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Sample records for filter cake granular

  1. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  2. Gas cleaning with Granular Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Natvig, Ingunn Roald

    2007-01-01

    The panel bed filter (PBF) is a granular filter patented by A. M. Squires in the late sixties. PBFs consist of louvers with stationary, granular beds. Dust is deposited in the top layers and on the bed surface when gas flows through. PBFs are resistant to high temperatures, variations in the gas flow and hot particles. The filter is cleaned by releasing a pressure pulse in the opposite direction of the bulk flow (a puff back pulse). A new louver geometry patented by A. M. Squires is the filte...

  3. Bioenergy and biofertilizer : improvement of biogas production from filter cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, A.H. [Environmental Bioremediation Group, Research and Development Agency, GeoCuba, Camaguey (Cuba); Alvarez, R.C. [Provincial Direction of Soils, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) was studied using a natural zeolite to intensify the biogas production. The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural waste mixtures in certain proportions is the underlying basis of biogas generation. Earlier studies have shown that certain inert materials can act as stimulators in biogas production when used in conjunction with AD. This study involved three experiments using filter cake from different sugar mills using three doses of zeolite to determine how they stimulate biogas production. Another objective of the study was to determine if the mud of the digester containing the added zeolite has an impact on plants and soil. The study was conducted under glass house conditions using a brown soil with carbonates with neutral pH and high contents of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter. It was concluded that it is possible to increase the biogas yield and to improve AD behaviour of the filter cake by using a zeolite adapted to unique operating conditions. The amount of yield depends on the origin of the filter cake, the stimulator dose and age. Results were in the order of 20-40 per cent biogas production. Fresh filter cake was found to produce more biogas. The mud of the anaerobic digestion of the filter cake containing zeolite positively impacted on the agronomic behaviour of the sorghum in relation to P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter content. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  5. Interface stability of granular filter structures under currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, H.J.; Hoffmans, G.; Dorst, K.; Van de Sande, S.

    2012-01-01

    Granular filters are used for protection of structures against scour and erosion. For a proper functioning it is necessary that the interfaces between the filter structure, the subsoil and the water flowing above the filter structure are stable. Stability means that there is no transport of subsoil

  6. Granular filters for water treatment: heterogeneity and diagnostic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose

    in a proactive manner. They can also be used to optimize the filtration process. However, further research is necessary to relate the information obtained through the tools to specific causes. New tools such as the total dissolved gas probe, salt tracers and ammonium profiles are presented. Potential tools from......Rapid granular filters are the most commonly used filters in drinking water treatment plants and are the focus of this PhD study. They are usually constructed with sand, anthracite, activated carbon, garnet sand, and ilmenite and have filtration rates ranging from 3 to 15 m/h. Filters are often...... and reliable filter performance, and water quality compliance. A salt tracer tool is developed to be used in full-scale filters to investigate the heterogeneity of the filter bed. The tool allows the pore velocity to be estimated in different locations of the filter bed during the duration of a filter run...

  7. Removal of polymeric filter cake in petroleum wells. A study of commercial amylase stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Etel; Coelho, Maria Alice Z. [Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, Lab. 113, Cidade Universitaria, 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); De Queiroz Neto, Joao C. [Cenpes/Petrobras, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Langone, Marta A.P. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, PHLC/IQ sala 310, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The drilling fluid contact with the productive zone of drilling wells, with horizontal or complex configurations, can reduce its productivity by fluid invasion in the borehole wall. Drilling fluids usually comprise natural polymers as starch and xanthan gum. These polymers are deposited as a filter cake on the wellbore wall. A common approach to remove this filter cake is the application of acids or strong oxidative solutions. However, these are non-specific species and a possible alternative lies in enzymatic preparations that are able to hydrolyze such polymers. The enzymes catalyze specific substrates, are environmentally friendly and the enzymatic degradation rate is slower than that achieved by the oxidative species, permitting to produce uniform degradation of the filter cake. Openhole operations require thermo and pressure stability of these enzymatic products. The results herein reported deals with the technical viability analysis of a commercial {alpha}-amylase as a new catalyst for filter cake removal. The effects of process parameters, like temperature (65, 80 and 95 C), enzyme concentration (1, 5.5 and 10% v/v), calcium concentration (5, 70 and 135 ppm), and pressure (100, 500, 100 and 6000 psi), on amylase stability under openhole operations were investigated. Temperature demonstrated to be the most important parameter for the enzyme stability. The enzyme thermostability behavior in high salt (NaCl) concentration (completion fluid) was not significantly different from the control solution in distillated water. The pressure effect on enzyme stability did not affect the enzyme stability as temperature. Hydrostatic pressure (6000 psi) did not impact the amylolytic activity in brine solution. Combined pressure-temperature assays showed that temperature is the key factor in enzyme stability for application in polymeric filter cake removal in petroleum wells. (author)

  8. Wax extraction from filter Cake with Ethanol 96 ºGL at Laboratory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés María San Anastacio-Rebollar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a methodology for the production of wax starting from the sugar cane phlegm, in which aggressive substances to the environment are not used. The wax is extracted from the phlegm, a residue of the sugar industry, by using ethanol (with a purity of 96 ºGL as a solvent. A methodology to achieve the extraction of wax from the filter cake was determined. A filter cake:ethanol ratio, where for every 0,05 kg of filter cake: 1L of ethanol was used. The operation parameters of extraction of temperature of 70 ºC, atmospheric pressure, speed of agitation 700 rpm and extraction time 2,5 hour were defined. Under the above mentioned conditions 86,17 % of extraction was achieved. The obtained wax presented the necessary characteristics to compete in the market of vegetable wax. In order to evaluate the design viability of a demonstrative plant for wax production, a simulation of the complete process with the professional simulation software (Super Pro Design was performed. Laboratory obtained results were used for this simulation.

  9. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses are one of the main causes of severe yield reductions. Drought is still a serious agronomic problem and also one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss in arid and semi-arid areas in the world. Filter Cake is a byproduct of sugarcane industry and experiments on corn showed that the use of 20 tons per hectare Filter Cake increases crop productivity, total amount of dry matter, protein and forage yield compared with the control. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the Ramin Agricultural University of Khuzestan in 2012. The experiment was done as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought stress at the end of the growth period in three levels, non-stress, mild and severe drought stress, respectively irrigated after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water, and was considered as the main factor. Drought stress was applied in early stage of the male inflorescence of plants to maturity for 35 days, due to the critical stage of the plant in late spring. Soil moisture was determined by gravimetric method. Different doses of Filter Cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 tons per hectare were considered as subplot factor and was added to the soil two days before the seeding. The final harvest as green corn was performed in the first phase of dough by hand in three times and two midfields of each subplot was considered as the margin of half a meter for each side. Finally, the data were analyzed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at probability level of 5%. Results and discussion In non-stress conditions, Filter Cake is significantly increased plant height, So the amounts of 20 and 30 tons per hectare increased by 11.7% and 10.1% of the plant’s height, respectively, but the use of 10 tons of Filter Cake did not have a significant effect on it. In severe stress conditions, the use of

  10. Water flow exchange characteristics in coarse granular filter media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    in this study are performed at a concurrent airflow of 0.3 m s−1, water irrigation rates of 1–21 cm h−1 in materials with particle diameters ranging from 2 to 14 mm to represent media and operation conditions relevant for low flow biotrickling filter design. Specific surface area related elution velocity...... constitutes a scientific gap. This study investigates the impact of particle size distribution (considering materials with multiple particle sizes) and irrigation rate on the overall specific surface area related elution velocity distribution in porous granular media. The elution measurements performed...... distribution was closely related to the filter water content, water irrigation rate, media specific surface area and particle size distribution. A predictive model linking the specific surface area related elution velocity distribution to irrigation rate, specific surface area and particle size distribution...

  11. UNSAPONIFIABLE MATTER FROM SUGAR CANE FILTER CAKE USING ETHANOL AS SOLVENT

    OpenAIRE

    Inés María San Anastacio Rebollar; José Gerardo Baltá García; Gretel Villanueva Ramos

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a methodology for the obtaining of unsaponificable matter starting from the sugar cane filter cake, in the one that only ethanol 96 °GL is used as solvent. The wax is extracted of the mud with ethanol (with a purity of 96 ºGL) by means of a leaching out process using a mud/ethanol ratio of 0.05 kg/L to 70 ºC, atmospheric pressure, agitation speed of 700 rpm and extraction time of 2,5 hours. Under these conditions 86.21 % of extraction is obtained. Then, the obtained ...

  12. Feasibility of utilization of horse dung spiked filter cake in vermicomposters using exotic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Pritam; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2008-05-01

    This contribution reports the potential of vermicomposting technology in the management of horse dung (HD) spiked sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida under laboratory conditions. A total of six vermicomposters filled with different ratios of HD and SMFC were maintained for this study. The growth and fecundity of E. foetida was monitored for 12 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixture containing vermicomposter. Earthworms' biomass gain and reproduction was favorably up to 50% HD+50% SMFC feed composition. Maximum cocoons were also recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixtures, however increasing proportions of SMFC in different vermicomposters affected the growth and fecundity of worms. A significant decrease in C:N ratio and increase in total kjeldahl nitrogen, total available phosphorus and calcium contents was recorded. The heavy metals content was higher in the vermicompost obtained in all the reactors than initial feed substrates. Based on investigations it is concluded that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of filter cake if it is mixed in 1:1 ratio with horse dung.

  13. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti

    2015-03-01

    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Review of diagnostic tools to investigate the physical state of rapid granular filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose; Binning, Philip John; Arvin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews diagnostic tools that can be used at waterworks to investigate the physical and operational state of rapid granular filters. Diagnostic tools can be of interest for the Water Safety Plans of WHO to monitor filters in a proactive manner. The review considers conventional and state...

  15. UNSAPONIFIABLE MATTER FROM SUGAR CANE FILTER CAKE USING ETHANOL AS SOLVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés María San Anastacio Rebollar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for the obtaining of unsaponificable matter starting from the sugar cane filter cake, in the one that only ethanol 96 °GL is used as solvent. The wax is extracted of the mud with ethanol (with a purity of 96 ºGL by means of a leaching out process using a mud/ethanol ratio of 0.05 kg/L to 70 ºC, atmospheric pressure, agitation speed of 700 rpm and extraction time of 2,5 hours. Under these conditions 86.21 % of extraction is obtained. Then, the obtained extract reacts with alcoholic NaOH to 70 ºC during 75 minutes to atmospheric pressure and shaking to 200 rpm. The employment of the proposed methodology allows to obtain 1.942 g of impure unsaponifiable matter starting from 50 g of mud and 1.05 L of ethanol 96 °GL.

  16. Relationship Between Composition, Structure and Permeability of Drilling Filter Cakes Relations entre la composition, la structure et la perméabilité des cakes de forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available During drilling operations there is a need to build mud cakes as impervious as possible on the wall of the borehole to prevent damage by fluid loss. To establish the relationship between the filtration properties of mud filter cakes and their structure, drilling fluids containing montmorillonite clay, flexible (Drispac or rigid (xanthan anionic polymers, electrolytes and barite were investigated. Standard API filtration and polymer adsorption measurements were performed. The cake structure was vizualized by cryoscanning electron microscopy. Our study establishes the mechanism of filtration reduction properties of drilling filter cakes. Filtration measurements and cryomicroscopy show that a well dispersed suspension forms a well connected, homogeneous network that prevents fluid loss. Addition of salts to the drilling fluid promotes the aggregation of the clay particles and introduces heterogeneities so that the fluid loss is increased. Addition of anionic polymers causes a better dispersion of the clay particles in the suspension which lowers the filtration rate. In the presence of both salts and polymers, there is a competition effect between the salt-induced aggregation of the clay particles and the dispersion due to polymers, largely governed by the concentration and valence of the electrolytes and the flexibility of the polymers. During the filtration process more filtration reduction properties are obtained by non adsorbed polymers which clog the pores of the cake network and further reduce the filtration rate. The different behavior of the flexible (Drispac and the rigid polymer (xanthan, can be used to optimize their applications in drilling fluids depending on field conditions (temperature, salt conditions. Afin d'éviter l'endommagement des puits par une perte de fluides, il est nécessaire de former, au cours du forage, un cakeaussi imperméable que possible sur la paroi des puits. L'objectif de l'étude est d'établir des relations

  17. Technical note: Measurement and expression of granular filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of dirty filter media at water treatment plants, despite having good backwash systems, is a serious challenge that requires constant monitoring and maintenance. To aid the systematic analysis of filter media and the troubleshooting of problem filters, this paper firstly proposes a standard procedure for ...

  18. Laboratory Studies on Granular Filters and Their Relationship to Geotextiles for Stormwater Pollutant Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parneet Paul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of geotextiles within tertiary stormwater treatment systems and for stormwater infiltration can provide a substrate for biofilm formation, enabling biological treatment of contaminants. Geotextiles can serve as an efficient part of stormwater filtration within the urban water environment. The project assessed the applications of three experimental granular filters as a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS for the decomposition of organic pollutant loading present in stormwater. The three filter rigs were packed with alternating layers of filter media consisting of gravel, pea gravel, sand and either a single, double or no layer of geotextile membrane. A nonwoven geotextile was layered within the filter media. The hydraulic loading capacity for the three filters matched that commonly used with conventional sand filters systems. Water quality parameters were quantified by measuring suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, pH, nitrate-nitrogen, and phosphate concentrations. It was found that Filter Rig No. 3 (upper and lower geotextile membrane and Filter Rig No. 2 (single geotextile membrane had a significant statistical difference in treatment performance from Filter Rig No. 1 (no geotextile membrane.

  19. Enzymes evaluation for the polymeric filter cake removal; Avaliacao de enzimas para remocao de reboco formado por fluidos polimericos de base agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Etel; Coelho, Maria Alice Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Langone, Marta A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Queiroz Neto, Joao C. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In the drilling wells in horizontal or complex configurations, the drilling fluid contact with the productive zone can reduce the productivity by fluid invasion in the borehole wall. Drilling fluids usually comprise natural polymers as starch and xanthan gum. These polymers are deposited as the filter-cake on the wellbore wall. A common approach to remove this filter-cake is the application of acids or strong oxidative solutions. However, these are non-specific species which will react with any encountered that is acid soluble or oxidizable. An alternative is the use of enzymatic preparations that are able to hydrolyze such polymers. The enzymes catalyze only certain specific substrates, are inherently environmentally friendly, the enzymatic degradation rate is slower than that achieved by the oxidative species, so the enzymes produces an uniform filter cake degradation. In this work, the kinetic behaviors of an enzymatic filter-cake breaker and a commercial thermo stable enzymatic complex were analyzed. Both kinetic profiles were very similar, as well as its electrophoresis analysis. The protein in each product showed identical molecular weight. The commercial enzymatic complex stability remained 58.56% of enzymatic activity after 30 days at 40 deg C. Stability at wellbore conditions can be considered similar for both products. At 65 deg C they showed the same enzymatic activity after 8 hours. After 3 hours at 80 deg C, the commercial enzymatic complex remained 29.89% of the initial activity and the filter-cake breaker 61.73%, while at 95 deg C remained 4.39% and 11.60% of the initial activity, respectively, after 15 minutes. (author)

  20. Effects of ozonation and temperature on biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxygen

  1. Effects of ozonation and temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and

  2. Influence of thermophoresis on particle removal in a moving granular bed filter and heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; First, M.W.; Price, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Bench-scale investigations were made to determine the influence of thermophoresis on particle removal in a moving granular bed filter. A continuous flow of 2-mm diameter ceramic granules at ambient temperature entered the top of the filter and moved slowly downward under the influence of gravity countercurrent to the gas stream. At an inlet gas temperature of 240 0 C, gas mass velocity of 0.12 kg/(s.m 2 ), and granule velocities up to 0.015 cm/s, clean bed collection efficiency for a submicrometer sodium chloride aerosol was found to increase the more the gas was cooled, indicating that thermophoretic forces were playing a measurable role in particle collection

  3. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1).

  4. Effect of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Cake and Wetting and Drying Cycles on Pre-Compaction Stress of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nemati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The compaction of soil by agricultural equipment has become a matter of increasing concern because compaction of arable lands may reduce crop growth and yield, and it also has environmental impacts. In nature, soils could be compacted due to its own weights, external loads and internal forces as a result of wetting and drying processes. Soil compaction in sugarcane fields usually occurs due to mechanized harvesting operations by using heavy machinery in wet soils. Adding plant residues to the soil can improve soil structure. To improve soil physical quality of sugarcane fields, it might be suggested to add the bagasse and filter cake, which are the by-products of the sugar industry, to the soils. When a soil has been compacted by field traffic or has settled owing to natural forces, a threshold stress is believed to exist such that loadings inducing lower than the threshold cause little additional compaction, whilst loadings inducing greater stresses than the threshold cause much additional compaction. This threshold is called pre-compaction stress (σpc. The σpc is considered as an index of soil compactibility, the maximum pressure a soil has experienced in the past (i.e. soil management history, and the maximum major principal stress a soil can resist without major plastic deformation and compaction. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wetting and drying cycles, soil water content, residues type and percent on stress at compaction threshold (σpc. Materials and Methods In this research, the effect of adding sugarcane residues (i.e., bagasse and filter cake with two different rates (1 and 2% on pre-compaction stress (σpc in a silty clay loam soil which was prepared at two relative water contents of 0.9PL (PL= plastic limit, moist and 1.1PL (wet with or without wetting and drying cycles. This study was conducted using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three

  5. Numerical and experimental approaches to study soil transport and clogging in granular filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarska, Y.; Smith, J. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Lomov, I.; Glascoe, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Failure of a dam by erosion ranks among the most serious accidents in civil engineering. The best way to prevent internal erosion is using adequate granular filters in the transition areas where important hydraulic gradients can appear. In case of cracking and erosion, if the filter is capable of retaining the eroded particles, the crack will seal and the dam safety will be ensured. Numerical modeling has proved to be a cost-effective tool for improving our understanding of physical processes. Traditionally, the consideration of flow and particle transport in porous media has focused on treating the media as continuum. Practical models typically address flow and transport based on the Darcy's law as a function of a pressure gradient and a medium-dependent permeability parameter. Additional macroscopic constitutes describe porosity, and permeability changes during the migration of a suspension through porous media. However, most of them rely on empirical correlations, which often need to be recalibrated for each application. Grain-scale modeling can be used to gain insight into scale dependence of continuum macroscale parameters. A finite element numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow together with Lagrange multiplier technique for solid particles was applied to the simulation of soil filtration in the filter layers of gravity dam. The numerical approach was validated through comparison of numerical simulations with the experimental results of base soil particle clogging in the filter layers performed at ERDC. The numerical simulation correctly predicted flow and pressure decay due to particle clogging. The base soil particle distribution was almost identical to those measured in the laboratory experiment. It is believed that the agreement between simulations and experimental data demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approach for prediction of the soil transport and clogging in embankment dams. To get more precise understanding of

  6. Polaromonas and Hydrogenophaga species are the predominant bacteria cultured from granular activated carbon filters in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Identification of the predominating cultivable bacteria in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in a variety of water treatment plants for selecting representative strains to study the role of bacteria in the removal of dissolved organic matter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates

  7. Development of biomass in a drinking water granular active carbon (GAC) filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Silvana; Boller, Markus; Köster, Oliver; Helbing, Jakob; Weilenmann, Hans-Ulrich; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-12-01

    Indigenous bacteria are essential for the performance of drinking water biofilters, yet this biological component remains poorly characterized. In the present study we followed biofilm formation and development in a granular activated carbon (GAC) filter on pilot-scale during the first six months of operation. GAC particles were sampled from four different depths (10, 45, 80 and 115 cm) and attached biomass was measured with adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. The attached biomass accumulated rapidly on the GAC particles throughout all levels in the filter during the first 90 days of operation and maintained a steady state afterward. Vertical gradients of biomass density and growth rates were observed during start-up and also in steady state. During steady state, biomass concentrations ranged between 0.8-1.83 x 10(-6) g ATP/g GAC in the filter, and 22% of the influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed. Concomitant biomass production was about 1.8 × 10(12) cells/m(2)h, which represents a yield of 1.26 × 10(6) cells/μg. The bacteria assimilated only about 3% of the removed carbon as biomass. At one point during the operational period, a natural 5-fold increase in the influent phytoplankton concentration occurred. As a result, influent assimilable organic carbon concentrations increased and suspended bacteria in the filter effluent increased 3-fold as the direct consequence of increased growth in the biofilter. This study shows that the combination of different analytical methods allows detailed quantification of the microbiological activity in drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Grading Entropy-based Criteria for Structural Stability of Granular Materials and Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Lőrincz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with three grading entropy-based rules that describe different soil structure stability phenomena: an internal stability rule, a filtering rule and a segregation rule. These rules are elaborated on the basis of a large amount of laboratory testing and from existing knowledge in the field. Use is made of the theory of grading entropy to derive parameters which incorporate all of the information of the grading curve into a pair of entropy-based parameters that allow soils with common behaviours to be grouped into domains on an entropy diagram. Applications of the derived entropy-based rules are presented by examining the reason of a dam failure, by testing against the existing filter rules from the literature, and by giving some examples for the design of non-segregating grading curves (discrete particle size distributions by dry weight. A physical basis for the internal stability rule is established, wherein the higher values of base entropy required for granular stability are shown to reflect the closeness between the mean and maximum grain diameters, which explains how there are sufficient coarser grains to achieve a stable grain skeleton.

