS trials. Continued efforts are needed to increase rates of both COI and funding source reporting.

  6. Physicians-Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives Interactions and Conflict of Interest: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash R

    2016-01-01

    Physician-industry relationships have come a long way since serious debates began after a 1990 Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources report on the topic. On one side, the Sun Shine Act of 2007, now a part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandates disclosure of payments and gifts to the physicians, has injected more transparency into the relationships, and on the other side, numerous voluntary self-regulation guidelines have been instituted to protect patients. However, despite these commendable efforts, problem persists. Taking the specific case of physician-pharmaceutical sales representative (PSR) interactions, also called as detailing, where the PSRs lobby physicians to prescribe their brand drugs while bringing them gifts on the side, an August 2016 article concluded that gifts as small as $20 are associated with higher prescribing rates. A close examination reveals the intricacies of the relationships. Though PSRs ultimately want to push their drugs, more than gifts, they also bring the ready-made synthesized knowledge about the drugs, something the busy physicians, starving for time to read the literature themselves, find hard to let go. Conscientious physicians are not unaware of the marketing tactics. And yet, physicians too are humans. It is also the nature of their job that requires an innate cognitive dissonance to be functional in medical practice, a trait that sometimes works against them in case of PSR interactions. Besides, PSRs too follow the dictates of the shareholders of their companies. Therefore, if they try to influence physicians using social psychology, it is a job they are asked to do. The complexity of relationships creates conundrums that are hard to tackle. This commentary examines various dimensions of these relationships. In the end, a few suggestions are offered as a way forward. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. [Sponsorship, conflict of interest and corruption: promoting science in discussion of medical ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, A

    2002-01-01

    Even in health care systems corruption is an increasing problem. Since the German Anti-Corruption-Law (1997) the areas of financial support, sponsoring and corruption in medicine are analyzed much more intensively. This article sketches the crucial points of the debate on medical funding and shows the consequences of the new jurisdiction. Most important is the balance between a transparent documentation and a too-far-reaching bureaucracy, which hinders medical research. Finally, this article presents core principles as helpful rules in practice.

  8. [Illegal professional conflict of interest from the viewpoint of the attorney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglie, M G

    1998-10-01

    Since the so called "heart-valve scandal" occurred in Germany, the practice of financially or otherwise supported hospitals and practicing doctors has to be critically re-examined and may be changed. The practice and acceptance of support is common in many areas of our daily life, however, due to governmental social laws regulating the flow of money and due to the various financial forms of support for the health care system, criminal violations and sanctions may arise. Aside from the existing standard criminal violations, a new law, as of has been enacted August 13, 1997-this law specifically deals with bribery and the acceptance of such illegal payments. Proving that such a criminal violation was committed by a physician can be very difficult for the prosecutor. The mass of procedural laws--aside from the substantive law requirements--cause problems for the state. It is also very difficult to determine the exact amount of damages or that a physician has gained an illegal advantage. In these specific and other general cases, a professional defense by a competent attorney is absolutely essential to prevent an unpleasant suit or to resolve charges outside of court. In some cases, it may even be possible to persuade the prosecutor to only levy a fine, if it is not possible to persuade him to drop the charges all together--for lack of good evidence.

  9. Impairment of intangible assets: quality of disclosures in the financial crisis period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Ismagilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of intangible assets presented in companies’ financial statements cannot be underestimated as in recent years the structure of the companies’ statement of financial position has significantly changed and is mainly presented by intangible assets instead of tangible assets. Global trends suggest a growing importance of intangible assets to business value, at the same time intangibles are one of the most complex assets in terms of their valuation. The widespread economic slowdown means that assets and businesses in many industries will generate lower cash flows than expected. This increases the likelihood that asset carrying amounts are greater than the expected cash flows from the assets. A number of assumptions used by management have increased, therefore there is a need for the detailed analysis of the disclosed information in terms of its reasonableness. IAS 36 Impairment of Assets sets out the requirements for the disclosed information, however, companies impairment testing processes, models and assumptions depend on the certain business and are individual. Impairment of intangible assets should not be treated by the companies as an exercise to conform IFRS requirements as it is the key element of the financial statements faithful re presentation. Main questions in terms of the quality of disclosed information regarding intangible assets impairment are addressed in this article, including the following: the role of the disclosed assumptions and estimates made by management is analysed, su ggestions are made on the documentation of the stages of the impairment test performed, key disclosure requirements are summarised and can be used by companies in self-review purposes.

  10. [Lumbar disc herniation: Natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, treatment options and conflicts of interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Rodríguez-Salazar, Antonio; Martín-Alonso, Javier; Martín-Velasco, Vicente

    Indication for surgery in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) varies widely depending on the geographical area. A literature review is presented on the natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, evidence-based treatment, and conflicts of interests in LDH. Surgery is shown to provide significant faster relief of pain compared to conservative therapy, although the effect fades after a year. There is no treatment modality better than the rest in terms of pain control and neurological recovery, nor is there a surgical technique clearly superior to simple discectomy. The lack of sound scientific evidence on the surgical indication may contribute to its great geographical variability. Since LDH has a favourable natural history, neuroimaging and surgery should not be considered until after a 6-week period. It is necessary to specify and respect the surgical indications for LDH, avoiding conflicts of interests. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Health Advocacy Organizations and the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Analysis of Disclosure Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveis, Victoria H.; Friedman, Anne; Rothman, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Health advocacy organizations (HAOs) are influential stakeholders in health policy. Although their advocacy tends to closely correspond with the pharmaceutical industry's marketing aims, the financial relationships between HAOs and the pharmaceutical industry have rarely been analyzed. We used Eli Lilly and Company's grant registry to examine its grant-giving policies. We also examined HAO Web sites to determine their grant-disclosure patterns. Only 25% of HAOs that received Lilly grants acknowledged Lilly's contributions on their Web sites, and only 10% acknowledged Lilly as a grant event sponsor. No HAO disclosed the exact amount of a Lilly grant. As highly trusted organizations, HAOs should disclose all corporate grants, including the purpose and the amount. Absent this disclosure, legislators, regulators, and the public cannot evaluate possible conflicts of interest or biases in HAO advocacy. PMID:21233424

  12. Alcohol research and the alcoholic beverage industry: issues, concerns and conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F

    2009-02-01

    Using terms of justification such as 'corporate social responsibility' and 'partnerships with the public health community', the alcoholic beverage industry (mainly large producers, trade associations and 'social aspects' organizations) funds a variety of scientific activities that involve or overlap with the work of independent scientists. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the ethical, professional and scientific challenges that have emerged from industry involvement in alcohol science. Source material came from an extensive review of organizational websites, newspaper articles, journal papers, letters to the editor, editorials, books, book chapters and unpublished documents. Industry involvement in alcohol science was identified in seven areas: (i) sponsorship of research funding organizations; (ii) direct financing of university-based scientists and centers; (iii) studies conducted through contract research organizations; (iv) research conducted by trade organizations and social aspects/public relations organizations; (v) efforts to influence public perceptions of research, research findings and alcohol policies; (vi) publication of scientific documents and support of scientific journals; and (vii) sponsorship of scientific conferences and presentations at conferences. While industry involvement in research activities is increasing, it constitutes currently a rather small direct investment in scientific research, one that is unlikely to contribute to alcohol science, lead to scientific breakthroughs or reduce the burden of alcohol-related illness. At best, the scientific activities funded by the alcoholic beverage industry provide financial support and small consulting fees for basic and behavioral scientists engaged in alcohol research; at worst, the industry's scientific activities confuse public discussion of health issues and policy options, raise questions about the objectivity of industry-supported alcohol scientists and provide industry with a

  13. THE USE OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE IN DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE NIGERIA LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyerogba Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the use of voluntary disclosure in determining the quality of financial statements among the listed companies in Nigeria. Specifically the study investigated on the effects of voluntary disclosure on investor decision and performance of listed companies in Nigeria. This study adopted anexploratory design which is described as a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals. The instrument of data collection for this research was a questionnaire as the study used primary data. The study targeted all the 258 listed companies in Nigeria. The study population used in this research comprised of preparers (accountants, external auditors and users of accounting information (financial analysts, stockbrokers, bankers, regulators and educators. The sample of this study was 140 whereby twenty questionnaires were distributed in every category of the respondents.Descriptive statistics such as mode, median, mean, standard deviation, etc were used to perform data analysis. These measures were calculated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 software. SPSS tool (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to organize and analyze data. The study findings indicated that there was increased performance and investor decision making was easy to makedue to voluntary disclosure. The results indicate that voluntary disclosurewas satisfactory in explaining investor decision making and performance of listed companies. It was possible to conclude from the study findings that voluntary disclosure was statistically significant in explaining investor’s decision and performance of listed companies in Nigeria. It was also possible to conclude that there was high level of voluntary disclosure in Nigeria listed firms which led to high performance of the firms and made it easy for investors to make decision whether to invest in the companies or

  14. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Shekelle, Paul; Schünemann, Holger J; Woolf, Steven

    2012-07-04

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  15. Lessons in conflict of interest: the construction of the martyrdom of David Healy and the dilemma of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James

    2005-01-01

    Bioethics journals have lagged behind medical and science journals in exploring the threat of conflict of interest (COI) to the integrity of publications. Some recent discussions of COI that have occurred in the bioethics literature are reviewed. Discussions of what has been termed the "Healy affair" unintentionally demonstrate that the direct and indirect influence of undisclosed COI may come from those who call for protection from the undue influence of industry. Paradoxically, the nature and tone of current discussions may serve to dull sensitivities to what is indeed a serious set of issues facing bioethics. Some proposals are presented to address COI and other challenges to the integrity of bioethics and its journals. COI is too important a topic to be left to ideologues, and there is no substitute for readers' caution and skepticism as tools in dealing with the full range of biases that exist in published papers.

  16. Proposal for a graded approach to disclosure of interests in accredited CME/CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Griebenow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disclosing conflicts of interest (COIs is an important step in the management of COIs and is considered to be crucial to the trustworthiness of presenters. There are significant variations in disclosure procedures regarding the following:a. How COI is assessed in declaration forms (e.g. type of question, respondent awarenessb. Type of relationshipsc. Detailing of information to program committee membersThese variations in procedures have in effect led toa. Underreporting of COIb. Reducing the informational value of declared COI to participantsThus, it has been the aim of the authors to propose a basic formula for a minimum standard declaration of financial COI, with the potential to be applicable to all types of accredited continuing medical education (CME as well as to all individuals (e.g. speakers, authors involved in planning and conduct of CME activities. This approach should also serve as basis for more elaborate disclosures as well as strategies for management of conflict of interests adapted to the risk of bias.Furthermore, we also propose a basic set of items to be declared as nonfinancial interests.

  17. Conflicts of interests, confidentiality and censorship in health risk assessment: the example of an herbicide and a GMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the long-term toxicity of a Roundup-tolerant GM maize (NK603) and a whole Roundup pesticide formulation at environmentally relevant levels from 0.1 ppb. Our study was first published in Food and Chemical Toxicology (FCT) on 19 September, 2012. The first wave of criticisms arrived within a week, mostly from plant biologists without experience in toxicology. We answered all these criticisms. The debate then encompassed scientific arguments and a wave of ad hominem and potentially libellous comments appeared in different journals by authors having serious yet undisclosed conflicts of interests. At the same time, FCT acquired as its new assistant editor for biotechnology a former employee of Monsanto after he sent a letter to FCT to complain about our study. This is in particular why FCT asked for a post-hoc analysis of our raw data. On 19 November, 2013, the editor-in-chief requested the retraction of our study while recognizing that the data were not incorrect and that there was no misconduct and no fraud or intentional misinterpretation in our complete raw data - an unusual or even unprecedented action in scientific publishing. The editor argued that no conclusions could be drawn because we studied 10 rats per group over 2 years, because they were Sprague Dawley rats, and because the data were inconclusive on cancer. Yet this was known at the time of submission of our study. Our study was however never attended to be a carcinogenicity study. We never used the word 'cancer' in our paper. The present opinion is a summary of the debate resulting in this retraction, as it is a historic example of conflicts of interest in the scientific assessments of products commercialized worldwide. We also show that the decision to retract cannot be rationalized on any discernible scientific or ethical grounds. Censorship of research into health risks undermines the value and the credibility of science; thus, we republish our paper.

  18. Advertising and disclosure of funding on patient organisation websites: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisocki Klara

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient organisations may be exposed to conflicts of interest and undue influence through pharmaceutical industry (Pharma donations. We examined advertising and disclosure of financial support by pharmaceutical companies on the websites of major patient organisations. Method Sixty-nine national and international patient organisations covering 10 disease states were identified using a defined Google search strategy. These were assessed for indicators of transparency, advertising, and disclosure of Pharma funding using an abstraction tool and inspection of annual reports. Data were analysed by simple tally, with medians calculated for financial data. Results Patient organisations websites were clear about their identity, target audience and intention but only a third were clear on how they derived their funds. Only 4/69 websites stated advertising and conflict of interest policies. Advertising was generally absent. 54% of sites included an annual report, but financial reporting and disclosure of donors varied substantially. Corporate donations were itemised in only 7/37 reports and none gave enough information to show the proportion of funding from Pharma. 45% of organisations declared Pharma funding on their website but the annual reports named more Pharma donors than did the websites (median 6 vs. 1. One third of websites showed one or more company logos and/or had links to Pharma websites. Pharma companies' introductions were present on 10% of websites, some of them mentioning specific products. Two patient organisations had obvious close ties to Pharma. Conclusion Patient organisation websites do not provide enough information for visitors to assess whether a conflict of interest with Pharma exists. While advertising of products is generally absent, display of logos and corporate advertisements is relatively common. Display of clear editorial and advertising policies and disclosure of the nature and degree of corporate