  9. Comparison of start-up strategies and process performance during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake co-digested with bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Nikolausz, Marcell; Radetski, Claudemir M; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake and the option of co-digestion with bagasse were investigated in a semi-continuous feeding regime to assess the main parameters used for large-scale process designing. Moreover, fresh cattle manure was considered as alternative inoculum for the start-up of biogas reactors in cases where digestate from a biogas plant would not be available in remote rural areas. Experiments were carried out in 6 lab-scale semi-continuous stirred-tank reactors at mesophilic conditions (38±1°C) while the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. Fresh cattle manure demonstrated to be appropriate for the start-up process. However, an acclimation period was required due to the high initial volatile fatty acids concentration (8.5gL(-1)). Regardless the mono-digestion of filter cake presented 50% higher biogas yield (480mLgVS(-1)) than co-digestion with bagasse (320mLgVS(-1)) during steady state conditions. A large-scale co-digestion system would produce 58% more biogas (1008m(3)h(-1)) than mono-digestion of filter cake (634m(3)h(-1)) due to its higher biomass availability for biogas conversion. Considering that the biogas production rate was the technical parameter that displayed the most relevant differences between the analyzed substrate options (0.99-1.45m(3)biogasm(3)d(-1)). The decision of which substrate option should be implemented in practice would be mainly driven by the available construction techniques, since economically efficient tanks could compensate the lower biogas production rate of co-digestion option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonia Volatilization in Cocoa Farm as Affected by Sugarcane Filter Cake Supply at Different Urea and Soil Moisture Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Prastowo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia  (NH3  volatilization  is  a  crucial  mechanism  in  soil  nitrogen  (N cycle. It accounts for main loss  of N in cocoa  farms  when  environment is  suitable to  promote  the  emission.  A  research  to  locate  a  link  of  several  factors,  namely, sugarcane filter cake  (SFC, urea  and soil moisture content  to NH 3 volatilization,  and  to reveal  cocoa  N  uptake  and  urea  fertilizer  efficiency  was  taken  place  both  in  a laboratory  with  the  incubation  technique,  and  in  a  greenhouse  as  a  pot  trial. The design was completely randomized design in factorial. The soil was Inceptisol from Kaliwining Experimental Station, Jember, East Java, collected from top soil of  a  productive  cocoa  farm.  A  closed  trap  system  was  designed  to  measurevolatilized  NH 3 from  soil  and  SFC  mixture  incubated  for  14  days.  For  the  pot experiment,  cocoa  clone  of  Scavina  6  seedlings  were  grown  for  six  months  withtreatments  involving  series  level  of  SFC  and  series  level  of  urea.  Soil  moisture content influenced volatilized NH3 by reducing 50% emission in where it was more obvious in higher level of urea applied. It was more than 90% in average for the increase in volatilized NH 3roduced by increasing in level of urea from 0 to 0.4 g kg -1 in  overall  level  of  combinations. An increase in urea  level  had  resulted in increase in  soil  pH, and  Parson correlation suggested a direct  link  with  volatilized  NH 3  We found  a  relationship  between  SFC  and volatilized  NH 3 and  their combinations  with soil  moisture  and  urea  content  were  able  to  inhibit  the  emission.  Emission decrease  up  to  28%  was  observed  from  0  to  100  g  SFC  kg-1.  This  inhibition may  have contributed to  the increase in  N cocoa  plant uptake

  11. Submicron and Nanoparticulate Matter Removal by HEPA-Rated Media Filters and Packed Beds of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Agui, J. H.; Vijayakimar, R

    2016-01-01

    Contaminants generated aboard crewed spacecraft by diverse sources consist of both gaseous chemical contaminants and particulate matter. Both HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material, such as activated carbon, which are both commonly employed for cabin atmosphere purification purposes have efficacy for removing nanoparticulate contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. The phenomena associated with particulate matter removal by HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material are reviewed relative to their efficacy for removing fine (less than 2.5 micrometers) and ultrafine (less than 0.01 micrometers) sized particulate matter. Considerations are discussed for using these methods in an appropriate configuration to provide the most effective performance for a broad range of particle sizes including nanoparticulates.

  12. Improved methane production from sugarcane vinasse with filter cake in thermophilic UASB reactors, with predominance of Methanothermobacter and Methanosarcina archaea and Thermotogae bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Valciney Gomes de; Duda, Rose Maria; Vantini, Juliana da Silva; Omori, Wellington Pine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Oliveira, Roberto Alves de

    2017-11-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane vinasse has enormous economic, energy, and environmental management potential. However, methane production stability and biodigested vinasse quality remain key issues, requiring better nutrient and alkalinity availability, operational strategies, and knowledge of reactor microbiota. This study demonstrates increased methane production from vinasse through the use of sugarcane filter cake and improved effluent recirculation, with elevated organic loading rates (OLR) and good reactor stability. We used UASB reactors in a two-stage configuration, with OLRs up to 45gCODL -1 d -1 , and obtained methane production as high as 3LL -1 d -1 . Quantitative PCR indicated balanced amounts of bacteria and archaea in the sludge (10 9 -10 10 copiesg -1 VS), and of the predominant archaea orders, Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (10 6 -10 8 copiesg -1 VS). 16S rDNA sequencing also indicated the thermophilic Thermotogae as the most abundant class of bacteria in the sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

  14. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed.

  15. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  16. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  17. Granular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing ...... on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture....

  18. Remoção de diclofenaco, ibuprofeno, naproxeno e paracetamol em filtro ecológico seguido por filtro de carvão granular biologicamente ativado Removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and paracetamol in ecological filter followed by granular carbon filter biologically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moço Erba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O filtro ecológico representa uma promissora tecnologia de tratamento, em razão desta não necessitar da aplicação de produtos químicos, além de sua constatada eficiência. Nele, estabelece-se entre os seres vivos a relação de cadeia alimentar. Inicialmente uma matriz aquosa foi acrescida de quatro fármacos (diclofenaco, naproxeno, ibuprofeno e paracetamol e posteriormente analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência para avaliar a remoção desses compostos pelo filtro ecológico seguido pelo filtro de carvão granular biologicamente ativado. Parâmetros, entre eles turbidez, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, cor aparente e cor verdadeira, foram mensurados para verificar a eficiência dos filtros. Houve remoção de 97,43% do diclofenaco, 85,03% do ibuprofeno: 94,11% do naproxeno e 84,07% do paracetamol.The ecological filter represents a promising treatment technology, because this doesn't require the application of chemicals and is efficient. In it, is between living beings the relationship of the food chain. Initially an aqueous matrix was added to four drugs (diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen and paracetamol, and subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to evaluate the removal of these compounds by ecological filter followed by granular activated carbon filter biologically active. The pharmacological compounds and parameters such as turbity, total and fecal coliforms, apparent color and true color were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of filters. There was removal of the drugs applied and the parameters measured. The percentages of removal were 97,43% of diclofenaco,85,03% of ibuprofen, 94,11% of naproxen and 84,07% of paracetamol.

  19. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  20. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessasma, Mohamed; Silva Tavares, Homayra; Afrassiabian, Zahra; Saleh, Khashayar

    2017-06-01

    This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM). In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV), the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation) in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength).

  1. Performance evaluation of a natural treatment system for small communities, composed of a UASB reactor, maturation ponds (baffled and unbaffled) and a granular rock filter in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, D F C; Passos, R G; Rodrigues, V A J; de Matos, M P; Santos, C R S; von Sperling, M

    2018-02-01

    Post-treatment of anaerobic reactor effluent with maturation ponds is a good option for small to medium-sized communities in tropical climates. The treatment line investigated, operating in Brazil, with an equivalent capacity to treat domestic sewage from 250 inhabitants, comprised a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by two shallow maturation ponds (unbaffled and baffled) and a granular rock filter (decreasing grain size) in series, requiring an area of only 1.5 m 2  inhabitant -1 . With an overall hydraulic retention time of only 6.7 days, the performance was excellent for a natural treatment system. Based on over two years of continuous monitoring, median removal efficiencies were: biochemical oxygen demand = 93%, chemical oxygen demand = 79%, total suspended solids = 87%, ammonia = 43% and Escherichia coli = 6.1 log units. The final effluent complied with European discharge standards and WHO guidelines for some forms of irrigation, and appeared to be a suitable alternative for treating domestic sewage for small communities in warm areas, especially in developing countries.

  2. Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-01-01

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

  3. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  4. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  5. Perancangan Promosi Amelia Cake & Bakery Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Susanti Aprillia; Bramantya, Bramantya; Sutanto, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Amelia Cake & Bakery meupakan sebuah bakery di Surabaya yang sudah berdiri sejak tahun 1984. Amelia Cake& Bakery memiliki beberapa produk andalan di antaranya Spikoe Resep Kuno, Walnut Cake, Pandan Kukus, danMascovis Cake. Tidak adanya promosi yang dilakukan oleh Amelia Cake & Bakery membuat bakery ini kurangdi kenal di kota Surabaya. Dengan adanya perancangan promosi ini diharapkan dapat membuat Amelia Cake &Bakery dikenal dan mampu bersaing dengan kompetitor-kompetitornya.

  6. The Effects Of Replacing Groundnut Cake With Cottonseed Cake On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with cottonseed cake (CSC) at 0, 50 and 100% levels in starter and finisher diets on broiler performance, carcass characteristics and gut morphology were evaluated in a 56 - day feeding trial. Average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, and feed/gain ratio were ...

  7. "Toilet cake" encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhentao; Moreno, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Paradichlorobenzene (PDB) is an aromatic compound found in several household insect repellents and deodorizers. Paradichlorobenzene may cause dependence and damage when inhaled or ingested. Prior cases of PDB neurotoxicity involved ingestion or inhalation of mothballs or occupational exposure. We report the first case of PDB neurotoxicity from chronic toilet bowl deodorizers ("toilet cake") sniffing. A 19-year-old woman, 4 weeks postpartum, presented with gradual mental status deterioration, lethargy, and general weakness for 2 weeks. On physical examination, the patient was found to have a strong odor of deodorizer and diffuse hyperpigmented skin lesions, with scratch marks in neck, axillae, trunk, and 4 limbs. She was alert but unable to communicate or follow commands. Ataxia, hyporeflexia, cogwheel rigidity, and decreased muscle tone were also noted. Laboratory tests revealed only normocytic anemia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan showed enhancement within the splenium of the corpus callosum. Postpartum depression, psychosis, and panhypopituitarism were excluded. Family members reported on further questioning that the patient was a habitual "toilet cake" sniffer for an unknown period. A urine test for 2,5-dichlorophenol (a PDB metabolite) level was 620 mg/L (3100 times higher than the average concentration with household exposure). Her clinical condition and body odor remained unchanged during the 30-day hospitalization and the skin findings improved.

  8. A study of the porosity of gas filtration cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. X. Ito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the porosity of gas filtration cakes composed of powdery organic and inorganic materials, employing a technique whereby an optical microscope generates images of the powdery layer deposited on the surface of the filtering medium. To this end, experimental cake filtration porosity data were obtained as a function of the surface filtration velocity. The images generated by the optical microscope were analyzed by using an image analyzing program that supplied the cake porosity values. The results revealed that porosity decreases as surface filtration velocity increases. The average porosity of corn starch was higher than that of tapioca powder and phosphate concentrate, possibly due to the shape of the particles, differences in the physicochemical characteristics of the materials, and grain distribution. Based on the relation of the experimental average porosity data and the filtration velocity, an empirical correlation was found that better fit these parameters.

  9. Bioconversion of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using apple filter cake Bioconversão de hidrocarbonetos de petróleo no solo pelo uso de bagaço de maçã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecilia Medaura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using apple filter cake, a fruit-processing waste to enhance the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. A rotating barrel system was used to study the bioconversion of the xenobiotic compound by natural occurring microbial population. The soil had been accidentally polluted with a total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 41,000 ppm. Although this global value was maintained during the process, microbial intervention was evidenced through transformation of the petroleum fractions. Thus, fractions that represent a risk for the environment (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics i.e., C6 to C10-12; DRO, Diesel Range Organics i.e., C8-12 to C24-26 and RRO, Residual Range Organics i.e., C25 to C35 were significantly reduced, from 2.95% to 1.39%. On the contrary, heavier weight fraction from C35 plus other organics increased in value from 1.15% to 3.00%. The noticeable diminution of low molecular weight hydrocarbons content and hence environmental risk by the process plus the improvement of the physical characteristics of the soil, are promising results with regard to future application at large scale.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigara viabilidade de aplicação de bagaço de maçã, um resíduo do processamento de frutas, para melhorar a biorremediação de solo contaminado com petróleo. Para estudar a bioconversão de compostos xenobióticos pela população microbiana naturalmente presente empregou-se um sistema de barril rotativo. O solo havia sido acidentalmente contaminado com um total de hidrocarbonetos de petróleo na concentração de 41.000 ppm. Embora esse valor tenha se mantido durante o processo, a intervenção microbiana ficou evidenciada através da transformação de frações do petróleo. Assim, as frações de risco para o meio ambiente (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics, i.e., C6 a C10-12; DRO, Diesel Ramge Organics, i.e. C8-12 a C24-26 e RRO, Residual Range Organics

  10. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  11. Let Them Eat Faux Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Suze

    2012-01-01

    In this article, students create a "faux" cake sculpture. It is a three-dimensional artwork made of paper, colored with markers, and decorated with old marker caps and polystyrene packing peanuts for icing swirls.

  12. Cake Division by Majority Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Gersbach; Bernhard Pachl

    2006-01-01

    We consider a collective choice process where three players make proposals sequentially on how to divide a given quantity of resources. Afterwards, one of the proposals is chosen by majority decision. If no proposal obtains a majority, a proposal is drawn by lot. We establish the existence of the set of subgame perfect equilibria, using a suitable refinement concept. In any equilibrium, the first agent offers the whole cake to the second proposal-maker, who in turn offers the whole cake back ...

  13. Cake consolidation in a compression-permeability cell: effect of side-wall friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tien, Chi

    2003-06-01

    A simulation study was made to investigate the transient state stresses, strains, and void ratio distributions in the formation of a filter cake in a compression-permeability cell (C-P cell). A finite-element software package, ABAQUS, was used for the simulation and emphasis was placed on the effect of the cake/cell-surface friction. The validity of the simulation was assessed by comparing simulation results with available experimental data.

  14. Efeito de doses de torta de filtro e modo de aplicação sobre a produtividade e qualidade tecnológica da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar Effect of filter cake doses and methol of application on yield and technologycal quality of sugar cane ratoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Fávero de Fravet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A expansão do setor sucroalcooleiro aumenta áreas de plantio, assim como volumes de resíduos (como a torta de filtro que podem ser utilizados na agricultura como fonte de nutrientes, reduzindo a contaminação ambiental e os custos com adubação, entretanto, faltam informações sobre modos de aplicação. Nesse contexto, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar doses de torta de filtro e modos de aplicação (superficial na linha e incorporado na entrelinha sobre as variáveis tecnológicas e produtividade da cana soca. O experimento foi instalado em soqueira de cana-de-açúcar (SP 81-3250, cultivada em solo de textura argilosa, localizado no município de Goianésia/GO. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso (DBC, com onze tratamentos e 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 X 2 + 1 que correspondem a 5 doses crescentes de torta de filtro (0, 10, 20, 40 e 80 t ha-1, combinadas a 2 modos de aplicação (na linha superficial e na entre linha incorporada e um tratamento adicional correspondente à adubação mineral da Usina Jalles Machado S.A.. A aplicação de torta de filtro na cana-soca na dose de 70 t ha-1 proporcionou a maior produção de colmos de cana-de-açúcar, independentemente do modo de aplicação.The expansion of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cultivation for the production of sugar or ethanol has increased cultivated land as well as the volume of residues (such as filter cake that may be used in agriculture as a nutrient source, reducing environmental contamination and fertilization costs. However, there is a lack of information about the best way of application. In this way, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the filter cake dose and the application method (on the ground in the row and incorporated between rows on the technological variables and ratoon yield. The experiment was installed on a sugar cane ratoon (SP 81-3250, cultivated in clay soil in the

  15. Effects of addition of different fibers on rheological characteristics of cake batter and quality of cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.

  16. Evaluation of different combinations of palm kernel cake - and cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sole palm kernel cake based diets than those fed combinations of palm kernel cake and cottonseed cake. It is concluded that palm kernel cake alone (without any combination with cottonseed cake) is adequate as protein source in compounding protein supplements for West African Dwarf goats for profitable performance.

  17. Impurities enhance caking in lactose powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, M.; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Caking of lactose and other dry ingredients is a common problem in the dairy and food industries. The lactose production process includes different purification steps, depending on the type of lactose produced. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the remaining impurities (i.......e. non-lactose components) affect the caking tendency of the final powder. The results from a combination of different methods, including dynamic vapor sorption, characterization of the physicochemical composition and assessment of caking with a ring shear tester, suggested humidity caking. Larger...... amounts of impurities in the lactose powder resulted in enhanced moisture sorption and greater caking tendency. These findings emphasize the importance of controlling the washing and purification steps throughout the production process in order to limit caking in the final product...

  18. Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Filter Reactor in the Treatment of Algae-Laden Water and the Contribution of Granular Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performance and stability of an anaerobic baffled filter reactor in the treatment of algae-laden water from Taihu Lake at several organic loading rates. The study also evaluated the capability of soft filler to train granule sludge and improve the anaerobic environment and sludge activity in the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, thereby enhancing the treatment efficiency. The ABR consisted of five rectangular compartments, each of which was 120 cm long, 80 cm wide, 80 cm high, and packed with soft filler. The anaerobic baffled filter reactor was found to be an efficient reactor configuration for the treatment of algae-laden water. The reactor was operated at an organic loading rate of 1.5 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD/(m3d and an ambient temperature of 30 °C; under these conditions, the COD removal efficiency was 80% and the biogas production rate was 293 mL/(Ld. Moreover, the soft filler increased the biomass retention time and decreased the rate at which solids were washed out from the reactor, promoting an improved spatial distribution of the microbial communities within the compartments. Methanoregula, Methanobacteriaceae, Methanosaeta, Methanoculleu, and Thermogymnomonas were the dominant archaeal species in each compartment during an operational period of approximately 100 days. The protease activity in the reactor decreased longitudinally down the reactor from Compartments 1 to 5, whereas the activity of coenzyme F420 increased. The soft filler played a key role in successfully treating algae-laden water with the anaerobic baffled filter reactor.

  19. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay C.; Miller, Stanley J.

    2018-01-09

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  20. Dehydrating process experiment on spent ion-exchange resin sludge by Funda Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Ishino, Kazuyuki

    1977-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, Funda Filters are employed to dehydrate spent powdery ion-exchange resin sludge. The Funda Filter is very effective for eliminating small rust components contained in spent powdery resin slurry; however, in the drying process, the complete drying of spent powdery resin is very difficult because the filter cake of resin on the horizontal filter leaf is likely to crack and let out steam and hot air through the cracks. This paper deals with the results of experiments conducted to clarify the detailed phenomena of dehydration so the above problem could be solved. The above experiments were made on the precoating and drying of granular ion-exchange resin slurry that had not yet been put to practical use. The experiments were composed of one fundamental and one operational stage. In the fundamental experiment, the dehydration properties and dehydration mechanism of resins were made clear, and the most effective operational method was established through the operational experiments conducted using large-scale Funda Filter test equipment under various conditions. (auth.)

  1. Granular media : flow & agitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, Joshua Albert

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is about weakly driven granular flows and suspensions. Chapter 1 is an overview of the current knowledge of slow granular flows in so-called split-bottom geometries, which in essence consist of a disk rotating at the bottom of a container. In chapter 2 we study dry granular flows in this

  2. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  3. Estudo da reologia e espessura do reboco de fluidos de perfuração: influência de dispersantes e umectante aniônicos Study of rheology and filter-cake thickness of drilling fluids: influence of anionic dispersants and surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Farias

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de aditivos dispersantes e umectante aniônicos nas viscosidades aparente (VA e plástica (VP, no volume de filtrado (VF e na espessura do reboco (ER de fluidos de perfuração á base de água e argila bentonítica. Os fluidos foram preparados com 4,86% em massa de argila bentonítica e os aditivos estudados nas concentrações de 0,025 g a 0,300 g/24,3 g de argila seca para os dispersantes e de 0,005 g a 0,300 g/24,3 g de argila seca para o umectante aniônico. Os resultados mostraram que a espessura do reboco foi significativamente reduzida pela presença do umectante aniônico, sem, contudo, alterar as taxas de filtração dos fluidos estudados. Como era esperado, observou-se a redução nos valores de VA e VP após a aditivação dos fluidos com os aditivos dispersantes. Além disso, a mudança brusca nos valores de VA, VP e ER dos fluidos aditivados com o umectante aniônico na concentração de 0,100 g/24,3 g de argila seca evidenciou que esta é muito provavelmente a concentração micelar crítica deste aditivo.The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of dispersants additives and anionic surfactants in the apparent viscosity (AV, plastic viscosity (PV, water loss (WL and filter-cake thickness (FT of the water based drilling fluids with bentonite clay. The fluids were prepared with 4.86 wt % of bentonite clay and the additives studied in the concentrations of 0.025 g to 0.300 g/24.3 g of dry clay for the dispersants and 0.005 g to 0.300 g/24.3 g of dry clay for the anionic surfactant. The results had shown the filter-cake thickness was significantly reduced by the presence of the anionic surfactant, without, however, to modify the taxes of filtration of studied fluids. As it was waited, it was observed the reduction in the values of AV and PV after treating the fluids with dispersants addictives. Also, the abrupt change in the values of AV, PV and FT of fluids treated with

  4. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  5. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leachable metal content may still pose a contamination concern and potential human and ecological exposure if uncontrollably released to the environment. As a result, salt cake should always be managed at facilities that utilize synthetic liner systems with leachate collection (the salt content of the leachate will increase the hydraulic conductivity of clay liners within a few years of installation). The mineral phase analysis showed that various species of aluminum are present in the salt cake samples with a large degree of variability. The relative abundance of various aluminum species was evaluated but it is noted that the method used is a semi-quantitative method and as a result there is a limitation for the data use. The analysis only showed a few aluminum species present in salt cake which does not exclude the presence of other crystalline species especially in light of the variability observed in the samples. Results presented in this document are of particular importance when trying to understand concerns associated with the disposal of salt cake in MSW landfills. From the end-of-life management perspective, data presented here suggest that salt cake should not be size reduce

  6. Properties of Cakes of Different Starch Content

    OpenAIRE

    Ikawa, Yoshiko; Shiratuti, Hiroko

    1995-01-01

    Effects of five levels of substitution (0, 30, 50, 70, 100%) of wheat starch or corn starch for wheat flour on the properties of the sponge cakes and batters were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) Increase in starch ratio caused the decrease of batter viscosity and the increase of cake layer expansion during baking. While, replacement to corn starch induced greater shrinkage after maximum expansion according to increase of starch ratio, and consequently, there were no differen...

  7. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

    2010-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

  9. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  10. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  11. Performance of PrekotAC Filter Aids on Pressure Drop across Two Different Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the performance of formulated PrekotAC filter aids on pressure drop across two different types of filter media, i.e polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polyimide (P84 was carried out in a laboratory scale fabric filtration system. Filter aids is applied in order to prolong the lifespan of the fabric filter by reducing the pressure drop across a filter cake. PrekotAC which is a combination of 90%wt activated carbon and 10%wt PreKotTM was tested under various material loadings of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/mm2 at a constant filtration velocity of 5 m/min across its cake and filter media. The results showed that PrekotAC presents a lower pressure drop across the P84 compared to PTFE filter media under various material loadings. This is because of its different characteristics that effect the porosity of the filter media and allow a higher volumetric airflow passing through, resulting in lower pressure drop compared to PTFE filter media. In addition, the diversity in terms of particle size distribution of the formulated PrekotAC that increase its permeability property helps to reduce the pressure drop across the media and its filter cake. Thus, PrekotAC has a promising characteristic as a two in one filter aids, a pre-coating and adsorbent material for fabric filtration system.

  12. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Wastewater is usually treated biologically, and a by-product from this treatment is waste-activated sludge with high water content. Sludge is therefore often filtrated to reduce the volume for handling and disposal, and to minimise the water content before incineration of the sludge. However, it ...

  13. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  14. Granular gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  15. Effects of Dietary Substitution of Rubber Seed Cake for Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) five weeks old, Anak broilers were used in a 4-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of rubber seed cake for groundnut cake on the performance of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of rubber seed cake (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) substituted corresponding levels of ...

  16. Comparison of fried and baked fish Oreochromis niloticus cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Akinsiku, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus fish-in-cake were made to improve its food value as well as create new menu. Fried fish-in-cake was 66.2% appealing in its colour, taste, texture and odour to assessors than the 64% rating for baked fish-in-cake.

  17. EXPERIMENTS ON CAKE DEVELOPMENT IN CROSSFLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2011-04-14

    Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self cleaning through the action of wall shear stress, which is created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduces permeability. Low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Salt Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site and the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford Site. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date, increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter axial flowrate, which is limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, which is limited by space and increases the required pump load. In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on startup techniques and filter cake development. This paper discusses those filter studies. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, and filter cleaning. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, which were both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to demonstrate increases in filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions filter flow rates can be increased

  18. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  19. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder dan telur yakni resep pertama dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 6 gram, telur 100 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan tanpa penambahaan air; dan resep ke dua dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 2 gram, telur 80 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan air 16 gram. Jumlah telur yang digunakaan dalam kedua resep tersebut cukup jauh berkurang dari resep umum yang menggunakan 180 gram telur untuk 100 gram tepung terigu. Temuan penelitian ini akan berimplikasi pada sponge cake dengan harga yang lebih murah, tetapi dengan kualitas yang tetap relatif baik dapat dihadirkan ke pasar.   Kata-kata kunci: spong cake,  kualitas, baking powder, biaya produksi

  20. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates the e...

  1. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  2. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  3. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG SINGKONG SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI TERIGU UNTUK VARIASI CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Panti Ariani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk memperoleh variasi cake dari tepung singkong dengan mensubstitusi terigu. Karena terigu merupakan produk impor olahan dari gandum, sebagai usaha mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian eksperimental semu di laboratorium karena keterbatasan untuk mengontrol semua variabel yang relevan. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan lembar observasi untuk memperoleh data uji kualitas dari panelis terlatih, sedangkan data uji selera diperoleh dari masyarakat umum untuk mengetahui keberterimaan variasi cake singkong. Analisis data penelitian dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian memperoleh kualitas cake singkong pada kriteria yang sempurna pada, (a pound cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, (b roll cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah, (c chiffon cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta pengembangan (volume maksimal, (d bolu kukus dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas aroma terendah, (e sponge cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi semua kriteria terendah, (f brownies dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, (g fruit cake menggunakan buah-buahan lokal dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, dan (g rainbow cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah. Secara umum keberterimaan masyarakat sangat menyukai variasi cake singkong, tetapi sponge cake dan rainbow cake memperoleh keberterimaan terendah. Dengan demikian 8 jenis cake dapat menggunakan tepung singkong sebagai substitusi terigu untuk mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Kata kunci: tepung singkong, variasi cake, substitusi terigu Abstract The purpose of this study to obtain a cake variation of substituting wheat with cassava flour. Because wheat is imported products processed from wheat, in an effort to support increased food security. This study uses a

  4. Analysis of dynamic and static filtration and determination of MUD cake parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcada, L.A.; Scheid, C.M.; Araujo, C.A.O. de [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: calcada@ufrrj.br; Waldmann, A.T.A.; Martins, A.L. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2011-07-15

    Drilling operations around the world employ a concept called overbalance. During this process, it is well known that dynamic and static filtration can occur. Thin filter cakes and low fluid-invasion rates are extremely desirable to promote optimal logging conditions and permeability return. The aim of this work was to compare the different behavior between dynamic and static filtration in drilling wells. To investigate the filtration process of Newtonian suspensions, we built a dynamic and static filtration loop with which we acquired experimental filtration volume data as a function of time. The filtration loop included a tank mixer where a Newtonian aqueous calcium carbonate polydisperse suspension was homogenized. The suspension was pumped through tubes to a dynamic or a static filtration cell. We validated a theoretical model based on Darcy's law and on mass conservation proposed by Ferreira and Massarani (2005). That model predicted mud cake buildup and filtrate flow rate for Newtonian suspensions. Relying on both models and the experimental data, filter cake parameters were calculated. We discuss, based on these parameters, the effects of the filtration configuration in dynamic and static modes. Finally, we generalized Ferreira and Massarani's model (2005) for procedures involving non-Newtonian suspensions. This new model can predict dynamic filtration and fluid invasion for non-Newtonian suspensions as drilling fluids. (author)

  5. Envy-free two-player m-cake and three-player two-cake divisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lebert, Nicolas; Meunier, Frédéric; Carbonneaux, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Cloutier, Nyman, and Su (Mathematical Social Sciences 59 (2005), 26--37) initiated the study of envy-free cake-cutting problems involving several cakes. The classical result in this area is that when there are q players and one cake, an envy-free cake-division requiring only q-1 cuts exists under weak and natural assumptions. Among other results, Cloutier, Nyman, and Su showed that when there are two players and two or three cakes it is again possible to find envy-free...

  6. Granular computing: perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, JingTao; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-12-01

    Granular computing, as a new and rapidly growing paradigm of information processing, has attracted many researchers and practitioners. Granular computing is an umbrella term to cover any theories, methodologies, techniques, and tools that make use of information granules in complex problem solving. The aim of this paper is to review foundations and schools of research and to elaborate on current developments in granular computing research. We first review some basic notions of granular computing. Classification and descriptions of various schools of research in granular computing are given. We also present and identify some research directions in granular computing.

  7. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  8. Granular Cell Tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrosis within the tumor was absent, no mitosis was. Granular cell tumors are seldom diagnosed identified in the section and the edges of the accurately clinically. The lesion in this case was sample were tumor free (Figure 2). mistaken for a sebaceous cyst and following ulceration resembled carcinoma of the vulvar.

  9. Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus) Protein Concentrat Fortification in Brownies Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati, Wirda; Buchari, Dewita; Loekman, Suardi

    2014-01-01

    This research was intended to evaluate consumer acceptance of brownies cakefortified with catfish (Pangasius hipophthalmus) protein concentrat. Four brownies cake weremade from a mixture of 12% wheat flour, 36% eggs, 10% chocolate ,24% sugar, 15%margarine, 0,1% vanila dan 0,06% salt. Each cake then was fortified with catfish proteinconcentrat at a level of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of wheat flour. Brownies cakes wereecaluated for consumer acceptance and proximate composition (moisture, protein and ...

  10. Efectos del agregado de cachaza y de diferentes densidades de plantación en la capacidad productiva de un semillero saneado de la variedad de caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp. LCP85-384 Effects of filter cake incorporation and different planting densities on the productive capacity of a healthy LCP85-384 sugarcane variety (Saccharum spp. nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Cuenya

    2007-06-01

    aprovechamiento completo de un semillero en sus dos edades de corte.High cost of healthy seedcane leads producers to implement various management practices that will optimize productivity in nurseries. This work aims at evaluating different management alternatives for planting healthy hot-water-treated LCP85-384 seedcane, combining different bud densities with or without scattering filter cake at furrow bottom. A trial was organized in Divided Plots with three replicates. In the principal plots filter cake addition (or its absence was tested. The subsidiary plots presented the following planting densities per row linear meter: three, six and nine one-joint buds, two and three setts with three buds each (2 x 3Y y 3 x 3Y, respectively and a halved stalk. Stalk number/plot, average stalk height, bud number/stalk linear meter and bud number/plot were assessed in plant cane and first ratoon. Analysis of variance and means comparison tests (Fisher's DLS were conducted. Highly significant differences were found among the subsidiary treatments in terms of total stalk number/plot (plant cane and first ratoon and average stalk height (plant cane. For both variables and both crop ages, the highest values were obtained in the subsidiary treatments involving setts, and the lowest ones in individual bud trials. There were highly significant differences between primary and subsidiary treatments regarding total bud number/plot, obtained throughout the two years of the trial. For this variable, which is important in the case of a two-year-old nursery, the 3 x 3Y treatment turned out to be the best planting alternative, presenting significant differences when compared with the other assayed densities. Filter cake application was found to be convenient for taking advantage of a nursery during two cropping ages.

  11. Effect of replacing Palm Kernel Cake with Sheabutter Cake on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea butter cake at 20% dietary level significantly (P 0.05) decreased shell thickness, shell weight, egg mass and shell surface area. Haugh unit and yolk index were not affected by the treatments. Shell weight and shell thickness were positively correlated. Yolk cholesterol and hen day egg production decreased as dietary ...

  12. Preparation of regenerable granular carbon nanotubes by a simple heating-filtration method for efficient removal of typical pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Danna; Deng, Shubo; Zhao, Tianning; Yu, Gang; Winglee, Judith; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2017-04-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to prepare novel granular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for enhanced adsorption of pharmaceuticals. By heating CNTs powder at 450 degree centigrade in air, followed by filtration, the obtained granular adsorbent exhibited high surface area and pore volume since the heating process produced some oxygen-containing functional groups on CNT surface, making CNTs more dispersible in the formation of granular cake. The porous granular CNTs not only had more available surfaces for adsorption but also were more easily separated from solution than pristine CNTs (p-CNTs) powder. This adsorbent exhibited relatively fast adsorption for carbamazepine (CBZ), tetracycline (TC) and diclofe- nac sodium (DS), and the maximum adsorption capacity on the granular CNTs was 369.5 μmol/g for CBZ, 284.2 μmol/g for TC and 203.1 μmol/g for DS according to the Langmuir fitting, increasing by 42.4%, 37.8% and 38.0% in comparison with the pristine CNTs powder. Moreover, the spent granular CNTs were successfully regenerated at 400 degree centigrade in air without decreasing the adsorption capacity in five regeneration cycles. The adsorbed CBZ and DS were completely degraded, while the adsorbed TC was partially oxidized and the residual was favorable for the subsequent adsorption. This research develops an easy method to prepare and regenerate granular CNT adsorbent for the enhanced removal of organic pollutants from water or wastewater.

  13. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-β and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1 + cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 μm nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML( 3 H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide

  14. On the shape of wedding cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Joachim

    1997-05-01

    The large-scale morphology of a growing surface is characterized for a simple model of crystal growth in which interlayer transport is completely suppressed due to the Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect. In the limit where the ratio of the surface diffusion coefficient to the deposition rate D/F→∞ the surface consists of wedding-cake-like structures whose shape is given by the inverse of an error function. The shape can be viewed as a separable solution of the singular diffusion equation u 1=[ u -2 u x ] x . As an application, expressions for the number of exposed layers as a function of coverage and diffusion length are derived.

  15. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  16. Sensorial, chemical and microbiological quality of anchovy cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... In addition, as the values obtained from sensorial, chemical and microbiological values were evaluated, the shelf-life of the anchovy cake during cold storage (4 ± 1°C) was found to be 6 days. Key words: Anchovy cake, shelf-life, chemical, sensorial, microbiological, Engraulis encrasicolus. INTRODUCTION.

  17. Removal of tannin from Shea nut cake by Pseudomonas strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria were grown in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2% shea nut cake as sole source of carbon. The bacteria isolate was identified biochemically as Pseudomonas aerugenosa and reduced total tannin concentration in shea nut cake from 54.58 g Kg-1 to 8.71 g Kg-1 (84%) in 10 days and 92% in 20 days.

  18. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is to isolate bacteria with high shea nut cake degrading ability and consequently select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The bacteria were grown in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2% shea nut cake as sole source of carbon. More Gram negative bacteria were involved in shea nut ...

  19. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  20. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  1. Use of a soft sensor for the fast estimation of dried cake resistance during a freeze-drying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosca, Serena; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide

    2013-07-15

    This paper deals with the determination of dried cake resistance in a freeze-drying process using the Smart Soft Sensor, a process analytical technology recently proposed by the authors to monitor the primary drying stage of a freeze-drying process. This sensor uses the measurement of product temperature, a mathematical model of the process, and the Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the residual amount of ice in the vial as a function of time, as well as the coefficient of heat transfer between the shelf and the product and the resistance of the dried cake to vapor flow. It does not require expensive (additional) hardware in a freeze-dryer, provided that thermocouples are available. At first, the effect of the insertion of the thermocouple in a vial on the structure of the product is investigated by means of experimental tests, comparing both sublimation rate and cake structure in vials with and without thermocouple. This is required to assess that the temperature measured by the thermocouple is the same of the product in the non-monitored vials, at least in a non-GMP environment, or when controlled nucleation methods are used. Then, results about cake resistance obtained in an extended experimental campaign with aqueous solutions containing different excipients (sucrose, mannitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone), processed in various operating conditions, are presented, with the goal to point out the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of irradiation on hygiene quality of moon cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengjiao; Chen Bin; Guo Yaping; Gao Meixu; Li Haipeng; Sun Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    To explore the influence of controllable conditions with different doses of irradiation and store time on the safe and the quality of Moon Cake, the indexes including peroxide value, acid value, mould, coli group coliform group, total numbers of colony and taste of Moon Cake were concerned about. The results show that the peroxide value were increased and acid value were decreased gradually with the increased value of 60 Co γ-irradiation. Meanwhile, the microorganism growth in the moon cake were controlled. It is concluded that the taste of Moon Cake was not changed and the shelf life of ones were prolonged by 3 months when doses of irradiation was 8 kGy, in addition, Tea-polyphenols could prevent the lipid in Moon Cake from lipid oxidation effectively. (authors)

  3. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  4. Granular flows : fluidization and anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, Gerrit Herman

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the flow of granular materials (e.g. sand). Even though a single particle is a simple object, the collective behavior of billions of particles can be very complex. In a surprisingly large amount of cases, it is not exactly known how a granular material behaves, and this while

  5. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 2 - The investigation of cake strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before the pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the cokemaking plant using cost efficient raw materials, but also increases oven throughput. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend and as a function of the stamping energy. In the first part of the paper, investigations on the stampability of coal blends were reported. In this paper, the development of a new strength test device for the systematic investigation of mechanical strength of coal compacts produced by stamping is described. Results from compressive strength tests indicate an elastic-plastic behaviour with failure by plastic fracture. Shear test results show similarity to the yield limit description in soil mechanics.

  6. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  7. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  8. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ebrahimi; B. G. Tarzi; M. Asghari

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter) on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was ob...

  9. 2.4.2. Water processing of cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, Sh.B.; Safiev, Kh.S.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2008-01-01

    The cake water processing carried out with the purpose of extraction ofalkali components, in particular calcium chlorides and sodium, formed atbaking of raw materials with calcium chloride and by acid processingextracted the aluminium and iron compounds

  10. Olive cake dietary supplementation in rabbit: immune and oxidative status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taticchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the effect of three different types of dehydrated olive cakes on immunitary and oxidative status of growing rabbits. One hundred and sixty New Zealand White weaned rabbits, 30 day old, were divided into four homogeneous groups. To experimental groups was administered a similar diet integrated with 5% of three types of olive cake (A, B, C obtained from local olive oil mills. The olive cakes A and C were both of high quality (C better than A, while the by-product B had the lowest level of total polyphenols, o-diphenols and oleic acid and the highest peroxide number. The aspecific immunitary and oxidative status was improved in animals fed olive cakes richer in antioxidant components.

  11. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  12. User management implementation using CakePHP framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kesa, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Web development frameworks have gained lot of fans in recent years. Frameworks are designed to make web developers life easier by providing dynamic and tested built in functions for the most used aspects of web development. The framework used in this thesis is CakePHP. This thesis starts out by introducing basic web development technologies and tools. Readers without previous knowledge will get basic understanding of web development before diving into frameworks and CakePHP. The main pa...

  13. Proximate Analysis Of Castor Seeds And Cake | Annongu | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid profile analysis of un-decorticated and decorticated seed and cake compared with soybeans as standard plant protein indicated that the cake is deficient in some indispensable amino acids like lysine (4.11), iso-leucine (3.09), tryptophan (0) compared with 6.30, 7.90 and 1.30 lysine, iso-leucine and tryptopha in ...

  14. Visualization of flow during cleaning process on a liquid nanofibrous filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with visualization of flow during cleaning process on a nanofibrous filter. Cleaning of a filter is very important part of the filtration process which extends lifetime of the filter and improve filtration properties. Cleaning is carried out on flat-sheet filters, where particles are deposited on the filter surface and form a filtration cake. The cleaning process dislodges the deposited filtration cake, which is loose from the membrane surface to the retentate flow. The blocked pores in the filter are opened again and hydrodynamic properties are restored. The presented optical method enables to see flow behaviour in a thin laser sheet on the inlet side of a tested filter during the cleaning process. The local concentration of solid particles is possible to estimate and achieve new information about the cleaning process. In the article is described the cleaning process on nanofibrous membranes for waste water treatment. The hydrodynamic data were compared to the images of the cleaning process.

  15. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  16. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality.

  17. Fungi in cake production chain: Occurrence and evaluation of growth potential in different cake formulations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Letícia L P; Bernardi, Angélica O; Amaral, Alexandra L P M; Chaves, Rafael D; Santos, Juliana L P; Copetti, Marina V; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and populations of fungi in cake production chain. Besides, the growth potential of twelve fungal strains in different cake formulations was evaluated. Raw materials from two different batches (n=143), chocolate cakes (n=30), orange cakes (n=20), and processing environment air samples (n=147) were analyzed. Among the raw materials, wheat flour (3.2±0.3 log CFU per g) and corn meal (3.8±0.8 log CFU per g) belonging to batch #1 showed significant higher fungal counts (p3mm) in the free of preservative cake formulation at 19th and 44th days of storage at 25°C, respectively. Revealing the biodiversity of fungi in ingredients, air and final products, as well as challenging final products with representative fungal strains may assist to implement effective controlling measures as well as to gather data for the development of more robust cake formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The sweet cake that reaches parts other cakes can't!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, R M

    2003-02-01

    This is a case report of a previously healthy woman of 56 years who presented with a life threatening tetraparesis, severe hypokalaemia, hypertension, and raised muscle enzymes. The cause of was finally found to be unusual and very much "local". Initial inquiry into her drug history was negative until she was made aware that herbal remedies could cause serious adverse reactions. She then mentioned that she had been eating a large number of "Pontefract cakes" (a liquorice sweet) for the management of her chronic constipation. This case highlights the importance of asking about herbal remedies when taking a drug history in all patients, including those admitted as medical emergencies.

  19. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. CELLULOSE EXTRACTION FROM PALM KERNEL CAKE USING LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARM YAN YAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method is basically a two-step process. Palm kernel cake was pretreated in hot water at 180°C and followed by liquid oxidation process with 30% H2O2 at 60°C at atmospheric pressure. The process parameters are hot water treatment time, ratio of palm kernel cake to H2O2, liquid oxidation reaction temperature and time. Analysis of the process parameters on production cellulose from palm kernel cake was performed by using Response Surface Methodology. The recovered cellulose was further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. Through the hot water treatment, hemicellulose in the palm kernel cake was successfully recovered as saccharides and thus leaving lignin and cellulose. Lignin was converted to water soluble compounds in liquid oxidation step which contains small molecular weight fatty acid as HCOOH and CH3COOH and almost pure cellulose was recovered.