  19. Advertising and disclosure of funding on patient organisation websites: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Douglas E; Tisocki, Klara; Herxheimer, Andrew

    2006-08-03

    Patient organisations may be exposed to conflicts of interest and undue influence through pharmaceutical industry (Pharma) donations. We examined advertising and disclosure of financial support by pharmaceutical companies on the websites of major patient organisations. Sixty-nine national and international patient organisations covering 10 disease states were identified using a defined Google search strategy. These were assessed for indicators of transparency, advertising, and disclosure of Pharma funding using an abstraction tool and inspection of annual reports. Data were analysed by simple tally, with medians calculated for financial data. Patient organisations websites were clear about their identity, target audience and intention but only a third were clear on how they derived their funds. Only 4/69 websites stated advertising and conflict of interest policies. Advertising was generally absent. 54% of sites included an annual report, but financial reporting and disclosure of donors varied substantially. Corporate donations were itemised in only 7/37 reports and none gave enough information to show the proportion of funding from Pharma. 45% of organisations declared Pharma funding on their website but the annual reports named more Pharma donors than did the websites (median 6 vs. 1). One third of websites showed one or more company logos and/or had links to Pharma websites. Pharma companies' introductions were present on 10% of websites, some of them mentioning specific products. Two patient organisations had obvious close ties to Pharma. Patient organisation websites do not provide enough information for visitors to assess whether a conflict of interest with Pharma exists. While advertising of products is generally absent, display of logos and corporate advertisements is relatively common. Display of clear editorial and advertising policies and disclosure of the nature and degree of corporate donations is needed on patient organisations' websites. An ethical

  20. Fair value hierarchy in financial instrument disclosure. Is there transparency for investors? Evidence from the banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Laghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The debate on fair value accounting is still open although the last 20 years have been spent in looking for solutions by academics, practitioners and institutions. After long and continuous discussion both on the basic concepts and the information level contained in fair value measurements and on the different solutions that are possible to adopt in mark to market measurements, IASB and FASB have recently issued new standards on fair value measurements applying some principles not only to financial instruments but also to property and other investments. To verify if the solutions adopted in these Standards really improve the disclosure level and the “usefulness of data for investors”, this paper analyzes the actual level of transparency and the “usefulness” of the “fair value hierarchy” (which from some points of view synthesized the Board’s way of thinking regarding to fair value which has already been introduced for financial instruments by IFRS 7, Financial Instruments: Disclosure. The paper presents results of an empirical investigation on a sample of domestic and foreign listed banks that adopted fair value hierarchy in line with SFAS 157 and IFRS 7 recommendations. Research questions can be summarized as follows: (i does fair value hierarchy improve transparency in financial instrument evaluation in bank annual reports, or can it be considered as a tool for earnings management?

  1. Trial sponsorship and self-reported conflicts of interest in breast cancer radiation therapy: An analysis of prospective clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Elton T T; Moraes, Fabio Y; Marta, Gustavo N; Taunk, Neil K; Vieira, Marina T L; Hanna, Samir A; Silva, João Luis F; Carvalho, Heloisa A

    2017-06-01

    We aim to assess any association between study and self-reported conflict of interest (COI) or trial sponsorship in breast cancer radiation clinical trials. We searched PubMed for all clinical trials (CTs) published between 09/2004 and 09/2014 related to breast cancer. We included only radiotherapy CTs with primary clinical endpoints. We classified eligible trials according to the funding source, presence or absence of conflict of interest, study conclusion and impact factor (IF). 1,603 CTs were retrieved. 72 randomized clinical trials were included for analysis. For-profit (PO), not for profit organization (nPO), none and not reported sponsorship rates were 9/72 (12.5%), 35/72 (48.6%), 1/72 (1.4%), 27/72 (37.5%), respectively. Present, absent or not reported COI were found in 6/72 (8.3%), 43/72 (59.7%) and 23/72 (32%) of the CTs, respectively. Conclusion was positive, neutral and negative in 57/72 (79.1%), 9/72 (12.5%) and 6/72 (8.4%) of the trials, respectively. Positive conclusion was reported in 33/44 (75%) funded trials (PO and nPO) and 5/6 (83.3%) CTs with reported COI. On univariate analysis no association with funding source (P=0.178), COI (P=0.678) or trial region (P=0.567) and trial positive conclusion was found. Sponsored trials (HR 4.50, 95CI-0.1.23-16.53;P=0.0023) and positive trials (HR 4.78, 95CI- 1.16-19.63;P=0.030) were more likely to be published in higher impact factor journals in the multivariate analysis. nPO funding was reported in almost 50% of the evaluated CTs. No significant association between study conclusion and funding source, COI or trial region was identified. Sponsored trials and positive trials were more likely to be published in higher impact factor journals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of environmental performance and preference disclosure on financial performance: Empirical evidence from unbalanced panel data of heavy-pollution industries in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Environmental performance and propensity disclosure is important for stakeholders to estimate firms’ incentives in environmental management practices. The purpose of this article is to explore the impacts of environmental performance and propensity disclosure on financial performance using unbalanced panel data of eight heavy-pollution industries in China. Design/methodology/approach: Environmental performance and propensity exhibits mutual causality relationship with Tobin’s Q value using unit root and co-integration test of panel data. Using panel data analysis, we take the impacts of environmental performance and propensity disclosure on financial performance from 2008 to 2012. Findings: Environmental performance has a significantly negative impact on Tobin’s Q value at the significance levels of 1%, while environmental propensity has a significantly positive effect on Tobin’s Q value at the significance levels of 5%. Firm size, financial leverage and return of assets have significantly positive impacts on financial performance at the significance levels of 1%. Meanwhile the effect of corporate environmental performance and propensity on financial performance has a significantly periodic difference from 2008 to 2012. Research limitations/implications: Those results are helpful for environmental regulators to evaluate the implementing effect of voluntary environmental policy and for firms’ managers to increase market expectation and improve financial performance. Originality/value: Environmental performance is estimated by 30 environmental indicators in eight heavy-pollution industries in China. Environmental performance and propensity disclosure has a U-typed relationship with financial performance.