  1. Preparation Of Pure Vanadium Pentoxide From Red Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAREH, M.M.; EL-HAZEK, M.N; BU ZAID, A.H.M; MOHAMED, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    The red cake, extracted from petroleum ash by acid leaching, contains some impurities such as iron, nickel, zinc, Cr and Cu. For purification the red cake, vanadium in the red cake was taken into solution by treating the red cake with soda ash solution at 90 o C, S /L 1/10 and leaching time of 6 h. The obtained leaching efficiency of vanadium reached 99 %. The solution was clarified by filtration and slurred with solid ammonium sulphate (50g/l) and ammonium chloride (50 g/l). The pH of the slurry was kept at 8-9 by adding ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium metavanadate was crystallized from the slurry at room temperature and during the crystallization step, the slurry was kept under mild agitation. The reaction between the sodium vanadate and ammonium sulphate led to the formation of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) 98.35 % (atomic adsorption techniques). The AMV crystals were separated from the residual liquor by filtration, washed with 5% ammonium chloride solution then dried at 100 o C. Over 98.35 % of the vanadium contained in the red cake was recovered by this way as AMV. Thermal decomposition of AMV at 350 o C 1 h yielded 99.32 % pure vanadium pentoxide.

  2. Filter device for radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Mikio; Suzuki, Masahiro.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To prevent captured particles from falling upon filter replacement by changing the positions for the gas inlet and outlet from those in the conventional device. Constitution : The filter device comprises a tightly closed vertical cylindrical vessel with an end plate and high efficiency granular filters (HEPA). Inlet and outlet nozzles are disposed at the upper and lower parts of the closed vessel on both sides of the HEPA filter. Radio-active gases are passed from above to below the HEPA filter and discharged from the outlet. In such a structure, captured particles are accumulated on the surface of the HEPA filter and do not fall even upon replacement of the HEPA filter. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  4. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    -producing Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus has been applied on olive cake supplemented with glucose in order to evaluate any inhibitory effect that olive cake might have on the microbial growth and metabolism. It was shown that the strain was able to grow and produce ethanol up to a TS content of 100 g per L. Further...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  6. Why granular media are thermal after all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mario; Jiang, Yimin

    2017-06-01

    Two approaches exist to account for granular behavior. The thermal one considers the total entropy, which includes microscopic degrees of freedom such as phonons; the athermal one (as with the Edward entropy) takes grains as elementary. Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) belongs to the first, DEM, granular kinetic theory and athermal statistical mechanics (ASM) to the second. A careful discussion of their conceptual differences is given here. Three noteworthy insights or results are: (1) While DEM and granular kinetic theory are well justified to take grains as elementary, any athermal entropic consideration is bound to run into trouble. (2) Many general principles are taken as invalid in granular media. Yet within the thermal approach, energy conservation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem remain valid, granular temperatures equilibrate, and phase space is well explored in a grain at rest. Hence these are abnormalities of the athermal approximation, not of granular media as such. (3) GSH is a wide-ranged continuum mechanical description of granular dynamics.

  7. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  8. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Kattenbelt, Carolien; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  9. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  10. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an inspector...

  12. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  13. Leaching of sodium carbonate cakes by nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanker, L.S.; Nikonov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction has been studied of soda cakes of fluorite-rare-earth concentrate with nitric acid. The effect of a number of factors on extraction of REE into a nitric solution has been considered: the final acidity of the pulp, the duration of leaching, and the ratio between solid and liquid phases. The effect of adding aluminium nitrate into the pulp has also been studied. It has been shown that three-stage counterflow leaching of soda cakes with nitric acid increases REE extraction approximately by 10%

  14. Granular cell ameloblastoma of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Trupti R; Samanta, Satarupa T; Trivedi, Priti P; Shah, Manoj J

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a neoplasm of odontogenic epithelium, especially of enamel organ-type tissue that has not undergone differentiation to the point of hard tissue formation. Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare condition, accounting for 3-5% of all ameloblastoma cases. A 30-year-old female patient presented with the chief complaint of swelling at the right lower jaw region since 1 year. Orthopantomogram and computed tomography scan was suggestive of primary bone tumor. Histopathologically, diagnosis of granular cell ameloblastoma of right mandible was made.

  15. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  16. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  17. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  18. Degrees of Guaranteed Envy-Freeness in Finite Bounded Cake-Cutting Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Claudia; Rothe, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Cake-cutting protocols aim at dividing a ``cake'' (i.e., a divisible resource) and assigning the resulting portions to several players in a way that each of the players feels to have received a ``fair'' amount of the cake. An important notion of fairness is envy-freeness: No player wishes to switch the portion of the cake received with another player's portion. Despite intense efforts in the past, it is still an open question whether there is a \\emph{finite bounded} envy-free cake-cutting pro...

  19. Retention of airborne particles in granular bed filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1981-01-01

    A literature survey was made on theoretical models for the prediction of particle retention in sand beds. Also data on observed retention was collected from the literature. Based on this information, a semi-empirical model was compiled. Comparison of the model with published retention data shows a general agreement. (Auth.)

  20. Effects of substituting groundnut cake with acacia seed kernel meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with Acacia nilotica seed kernel meal (ASKM) in the diets of broilers and the effects of such on ... Serum metabolites were not affected by the treatment except alkaline phosphatasc and billirubin that were significantly (P < 0.05) lowered by 20% inclusion of ...

  1. How does particle size influence caking in lactose powder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, Melanie Anne; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is known to influence product properties such as flowability and compressibility. When producing crystalline lactose, different steps can affect the PSD of the final powder. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PSD on caking and the mechanisms...

  2. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  3. Effect of sesame cake supplementation on feed intake, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    groups i.e. T1 (150 gm wheat bran, 0 gm sesame seed cake DM/day) being control group, T2. (150 gm wheat bran, 150 .... The experimental animals were supplied teff straw, tapwater, and salt blocks comprising sodium .... Sheep in the control consumed more dry matter and organic matter of teff straw as compared to the ...

  4. The replacement value of groundnut cake with cooked Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in which groundnut cake (GNC) was replaced by cooked bambara groundnut meal (CBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of inclusion for both starter and finisher phases. Replacement levels of cooked bambara ...

  5. pubertal rabbit bucks fed cottonseed cake-based diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR 'JIDE AMAO

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... cottonseed cake (CSC)-based diets supplemented with vitamin E. 64 weanling rabbit bucks, aged five to six weeks ... bucks may be fed CSC up to 15% inclusion level in diet for meat production, it is deleterious for young bucks whose ... physiological processes is by generation of free radicals, which are ...

  6. 175 Years of Linear Programming-Minimax and Cake Topography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Minimax and Cake Topography. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 4-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria isolated from peanut cake product were Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp. and Clostridium spp. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. being the dominant microflora in decreasing frequency of occurrence. High concentrations of ...

  8. Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to avaluate the effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods as a protein source in supplementing Small East African goats fed a basal diet of Brachiaria brizantha hay. Twenty-four growing female goats with mean body weight of 9. 71 = 1.56 kg were used in a growth ...

  9. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  10. Cake kidney: a rare anomaly of renal fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lippi Ciantelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urinogenital tract that can be diagnosed at any age. Few more than 20 cases have been described in the literature. The authors describe in this article another case of this rare malformation. Key-words: kidney, congenital abnormalities, rare diseases.

  11. Effects of partial replacement of soyabean meal or groundnut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    160 unsexed Nera day old chicks were weighed and randomly divided into 8 experimental groups such that there were 2 replicates of 10 birds each per diet. Eight diets were formulated for the starter and finisher phases. The first four diets had groundnut cake as the protein source and were gradually replaced by sunflower ...

  12. Effects of exposing adults of Amblyomma variegatum to neem cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a trap baited with an attractant blend comprising of attraction aggregation- attachment pheromone (AAAP), 1-octen-3-ol and CO2 and treated with Neem (Azadirachta indica) cake extracts (0.6% of azadirachtin) to attract and expose the ticks, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae) to the active ...

  13. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time. On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC ...

  14. Effect of sesame cake supplementation on feed intake, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-five yearling growing intact sheep were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and five replications. The experimental animals were supplied teff straw as basal ration. Different levels of sesame cake were supplemented in various treatment groups i.e. T1 (150 gm wheat bran, ...

  15. Dividing a Cake by Majority: The Simplest Equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    David Baron; Ehud Kalai

    1990-01-01

    In a stochastic game of dividing a cake by majority, the simplest equilibria are the Baron-Ferejohn (1989) ones. The formal definition of simplicity and the computational methods of the equilibria make use of an automaton measure of complexity adopted for stochastic games.

  16. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  17. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    hundred and sixty two (162) soil samples were collected at random at 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil depth from shea nut cake dumping sites in ... Yeast extracts enhanced growth. Pseudomanas strain G9 degraded 71.25% ..... bacterial numbers to hasten biodegradation (Ray,. 1994). The first report on soil bacteria ...

  18. Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...

  19. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been ... significant (P 三 0.05) increase in the levels of phosphorus, calcium and copper in the carcass of fish raised on ... advantageous in the development of supplementary or complete ...

  20. Granular boycott effect: How to mix granulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, J.; Mazozi, T.

    1999-11-01

    Granular material can display the basic features of the Boycott effect in sedimentation. A simple experiment shows that granular material falls faster in an inclined tube than in a vertical tube, in analogy with the Boycott effect. As long as the inclination of the tube is above the avalanche threshold, descent of granular material in the tube causes internal convection which in turn results in an efficient mixture of the granular components. By contrast, as in analogous experiments in two dimensions, a vertical fall of granular material occurs via successive block fragmentation, resulting in poor mixing.

  1. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  2. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durge, S. M.; Tripathi, M. K.; Dutta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.) levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs) on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 µmol/g oil free dry matter (DM) and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 µmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (pgas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, pmustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052) of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (pmustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production. PMID:27847426

  3. Performance of Cooled Cone Grinding Machine in Cocoa Cake Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Firmanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of cocoa paste pressing has a function to separate the fatty component of cocoa from its cake. Cocoa paste is further processed into cocoa powder using grinding machine for cocoa cake. The cooled cone type of cocoa grinding machine is used to solve the problem of plug in the maschine caused by melting of fat in cocoa cake due to hot effect as a result of friction in the grinding machine. Grinding machine of cocoa has conical form of cylinder for grinding and stator wall wrapped by source of cold and closed with jacket wool. Research was conducted at Kaliwining Experimental Garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI using cocoa cake containing 26.75% originated from Forastero type of cocoa seed. The capacity and recovery of the machine was influenced by space between rotor cylinder and stator wall. Grinding machine operated at cooling temperature of 25.5oC and space between rotor – stator 0.9 cm and the capacity of 187.5 kg/hour with recovery of 200 mesh cocoa powder as much as 24%. The maximum  power of machine required  was 2.5 kW with efficiency of  energy transfer of 97%. Results of proximate analysis showed that there was no change of protein content, but protein and carbohydrate content increased after processing, i.e. from 5.70% and 59.82% into 5.80% and 61.89% respectively.Key words : cocoa cake, cooling, grinding, cocoa powder 

  4. Numerical modeling and experimental analysis of volatile contaminant removal from vertical flow filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical flow filters (unplanted) and vertical flow constructed wetlands (planted), simple and inexpensive technologies to treat effectively volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contaminated water, consist of containers filled with granular material which is intermittently fed with contaminated water.

  5. Entropy of jammed granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Christopher

    Granular matter can be considered a non-equilibrium system, such that equilibrium statistics is insufficient to describe the dynamics. A phase transition occurs when granular materials are compressed such that a nonzero stress develops in response to a strain deformation. This transition, referred to as the jamming transition, occurs at a critical volume fraction, φc depending on friction and preparation protocol. Analysis of the jamming transition produces a phase diagram of jammed granular matter for identical spheres, characterized by the critical volume fraction, φc and the average coordination number, Z. The boundaries of the phase diagram are related to well-defined upper and lower limits in the density of disordered packings; random close packing (RCP) and random loose packing (RLP). Frictional systems, such as granular matter, exhibit an inherent path dependency resulting in the loss of energy conservation, an important facet of equilibrium statistics. It has been suggested Edwards that the volume-force (V-F) ensemble, wherein volume replaces energy as the conservative quantity, may provide a sufficient framework to create a statistical ensemble for jammed granular matter. Treating a jammed system via the V-F ensemble introduces an analogue to temperature in equilibrium systems. This analogue, "compactivity", measures how compact a system could be and governs fluctuation in the volume statistics. Randomness in statistical systems is typically characterized by entropy, the equation of state derived from the number of microstates available to the system. In equilibrium statistical mechanics, entropy provides the link between these microstates and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of the system. Therefore, calculating the entropy within the V-F ensemble can relate the available microscopic volume for each grain to the macroscopic system properties. The entropy is shown to be minimal at RCP and maximal at the minimum RLP limit, via several methods

  6. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  7. Mott transition in granular aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, N.; Lerer, S.; Levy, A.; Hacohen-Gourgy, S.; Almog, B.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Morenzoni, E.; Deutscher, G.

    2015-01-01

    A Mott transition in granular Al films is observed by probing the increase of the spin-flip scattering rate of conduction electrons as the nanosize metallic grains are being progressively decoupled. The presence of free spins in granular Al films is directly demonstrated by μ SR measurements. Analysis of the magnetoresistance in terms of an effective Fermi energy shows that it becomes of the order of the grains electrostatic charging energy at a room temperature resistivity ρ300 K≈50000 μ Ω cm , at which a metal to insulator transition is known to exist. As this transition is approached the magnetoresistance exhibits a heavy-fermion-like behavior, consistent with an increased electron effective mass.

  8. Dilatancy in Slow Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabla, Alexandre J.; Senden, Tim J.

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected.

  9. Granular rheology in zero gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossis, G [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Grasselli, Y [EAI Tech CERAM, Rue A Einstein, BP 085, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Volkova, O [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2004-05-12

    We present an experimental investigation on the rheological behaviour of model granular media made of nearly elastic spherical particles. The experiments are performed in a cylindrical Couette geometry and the experimental device is placed inside an aeroplane undergoing parabolic flights to cancel the effect of gravity. The corresponding curves, shear stress versus shear rate, are presented, and a comparison with existing theories is proposed. The quadratic dependence on the shear rate is clearly shown, and the behaviour as a function of the solid volume fraction of particles exhibits a power law function. It is shown that theoretical predictions overestimate the experimental results. We observe, at intermediate volume fractions, the formation of rings of particles regularly spaced along the height of the cell. The differences observed between experimental results and theoretical predictions are discussed and related to the structures formed in the granular medium submitted to the external shear.

  10. Dynamic similarity in granular locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Slonaker, James; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-11-01

    To model the flow of granular media with high accuracy, a number of subtleties arise and complex constitutive relations are needed to address them. However, making certain rheological simplifications produces a framework that is simple enough to obtain global rule-sets that can be used to aid in design without having to solve any partial differential equations or perform discrete element simulations. This talk will show how reduced-order rule-sets such as the Resistive Force Theory can be obtained from a basic frictional plasticity model, and how plasticity can further be used to produce a family of scaling laws in granular locomotion reminiscent of `wind tunnel' scaling laws in fluid dynamics. These are verified with experiments and numerical simulations.

  11. Strain localisation in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues , Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This study is devoted to strain localisation in Granular materials. Both experimental and theoretical results have been obtained.The first part of the thesis is a review of the methods and theories about rupture in sols mechanics and more generally, in solid mechanics. The classical framework of Shear Band analysis is presented, and the main results available for different classes of materials are discussed.The second part describes an experimental study of strain localisation in sand specime...

  12. Wien filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis

  13. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  14. FILTER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  15. Filterability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge: impacts of polyelectrolytes and mixing with conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Cinar, Ozer; Kitis, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the filterability of MBR sludge and its mixture with conventional activated sludge (CAS). In addition, the impacts of type and dose of various polyelectrolytes, filter type and sludge properties on the filterability of both MBR and Mixed sludges were determined. Specific cake resistance (SCR) measured by the Buchner funnel filtration test apparatus and the solids content of the resulting sludge cake were used to assess the dewaterability of tested sludges. The type of filter paper used in Buchner tests affected the results of filterability for MBR, CAS and Mixed sludges. SCR values and optimum polyelectrolyte doses increased with increasing MLSS concentrations in the MBR, which suggested that increase in MLSS concentrations accompanied by increases in EPS and SMP concentrations and a shift toward smaller particles caused poorer dewaterability of the MBR sludge. The significant differences observed among the filterability of CAS and MBR sludges suggested that MLSS alone is not a good predictor of sludge dewaterability. Combining CAS and MBR sludges at different proportions generally improved their dewaterability. Combining MBR sludges having typically high MLSS and EPS concentrations with CAS having much lower MLSS concentrations may be an option for full-scale treatment plants experiencing sludge dewaterability problems. Better filterability and higher cake dry solids were achieved with cationic polyelectrolytes compared to anionic and non-ionic ones for all sludge types tested.

  16. Single Wall Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Filtration Efficiency Studies Using Laboratory Generated Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan; Stewart, Marc; Maupin, Gary D.; Herling, Darrell R.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2009-04-15

    Diesel offers higher fuel efficiency, but produces higher exhaust particulate matter. Diesel particulate filters are presently the most efficient means to reduce these emissions. These filters typically trap particles in two basic modes: at the beginning of the exposure cycle the particles are captured in the filter holes, and at longer times the particles form a "cake" on which particles are trapped. Eventually the "cake" removed by oxidation and the cycle is repeated. We have investigated the properties and behavior of two commonly used filters: silicon carbide (SiC) and cordierite (DuraTrap® RC) by exposing them to nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate particles. We show that the transition from deep bed filtration to "cake" filtration can easily be identified by recording the change in pressure across the filters as a function of exposure. We investigated performance of these filters as a function of flow rate and particle size. The filters trap small and large particles more efficiently than particles that are ~80 to 200 nm in aerodynamic diameter. A comparison between the experimental data and a simulation using incompressible lattice-Boltzmann model shows very good qualitative agreement, but the model overpredicts the filter’s trapping efficiency.

  17. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of Coriander Cakes Obtained by Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazia Sriti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effect of operating conditions such as nozzle diameter on fatty acid, sterol, and tocol composition of coriander cakes. Eight fatty acids were identified, with petroselinic acid accounting for 75–77% of the total fatty acids, followed by linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, accounting for 12-13%, 5%, and 3%, respectively, of the total fatty acids. β-Sitosterol was the major sterol in all oils with 33–35% of total sterols. The next major sterols in all oils were stigmasterol (24% of total sterols and Δ7-stigmasterol (15% of total sterols. Coriander cake contained higher amounts of total tocotrienol where γ-tocotrienol was the main compound.

  19. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for centrifuge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Davies, A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce and adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. Three possible types of encapsulants for Centrifuge Cake;- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers, are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie. Storage Transport, handling and emplacement Disposal, and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on Centrifuge Cake. (author)

  20. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with wedding cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D S; Heisey-Grove, D; Argyros, F; Berl, E; Nsubuga, J; Stiles, T; Fontana, J; Beard, R S; Monroe, S; McGrath, M E; Sutherby, H; Dicker, R C; DeMaria, A; Matyas, B T

    2005-12-01

    We sought to determine the source of a norovirus outbreak among attendees of 46 weddings taking place during a single weekend. Norovirus-compatible illness was experienced by 332 (39%) of wedding guests surveyed; the outbreak affected up to 2700 persons. Illness was associated with eating wedding cake provided by a bakery common to the weddings (adjusted RR 4.5, Pweddings. Identical sequence types of norovirus were detected in stool specimens submitted by two wedding guests, a wedding hall employee, and one of the ill bakery employees. It is likely that one or more food workers at the bakery contaminated the wedding cakes through direct and indirect contact. These findings reinforce the necessity of proper food-handling practices and of policies that discourage food handlers from working while ill.

  1. Filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuo; Nagao, Koji; Akiyama, Toshio; Tanaka, Fumikazu; Osumi, Akira; Hirao, Yasuhiro.

    1997-01-01

    The filter unit is used by attaching to a dustproof mask, and used in a radiation controlled area such as in a nuclear power plant. The filter unit comprises sheet-like front and back filtering members disposed vertically in parallel, a spacer for keeping the filtering members to a predetermined distance and front and back covering members for covering the two filtering members respectively. An electrostatic filter prepared by applying resin-fabrication to a base sheet comprising 100% by weight of organic fibers as fiber components, for example, wool felt, synthetic fiber non-woven fabric, wool and synthetic fiber blend non-woven fabric and then electrifying the resin is used for the filtering members. Then, residue of ashes can be eliminated substantially or completely after burning them. (I.N.)

  2. Granular packing as model glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  3. Comparative physico-chemical evaluation of soymilk and soya cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ash contents of soymilk were 0.40, 0.42, and 0.45% or A, B, and C respectively; soya cake recorded higher figures of 0.81, 0.79, and 0.79% for samples A, B, and C respectively. Raw and pasteurized soymilk stored at 4°C kept for 3 and 7 days respectively. The microbial loads of the raw soymilk were 3 x 105, 4 x 105 ...

  4. Sensorial, chemical and microbiological quality of anchovy cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fish cake prepared using raw anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and its products were stored in a locked bag at a cold temperature of 4 ± 1°C. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, salt, pH, TVB-N, number of TBA, TMA-N and histamine values, number of total aerobic microorganisms (at 5 and 30°C temperature of ...

  5. A kinetic study on sesame cake protein hydrolysis by Alcalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Elçin; Apar, Dilek Kılıç; Özbek, Belma

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the hydrolysis of sesame cake protein was performed by Alcalase, a bacterial protease produced by Bacillus licheniformis, to investigate the reaction kinetics of sesame cake hydrolysis and to determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase. The reactions were carried out for 10 min in 0.1 L of aqueous solutions containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 g protein/L at various temperature and pH values. To determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase, a series of inhibition experiments were conducted with the addition of various amounts of hydrolysate. The reaction kinetics was investigated by initial rate approach. The initial reaction rates were determined from the slopes of the linear models that fitted to the experimental data. The kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max), were estimated as 41.17 g/L and 9.24 meqv/L x min. The Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that the type of inhibition for Alcalase determined as uncompetitive, and the inhibition constant, K(i), was estimated as 38.24% (hydrolysate/substrate mixture). Practical Application: Plant proteins are increasingly being used as an alternative to proteins from animal sources to perform functional roles in food formulation. Knowledge of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction is essential for the optimization of enzymatic protein hydrolysis and for increasing the utilization of plant proteins in food products. Therefore, in the present study, the hydrolysis of sesame cake protein was performed by Alcalase, a bacterial protease produced by B. licheniformis, to investigate the reaction kinetics of sesame cake hydrolysis and to determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase.

  6. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  7. CRAMBE CAKE (Crambe abyssinica hochst ON LAMB DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Breda Canova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative feedstuffs in animal diet, such as residues derived from the biodiesel production aims to increase productivity and reduce costs in animal production. Them aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution effect of 0, 22, 44 and 64% of soybean meal protein by Crambe cake (Crambe abyssinica Hochst protein in lamb diet. In the in vivo experiment, 20 lambs were used and evaluated the apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and voluntary DM intake. The replacement of the protein resulted in a linear decrease in apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, cellulose (CEL and the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN, which resulted in decreased daily DM intake. The blood level of urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were not affected. In vitro gas production technique (GP evaluation of diets showed a significantly decrease (P<0.05 of the total gas and methane production without altering the true degradability of DM and OM and the partition factor (PF. Replacement of soybean meal protein by the Crambe cake protein decreased digestibility of the fiber fraction of the diet, the voluntary intake of DM and methane, without altering rumen fermentation. Crambe cake can be utilized as lamb's food, because, despite reduced intake, assure a large energy intake and similarity to soybean meal protein.

  8. Conversion of Hanford salt cake to glass: laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Dressen, A.L.; Hobbick, C.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    Approximately 140 million liters of solid salt cake (mainly NaNO 3 ), produced by evaporation of aged, alkaline high-level wastes, will be stored in underground tanks when the present Hanford Waste Management Program is completed in the early 1980's. These solid wastes can be converted to silicate-based glasses by melting them either at 1200 to 1300 0 C with appropriate amounts of sand and lime (soda-lime formulation) or at 1000 to 1100 0 C with appropriate amounts of Columbia River basalt and B 2 O 3 (basalt formulation). Both formulations yield dense, immobile glasses of low water leachability (10 -7 to 10 -6 g cm -2 day -1 ) suitable for terminal storage. The soda-lime formulation is presently preferred over the basalt formulation because it can accommodate more salt cake (50 wt percent versus 30 to 40 wt percent) while yielding a glass whose volume is 10 to 20 percent less than the volume of the salt cake in the melt charge

  9. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  10. Evaluation of GLUT-1 in the granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Andrade Marigo, Helenicede; Souza, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machadode; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2013-07-01

    The glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) protein is a useful marker for perineurial cells. Because of the possible neuroectodermal histogenesis of the granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis, the aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of GLUT-1 protein in granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis to aid in clarifying their histogenesis. The protocol of this study was approved by the Committee of Bioethics in Research at Universidade Federal Minas Gerais. Six cases of granular cell tumour and three cases of congenital granular cell epulis were submitted to immunohistochemistry for GLUT-1 and S-100 using the streptavidin-biotin standard protocol. Five cases of granular cell tumour were located on the tongue and one case on the upper lip. All cases of congenital granular cell epulis were observed in the alveolar ridge of newborns. All lesions evaluated proved to be immunonegative for GLUT-1. S-100 was found to be positive in all granular cell tumours and negative in congenital granular cell epulis. Neither granular cell tumour nor congenital granular cell epulis is directly related to perineurial cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (Pchickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  12. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  13. Pneumatic fractures in confined granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K; Toussaint, Renaud; Turquet, Antoine L; Måløy, Knut J; Flekkøy, Eirik G

    2017-06-01

    We perform experiments where air is injected at a constant overpressure P_{in}, ranging from 5 to 250 kPa, into a dry granular medium confined within a horizontal linear Hele-Shaw cell. The setup allows us to explore compacted configurations by preventing decompaction at the outer boundary, i.e., the cell outlet has a semipermeable filter such that beads are stopped while air can pass. We study the emerging patterns and dynamic growth of channels in the granular media due to fluid flow, by analyzing images captured with a high speed camera (1000 images/s). We identify four qualitatively different flow regimes, depending on the imposed overpressure, ranging from no channel formation for P_{in} below 10 kPa, to large thick channels formed by erosion and fingers merging for high P_{in} around 200 kPa. The flow regimes where channels form are characterized by typical finger thickness, final depth into the medium, and growth dynamics. The shape of the finger tips during growth is studied by looking at the finger width w as function of distance d from the tip. The tip profile is found to follow w(d)∝d^{β}, where β=0.68 is a typical value for all experiments, also over time. This indicates a singularity in the curvature d^{2}d/dw^{2}∼κ∼d^{1-2β}, but not of the slope dw/dd∼d^{β-1}, i.e., more rounded tips rather than pointy cusps, as they would be for the case β>1. For increasing P_{in}, the channels generally grow faster and deeper into the medium. We show that the channel length along the flow direction has a linear growth with time initially, followed by a power-law decay of growth velocity with time as the channel approaches its final length. A closer look reveals that the initial growth velocity v_{0} is found to scale with injection pressure as v_{0}∝P_{in}^{3/2}, while at a critical time t_{c} there is a cross-over to the behavior v(t)∝t^{-α}, where α is close to 2.5 for all experiments. Finally, we explore the fractal dimension of the fully

  14. Utilization of expeller pressed partially defatted peanut cake meal in the preparation of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, J K; Shinde, V S; Kadam, S S

    1991-07-01

    Expeller pressed partially defatted peanut cake obtained from skin-free kernels was used as graded supplements in the preparation of breads, sweet buns, cupcakes and yeast-raised doughnuts. Incorporation of cake meal lowered the specific volume and sensory properties, but improved the fresh weight, water holding capacity and protein content of the products. The products containing 10% peanut cake meal were found to be acceptable.

  15. Effect of castor cake and elephant grass composting on edaphic fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Scoriza,Rafael Nogueira; Bianchi,Miriam de Oliveira; Correia,Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Leal,Marco Antonio de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Elephant grass and castor cake when combined can make a promising organic fertilizer. However, castor cake contains potentially toxic chemicals, such as ricin and ricinine. To test potential effects of these chemicals, compost piles of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) with castor cake were prepared with different C:N ratios (T1 = 40, T2 = 30, T3 = 20; T4 = 30 [control, elephant grass + crotalaria]) to evaluate colonization by edaphic fauna and any suppressive effects of...

  16. Lead and silver extraction from waste cake from hydrometallurgical zinc production

    OpenAIRE

    DUSAN D. STANOJEVIC; MILOS B. RAJKOVIC; DRAGAN V. TOSKOVIC; MILANA A. TOMIC

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the extraction of lead and silver from a lead–silver waste cake obtained in the process of hydrometallurgical zinc production. While controlling the pH value, the lead–silver cake was leached at a temperature close to boiling point in different concentrations of aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The experiments were performed applying different ratios between the mass of cake and the volume of the leaching agent under different durations of th...

  17. Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S.; Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G.

    2006-01-01

    Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial

  18. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  19. Nucleation in Sheared Granular Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Frank; Radin, Charles; Swinney, Harry L.; Schröter, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    We present an experiment on crystallization of packings of macroscopic granular spheres. This system is often considered to be a model for thermally driven atomic or colloidal systems. Cyclically shearing a packing of frictional spheres, we observe a first order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state. The ordered state consists of crystallites of mixed fcc and hcp symmetry that coexist with the amorphous bulk. The transition, initiated by homogeneous nucleation, overcomes a barrier at 64.5% volume fraction. Nucleation consists predominantly of the dissolving of small nuclei and the growth of nuclei that have reached a critical size of about ten spheres.

  20. Nucleation in Sheared Granular Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Frank; Radin, Charles; Swinney, Harry L; Schröter, Matthias

    2018-02-02

    We present an experiment on crystallization of packings of macroscopic granular spheres. This system is often considered to be a model for thermally driven atomic or colloidal systems. Cyclically shearing a packing of frictional spheres, we observe a first order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state. The ordered state consists of crystallites of mixed fcc and hcp symmetry that coexist with the amorphous bulk. The transition, initiated by homogeneous nucleation, overcomes a barrier at 64.5% volume fraction. Nucleation consists predominantly of the dissolving of small nuclei and the growth of nuclei that have reached a critical size of about ten spheres.

  1. Wien filter

    OpenAIRE

    Mook, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a Wien filter provided with electrodes for generating an electric field, and magnetic poles for generating a magnetic field, said electrodes and magnetic poles being positioned around and having a finite length along a filter axis, and being positioned around the filter axis such that electric and magnetic forces induced by the respective fields and exerted on an electrically charged particle moving substantially along the fileter axis at a certain velocity

  2. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    -rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  3. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, H.J.; Ruiz-Suarez, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular

  4. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  5. Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their

  6. Traffic and Granular Flow’05

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Kühne, Reinhart; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The conference series Tra?c and Granular Flow has been established in 1995 and has since then been held biannually. At that time, the investigation of granular materials and tra?c was still somewhat exotic and was just starting to become popular among physicists. Originally the idea behind this conference series was to facilitate the c- vergence of the two ?elds, inspired by the similarities of certain phenomena and the use of similar theoretical methods. However, in recent years it has become clear that probably the di?erences between the two systems are much more interesting than the similarities. Nevertheless, the importance of various interrelations among these ?elds is still growing. The workshop continues to o?er an opportunity to stimulate this interdisciplinary research. Over the years the spectrum of topics has become much broader and has included also problems related to topics ranging from social dynamics to - ology. The conference manages to bring together people with rather di?erent background, r...

  7. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  8. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  9. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Durge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L. levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 μmol/g oil free dry matter (DM and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 μmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05 in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01. The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05 reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052 of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05. However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production.

  10. Challenges of front-end and triggering electronics for High Granularity Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Puljak, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    A high granularity calorimeter is presently being designed by the CMS Collaboration to replace the existing endcap detectors. It must be able to cope with the very high collision rates, imposing the development of novel filtering and triggering strategies, as well as with the harsh radiation environment of the high-luminosity LHC. In this paper we present an overview of the full electronics architecture and the performance of prototype components and algorithms.

  11. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S.; Giacomelli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Togo, V.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z $>$ 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of $\\sim$ 1.7 m$^2$sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  12. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  13. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values castor oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This

  14. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... conventional fertilizers. Nutritional values of the two crops were raised by the application of the fertilizer formulations. Key words: De-oiled seed cake, palm kernel, fertilizer. INTRODUCTION. De-oiled seed cake (Doc) is a by product of oil seed from oil extraction plants. It has the potential of being used as.

  15. Assessment of surface caking of powders using the ball indentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinqin; Zafar, Umair; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Bi, Jinfeng

    2017-04-15

    Powder caking is a ubiquitous problem, which could significantly decrease product quality and lead to economic losses. Hence it is important to know the conditions under which it occurs. The caking behaviour of three powder materials (PVP, HPC and CaHPO 4 ) has been investigated by the ball indentation method (BIM) as affected by relative humidity (RH), temperature and time. The resistance to powder flow, as indicated by the hardness is measured by a ball indenting the powder bed surface. The surface hardness increases with increasing RH and temperature, indicating caking of the powder bed. Moreover, the temperature and RH show a coupled effect on powder caking. Irreversible caking is formed in PVP and HPC at 75% RH; the particles coalesce and the volume of powder bed is significantly reduced with time. However, the caking of CaHPO 4 is reversible. To examine the caking mechanism of PVP and HPC, the critical glass transition RH is determined at 25°C and 45°C. The values are 63% and 53% RH for PVP and 61% and 50% RH for HPC, respectively. The glass transition moisture content in the ball indentation experiments is comparable with that determined by the dynamic vapor sorption measurement. BIM could be a fast and effective method for the assessment of powder surface caking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability...

  17. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of

  18. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  19. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... The presence of such anti-nutritional factors like tannin and saponin could prevent the availability of some nutrients like protein to the animal if not properly processed. Additionally, the cake has bitter taste due to the presence of such factors making the cake to be unpalatable to livestock. The palatability of ...

  20. Internal filtration and external filter cake build-up in sandstones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Abduwani, F.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Water injection is an integral constituent of most field development scenarios. This injection may take place for secondary recovery and pressure maintenance such as sea water injection. Alternatively, it may take place as a waste water disposal method as in the case of produced water re-injection.

  1. Mathematical modeling of a biogenous filter cake and identification of oilseed material parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Očenášek J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of the filtration and extrusion process inside a linear compression chamber has gained a lot of attention during several past decades. This subject was originally related to mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils (in particular work of Terzaghi and later was this approach adopted for the modeling of various technological processes in the chemical industry (work of Shirato. Developed mathematical models of continuum mechanics of porous materials with interstitial fluid were then applied also to the problem of an oilseed expression. In this case, various simplifications and partial linearizations are introduced in models for the reason of an analytical or numerical solubility; or it is not possible to generalize the model formulation into the fully 3D problem of an oil expression extrusion with a complex geometry such as it has a screw press extruder.We proposed a modified model for the oil seeds expression process in a linear compression chamber. The model accounts for the rheological properties of the deformable solid matrix of compressed seed, where the permeability of the porous solid is described by the Darcy's law. A methodology of the experimental work necessary for a material parameters identification is presented together with numerical simulation examples.

  2. Granular gases under extreme driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  3. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  4. Nutritionally "Empty" but "Full" of Meanings: The Socio-Cultural Significance of Birthday Cakes in Four Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of birthday cakes with the purpose of reflecting upon birthday cake practices enacted in four early childhood settings in England. I argue that birthday cakes occupy an ambiguous place in early childhood practice: seen to be both "risky"--a term I problematise--"and"…

  5. On the reversibility of cake buildup and compression in a membrane bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-01-01

    on compressed cake layers is released, the cake swells back to a looser structure. Based on these observations, we discuss the validity of using the critical flux concept to study fouling irreversibility. Modeling data of short-term filtration tests shows that the presence of a critical flux for irreversible......Fouling in a membrane bioreactor was studied by describing the reversibility of fouling developing during short-term experiments. Data were fitted to a recently proposed model of the buildup and compression of fouling layers. Shear stepping experiments performed to characterize the efficiency...... of increased shear rates at removing cake layers indicated that cake layer removal follows the same kinetics as does cake layer development, so the fouling layers can be characterized as removable fouling. Furthermore, transmembrane pressure stepping indicates compression reversibility, so when the pressure...

  6. Effect of castor cake and elephant grass composting on edaphic fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Scoriza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Elephant grass and castor cake when combined can make a promising organic fertilizer. However, castor cake contains potentially toxic chemicals, such as ricin and ricinine. To test potential effects of these chemicals, compost piles of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum. with castor cake were prepared with different C:N ratios (T1 = 40, T2 = 30, T3 = 20; T4 = 30 [control, elephant grass + crotalaria] to evaluate colonization by edaphic fauna and any suppressive effects of castor cake. Soil organisms were collected with Berlese-Tullgren funnels. There were temporal differences between the treatments, and the epigeous fauna was mainly represented by members of the Acari and Entomobryomorpha. Elapsed time is the major factor in determining the composition of the epigeous fauna community associated with composting, indicating that castor cake has no suppressive effect.

  7. Effects of shading time on quality of matcha and matcha cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of shading time on the quality of Matcha and the Matcha cake.It showed that shading could help the systhesis of nitrogen compounds such as amino acids,caffeine chlorophyll and protein,but couldn′t favor accumulation of tea polyphenol and polysaccharides.The more shading time was,the more chlorophyll content would be,and the more green of Matcha color would be.After Matcha cake was baked,the green color reduced.The colors of Macha cake are greener with longer shading time.Thus,the length of Shading time has obvious effect on the green tea and the tea cake quality,We can adjust the Matcha cake taste,flavor and color by adding Matcha from different shading time.

  8. Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular

  9. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  10. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, Henk Jan; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2008-02-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular discharge through openings at the bottom of the silo in order to search for a Torricelli-like behavior. We show that the flow rate scales with the wall induced shear rate, and at high rates, the granular bed indeed discharges similar to a viscous fluid.

  11. Granular-relational data mining how to mine relational data in the paradigm of granular computing ?

    CERN Document Server

    Hońko, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This book provides two general granular computing approaches to mining relational data, the first of which uses abstract descriptions of relational objects to build their granular representation, while the second extends existing granular data mining solutions to a relational case. Both approaches make it possible to perform and improve popular data mining tasks such as classification, clustering, and association discovery. How can different relational data mining tasks best be unified? How can the construction process of relational patterns be simplified? How can richer knowledge from relational data be discovered? All these questions can be answered in the same way: by mining relational data in the paradigm of granular computing! This book will allow readers with previous experience in the field of relational data mining to discover the many benefits of its granular perspective. In turn, those readers familiar with the paradigm of granular computing will find valuable insights on its application to mining r...

  12. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  13. Evaluating the effects of granular and membrane filtrations on chlorine demand in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Kim, Seung Hyun; Joo, C K; Gao, Baoyu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, chlorine decay experiments were conducted for the raw water from Nakdong River that is treated by Chilseo Water Treatment Plant (CWTP) situated in Haman, Korea as well as the effluents from sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) filters of CWTP and fitted using a chlorine decay model. The model estimated the fast and slow reacting nitrogenous as well as organic/inorganic compounds that were present in the water. It was found that the chlorine demand due to fast and slow reacting (FRA and SRA) organic/inorganic substances was not reduced significantly by sand as well as GAC filters. However, the treated effluents from those filters contained FRA and SRA that are less reactive and had small reaction rate constants. For the effluents from microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration the chlorine demand because FRA and SRA were further reduced but the reaction rate constants were larger compared to those of sand and GAC filter effluents. This has implications in the formation of disinfection by products (DBPs). If DBPs are assumed to form due to the interactions between chlorine and SRA, then it is possible that the DBP formation potential in the effluents from membrane filtrations could be higher than that in the effluents from granular media filters.

  14. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ε -a central quantity governing the inelasticity of

  15. Advanced Granular System Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...

  16. Sliding through a superlight granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2009-12-01

    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  17. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  18. Acoustical properties of double porosity granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Rodolfo; Umnova, Olga

    2011-11-01

    Granular materials have been conventionally used for acoustic treatment due to their sound absorptive and sound insulating properties. An emerging field is the study of the acoustical properties of multiscale porous materials. An example of these is a granular material in which the particles are porous. In this paper, analytical and hybrid analytical-numerical models describing the acoustical properties of these materials are introduced. Image processing techniques have been employed to estimate characteristic dimensions of the materials. The model predictions are compared with measurements on expanded perlite and activated carbon showing satisfactory agreement. It is concluded that a double porosity granular material exhibits greater low-frequency sound absorption at reduced weight compared to a solid-grain granular material with similar mesoscopic characteristics.

  19. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noije, T.P.C.; Ernst, M.H.; Brito, R.

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which

  20. Noise induces rare events in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard M.

    2016-09-01

    The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below. We use techniques from the theory of rare events to compute the mean transition time for breaking to occur. This requires the introduction of a two-component reaction coordinate.

  1. Granular materials flow like complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Jindong; Xia, Chengjie; Li, Zhifeng; Dong, Haipeng; Zhang, Ang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-11-16

    Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they 'relax', becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax

  2. Granular materials flow like complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Jindong; Xia, Chengjie; Li, Zhifeng; Dong, Haipeng; Zhang, Ang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-11-01

    Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they `relax', becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax

  3. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  4. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  5. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  6. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  7. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  8. Effects of sucrose reduction on the structural characteristics of sponge cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Souza Cavalcante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe consumption of reduced-calorie cakes has been increasing, however this has presented challenges to be overcome concerning the formation of their structure when the sucrose is substituted by alternative sweeteners, gums or thickening agents. The present study evaluated the internal characteristics of cakes with a reduction in sucrose, and the effects of its substitution on starch gelatinisation. Starting with a pre-established formulation, the sucrose was gradually substituted by a 1.0% mixture of sucralose in a 1.5% xanthan gum solution. In the substituted cake mix, the apparent viscosity and its thermal properties were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Specific volume (SV and cell count (CC were evaluated in the cakes. As the sucrose content decreased (52.17 to 10.00%, the specific volume (1.94 to 0.7 mL/g, cell count (36.2 to 4.0 cell/cm2 and the apparent viscosity of the batter (337.56 to 631.40 cP were also reduced. The results showed that substituting the sucrose contributed greatly to the formation of defects in the cake structure (holes. From the data obtained, and thermograms of standard cake batters and those with a reduction in sucrose, it can be concluded that sucralose reduced the temperature of starch gelatinisation, speeding the process and causing compaction of the cake structure during baking, favouring the formation of bubbles throughout the batter.

  9. Application of Combined Cake Filtration-Complete Blocking Model to Ultrafiltration of Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Kazemimoghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane ultrafiltration (UF is widely used in dairy industries like milk concentration and dehydration processes. The limiting factor of UF systems is fouling which is defined as the precipitation of solutes in the form of a cake layer on the surface of the membrane. In this study, the combined cake filtration-complete blocking model was compared to cake filtration mechanism for flux data through ultrafiltration of skim milk at constant flow rate. The resistance data also was modeled using cake filtration model and standard blocking model. The effect of different trans-membrane pressures and temperatures on flux decline was then investigated. Based on the results obtained here, the combined complete blocking-cake formation model was in excellent agreement with experimental data. The cake filtration model also provided good data fits and can be applied to solutions whose solutes tend to accumulate on the surface of the membrane in the form of a cake layer. With increasing pressure, the differences between the model and experimental data increased.