  3. Levelling the playing field? The influence of national wind power planning instruments on conflicts of interests in a Swedish county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergek, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Slow and complicated wind power planning and permitting procedures have been a large obstacle for wind power diffusion in Sweden and other countries. This paper complements previous siting-oriented literature with a planning perspective on these problems. The focus is two national planning instruments implemented in Sweden in the early 2000s: a national planning target and an appointment of areas of national interest for wind power. The paper identifies different types of conflicts of interest related to wind power - in addition to the conflict between wind power as a national public interest and various local private interests - and analyses the impact of the national planning instruments on the handling of these conflicts in the land-use planning process in the County of Ostergoetland. The analysis shows that the planning target actually made local planning officials even more inclined to treat wind power as a private rather than a public interest and that the method used to identify areas of national interest of wind power forced wind power to compete with the combined strengths of all other public interest. The planning instruments thus left wind power to fight an uphill battle rather than to meet other interests face-to-face on a level playing field.

  4. Innovation incentives or corrupt conflicts of interest? Moving beyond Jekyll and Hyde in regulating biomedical academic-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    The most contentious, unresolved issue in biomedicine in the last twenty-five years has been how to best address compensated partnerships between academic researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. Law and policy deliberately promote these partnerships through intellectual property law, research funding programs, and drug and device approval pathways while simultaneously condemning them through conflict-of-interest (COI) regulations. These regulations have not been subjected to the close scrutiny that is typically utilized in administrative law to evaluate and improve regulatory systems. This Article suggests that the solution to this standoff in biomedical law and policy lies in an informed, empirical approach. Such an approach must both recognize such partnerships' legal and practical variations, as well as classify them based on their benefit to innovation and their harm to research biases. Ultimately, this approach must facilitate administrative reforms that would convert what is now an inherently arbitrary, yet widespread, regulatory regime into an epistemically rich mechanism for distinguishing between harmful and beneficial partnerships.

  5. Conflict of interest between a nematode and a trematode in an amphipod host: Test of the "sabotage" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frédéric; Fauchier, Jerome; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Microphallus papillorobustus is a manipulative trematode that induces strong behavioural alterations in the gamaridean amphipod Gammarus insensibilis, making the amphipod more vulnerable to predation by aquatic birds (definitive hosts). Conversely, the sympatric nematodeGammarinema gammari uses Gammarus insensibilis as a habitat and a source of nutrition. We investigated the conflict of interest between these two parasite species by studying the consequences of mixed infection on amphipod behaviour associated with the trematode. In the field, some amphipods infected by the trematode did not display the altered behaviour. These normal amphipods also had more nematodes, suggesting that the nematode overpowered the manipulation of the trematode, a strategy that would prolong the nematode's life. We hypothesize that sabotage of the trematode by the nematode would be an adaptive strategy for the nematode consistent with recent speculation about co-operation and conflict in manipulative parasites. A behavioural test conducted in the laboratory from naturally infected amphipods yielded the same result. However, exposing amphipods to nematodes did not negate or decrease the manipulation exerted by the trematode. Similarly, experimental elimination of nematodes from amphipods did not permit trematodes to manipulate behaviour. These experimental data do not support the hypothesis that the negative association between nematodes and manipulation by the trematode is a result of the "sabotage" hypothesis.

  6. Assessment of Conflicts of Interest in Robotic Surgical Studies: Validating Author's Declarations With the Open Payments Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil V; Yu, David; Elsolh, Basheer; Goldacre, Ben M; Nash, Garrett M

    2017-07-11

    Accurate conflict of interest (COI) statements are important, as a known COI may invalidate study results due to the potential risk of bias. To determine the accuracy of self-declared COI statements in robotic studies and identify risk factors for undeclared payments. Robotic surgery studies were identified through EMBASE and MEDLINE and included if published in 2015 and had at least one American author. Undeclared COI were determined by comparing the author's declared COI with industry reported payments found in the "Open Payments" database for 2013 and 2014. Undeclared payments and discrepancies in the COI statement were determined. Risk factors were assessed for an association with undeclared payments at the author and study level. A total of 458 studies (2253 authors) were included. Approximately, 240 (52%) studies had 1 or more author receive undeclared payments and included 183 where "no COI" was explicitly declared, and 57 with no declaration statement present. Moreover, 21% of studies and 18% of authors with a COI declared it so in a COI statement. Studies that had undeclared payments from Intuitive were more likely to recommend robotic surgery compared with those that declared funding (odds ratio 4.29, 95% confidence interval 2.55-7.21). We found that it was common for payments from Intuitive to be undeclared in robotic surgery articles. Mechanisms for accountability in COI reporting need to be put into place by journals to achieve appropriate transparency to those reading the journal article.

  7. STUDY ON DISCLOSURE LEVEL OF COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: THE CASE OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA GORGAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic globalization, the need for high quality financial information has become a desiderate. Accounting met such needs through a set of high quality standards, the International Financial Reporting Standards. Their global imposing, either through adoption or convergence, make its contribution to proper functioning of capital markets and even of the entire economy. The quality of financial reporting, however, is the result of how they are applied in each country or company. The objective of our study is to analyze the disclosure level of companies listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE in compliance with the presentation requirements of the international accounting standard IAS 38 “Intangible assets”. The empirical study revealed a significant level of non-compliance. In order to determine the degree of compliance with international accounting referential we built a disclosure index. Four hypothesis were tested in order to identify the factors that influence the disclosure level.

  8. Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Universities and Medical Schools: Some Lessons from the AMSA PharmFree Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu, Ghislaine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Launched in 2007, the American Medical Students Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard is an annual ranking of conflict of interest (COI policies at American medical centres; it focuses on COIs that may occur when medical education seems likely to be influenced by university-industry relationships, especially those with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. The PharmFree Scorecard has proven influential in stimulating changes in policy regarding the management of COI at American medical institutions, thus it provides a useful jumping off point for reflection on how and why medical education institutions in other countries – and for our purposes, Canada – should pay more attention to the appropriate identification and management of COI. The PharmFree Scorecard methodology examines a diversity of factors and interests that could influence medical education; as such, it is an interesting approach to analysing the COI policies of medical schools. To test its utility or applicability outside the US, we decided to apply the PharmFree Scorecard to the COI policies of the 16 Canadian universities hosting medical schools. Overall, Canadian institutions rank very poorly, especially in ensuring that education and training tools are provided to staff, students and faculty members to enable the identification and management of COI. However, differences between the US and Canadian medical education contexts, e.g., with regards to the governance and funding of universities, limit to some extent the direct applicability of the AMSA ranking. Canadian medical schools – and their host universities – nonetheless have much to learn from insights provided by the AMSA PharmFree Scorecard ranking, although they can and should go further in developing their own COI policies and procedures.

  9. Conflict of interest: use of pyrethroids and amidines against tsetse and ticks in zoonotic sleeping sickness endemic areas of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan C

    2013-07-10

    effective way to increase pyrethroid use. Conflicts of interest between veterinary business and vector control were found to constrain sleeping sickness control. While a variety of strategies could increase pyrethroid use, regulation of the insecticide market could effectively double the number of treated cattle with little cost to government, donors or farmers. Such regulation is entirely consistent with the role of the state in a privatised veterinary system and should include a mitigation strategy against the potential development of tick resistance.