  10. Staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cake in a metropolitan area of South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Maria Lúcia

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve people became ill with vomiting and diarrhoea approximately four hours after eating cake with a cream filling at a birthday party and on the day following. The cake had been prepared by a food handler who had long experience in preparing foods for such functions. Staphylococcus aureus that produced enterotoxin A was isolated from the nose, the fingernails, and a healed infection on the neck of the food handler, and from the cake. Enterotoxin A was detected in the remaining portion of the cake. The cake, while still warm, had been refrigerated for one hour after it was prepared before it was removed for the party; it was refrigerated after the party. The cake was large (6 kg and hence it was not adequately cooled in the hour during wich it was refrigerated before the party. The conclusion is that the cake was accidentally contaminated by the food handler and inadequately cooled before it was eaten.

  11. Investigation of the factors affecting adult fly production in biosolid cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadour, Ian R; Voss, Sasha C

    2009-06-01

    The seasonal pattern of adult fly production in both fresh and aged biosolid cake was established by the exposure of biosolid cake to natural conditions in the central coastal region of Perth, Western Australia, over the course of a year. Relationships between fly emergence and six factors (weeks exposed, pH, NH(4), rainfall, temperature, and moisture) suspected of facilitating the attraction of adult flies to biosolid cake were measured. The aim was to study the production of adult flies with regard to weeks exposed in different seasons to establish a "best practice" storage procedure for aged biosolid cake. Four fly species were collected during the study; Musca domestica L. (house fly), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (stable fly), Fannia canicularis L. (lesser house fly), and Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (false stable fly). Of the 5,303 flies identified, >97% of these were either M. domestica or S. calcitrans. Adult flies emerged from biosolid cake all year round with a sharp decline in winter. The number of emerged flies peaked in summer (3,163 flies) and declined during autumn (1,545 flies) and spring (532 flies). Significant positive relationships were observed between the number of adult flies emerging from biosolid cake and ambient temperature, NH(4) content, and weeks exposed. Higher ambient temperatures and a higher NH(4) content of the biosolid cake were associated with increased number of adult flies emerging from the biosolid cake. Similarly, the majority of flies emerged from biosolid cake in the first 10 wk of exposure to fly activity.

  12. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  13. Passive Separation of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joseph; Lievano, Diana

    2013-11-01

    Despite its industrial importance, particle separation techniques remain typically quite ``low tech'' and often are energy-intensive (e.g., sieving) or environmentally unfriendly (e.g., froth floatation) or both. Rate-based separation processes, on the other hand, represent a unique approach to particle separation that has the potential to be more flexible, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than existing ``low tech'' techniques. In the present paper, we highlight a passive granular separation technique, where particles of differing properties flow through a device often called a Galton board. In this type of device, the gravity-driven flow of particles down an inclined plane causes collisions between the particles and distributed pegs along the board. Collisions between particles as well as between particles and pegs results in a diffusion-like motion of particles perpendicular to the flow. The extent of separation (i.e., how far one type of particle is removed from another) depends on the different distances traversed by the two types of particles and, ultimately, on the collision rate and energy dissipation for particle-peg events. A simple theory, based on statistics and single-collision mechanics, will be set forth for comparison with our results.

  14. Self-assembled granular towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vazquez, Felipe; Moreau, Florian; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephan; GroupResearch; Applications in Statistical Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    When some water is added to sand, cohesion among the grains is induced. In fact, only 1% of liquid volume respect to the total pore space of the sand is necessary to built impressive sandcastles. Inspired on this experience, the mechanical properties of wet piles and sand columns have been widely studied during the last years. However, most of these studies only consider wet materials with less than 35% of liquid volume. Here we report the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a highly wet sand bed: The impacting grains stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow sand towers. Actually, the towers can reach the maximum theoretical limit of stability predicted by previous models, only expected for low liquid volumes. The authors would like to thank FNRS and Conacyt Mexico for financial support. FPV is a beneficiary of a movility grant from BELSPO/Marie Curie and the University of Liege.

  15. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  16. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes

  17. Engineering considerations in the use of artificial filter beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Artificial filter bed intakes utilize a prepared granular filter material to prevent entrance of debris and aquatic life into a water withdrawal facility. The relatively large quantities of water and the service reliability required for power plant cooling water systems present major engineering problems for the artificial filter concept, many of which have not been resolved. These problems include development of a suitable and stable filter medium; design of a reliable backwash system which is both effective and environmentally acceptable; meeting of all site-imposed restrictions relating to natural river turbidity, flooding characteristics, channel stability, and ice loads; and provision of the complex civil and mechanical engineering design inherent in such a system. Extensive model testing may be required for further engineering development of this system. The preliminary engineering for an artificial filter system is discussed in connection with a proposed 1.6-m 3 /s-capacity (25,000-gpm capacity) filter in the Columbia River

  18. Feeding olive cake to ewes improves fatty acid profile of milk and cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil extraction yields a residual cake rich in oil that can be used in animal diets as a source of monounsaturated fat. Milk and cheese from sheep are high in saturated fatty acids (FA) thus, it was hypothesized that supplementing olive cake to lactating ewes would result in naturally enhanced...... milk and cheese with healthier FA profiles for human consumption. Nine lactating ewes were randomly assigned to a replicated (n= s3) 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Diets were supplemented with 0, 10 or 25% of dry olive cake. Except for total solids, dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were...

  19. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  20. Computer-aided analysis for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joey K.

    1986-01-01

    The Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) program is planned to provide experimental determinations of the mechanics of granular materials under very low gravity conditions. The initial experiments will use small glass beads as the granular material, and a precise tracking of individual beads during the test is desired. Real-time video images of the experimental specimen were taken with a television camera, and subsequently digitized by a frame grabber installed in a microcomputer. Easily identified red tracer beads were randomly scattered throughout the test specimen. A set of Pascal programs was written for processing and analyzing the digitized images. Filtering the image with Laplacian, dilation, and blurring filters when using a threshold function produced a binary (black on white) image which clearly identified the red beads. The centroids and areas for each bead were then determined. Analyzing a series of the images determined individual red bead displacements throughout the experiment. The system can provide displacement accuracies on the order of 0.5 to 1 pixel is the image is taken directly from the video camera. Digitizing an image from a video cassette recorder introduces an additional repeatability error of 0.5 to 1 pixel. Other programs were written to provide hardcopy prints of the digitized images on a dot-matrix printer.

  1. Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Gert; Huppert, Herbert E.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Hallworth, Mark A.

    2004-06-01

    Experimental observations of the collapse of initially vertical columns of small grains are presented. The experiments were performed mainly with dry grains of salt or sand, with some additional experiments using couscous, sugar or rice. Some of the experimental flows were analysed using high-speed video. There are three different flow regimes, dependent on the value of the aspect ratio a {=} h_i/r_i, where h_i and r_i are the initial height and radius of the granular column respectively. The differing forms of flow behaviour are described for each regime. In all cases a central, conically sided region of angle approximately 59(°) , corresponding to an aspect ratio of 1.7, remains undisturbed throughout the motion. The main experimental results for the final extent of the deposit and the time for emplacement are systematically collapsed in a quantitative way independent of any friction coefficients. Along with the kinematic data for the rate of spread of the front of the collapsing column, this is interpreted as indicating that frictional effects between individual grains in the bulk of the moving flow only play a role in the last instant of the flow, as it comes to an abrupt halt. For a {reach r_infty is given by t_infty {=} 3(h_i/g)(1/2} {=} 3(r_i/g)({1/2}a^{1/2)) , where g is the gravitational acceleration. The insights and conclusions gained from these experiments can be applied to a wide range of industrial and natural flows of concentrated particles. For example, the observation of the rapid deposition of the grains can help explain details of the emplacement of pyroclastic flows resulting from the explosive eruption of volcanoes.

  2. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  3. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  4. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  5. Reversibility in locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, William; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A recent study of a self-deforming robot [Hatton et al., PRL, 2013] demonstrated that slow movement in dry granular media resembles locomotion in low Re fluids, in part because inertia is dominated by friction. The study indicated that granular swimming was kinematically reversible, a surprise because yielding in granular flow is irreversible. To investigate if reciprocal motions lead to net displacements in granular swimmers, in laboratory experiments, we study the locomotion of a robotic ``scallop'' consisting of a square body with two flipper-like limbs controlled to flap forward and backward symmetrically (a flap cycle). The body is constrained by linear bearings to allow motion in only one dimension. We vary the the flapping frequency f, the body/flipper burial depth d, and the number of flaps N in a deep bed of 6 mm diameter plastic spheres. Over a range of f and d, the N = 1 cycle produces net translation of the body; however for large N, a cycle produces no net translation. We conclude that symmetric strokes in granular swimming are irreversible at the onset of self-deformation, but become asymptotically reversible. work supported by NSF and ARL.

  6. PUMPKIN CAKE AND PUMPKIN SLUDGE USE EFFICIENCY IN CHICKEN-ROILERS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  7. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian-Xiong; van de Weert, Marco

    2013-01-01

    critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed...... are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a fuzzy logic system based on image analysis (IA) for analyzing cake quality. Freeze-dried samples with different visual quality attributes were prepared in well plates. Imaging solutions together with image analytical routines were developed for extracting...... fuzzy logic-based system was found to give comparable quality scores with visual evaluation, making high-throughput classification of cake quality possible....

  8. Physical and chemical composition and in situ degradability of macauba palm cake and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Patrícia Barros Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Macauba palm coconuts are rich in essential nutrients for animal feed formulation and after oil extraction, a large amount of residual biomass is produced, which must be used rationally to environmental preservation. This study aimed to determine the nutritional value of macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata, cake and leaves, for its physical and chemical composition, dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility (IVD and in situ degradability. The test of in situ degradability was done using three rumen fistulated cattle. Analytical determinations were performed in the laboratory of Animal Nutrition of Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa-SP, Brazil. Six replicates were used for each analytical determination and were calculated the standard error. Macauba cake chemically assessed showed a low protein content (CP 4.5% and high content of acid detergent fibre (ADF 39.7% and average levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF 52.5%. ADF and NDF were the macauba palm cake majority fractions compared NDF and ADF (respectively of cocoa cake (37.6 and 45.5%, sunflower cake (28.2 and 38.4%, corn meal (11.3 and 20.2% and peanut cake (15.4 and 21.0. Macauba palm leaves had a good protein content (12.0% and fiber content comparable to tropical grass of good nutritional value. They can be used with no restriction on ruminants’ diets. The macauba palm cake high levels of lignin (16.5% justify the low dry matter IVD percentage (48%, while the leaves had 58%.of IVD. Macauba leaves total digestible nutrients (TDN 59.0% is similar to TDN usually observed for forages. Macauba cake can be considered (TDN = 64.0% similar to energetic food, due to the fat content (6.4%, however the high content of lignin (16.5% can limit its consumption. Macauba palm cake showed high ruminal degradability of DM and CP (fraction a = 51.3 and 59.9, respectively, while macauba palm leaves hah low solubility of DM and CP (fraction a = 3.18 and 5.28, respectively. Thus, the higher CP macauba leaves

  9. Determination of the attrition resistance of granular charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory procedure has been developed to evaluate the attrition of granular adsorbent charcoals on passing an air flow through the bed. Two factors observed in plant operations were selected as relevant: (1) the characteristic structural vibrations in plant scale equipment (motors, fans, etc.) that are transmitted to charcoal particles and cause the particles to move and rub each other, and (2) the rapid air flow that results in the movement of the attrited dust. In the test a container for charcoal [50 mm diameter and 50 mm high] was vibrated at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a constant energy input manually controlled using a vibration meter in the acceleration mode. Simultaneously, air was applied and exited through glass fiber filter paper. The quantity of dust trapped on the exit filter was then determined, either optically or gravimetrically. The dust formed per minute (attrition coefficient) was found to approach a constant value. The plateau-values from sequential determinations varied with the source of the charcoal; a 5-fold difference was found among a large variety of commercial products. The first testing of a sample released the excess dust accumulated in previous handling of the charcoal. The plateau values were then attained in the succeeding tests and these were characteristic of the material. The results were compared with those obtained for the same charcoals using older test methods such as the Ball and Pan Hardness Test described in RDTM16-1T

  10. Diffuse omental cake as an initial presentation of plasma cell leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Ko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Omental cake is a term to describe peritoneal thickening caused by different processes. Metastatic malignancy is the most common cause. Plasma cell leukemia is a rare hematological malignancy involving plasma cells and differ from multiple myeloma in its aggressiveness, initial presentation, and dismal prognosis. Herein, we reported a case of primary plasma cell leukemia initially presented with diffuse omental cake and ascites and subsequent systemic capillary leak syndrome.

  11. Influence of sunflower cake supplementation on Marchigiana carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Federica Trombetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sunflower cake supplement on the quantity and quality parameters of Marchigiana carcasses and meat were assessed. Live-animal and post-mortem performances were not significantly different in the animals receiving the supplement, whereas significant differences were noted in conformation and fatness. The colour parameters were also influenced by the diet, which resulted in a more brilliant red colour, greatly appreciated by consumers, in the subjects fed sunflower cake.

  12. Study of the behaviour of the yellow cake dissolution in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mansur, E. de.

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the solubility of the yellow cake produced in a Brazilian uranium mill to permit classification of the inhaled material and to aid bioassay interpretation. The powder was taken from 6 different lots of yellow cake produced during 10 weeks mill operation period. Dissolution fractions and half-times were obtained using simulated lung fluid in a shaker bath at 37 0 C for 30 days. Uranium concentration were determined by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  13. Granular cell tumor of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salour, Hossein; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Karimi, Saeed; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    To report a case of granular cell tumor as a rare orbital pathology. A 50-year-old female presented with a 4-year history of diplopia, right ocular displacement and a firm nontender mass in her right lower lid. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the orbit disclosed a well-defined mass in the right inferior orbit involving the right inferior rectus. Subtotal excision of the mass was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies revealed granular cell tumor. Subsequently, the tumor recurred and exenteration was required as multiple sessions of radiotherapy failed to prevent the residual tumor from growing. Granular cell tumor, though very rare in the orbit, should be considered in patients with orbital masses especially in cases with involvement of the inferior rectus muscle. Infiltrative tumors may be impossible to completely resect and can rapidly recur following surgery.

  14. Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of granular cell tumor as a rare orbital pathology. Case report: A 50-year-old female presented with a 4-year history of diplopia, right ocular displacement and a firm nontender mass in her right lower lid. Computed tomography (CT scan of the orbit disclosed a well-defined mass in the right inferior orbit involving the right inferior rectus. Subtotal excision of the mass was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies revealed granular cell tumor. Subsequently, the tumor recurred and exenteration was required as multiple sessions of radiotherapy failed to prevent the residual tumor from growing. Conclusion: Granular cell tumor, though very rare in the orbit, should be considered in patients with orbital masses especially in cases with involvement of the inferior rectus muscle. Infiltrative tumors may be impossible to completely resect and can rapidly recur following surgery.

  15. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  16. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  17. Breakthrough of toluene vapours in granular activated carbon filled packed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, N.; Kannan, G.K.; Upendra, S.; Subha, R.; Kumar, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the toluene removal efficiency and breakthrough time using commercially available coconut shell-based granular activated carbon in packed bed reactor. To study the effect of toluene removal and break point time of the granular activated carbon (GAC), the parameters studied were bed lengths (2, 3, and 4 cm), concentrations (5, 10, and 15 mg l -1 ) and flow rates (20, 40, and 60 ml/min). The maximum percentage removal of 90% was achieved and the maximum carbon capacity for 5 mg l -1 of toluene, 60 ml/min flow rate and 3 cm bed length shows 607.14 mg/g. The results of dynamic adsorption in a packed bed were consistent with those of equilibrium adsorption by gravimetric method. The breakthrough time and quantity shows that GAC with appropriate surface area can be utilized for air cleaning filters. The result shows that the physisorption plays main role in toluene removal.

  18. Use of soybean cake replacing soybean meal in diets of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth dos Santos Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation parameters in sheep fed diets containing levels of substitution of soybean meal for soybean cake. The diets consisted of five levels of protein soybean meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % by soybean cake. Diets were formulated with 12.5% CP, respecting the forage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60.Tifton-85 hay was used as forage and the concentrate was formulated with corn, soybean meal, soybean cake and vitamin mineral supplement. Five crossbred lambs castrated, with average weight of 33.7 ± 5.8 kg were used and distributed in a Latin Square 5 × 5. No differences in intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrate, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients. Increased linearly in ether extract intake by replacing protein from soybean meal by soybean cake in the diet but with no changes in the digestibility of this component. The nitrogen balance, nitrogen content fecal and urinary retained were not influenced by levels of substitution of soybean meal by soybeans cake in diets. For the index pH and concentration of ammonia nitrogen in rumen fluid did not differ between diets. It was concluded that the soybean cake can be used as an alternative food to replace soybean meal up to 100% unless there are changes in the rumen parameters, balance of nitrogen, intake and nutrient digestibility.

  19. GOSSYPOL CONTENTS IN COTTONSEED CAKES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT DISTRICTS OF THE PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zahid, L. A. Lodhil, Z. I. Qureshil, N. Ahmadl, N.U. Rehmanl and M. S. Akhtar2

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes (CSC, prepared from different varieties of cotton grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan, were determined. For this purpose, cottonseed cake samples were collected from 14 districts of the Punjab including Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Jhang, Kasur, Khanewal, Lahore, Multan, Okara, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh and Vehari. These samples were analyzed for the free and the total gossypol contents applying American Oil Chemist Society Official Methods, Ba 7-58 and Ba 8-78, respectively. The results showed that the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes averaged 0.28 ± 0.02 and 1.44 ± 0.04 per cent, respectively. The highest values of the free and the total gossypol contents, 0.36 ± 0.02 and 1.59 ± 0.03 per cent respectively, were recorded in cottonseed cake samples collected from Vehari district, while the lowest values, 0.21 ± 0.01 and 1.29 ± 0.01 per cent respectively, were found in those collected from Lahore district. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes among districts. It was concluded that the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes available in different parts of the province differed significantly (P<0.05

  20. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm 3 /g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of alternative sweeteners on batter rheology and cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimouli, Vasso; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether certain polyols (mannitol, maltitol, sorbitol, lactitol), fructose, oligofructose and polydextrose can replace sugar (by an equal amount of each substitute) in cake formulations. The rheological behaviour of the cake batter and the physical characteristics of the cakes containing sugar substitutes were compared with the respective attributes of the control cake. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of sugar substitutes on starch gelatinisation. Furthermore sensorial characteristics were evaluated by instrumental measurements and sensory evaluation. The correlation of the batter characteristics with the textural attributes of the final product was also attempted. The best results were obtained by using oligofructose, lactitol or maltitol as sugar replacers, which exhibited similar behaviour to sucrose in terms of batter rheology and increased starch gelatinisation temperature. Fructose and mannitol led to cakes of poor quality characteristics, as was demonstrated by instrumental measurements and sensory evaluation. Batter rheological behaviour as well as the ability of sugar substitutes to increase starch gelatinisation temperature proved to be controlling factors of the textural properties and volume of the cakes. The sensory evaluation indicated that overall acceptance followed closely the scores of tenderness and taste. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of cakes prepared with whole flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Aguiar Moraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value, the oxidative stabilitiy, and consumer acceptance of cakes containing four different concentrations of flaxseed flour (5, 15, 30 and 45% as partial replacement for wheat flour. The oxidative stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids was evaluated through the lipid peroxidation test (TBARS in the flour and cakes. Linolenic acid was determined by gas chromatography as well as contents of protein, lipid, ash, and dietary fiber. Consumer acceptance was assessed using a structured hedonic scale of nine points. The oxidative stability of lipid flaxseeds was not affected by the heat treatment during flour processing and cake baking. Cakes made with 5, 15, and 30% of flaxseed flour, the most accepted by consumers, had dietary fiber levels ranging from 3.5 to 6.2 g and linolenic acid ranging from 445 to 2,500 mg.100 g-1 of the product. The cakes received claims of good and excellent source of dietary fiber and linolenic acid, respectively, both are bioactive compounds. The use of up to 30% of flaxseed flour in the preparation of cakes is a useful strategy to optimize the consumption of food rich in functional ingredients.

  3. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  4. Palm kernel cake for lactating cows in pasture: intake, digestibility, and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Luiz N.V. Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiparous dairy cows (n=16 of the Holstein x Gir crossbreed, with an average weight of 436.6 kg (±59.7, were tested to determine the best level of Palm kernel cake in a dietary supplement for lactating cows at pasture. The experiment utilized a Latin square design, with the cows distributed in four Latin squares. Intake, digestibility of nutritional fractions, and the metabolic profile, as determined from blood parameters, were analyzed for grazing cattle with a dietary supplement containing 0, 25, 50, and 75% of palm kernel cake. Intake of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, nonfibrous carbohydrates, total carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients within the supplement, as well as the intake of total crude protein, total ether extract, and total nonfibrous carbohydrates, were negatively influenced by level of Palm kernel cake supplementation. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, nonfibrous carbohydrate, and total carbohydrates was significantly reduced with an increased percentage of Palm kernel cake in the supplement. The concentration of blood glucose was not affected by the amount of Palm kernel cake (P>0.05. However, these averages of ureic nitrogen are still considered to be physiological norms. A decrease in intake, digestibility of crude protein and nonfibrous carbohydrates indicates that Palm kernel cake is not an adequate ingredient in nutritional supplements for dairy cows at pasture.