  10. 22 CFR 1100.1 - Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure and financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct... STATES SECTION EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 1100.1 Cross-references to employee ethical... executive branch standards of ethical conduct contained in 5 CFR part 2635, the executive branch financial...

  11. (Re)disclosing physician financial interests: rebuilding trust or making unreasonable burdens on physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Recent professional guidelines published by the General Medical Council instruct physicians in the UK to be honest and open in any financial agreements they have with their patients and third parties. These guidelines are in addition to a European policy addressing disclosure of physician financial interests in the industry. Similarly, In the US, a national open payments program as well as Federal regulations under the Affordable Care Act re-address the issue of disclosure of physician financial interests in America. These new professional and legal changes make us rethink the fiduciary duties of providers working under new organizational and financial schemes, specifically their clinical fidelity and their moral and professional obligations to act in the best interests of patients. The article describes the legal changes providing the background for such proposals and offers a prima facie ethical analysis of these evolving issues. It is argued that although disclosure of conflicting interest may increase trust it may not necessarily be beneficial to patients nor accord with their expectations and needs. Due to the extra burden associated with disclosure as well as its implications on the medical profession and the therapeutic relationship, it should be held that transparency of physician financial interest should not result in mandatory disclosure of such interest by physicians. It could lead, as some initiatives in Europe and the US already demonstrate, to voluntary or mandatory disclosure schemes carried out by the industry itself. Such schemes should be in addition to medical education and the address of the more general phenomenon of physician conflict of interest in ethical codes and ethical training of the parties involved.

  12. Why Financial Advice Cannot Substitute for Financial Literacy?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Debbich

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of financial advice provided by sellers of financial services to substitute for financial literacy of customers. I set up a simple theoretical model in which an informed financial advisor communicates with a less informed customer of financial services. Given the existence of a conflict of interest from the advisor's perspective, the model predicts that only well financially sophisticated customers receive relevant information from the advisor. This fact tends ...

  13. A Systematic Review of Surgical Randomized Controlled Trials: Part 2. Funding Source, Conflict of Interest, and Sample Size in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Ziolkowski, Natalia I; Kaur, Manraj N; Banfield, Laura; Meade, Maureen O; Chung, Kevin C; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-02-01

    The authors examined industry support, conflict of interest, and sample size in plastic surgery randomized controlled trials that compared surgical interventions. They hypothesized that industry-funded trials demonstrate statistically significant outcomes more often, and randomized controlled trials with small sample sizes report statistically significant results more frequently. An electronic search identified randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2013. Independent reviewers assessed manuscripts and performed data extraction. Funding source, conflict of interest, primary outcome direction, and sample size were examined. Chi-squared and independent-samples t tests were used in the analysis. The search identified 173 randomized controlled trials, of which 100 (58 percent) did not acknowledge funding status. A relationship between funding source and trial outcome direction was not observed. Both funding status and conflict of interest reporting improved over time. Only 24 percent (six of 25) of industry-funded randomized controlled trials reported authors to have independent control of data and manuscript contents. The mean number of patients randomized was 73 per trial (median, 43, minimum, 3, maximum, 936). Small trials were not found to be positive more often than large trials (p = 0.87). Randomized controlled trials with small sample size were common; however, this provides great opportunity for the field to engage in further collaboration and produce larger, more definitive trials. Reporting of trial funding and conflict of interest is historically poor, but it greatly improved over the study period. Underreporting at author and journal levels remains a limitation when assessing the relationship between funding source and trial outcomes. Improved reporting and manuscript control should be goals that both authors and journals can actively achieve.

  14. The vicious circle of patient-physician mistrust in China: health professionals' perspectives, institutional conflict of interest, and building trust through medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Cheng, Yu; Zou, Xiang; Gong, Ni; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Bonnie; Kleinman, Arthur

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization. These factors produce poorer healthcare outcomes and increasingly discontented and angry patients, escalate conflicts and disputes, and result in negative media coverage, all these ultimately contributing to even greater levels of mistrust. The vicious circle indicates not only the crisis of patient-physician relationship but the crisis of medicine as a profession and institution. Underlying the circle is the inherent conflict of interest in the healthcare system by which health professionals and hospitals have become profit-driven. This institutional conflict of interest seriously compromises the fundamental principle of medical professionalism-the primacy of patient welfare-as well as the traditional Chinese ideal of "medicine as the art of humanity". Patient trust can be restored through rectifying this institutional conflict of interest and promoting medical professionalism via a series of recommended practical measures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of corporate social responsibility disclosures on financial performance in the banking industry: empirical study on Egyptian banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racha El Moslemany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper to establish the relationship between corporate social responsibility disclosure and financial performance in the Egyptian banking sector. Only three banks were included in the study because Corporate Social Responsibility is a new concept that has not yet been fully established in the banking sector in Egypt. Secondary data were obtained from the annual financial reports of the banks for the period from 2008 to 2011. Corporate social responsibility score was obtained using content analysis of reports of the companies on various components of corporate social responsibility as reported in their annual financial reports. The present study identified four dimensions in the pilot study: Environment, Community, Customer, and Employee. Descriptive analysis was used to describe data collected such as Pearson correlation method. The authors used regression analysis to study the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent variables and the bank age and bank size were used as control variables in the analysis. The results indicated an insignificant relationship between the independent variables (corporate social responsibility toward environment, community, customer, and employee used in the model and the dependent variables Corporate Financial Performance as measured by (ROA, ROE, NPM, and EPS. The results of the study proved the absence of a significant relationship between the dependent and the independent variables as a whole. Yet, some relationships were found concerning individual measures. The major limitation of this paper is the sample size. In addition, failure of corporations to disclose CSR in the annual reports will have a material effect on these findings. The findings of this paper have practical implications on the management of Banks in Egypt to re-think and re-strategize their CSR policies that incorporate social and economic performance to improve their CFP.

  16. The Integration of Disclosure of Islamic Social Reporting (ISR in Islamic Bank Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic bank has an economy function as well as a social function. So that Islamic banks posses an ethical identity for their social objectives as important if not more important than economic goals due to the fact that the system and its operation is based on the Islamic Shari’ah. This objective is intended to Islamic bank also participate in the improvement of society, so it is expected to describe clear corporate social responsibility in their social reporting practices as evidenced in their annual reports. This study replicated the Haniffa and Hudaib research by examining social reporting practices of Islamic Banks in Indonesia. This examination involves a comparison of social disclosure 12 Islamic banks conducted through their annual reports to the ideal level of social disclosure that Islamic banks should be made, during the years 2014-2015. This comparison is done by using the Ethical Identity Index (EII developed by Haniffa and Hudaib (2007. The findings revealed that at present, Islamic banks in Indonesia is still poor in the practice of social reporting.

  17. Financial Disclosure and Budgetary Practices of Religious Organization: A Study of Qaryah Mosques in Kuala Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Bt Shaharuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the financial reporting and budgeting practices of qaryah mosques in Kuala Terengganu, a state in the east of Peninsular Malaysia. Data was collected using a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative approach. The questionnaire was disseminated to qaryah mosques in Kuala Terengganu and 39 responded. To address the limitations of a questionnaire survey, semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a few of the respondents. The results revealed that qaryah mosques in Kuala Terengganu do have a satisfactory system in place in terms of their financial reporting practices. However, budgetary control practices appear to be lacking. This indicates accounting, as is practiced by qaryah mosques in Kuala Terengganu appears to be limited to financial accounting. Hence, the financial management in qaryah mosques needs to be improved so that the risk of embezzlement can be reduced.

  18. Accountable and Responsible Disclosure of Financial Open Government Data: Open Spending Initiatives enhancing Civic Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, A.W. (Bert); Hartog, M.W. (Martijn)

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses an optimal arrangement of open spending as added instrumental value to the accountability incommunicating financial information towards citizens within The Netherlands. Open Spending is more and more of relevance in the Netherlands and is addressed as one of the key action points in the Open Government Partnership Action plan of The Netherlands. In order to adequately communicate financial information towards citizens, 5 arrangement variables of accountability (transpare...

  19. Voluntary certification and disclosure of internal controls over Australian financial reporting, audit fees and value relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    This thesis draws on agency theory to primarily investigate whether CEOs’ and CFOs’ voluntary certification of internal controls over financial reporting (hereafter, ICFR) is associated with audit fees and value relevance of Australian financial reports. The thesis also examines whether corporate governance and audit quality are associated with the likelihood that firms provide the CEOs’ and CFOs’ voluntary ICFR certification. While agency theory predicts that firms with high agency costs are...

  20. A Graph is Worth a Thousand Words: How Overconfidence and Graphical Disclosure of Numerical Information Influence Financial Analysts Accuracy on Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Cardoso

    Full Text Available Previous researches support that graphs are relevant decision aids to tasks related to the interpretation of numerical information. Moreover, literature shows that different types of graphical information can help or harm the accuracy on decision making of accountants and financial analysts. We conducted a 4×2 mixed-design experiment to examine the effects of numerical information disclosure on financial analysts' accuracy, and investigated the role of overconfidence in decision making. Results show that compared to text, column graph enhanced accuracy on decision making, followed by line graphs. No difference was found between table and textual disclosure. Overconfidence harmed accuracy, and both genders behaved overconfidently. Additionally, the type of disclosure (text, table, line graph and column graph did not affect the overconfidence of individuals, providing evidence that overconfidence is a personal trait. This study makes three contributions. First, it provides evidence from a larger sample size (295 of financial analysts instead of a smaller sample size of students that graphs are relevant decision aids to tasks related to the interpretation of numerical information. Second, it uses the text as a baseline comparison to test how different ways of information disclosure (line and column graphs, and tables can enhance understandability of information. Third, it brings an internal factor to this process: overconfidence, a personal trait that harms the decision-making process of individuals. At the end of this paper several research paths are highlighted to further study the effect of internal factors (personal traits on financial analysts' accuracy on decision making regarding numerical information presented in a graphical form. In addition, we offer suggestions concerning some practical implications for professional accountants, auditors, financial analysts and standard setters.

  1. A Graph is Worth a Thousand Words: How Overconfidence and Graphical Disclosure of Numerical Information Influence Financial Analysts Accuracy on Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ricardo Lopes; Leite, Rodrigo Oliveira; de Aquino, André Carlos Busanelli

    2016-01-01

    Previous researches support that graphs are relevant decision aids to tasks related to the interpretation of numerical information. Moreover, literature shows that different types of graphical information can help or harm the accuracy on decision making of accountants and financial analysts. We conducted a 4×2 mixed-design experiment to examine the effects of numerical information disclosure on financial analysts' accuracy, and investigated the role of overconfidence in decision making. Results show that compared to text, column graph enhanced accuracy on decision making, followed by line graphs. No difference was found between table and textual disclosure. Overconfidence harmed accuracy, and both genders behaved overconfidently. Additionally, the type of disclosure (text, table, line graph and column graph) did not affect the overconfidence of individuals, providing evidence that overconfidence is a personal trait. This study makes three contributions. First, it provides evidence from a larger sample size (295) of financial analysts instead of a smaller sample size of students that graphs are relevant decision aids to tasks related to the interpretation of numerical information. Second, it uses the text as a baseline comparison to test how different ways of information disclosure (line and column graphs, and tables) can enhance understandability of information. Third, it brings an internal factor to this process: overconfidence, a personal trait that harms the decision-making process of individuals. At the end of this paper several research paths are highlighted to further study the effect of internal factors (personal traits) on financial analysts' accuracy on decision making regarding numerical information presented in a graphical form. In addition, we offer suggestions concerning some practical implications for professional accountants, auditors, financial analysts and standard setters.

  2. A comparison of non-financial strategy disclosure in the annual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    Moreover, accounting information mandated by accounting standard setters played ... prepare reports on the economic, environmental and social impact of their .... ments; an audit of consolidated financial statements, as well as the .... 1Prior to the 1994 elections, the apartheid system of government prevailed in South. Africa ...

  3. DISCLOSURE PRACTICES CONCERNING CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENS OF ROMANIANS GROUPS OF ENTITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIRON TUDOR ADRIANA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this paper is to examine accounting harmonization in a sample of companies with regard to the presentation of consolidated financial statements. The results of the study indicate that listed firms tend to comply with IFRS requirements

  4. Accountable and Responsible Disclosure of Financial Open Government Data : Open Spending Initiatives enhancing Civic Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. (Bert) Mulder; M.W. (Martijn) Hartog

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses an optimal arrangement of open spending as added instrumental value to the accountability incommunicating financial information towards citizens within The Netherlands. Open Spending is more and more of relevance in the Netherlands and is addressed as one of the key action

  5. Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A; Deth, Richard C; Sykes, Lisa K; Hooker, Brian S; Love, James M; Bjørklund, Geir; Chaigneau, Carmen G; Haley, Boyd E; Geier, Mark R

    2017-12-01

    Historically, entities with a vested interest in a product that critics have suggested is harmful have consistently used research to back their claims that the product is safe. Prominent examples are: tobacco, lead, bisphenol A, and atrazine. Research literature indicates that about 80-90% of studies with industry affiliation found no harm from the product, while only about 10-20% of studies without industry affiliation found no harm. In parallel to other historical debates, recent studies examining a possible relationship between mercury (Hg) exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a similar dichotomy. Studies sponsored and supported by industry or entities with an apparent conflict of interest have most often shown no evidence of harm or no "consistent" evidence of harm, while studies without such affiliations report positive evidence of a Hg/autism association. The potentially causal relationship between Hg exposure and ASD differs from other toxic products since there is a broad coalition of entities for whom a conflict of interest arises. These include influential governmental public health entities, the pharmaceutical industry, and even the coal burning industry. This review includes a systematic literature search of original studies on the potential relationship between Hg and ASD from 1999 to August 2015, finding that of the studies with public health and/or industry affiliation, 86% reported no relationship between Hg and ASD. However, among studies without public health and/or industry affiliation, only 21% find no relationship between Hg and ASD. The discrepancy in these results suggests a bias indicative of a conflict of interest.