  5. Application of extruded broken bean flour for formulation of gluten-free cake blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Froes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological characteristics of extruded broken beans flour, in addition to developing mixtures for gluten-free cake with these flours, evaluating their technological and sensory quality. Gluten-free formulations were prepared with 45%, 60% and 75% of extruded broken beans. All analyzes of the flours and mixtures for cakes were performed according to standard techniques found in the literature. Sensory analyzes of cakes applied the 9-point structured hedonic scale. Results were submitted to variance analysis and comparison of means test (Tukey, p<0.05. The use of extruded broken beans improved the water absorbed and water solubility index of the mixtures for gluten-free cake, and for the lower viscosity and retrogradation when compared to the standard formulation. All cakes were accepted (rate ≥ 7 for all the analyzed attributes. From the technological and sensory standpoints, the development of gluten-free cake mixtures is feasible with up to 75% of extruded broken beans.

  6. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  7. The effect of different emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties containing WPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilian Movahhed, Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash; Milani, Elnaz

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of complete replacement of egg proteins with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and improvement in quality by different emulsifiers was evaluated. Three emulsifiers, including polyglycerol ester (PGE), distilled mono glyceride (DMG) and lecithin were used to bake eggless cakes, containing 8% (w/w) WPC. The response surface analysis was applied to study the effect of emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties. The emulsifiers, individually and interactively, improved the properties of the eggless cakes significantly. The PGE and DMG decreased the batter density, however lecithin increased it. All emulsifiers increased the porosity and volume of the eggless cakes, but decreased the hardness and gumminess of crumb and improved the sensory acceptance. The indices used for optimization of formulation were water activity, moisture content, hardness, gumminess, volume, porosity and total acceptance. The optimum quality of the eggless cake can be achieved from a combination of 0.5 PGE, 0.25 DMG and 0.5% lecithin. The experimental and predicted responses of the optimized eggless cake had a good resemblance.

  8. Eyeglass Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  9. Computational Architecture of the Granular Layer of Cerebellum-Like Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratby, Peter; Sneyd, James; Montgomery, John

    2017-02-01

    In the adaptive filter model of the cerebellum, the granular layer performs a recoding which expands incoming mossy fibre signals into a temporally diverse set of basis signals. The underlying neural mechanism is not well understood, although various mechanisms have been proposed, including delay lines, spectral timing and echo state networks. Here, we develop a computational simulation based on a network of leaky integrator neurons, and an adaptive filter performance measure, which allows candidate mechanisms to be compared. We demonstrate that increasing the circuit complexity improves adaptive filter performance, and relate this to evolutionary innovations in the cerebellum and cerebellum-like structures in sharks and electric fish. We show how recurrence enables an increase in basis signal duration, which suggest a possible explanation for the explosion in granule cell numbers in the mammalian cerebellum.

  10. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  11. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  12. Anisotropy in cohesive, frictional granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luding, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of cohesive, frictional granular materials with a discrete particle molecular dynamics is reviewed. From the structure of the quasi-static granular solid, the fabric, stress, and stiffness tensors are determined, including both normal and tangential forces. The influence of the material properties on the flow behaviour is also reported, including relations between the microscopic attractive force and the macroscopic cohesion as well as the dependence of the macroscopic friction on the microscopic contact friction coefficient. Related to the dynamics, the anisotropy of both structure and stress are exponentially approaching the maximum

  13. Granular cell tumors of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Batsakis, J G; Courtney, R M

    1979-06-01

    Forth-two granular cell tumors of the head and neck were collected and studied with light and electron microscopy. Granular cells were found in four odontogenic tumors, two congenital epulides of newborn infants, and 36 myoblastoma lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. Support is presented for the hypothesis that granular cells represent an unusual nonspecific degenerative process and that nonodontogenic granular cell tumors develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that subsequently undergo autophagocytosis.

  14. 77 FR 59979 - Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on pure magnesium (granular) from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Pure Magnesium (Granular) from China: Investigation No.731-TA- 895 (Second Review). Issued...

  15. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  16. Pequi cake composition, hydrolysis and fermentation to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb fruits have been evaluated as a potential raw material for the newly established biodiesel industry. This scenario demands applications using the solid co-product derived from the extraction of pequi oil, called cake or meal. This study analyses the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates present in the pequi meal in order to obtain fermentable sugars and evaluates their conversion to bioethanol. There was 27% starch in the pequi meal. The use of a CCRD experimental design type to study the acid saccharification of pequi meal results in 61.6% conversion of its starch content to reducing sugars. Positive and significant linear effects were observed for H2SO4 concentration and temperature factors, while the quadratic effect of H2SO4 concentration and the linear effect of solid-liquid ratio were negative. Even, with non-optimized fermentative condition using 1% of dried baker's yeast in conical flasks, it was possible to obtain a value equivalent to 53 L of ethanol per ton of hydrolyzed pequi meal.

  17. Amylolytic fungi in starter cakes for rice beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arup Jyoti; Miyaji, Tatsuro; Deka, Sankar Chandra

    2017-09-05

    Two types of starter cakes, viz. amou and perok-kushi, used in the production of rice beer in Assam, India, by the Bodo and Deori communities, respectively, were used for the isolation of amylolytic fungi. Based on the sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions the fungi were identified as Amylomyces rouxii and Rhizopus oryzae, and given the strain names TU460 and TU465, respectively. Both the strains showed the ability to degrade and saccharify starch. The glucoamylase activity was considerably high in A. rouxii TU460 (14.92 μmol/min) as compared to R. oryzae TU465 (1.41 μmol/min), whereas α-amylase activity was found to be closely related, i.e. 7.02 and 6.09 unit mL -1 , respectively. SDS PAGE for the determination of the molecular size of the glucoamylase enzymes revealed the production of two distinct units of 59 kDa and 31 kDa by A. rouxii TU460, and one unit of 72 kDa by R. oryzae TU465. LC MS/MS analysis revealed that no mycotoxins were produced by either of the strains. The overall study indicated a good amylolytic property of both strains and a potential for application in the starch processing industries.

  18. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrous, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oil extraction from olive foot cake can be explained by a model based on two stages. The first step corresponds to a simple washing of the oil from the particle surface. In the second step, the extraction is controlled by two mechanisms: slow diffusion from broken cells and very slow diffusion from intact cells.The kinetic coefficients of this mathematical model are calculated using the experimental results obtained from hexane and commercial ethyl alcohol for different particle sizes.La cinética de extracción de aceite de orujo puede ser explicada por un modelo basado en dos etapas. La primera etapa corresponde a un simple lavado del aceite de la superficie de las partículas. En la segunda etapa, la extracción esta controlada por dos mecanismos: difusión lenta desde las células rotas y difusión muy lenta desde las células intactas.Los coeficientes cinéticas de este modelo matemático se calculan usando los resultados experimentales obtenidos con hexano y alcohol etílico comercial para diferentes tamaños de partícula.

  19. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  20. How ingredients influence furan and aroma generation in sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Vázquez, Mayela; Rega, Barbara; Descharles, Nicolas; Camel, Valérie

    2018-04-15

    A wide range of compounds can be formed during thermal processing of food, some of which are relevant for aroma (e.g., furfural), while others are of great health concern (e.g., furan). This paper presents the study of formulation as affecting the simultaneous generation of furan and furfural, along with other aroma quality markers, in sponge cake by means of headspace trap/GC-MS. Ingredients were screened according to their category (fat, salt, sugar, egg-based). Glucose-containing formulation resulted in the highest content of furan and furfural (12.5 ± 0.5 ng g -1 and 9.2 ± 0.2 μg g -1 , dry basis, respectively), while their lowest amount was found in the egg-white recipe (3.1 ± 0.1 ng g -1 for furan and 0.287 ± 0.078 µg g -1 for furfural, dry basis). The latter also related negatively to all studied compounds. This work will be useful for developing novel strategies to deliver safe foods with appealing organoleptic attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Collective phenomena in vertically shaken granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Pieter Gerben

    2008-01-01

    Granular matter is the general name for materials consisting of grain-like solids and can be encountered everywhere in our daily life, for instance in the form of sand, sugar, cereals and pills. Numerous industries deal with these kinds of materials, which often cause severe problems during

  2. Vortex jamming in superconductors and granular rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hajime; Nogawa, Tomoaki; Kim, Bongsoo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a highly frustrated anisotropic Josephson junction array (JJA) on a square lattice exhibits a zero-temperature jamming transition, which shares much in common with those in granular systems. Anisotropy of the Josephson couplings along the horizontal and vertical directions plays roles similar to normal load or density in granular systems. We studied numerically static and dynamic response of the system against shear, i.e. injection of external electric current at zero temperature. Current-voltage curves at various strength of the anisotropy exhibit universal scaling features around the jamming point much as do the flow curves in granular rheology, shear-stress versus shear-rate. It turns out that at zero temperature the jamming transition occurs right at the isotropic coupling and anisotropic JJA behaves as exotic fragile vortex matter: it behaves as a superconductor (vortex glass) in one direction, whereas it is a normal conductor (vortex liquid) in the other direction even at zero temperature. Furthermore, we find a variant of the theoretical model for the anisotropic JJA quantitatively reproduces universal master flow-curves of the granular systems. Our results suggest an unexpected common paradigm stretching over seemingly unrelated fields-the rheology of soft materials and superconductivity.

  3. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-02

    –80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the ...

  4. Granular Data Description: Designing Ellipsoidal Information Granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiubin; Pedrycz, Witold; Li, Zhiwu

    2017-12-01

    Granular computing (GrC) has emerged as a unified conceptual and processing framework. Information granules are fundamental constructs that permeate concepts and models of GrC. This paper is concerned with a design of a collection of meaningful, easily interpretable ellipsoidal information granules with the use of the principle of justifiable granularity by taking into consideration reconstruction abilities of the designed information granules. The principle of justifiable granularity supports designing of information granules based on numeric or granular evidence, and aims to achieve a compromise between justifiability and specificity of the information granules to be constructed. A two-stage development strategy behind the construction of justifiable information granules is considered. First, a collection of numeric prototypes is determined with the use of fuzzy clustering. Second, the lengths of the semi-axes of ellipsoidal information granules to be formed around such prototypes are optimized. Two optimization criteria are introduced and studied. Experimental studies involving synthetic data set and data sets coming from the machine learning repository are reported.

  5. Deposition and shaking of dry granular piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, M.

    2003-01-01

    A friction force model describing reversible stick-slip transition during contact has been developed with the special purpose to simulate the deposition of granular material. A test with a mass on a conveyor belt kept in position by a spring shows that a numerical simulation of the dynamics of such

  6. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA ...

  7. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  8. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  9. Structure and cluster formation in granular media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The two most important phenomena at the basis of granular media are excluded volume and dissipation. The former is captured by the hard sphere model and is responsible for, e.g., crystallization, the latter leads to interesting structures like clusters in non-equilibrium dynamical, freely cooling states. The freely cooling ...

  10. Anomalous intruder response in diverse granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarte Galvez, Loreto Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    The definition of granular matter is extremely broad; any collection of conglomeration of particles larger than 100 micrometers can be considered as part of this group, and virtually the entire universe is composed of them. Examples are found in many fields, e.g. in nature (dunes, avalanches,

  11. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  12. Comparison of two online flocculation monitoring techniques for predicting turbidity removal by granular media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, T; Carrière, A; Barbeau, B

    2011-07-01

    Particulate matter removal in drinking water treatment via direct granular filtration requires specific flocculation conditions (a process typically termed 'high energy flocculation'). Predicting filtered water turbidity based on flocculated water characteristics remains difficult. This study has sought to establish a relationship between filtered water turbidity and the flocculated water characteristics. Flocculation oflow-turbidity raw water was evaluated online using a Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA) and a Dynamic Particle Analyser in a modified jar test followed by a bench-scale anthracite filter. Coagulants used were alum, PASS100 and ferric sulphate, in addition to a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) cationic polymer. They were dosed in warm and cold waters, and flocculated with intensities (G) from 0 to 100 s(-1). Of the two instruments selected to analyse flocculation performance, the Dynamic Particle Analyser was shown to be the most sensitive, detecting small changes in floc growth kinetics and even floc growth under low flocculation conditions which remained undetected by the PDA. Floc size was shown to be insufficient in predicting particulate matter removal by direct granular filtration as measured by turbidity, although a threshold d(v) value (50 microm) could be identified for the test conditions evaluated in this project, above which turbidity was systematically lower than 0.2 NTU.

  13. Antifungal properties of fermentates and their potential to replace sorbate and propionate in pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Devlieghere, F; Vroman, A; Eeckhout, M

    2016-11-21

    The major objective of this study was to assess the antifungal activities of commercially available 'clean label' fermentates and their potential to replace the preservative function of sorbate and propionate in cake. This study was performed in two parts. In the first part of the study the inhibitory activities of selected fermentates - FA, FB, FC and FD - towards Aspergillus tritici and Aspergillus amstelodami were assessed as a function of pH (5.0-6.5) on malt extract agar (MEA). In the second part of the study, challenge, shelf-life and sensorial tests were used to determine the suitability of these fermentates to replace potassium sorbate and calcium propionate in quarter pound cake. All the fermentates evaluated in this study all had significant (psensorial tests with FC showed that cakes produced with ≤1% FC (on basis of the batter) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) in flavour from the reference cake (0.5% calcium propionate and 0.54% potassium sorbate). However, the challenge and shelf-life tests showed that cakes produced with ≤1% FC were not as microbiologically shelf-stable as the reference cake, especially when sliced. Therefore, it can be concluded that whilst fermentates have appreciable antifungal effects, their use could potentially result in reduced shelf-stabilities. Robust challenge and shelf-life tests would be recommended before the marketing of cakes were propionate and/or sorbate has been replaced to ensure accurate shelf-lives are stated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  15. Granular Media-Based Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robert P.; Davis, Gregory L.; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Kahn, Daniel L.; Boechler, Nicholas; Boechler,, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    and vibration suppression device is composed of statically compressed chains of spherical particles. The device superimposes a combination of dissipative damping and dispersive effects. The dissipative damping resulting from the elastic wave attenuation properties of the bulk material selected for the granular media is independent of particle geometry and periodicity, and can be accordingly designed based on the dissipative (or viscoelastic) properties of the material. For instance, a viscoelastic polymer might be selected where broadband damping is desired. In contrast, the dispersive effects result from the periodic arrangement and geometry of particles composing a linear granular chain. A uniform (monatomic) chain of statically compressed spherical particles will have a low-pass filter effect, with a cutoff frequency tunable as a function of particle mass, elastic modulus, Poisson fs ratio, radius, and static compression. Elastic waves with frequency content above this cutoff frequency will exhibit an exponential decay in amplitude as a function of propagation distance. System design targeting a specific application is conducted using a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to appropriately select the particle radii, material (and thus elastic modulus and Poisson fs ratio), and static compression to satisfy estimated requirements derived for shock and/or vibration protection needs under particular operational conditions. The selection of a chain of polymer spheres with an elastic modulus .3 provided the appropriate dispersive filtering effect for that exercise; however, different operational scenarios may require the use of other polymers, metals, ceramics, or a combination thereof, configured as an array of spherical particles. The device is a linear array of spherical particles compressed in a container with a mechanism for attachment to the shock and/or vibration source, and a mechanism for attachment to the article requiring

  16. Performance evaluation of multi-stage filtration with use of granular activated carbon and synthetic non-woven fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerino, Edson Pereira; Rosa Araujo, Laryssa Melo [UNESP; Borges, Rivea Medri [UNESP; Sanchez Ortiz, Ivan Andres [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    The multi stage filtration (MSF) is an alternative that permits to enlarge the spectrum of application of the slow sand filtration as for the effluent quality and run duration. In this research the use of MSF technology associated to a granular activated carbon (GAC) column as polishing mechanism of the final effluent was evaluated; in the slow sand filters GAC was used as an intermediate layer and non-woven synthetic fabrics were utilized as a first layer of the filter media. Five different ...

  17. Feasibility study of sucrose and fat replacement using inulin and rebaudioside A in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Mohammadi, Mahshid; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2018-02-20

    Cake is a popular food around the world, however, it is considered as unhealthy due to its high fat and sucrose content. To satisfy customers' demand for a low fat and sucrose cake, in this research both sucrose and fat content of the cake were reduced by using rebaudioside A (Reb A; as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The water content of different formulation was adjusted to obtain a constant batter viscosity similar to the control (3,757 cP). By reducing sucrose and fat content up to 50%, water activity increased and the cakes became more asymmetrical. However, other physical properties including baking weight loss, height, volume, crust color, and texture were similar to those of the control. Higher levels of replacement (75% and 100%) resulted in remarkable loss of different quality attributes. These samples showed higher water activity and baking loss, lower volume, harder texture, darker color, and highly asymmetrical shape. Thus, successful reduction of both fat and sucrose in cakes is possible by using inulin and Reb A at replacement levels no more than 50%. Customers' demand for healthy and yet tasty and high-quality foods is increasing around the world. Therefore, finding applicable and safe methods to produce such products is of great interest in the food manufacturing to satisfy customers. Health conscious customers avoid consumption of cakes because it contains high sucrose and fat content. Many studies have been performed to reduce either fat or sucrose content, while a few studies are available to show the reduction of both fat and sucrose in the same product. This study indicates the results of an applicable method to reduce fat and sucrose content of cakes simultaneously. Using rebaudioside A (as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) up to 50% of sucrose and fat content of cakes were reduced and the resulting cake had very similar physical properties to

  18. In vitro comparison of epidural bacteria filters permeability and screening scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysin Sener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidural catheter bacteria filters are barriers in the patient-controlled analgesia/anaesthesia for preventing contamination at the epidural insertion site. The efficiency of these filters varies according to pore sizes and materials. METHOD: The bacterial adhesion capability of the two filters was measured in vitro experiment. Adhesion capacities for standard Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 strains of the two different filters (Portex and Rusch which have the same pore size were examined. Bacterial suspension of 0.5 Mc Farland was placed in the patient-controlled analgesia pump, was filtered at a speed of 5 mL/h. in continuous infusion for 48 h and accumulated in bottle. The two filters were compared with colony counts of bacteria in the filters and bottles. At the same time, the filters and adhered bacteria were monitored by scanning electron microscope. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination of filters showed that the Portex filter had a granular and the Rusch filter fibrillary structure. Colony counting from the catheter and bottle showed that both of the filters have significant bacterial adhesion capability (p < 0.001. After the bacteria suspension infusion, colony countings showed that the Portex filter was more efficient (p < 0.001. There was not any difference between S. aureus and P. aeruginosa bacteria adhesion. In the SEM monitoring after the infusion, it was physically shown that the bacteria were adhered efficiently by both of the filters. CONCLUSION: The granular structured filter was found statistically and significantly more successful than the fibrial. Although the pore sizes of the filters were same - of which structural differences shown by SEM were the same - it would not be right to attribute the changes in the efficiencies to only structural differences. Using microbiological and physical proofs with regard to efficiency at the same time has been

  19. In vitro comparison of epidural bacteria filters permeability and screening scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Aysin; Erkin, Yuksel; Sener, Alper; Tasdogen, Aydin; Dokumaci, Esra; Elar, Zahide

    2015-01-01

    Epidural catheter bacteria filters are barriers in the patient-controlled analgesia/anaesthesia for preventing contamination at the epidural insertion site. The efficiency of these filters varies according to pore sizes and materials. The bacterial adhesion capability of the two filters was measured in vitro experiment. Adhesion capacities for standard Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) strains of the two different filters (Portex and Rusch) which have the same pore size were examined. Bacterial suspension of 0.5 Mc Farland was placed in the patient-controlled analgesia pump, was filtered at a speed of 5 mL/h. in continuous infusion for 48 h and accumulated in bottle. The two filters were compared with colony counts of bacteria in the filters and bottles. At the same time, the filters and adhered bacteria were monitored by scanning electron microscope. Electron microscopic examination of filters showed that the Portex filter had a granular and the Rusch filter fibrillary structure. Colony counting from the catheter and bottle showed that both of the filters have significant bacterial adhesion capability (pbacteria suspension infusion, colony countings showed that the Portex filter was more efficient (pbacteria adhesion. In the SEM monitoring after the infusion, it was physically shown that the bacteria were adhered efficiently by both of the filters. The granular structured filter was found statistically and significantly more successful than the fibrial. Although the pore sizes of the filters were same - of which structural differences shown by SEM were the same - it would not be right to attribute the changes in the efficiencies to only structural differences. Using microbiological and physical proofs with regard to efficiency at the same time has been another important aspect of this experiment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of pretreatment on purple-fleshed sweet potato flour for cake making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutasoit, M. S.; Julianti, E.; Lubis, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The purple-fleshed sweet-potato (PFSP) flour was produced by varying pretreatment of washed chips: dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min, dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min and followed by steam blanching for 5 min. The pretreatment effect on cake quality was investigated. The results showed that PFSP flour produced from pretreatment with dipping in 0.5% citric acid for 30 min followed by steam blanching for 5 min had higher lightness (L*) value and lower browning index, higher hedonic value of color and aroma and baking expansion. The specific volume of cake from pretreated flour, untreated flour and wheat flour were 44.87, 43.83, and 50.43cm3/g, respectively. The sensory evaluation of cake indicated that cake from pretreated PFSP flour was acceptable compare to those of cake from wheat flour.