  6. Making sense of the disclosure of latent defects in financial statements and company acquisition contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Killian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the statement made by the South African Appeal Court Judge Holmes in the Phame v Paizes (1973 case and, using economic and unique South African legal principles, it examines the true legal nature of a contract to regulate company acquisitions.1 Two solutions are offered for financial managers in South Africa: (1 the contract to regulate company acquisitions is a forward contract and (2 the difficulty in identifying latent defects should not be grounds for reducing the price paid for a company or enterprise in the South African legal system.

  7. Voluntary disclosure of Value Chain in Financial Reports of Companies Brazilian Capital Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Costa Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing the value chain with the aim to achieve competitive advantage in relation to their competitors and in order to reduce costs has become increasingly important for business organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether Brazilian organisations listed on Sao Paulo´s Stock Exchange (BOVESPA publish information relating to value chain management in their financial reports. In addition, this research aims to investigate the potential relationtionship between evidentiation of this information and two independent variables, gross margin and number of pages. Content Analysis was adopted in the management report and report notes of the year 2011. The analysis was based on the strategic cost management framework developed by Wrubel et al. (2010. The sample selected includes the ten largest non financial organizations, according to their total assets. Despite the fact that publishing the value chain management is not compulsory, it was observed that the businesses studied present on average 30 sentences regarding the topic in their reports. The category internal and external value chain activities represents 54.58% of the total sentences found. It has been found that there is a significant positive correlation between the amount of sentences disclosed and page number of reports, however, it was found that the same does not occur when attempted to correlate the gross margin. As a consequence, the hypothesis that gross margin could be a motivation for higher volume of information regarding value chain was not confirmed.

  8. GESTIÓN CLÍNICA Y CONFLICTO DE INTERESES GESTÃO CLÍNICA E CONFLITO DE INTERESSES MANAGED CARE AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ortiz Pommier

    2009-11-01

    ções fundamentais do clínico: de uma parte, a obrigação de "care" e, portanto, de buscar o melhor para seu paciente; de outra, a condição de "manager", quer dizer, de gestor de recursos e da necessidade de que mire no controle do gasto. Este é o tema da chamada "dupla militância do médico". Este novo cenário vai mudar radicalmente o futuro da profissão médica, em cuja construção, segundo nos parece, os profissionais têm uma responsabilidade indelegável. Estamos às portas de uma mudança de paradigma na forma de exercer a medicina que, de todos os modos, significará uma mudança no contrato social de nossa profissão.We want to define what we understand as a conflict of interests and its influence upon the relationship doctor-patient when ill managed. We offer antecedents that allow us to infer that the fundamental conflict in the clinical relationship is the so called " doctor’s double agency". Bibliography on the subject has increased as a consequence of the system known in the United States as "Managed Care". This expression is very precise because its two words imply the two fundamental definitions of a clinician: on one hand, his obligation to "care" and, therefore, to do his best for his patient; on the other hand, his condition of "manager", that is to say, the manager of resources and his need to look over the financial control. This is the subject of the so called "doctor’s double agency". This new scenery will change the future of the medical profession and we think doctors have an undeniable responsibility. We are at the verge of a paradigmatic change in medical practice which will also mean a change in the social contract of our profession.

  9. Study of the combinatorial impact of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflicts of interest with the event-related potential technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He XL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli He,1 Ni Zhang2 1Department of Psychology, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 2Center of Mental Health Education for College Students, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China Objectives: Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known.Materials and methods: A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals. Event-related potential technology was used to study the combinatorial effects of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflict of interest.Results: We found that under the influence of a positive emotion, both low- and high-empathy groups exhibited lower rejection rates. In the context of conflict, individuals in the high-empathy group showed fewer refusals under positive emotion. In the low-empathy group, there was no significant difference between responses to different emotions, but conflicting proposals induced more negative medial frontal negativity than nonconflicting proposals. Individuals in the low-empathy group showed different late positive potentials when responding to different types of proposals under both neutral and negative emotions, whereas those in the high-empathy group only showed different late positive potentials responding to different types of proposals under negative emotion.Conclusion: Our results indicate that under positive emotion, individuals with low empathy show less difference in processing either conflicting or nonconflicting proposals, whereas under negative emotion, individuals with high empathy show enhanced motivation toward nonconflicting proposals. Keywords: empathy, conflicts of interest, emotion, event-related potential, late

  10. Standard-Setters Versus Big4 Opinion, Concerning Iasb Revision Project of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. the Case of Presentation and Disclosures Chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burca Valentin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the last decades the accounting system haven‘t been able to follow the dynamics of the economic systems generated by the globalization process. In order to reduce the lag between the demand of financial information and the offer of financial information, IASB has started numerous initiatives aiming the increase on the quality of the financial information. Among the current list of current IASB major projects there is also the project of revising the actual conceptual framework for financial reporting. This study is designed to give some directions that will be considered on the exposure draft of this project, analyzing the comment letters submitted by the members of ASAF and the Big4 as well. The study reveals the increasing importance the preparers and users give to the disclosures included on the notes to the primary financial statements. Moreover, on this study we emphasize several challenges that IASB has to face on issuing the exposure draft for this important project. Some of the main challenges refer to the narrow scope of the financial statements, the criteria used on classification, aggregation and offsetting, or the use of the materiality concept

  11. 78 FR 20581 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Standards for Navigators and Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... rule, in order to mitigate conflicts of interest, there are three types of information that Navigators... require disclosure of two other types of indirect financial conflicts of interest. Navigators and their... stop loss insurance or subsidiaries of such [[Page 20588

  12. Exploring Corporate Social Responsibility in Foreign Bank Branches from Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Public Disclosure of Financial Statements and Banking Audit Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila TAMAS-SZORA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the Corporate Social Responsibility CSR/the Social Responsibility Disclosure SRD reporting practices referring to the published banking financial statements and the published auditors' reports. The study was conducted on the foreign bank branches from Romania and is based on their Romanian language web-sites, that constitute the data for the analysis. The results show that voluntary CSR/SRD concepts to disclose the financial statements and the auditors' reports on the Romanian web-sites were applied only by two from nine foreign bank branches. We plead for a social responsibility of the banks, even if they are foreign bank branches that conduct their activities according to the law from their origin countries. Disclosing the economic outputs via web-site could contribute to a high level of banks' transparency and makes part from the responsibility to society into the Corporate Social Responsibility CSR concept.

  13. Complexity and conflicts of interest statements: a case-study of emails exchanged between Coca-Cola and the principal investigators of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Ruskin, Gary; McKee, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Statements on conflicts of interest provide important information for readers of scientific papers. There is now compelling evidence from several fields that papers reporting funding from organizations that have an interest in the results often generate different findings from those that do not report such funding. We describe the findings of an analysis of correspondence between representatives of a major soft drinks company and scientists researching childhood obesity. Although the studies report no influence by the funder, the correspondence describes detailed exchanges on the study design, presentation of results and acknowledgement of funding. This raises important questions about the meaning of standard statements on conflicts of interest.

  14. Study of the combinatorial impact of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflicts of interest with the event-related potential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ni

    2017-01-01

    Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known. A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals. Event-related potential technology was used to study the combinatorial effects of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflict of interest. We found that under the influence of a positive emotion, both low- and high-empathy groups exhibited lower rejection rates. In the context of conflict, individuals in the high-empathy group showed fewer refusals under positive emotion. In the low-empathy group, there was no significant difference between responses to different emotions, but conflicting proposals induced more negative medial frontal negativity than nonconflicting proposals. Individuals in the low-empathy group showed different late positive potentials when responding to different types of proposals under both neutral and negative emotions, whereas those in the high-empathy group only showed different late positive potentials responding to different types of proposals under negative emotion. Our results indicate that under positive emotion, individuals with low empathy show less difference in processing either conflicting or nonconflicting proposals, whereas under negative emotion, individuals with high empathy show enhanced motivation toward nonconflicting proposals.

  15. [Conflict of interest with industry--a survey of nurses in the field of wound care in Germany, Australia and Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfil, Eva-Maria; Zima, Karoline; Lins, Sabine; Köpke, Sascha; Langer, Gero; Meyer, Gabriele

    2014-06-01

    Nurses in the field of wound care are increasingly being courted by the wound industry. A survey regarding nurses' perceptions and participation in pharmaceutical marketing was conducted. Based on existing instruments, a standardized questionnaire (39 items, 5-point Likert scale) was developed. It was sent electronically and by mail to all nursing members of the Austrian Society for Vascular Care (ÖGvP), the German Wound Healing Society (DGfW e. V.) and the Swiss Association for Wound Care (SAfW). 178 nurses participated in the survey (75 % women; aged 27 - 70 years [median 45], 0 - 40 years [median 9] practice in the area of the wound care). Only about one fourth of the respondents (23,0 %) did not participate in pharmaceutical marketing last year. Generally small gifts were more frequently received than expensive gifts. Most of the nurses valued inexpensive gifts, educational gifts and gifts with patient benefit as appropriate. The majority of respondents consider themselves as less influenceable in decision making, compared to physicians. The behavior and attitude of nurses are ambivalent. The occurrence of conflict of interest is partly justified by perceived patient benefit. Lack of knowledge about the topic and social desirability could be the cause of an uncritical attitude. For a more critical approach education and ethical standards are necessary.

  16. Disclosure of Differences in Deposits, Interagency Transfers, and Checks Issued in the FY 1999 DOD Agency-Wide Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...) performed in response to Public Law 101-576, the "Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990," November 15, 1990, as amended by Public Law 103-356, the "Federal Financial Management Act of 1994," October...

  17. Industry Financial Relationships in Neurosurgery in 2015: Analysis of the Sunshine Act Open Payments Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lotbiniere-Bassett, Madeleine P; McDonald, Patrick J

    2018-03-23

    The 2013 Physician Payments Sunshine Act mandates that all U.S. drug and device manufacturers disclose payments to physicians. All payments are made available annually in the Open Payments Database (OPD). Our aim was to determine prevalence, magnitude, and nature of these payments to physicians performing neurologic surgery in 2015 and to discuss the role that financial conflicts of interest play in neurosurgery. All records of industry financial relationships with physicians identified by the neurological surgery taxonomy code in 2015 were accessed via the OPD. Data were analyzed in terms of type and amounts of payments, companies making payments, and comparison with previous studies. In 2015, 83,690 payments (totaling $99,048,607) were made to 7613 physicians by 330 companies. Of these, 0.01% were >$1 million, and 73.2% were <$100. The mean payment ($13,010) was substantially greater than the median ($114). Royalties and licensing accounted for the largest monetary value of payments (74.2%) but only 1.7% of the total number. Food and beverage payments were the most commonly reported transaction (75%) but accounted for only 2.5% of total reported monetary value. Neurologic surgery had the second highest average total payment per physician of any specialty. The neurological surgery specialty receives substantial annual payments from industry in the United States. The overall value is driven by a small number of payments of high monetary value. The OPD provides a unique opportunity for increased transparency in industry-physician relationships facilitating disclosure of financial conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 13070 - Guidance for Clinical Investigators, Industry, and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... marketing applications, (2) what is meant by ``due diligence'' in obtaining financial disclosures from...: Financial Disclosure by Clinical Investigators; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance entitled ``Guidance for Clinical Investigators, Industry, and FDA Staff: Financial Disclosure by...

  19. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis: role of funding sources, conflict of interest and bibliometric indices as predictors of methodological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, F; Ruano, J; Aguilar-Luque, M; Gay-Mimbrera, J; Maestre-Lopez, B; Sanz-Cabanillas, J L; Carmona-Fernández, P J; González-Padilla, M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Isla-Tejera, B

    2017-06-01

    The quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease that severely impairs quality of life and is associated with high costs, remains unknown. To assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews published on psoriasis. After a comprehensive search in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database (PROSPERO: CDR42016041611), the quality of studies was assessed by two raters using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Article metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. Systematic reviews were classified as low (0-4), moderate (5-8) or high (9-11) quality. A prediction model for methodological quality was fitted using principal component and multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses. We classified 220 studies as high (17·2%), moderate (55·0%) or low (27·8%) quality. Lower compliance rates were found for AMSTAR question (Q)5 (list of studies provided, 11·4%), Q10 (publication bias assessed, 27·7%), Q4 (status of publication included, 39·5%) and Q1 (a priori design provided, 40·9%). Factors such as meta-analysis inclusion [odds ratio (OR) 6·22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·78-14·86], funding by academic institutions (OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·11-7·89), Article Influence score (OR 2·14, 95% CI 1·05-6·67), 5-year impact factor (OR 1·34, 95% CI 1·02-1·40) and article page count (OR 1·08, 95% CI 1·02-1·15) significantly predicted higher quality. A high number of authors with a conflict of interest (OR 0·90, 95% CI 0·82-0·99) was significantly associated with lower quality. The methodological quality of systematic reviews published about psoriasis remains suboptimal. The type of funding sources and author conflicts may compromise study quality, increasing the risk of bias. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...