  1. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  2. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  3. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian X; Van De Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance of the biosimilarity concept complicate the development phase of safe and cost-effective drug products. To streamline the development phase and to make high-throughput formulation screening possible, efficient solutions for analyzing critical quality attributes such as cake quality with minimal material consumption are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a fuzzy logic system based on image analysis (IA) for analyzing cake quality. Freeze-dried samples with different visual quality attributes were prepared in well plates. Imaging solutions together with image analytical routines were developed for extracting critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed fuzzy logic-based system was found to give comparable quality scores with visual evaluation, making high-throughput classification of cake quality possible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Modeling of oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellag, Hocine

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influences of the factors, which can have effect on oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane, are studied. From the experimental results, a mathematical model for calculation of the extraction yield is proposed. The statistical tests used to obtain this model show that the yield does not depend on the granulometry and the stirring rate, but depends on the temperature, the contact time and the liquid-solid ratio (L/S. Also, it depends on interactions between time and temperature and interactions between time and L/S. The comparison of the results given by the experiment and the model allows us to say that the model is satisfactory.En este artículo se estudia la influencia de los factores que pueden tener efecto en la extracción del aceite de orujo usando hexano. Se propone a partir de los resultados experimentales, un modelo matemático para el cálculo del rendimiento de la extracción. Los tests estadísticos utilizados para obtener este modelo mostraron que el rendimiento no depende de la granulometría ni de la velocidad de agitación, pero si depende de la temperatura, del tiempo de contacto y de la relación líquido-sólido (L/S. También depende de las interacciones entre el tiempo y la temperatura y entre el tiempo y la relación L/S. La comparación entre los resultados experimentales y el modelo nos permite decir que dicho modelo es satisfactorio.

  5. Effects of gossypol from cottonseed cake on the blood profile in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; do Vale, André Menezes; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2016-06-01

    Cottonseed cake contains gossypol, a potentially toxic compound that, when consumed by sheep, can affect reproduction, the immune system, and the liver. Changes in hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were monitored for 63 days in 12 Santa Inês ewes, six of which received ration containing 400 g kg(-1) of cottonseed cake. Blood samples were collected at the start of the experiment and weekly thereafter for hematologic assessment and determination of serum urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations and for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Evaluation of the erythron showed that sheep consuming cottonseed cake had an increased packed cell volume (p sheep for 63 days may induce changes in the erythron but no consistent changes in serum biochemical parameters, indicating no damage to the liver or kidneys.

  6. Sensory analysis of passion fruit cake with chocolate sauce for individuals with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a recipe of passion fruit cake with chocolate syrup for individuals who have phenylketonuria and evaluate its acceptance. The samples were served to 50 untrained tasters and evaluated by the acceptability test using the nine point hedonic scale. Flavor was the most appreciated attribute by 66% of tasters. The cake had a mean of 7,0 corresponding to "liked moderately" in the hedonic scale and 94% of purchase intent. Therefore, the cake was accepted and would be purchased by the majority of participants.

  7. Pengaruh Pengurangan Kadar Air dan Penggunaan Bahan Pengikat Kadar Air dalam Pembuatan Cake Bengkuang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsa Hermianti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yam contains a high water content ranging from 86-90% therefore when be processed to be a product such as cake will also result a high water content and cause the product is not durable. By the nature characteristics of the yam was then made utilization efforts became yam cake in order to develop yam processing, increase value added, and diversify food processing based on raw materials of local potential in Padang City. Yam can be used by processing them into a semi wet food such as cake with a dominant amount of yam up to 50% of the cake batter, but only had a shelf life for 3 days. To increase the shelf-life study was carried out water content reduction of raw materials and using of a binder in the making of yam cake. The treatment of water content reduction of yam was done using juicer and pressing. A comparison as a control was performed without reduction of water content. The use of water content binder was conducted with the addition of coconut, cornstarch, and rice flour. Yam cake formulas using binder of water content  with cornstarch and reduction the water content of raw material by pressing showed optimal results with a preferred value of organoleptic panelist, the water content 28.50%, carbohydrate 56.31%, protein 6.13%, fat 10.23%, energy 341.86 kcal/100g, dietary fiber 5.98%, calcium 27.77 mg/100g, and 5.92% inulin, storability for 5 days at room temperature and 4 weeks at refrigerator temperature.ABSTRAKBengkuang mengandung kadar air yang tinggi berkisar 86-90% sehingga jika diolah untuk menjadi produk berupa cake akan memberikan kadar air yang juga tinggi dan menyebabkan produk menjadi tidak tahan lama. Dengan sifat alami bengkuang tersebut maka dilakukan upaya pemanfaatannya menjadi cake bengkuang dalam rangka pengembangan olahan dari bengkuang, peningkatan nilai tambah, dan diversifikasi olahan pangan berbasis bahan baku lokal yang cukup potensi di kota Padang. Bengkuang dapat dimanfaatkan dengan mengolahnya menjadi pangan

  8. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Hindryawati, Noor; Nurfitri, Irma; Jose, Rajan; Ab. Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Yusoff, Mashitah M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Decanter cake as a potential waste feedstock for biodiesel production. • Ultrasound-aided transesterification achieving nearly 86% conversion in 1 h. • Boiler ash, a waste product, was successfully used as a catalyst. - Abstract: Decanter cake (DC), with an oil content of 11.5 ± 0.18 wt.%, was subjected to ultrasound-aided transesterification using boiler ash as a base catalyst, petroleum ether and hexane as co-solvents. Optimization work revealed that at MeOH:oil mass ratio of 6:1 and 2.3 wt.% catalyst (based on DC weight) with 1:2 co-solvents:DC mass ratio as the optimal reaction conditions. Both decanter cake and boiler ash, waste materials from oil palm mill, were successfully utilized to produce methyl ester (biodiesel) with highest conversion of 85.9 wt.% in a 1 h reaction period at 55 °C

  9. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. UVB-Protective Effects of Isoflavone Extracts from Soybean Cake in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Hung

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown by chromatography that aglycone, glucoside, acetylglucosideand malonylglucoside isoflavone extracts prepared from soybean cake showed betterantioxidant activities than isoflavone standards. Consequently, the aim of this study was toevaluate the protective effects of these isoflavone extracts against ultraviolet B (UVB-induced keratinocyte damage. Our results demonstrated that these soybean cake isoflavoneextracts could inhibit UVB-induced keratinocyte death. Moreover, they could inhibit UVB-induced intracellular release of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 Furthermore, these isoflavoneextracts differentially inhibited UVB-induced MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 andp38 phosphorylation was not inhibited by all tested isoflavone extracts, whereas JNKphosphorylation was inhibited by group I to group III isoflavone extracts. Since theseisoflavone extracts are relative stable and easily obtained than the isoflavone standards, wesuggest that soybean cake may be a useful potential source for developing effective skincare agents in against photoaging.

  11. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firmness, springiness and moisture content. The cake was baked at three different temperatures (160oC, 170oC, and 180oC, and two different airflow conditions. Baking time, height changes of batter, texture and moisture content of cake were compared to identify the differences or similarities on the final product as the process conditions varied. Results showed that, airflow has more significant effects towards the product quality compared to baking temperature especially on baking time which was 25.58 - 45.16%, and the rate of height changes which was 0.7 mm/min. However, different baking temperatures had more significant effects towards volume expansion which was 2.86 – 8.37% and the springiness of cake which was 3.44% compared to airflow conditions.

  12. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  13. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Prasad; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant

    2017-06-01

    Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  14. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  15. Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, James M

    2005-01-01

    Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.

  16. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  17. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  18. Submarine granular flow down a rough plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Maxime; Cassar, Cyril; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    We lead experiments of submarine granular flows in a water tank. The particles are spherical 100 microns glass beads and flow down a rough inclined plane from a reservoir with a controlled opening. Different flow regimes are observed, the flow velocity and thickness are measured. The basal water pressure is also measured and give information on the suspension rate of the flow. No flow was observed for an angle below 24 degrees. The flow velocity increases smoothly for a [24-36] degrees inclination range, and a strong velocity increase occurs for inclination over 36 degrees. The thickness of the flow decreases when inclination increases but no abrupt change of thickness is observed around 36 degrees. That suggests that a transition exists between a granular regime, where friction on the rough plane and particle contacts are dominant, and a suspension regime where basal friction vanishes. A thin film ripple instability is also observed for large inclination angles.

  19. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  20. Particle Segregation in Dense Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John Mark Nicholas Timm

    2018-01-01

    Granular materials composed of particles with differing grain sizes, densities, shapes, or surface properties may experience unexpected segregation during flow. This review focuses on kinetic sieving and squeeze expulsion, whose combined effect produces the dominant gravity-driven segregation mechanism in dense sheared flows. Shallow granular avalanches that form at the surface of more complex industrial flows such as heaps, silos, and rotating drums provide ideal conditions for particles to separate, with large particles rising to the surface and small particles percolating down to the base. When this is combined with erosion and deposition, amazing patterns can form in the underlying substrate. Gravity-driven segregation and velocity shear induce differential lateral transport, which may be thought of as a secondary segregation mechanism. This allows larger particles to accumulate at flow fronts, and if they are more frictional than the fine grains, they can feedback on the bulk flow, causing flow fingering, levee formation, and longer runout of geophysical mass flows.

  1. Granularity controlled irradiation response of cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, N.C.; Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Mohanta, D.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Pinto, R.

    1999-01-01

    Confining to an energy range where ions can neither create defects through elastic energy loss nor they can create defects through latent track formation, we study the effect of 140 MeV Si-ion irradiation in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO). We show that the evolution of superconducting and normal state properties in such situation is largely governed by the initial defects structure, particularly the grain boundary characteristics of the YBCO system. Both intra- and inter-granular defect structure in films of two batches were made widely different by having Ag as composite and substituent in one and by aging the other prior to irradiation. Evolution of the resistivity vs temperature characteristics in these films with ion fluence reveals the importance of Ag in bringing about both inter- and intra-granular modifications and making the films insensitive to ion irradiation

  2. Dielectric properties, optimum formulation and microwave baking conditions of chickpea cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifakı, Yaşar Özlem; Şakıyan, Özge

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate dielectric properties with quality parameters, and to optimize cake formulation and baking conditions by response surface methodology. Weight loss, color, specific volume, hardness and porosity were evaluated. The samples with different DATEM (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2%) and chickpea flour concentrations (30, 40 and 50%) were baked in microwave oven at different power (300, 350, 400 W) and baking times (2.50, 3.0, 3.50 min). It was found that microwave power showed significant effect on color, while baking time showed effect on weight loss, porosity, hardness, specific volume and dielectric properties. Emulsifier level affected porosity, specific volume and dielectric constant. Chickpea flour level affected porosity, color, hardness and dielectric properties of cakes. The optimum microwave power, baking time, DATEM level and chickpea flour level were found as 400 W, 2.84 min, 1.2% and 30%, respectively. The comparison between conventionally baked and the microwave baked cakes at optimum points showed that color difference, weight loss, specific volume and porosity values of microwave baked cakes were less than those of conventionally baked cakes, on the other hand, hardness values were higher. Moreover, a negative correlation between dielectric constant and porosity, and weight loss values were detected for microwave baked samples. A negative correlation between dielectric loss factor and porosity was observed. These correlations indicated that quality characteristics of a microwave baked cake sample can be assessed from dielectric properties. These correlations provides understanding on the behavior of food material during microwave processing.

  3. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  4. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  5. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  6. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilda da Conceição dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Methods Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (p0.05 for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05. The sarcomere length decreased linearly (p<0.05, although an effect of the inclusion of palm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050. Conclusion The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  7. The development of functional cake technology based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Posnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and practical researches on the development of technologies of functional pastries with quality indicators satisfying customer and market demands of small enterprises are highly relevant. The purpose of studies was to develop a technology of functional cake based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products - cellulose and syrup.The recipe of the cake “Stolichnyi” was taken as a control sample.Test cake samples were prepared with partial or full replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup (0–100% and raisins by Jerusalem artichoke fiber (0, 50, 100%. It was found that organoleptic quality indicators of products improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke syrup instead of sugar, their specific volume decreased slightly compared to the control – by 1.9–3.0%.Specific volume of cakes increased compared to the control by 5.4–11%improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichokefiber instead of raisins, but its surface became bumpier, there were deep cracks. Specific volume of products increased by 7.8–8.8%, the surface was convex, slightly bumpy with little nicked when Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiberwere introduced together.The humidity and the alkalinity of samples practically unchanged. The sample prepared with full replacement of sugar by syrup and raisins by fiber of Jerusalem artichoke had the best quality indicators.During storage for 5 days the smallest changes in the crumb condition and flavor were observed in cake samples with complete replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup, the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke fiber resulted in a slight elasticity decrease and friability crumbimprovement. The use of Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiber in the cakes manufacture allowsto receivegoods with high nutritional value, enriched with prebiotic inulin, to expand the range of functional pastry products.

  8. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; de Moura Lima, Elizanne; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (ppalm kernel inclusion in the diet. There was no difference (p>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (ppalm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  9. Experiments and DEM Simulations of Granular Ratcheting

    OpenAIRE

    Zorzi Gianluca; Artoni Riccardo; Gabrieli Fabio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we studied the effect of cyclic loading on a granular packing by means of numerical simulations and experiments. A confined packing of glass beads was prepared and one of the walls was moved cyclically with a prescribed amplitude of the order of the particle diameter. Different amplitudes were tested, and their effect on the free surface evolution, the force transmitted to the moving wall and the displacement patterns in the material was characterized. Discrete numerical simulati...

  10. Biological and robotic movement through granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    We discuss laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of locomotion of biological organisms and robots on and within a granular medium. Terrestrial locomotion on granular media (like desert and beach sand) is unlike locomotion on rigid ground because during a step the material begins as a solid, becomes a fluid and then re-solidifies. Subsurface locomotion within granular media is unlike swimming in water for similar reasons. The fluidization and solidification depend on the packing properties of the material and can affect limb penetration depth and propulsive force. Unlike aerial and aquatic locomotion in which the Navier-Stokes equations can be used to model environment interaction, models for limb interaction with granular media do not yet exist. To study how the fluidizing properties affect speed in rapidly running and swimming lizards and crabs, we use a trackway composed of a fluidized bed of of 250 μm glass spheres. Pulses of air to the bed set the solid volume fraction 0.59lizard and a species of crab (masses 20 grams) reveal that as Q increases, the average running speed of an animal decreases proportionally to √M/A-const(1-Q/Qf) where M is the mass of the animal and A is a characteristic foot area. While the crabs decrease speed by nearly 75 % as the material weakens to a fluid, the zebra tailed lizard uses long toes and a plantigrade foot posture at foot impact to maintain high speed ( 1.5 m/sec). We compare our biological results to systematic studies of a physical model of an organism, a 2 kg hexapedal robot SandBot. We find that the robot speed sensitively depends on φ and the details of the limb trajectory. We simulate the robot locomotion by computing ground reaction forces on a numerical model of the robot using a soft-sphere Molecular Dynamics code.

  11. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of valida...

  12. Arching Structures in Granular Sedimentary Deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulaviak, Lukáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří; Saint-Lary, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 246, SEP (2013), s. 269-277 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR IAAX00130702; GA MŠk(CZ) LG11014 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : wet granulars * deposit * arching structure Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013

  13. Swimming in a granular frictional fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    X-ray imaging reveals that the sandfish lizard swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. To model the locomotion of the sandfish, we previously developed an empirical resistive force theory (RFT), a numerical sandfish model coupled to an experimentally validated Discrete Element Method (DEM) model of the granular medium, and a physical robot model. The models reveal that only grains close to the swimmer are fluidized, and that the thrust and drag forces are dominated by frictional interactions among grains and the intruder. In this talk I will use these models to discuss principles of swimming within these granular ``frictional fluids". The empirical drag force laws are measured as the steady-state forces on a small cylinder oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. Unlike in Newtonian fluids, resistive forces are independent of speed. Drag forces resemble those in viscous fluids while the ratio of thrust to drag forces is always larger in the granular media than in viscous fluids. Using the force laws as inputs, the RFT overestimates swimming speed by approximately 20%. The simulation reveals that this is related to the non-instantaneous increase in force during reversals of body segments. Despite the inaccuracy of the steady-state assumption, we use the force laws and a recently developed geometric mechanics theory to predict optimal gaits for a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids, the three-link swimmer. The combination of the geometric theory and the force laws allows us to generate a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and to construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical prediction, and demonstrate that

  14. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    OpenAIRE

    Van Noije, T. P. C.; Ernst, M. H.; Brito López, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which shifts to smaller wave numbers (growing correlation length). Furthermore, the inclusion of longitudinal velocity fluctuations changes long-range correlations in the flow field qualitatively and exten...

  15. Simulation of 2D Granular Hopper Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhusong; Shattuck, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Jamming and intermittent granular flow are big problems in industry, and the vertical hopper is a canonical example of these difficulties. We simulate gravity driven flow and jamming of 2D disks in a vertical hopper and compare with identical companion experiments presented in this session. We measure and compare the flow rate and probability for jamming as a function of particle properties and geometry. We evaluate the ability of standard Hertz-Mindlin contact mode to quantitatively predict the experimental flow.

  16. Energy Content & Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rohit; Luding, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    -signals, interpreting information from a Total Energy signal turned out to be much easier in comparison to displacement, velocity or acceleration signals of the wave, hence, indicating a better analysis method for wave propagation through granular materials. Increasing disorder decreases the Energy of higher frequency signals transmitted, but at the same time the energy of spatially localized high frequencies increases. Brian P. Lawney and Stefan Luding. Mass-disorder effects on the frequency filtering in one-dimensional discrete particle systems. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1542(1), 2013. Ibrahim Guven. Hydraulical and acoustical properties of porous sintered glass bead systems: experiments, theory and simulations (Doctoral dissertation). Rainer Tonn. Comparison of seven methods for the computation of Q. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 55(3):259 - 268, 1989. Rohit Kumar Shrivastava and Stefan Luding.: Effect of Disorder on Bulk Sound Wave Speed : A Multiscale Spectral Analysis, Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/npg-2016-83, in review, 2017.

  17. State variables in dense granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen

    2009-11-01

    Granular materials are integral to many parts of our daily lives, from the coffee beans that fuel our mornings to the coal that fuels our power plants. Two related aspects of their dynamics are particularly striking: their ability to exhibit both solid-like and liquid-like behavior, and the presence of highly heterogeneous force chains in which the magnitude of the local stress varies widely over short distances. These distinctive behaviors are connected to the fact that granular materials are always out of equilibrium: first, because they are typically both driven and dissipative, but also because they remain in metastable states even when they aren't being driven. I will present recent results from several experiments ranging from the theoretically-motivated (the equilibration of state variables within a non-equilibrium system) to the practical (particle-segregation by size). The results of these experiments elucidate the complex behaviors which underlay granular dynamics, and provide a reason to hope that statistical physics might hold the keys to explaining the observed phenomena.

  18. Energy dissipation and clustering in granular streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, Scott; Royer, John; Gruetjen, Helge; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2009-11-01

    The presence of weak cohesive forces between macroscopic grains can lead to the break up of a free falling granular stream, similar to the surface-tension-driven break up of a liquid streamfootnotetext Royer, J. R. et al. Nature 459 1110 - 1113 (2009).. This sensitivity to minute forces suggests that these free falling streams could serve as a tool to probe the interactions between grains. In order to investigate the connection between the stream dynamics and the grain-grain interactions, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a granular stream freely falling out of a hopper varying the cohesion and inelasticity of the grains. We find that in the absence of cohesive forces the stream breaks apart into isolated grains, in contrast to the clustering observed in simulations of inelastic granular gases. For sufficiently high cohesive forces we reproduce the break up of stream into droplets, while with lower cohesive forces the stream breaks up into smaller clusters consisting of only a few grains. Measuring the change in contact number and decay of velocity fluctuations with depth, we characterize the different regions of the force-inelasticity phase space.

  19. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  20. Characterization of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn

    2015-11-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but a recently proposed resistive force theory (RFT) in granular media has been shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ this model to investigate the swimming characteristics of an undulating slender filament of both finite and infinite length. For infinite swimmers, similar to results in viscous fluids, the sawtooth waveform is found to be optimal for propulsion speed at a given power consumption. We also compare the swimming characteristics of sinusoidal and sawtooth swimmers with swimming in viscous fluids. More complex swimming dynamics emerge when the assumption of an infinite swimmer is removed. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  1. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestroffer Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining. In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  2. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  3. Propulsion via flexible flapping in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Ding, Yang; Pietrzyk, Kyle; Elfring, Gwynn; Pak, On Shun

    2017-11-01

    Biological locomotion in nature is often achieved by the interaction between a flexible body and its surrounding medium. The interaction of a flexible body with granular media is less understood compared with viscous fluids partially due to its complex rheological properties. In this work, we explore the effect of flexibility on granular propulsion by considering a simple mechanical model in which a rigid rod is connected to a torsional spring that is under a displacement actuation using a granular resistive force theory. Through a combined numerical and asymptotic investigation, we characterize the propulsive dynamics of such a flexible flapper in relation to the actuation amplitude and spring stiffness, and we compare these dynamics with those observed in a viscous fluid. In addition, we demonstrate that the maximum possible propulsive force can be obtained in the steady propulsion limit with a finite spring stiffness and large actuation amplitude. These results may apply to the development of synthetic locomotive systems that exploit flexibility to move through complex terrestrial media. Funding for Z.P. and Y.D. was partially provided by NSFC 394 Grant No. 11672029 and NSAF-NSFC Grant No. U1530401.

  4. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    One of three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells after flight on STS-79 and before impregnation with resin. Note that the sand column has bulged in the middle, and that the top of the column is several inches lower than the top of the plastic enclosure. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  5. Mechanics of Granular Materials Test Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown from all three sides by its video camera during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  6. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  7. Mechanics of Granular Materials-3 (MGM-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sture, Stein; Alshibi, Khalid; Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are going to space to understand how earthquakes and other forces disturb grains of soil and sand. They will examine how the particle arrangement and structure of soils, grains and powders are changed by external forces and gain knowledge about the strength, stiffness and volume changes properties of granular materials at low pressures. The Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment uses the microgravity of orbit to test sand columns under conditions that cannot be obtained in experiments on Earth. Research can only go so far on Earth because gravity-induced stresses complicate the analysis and change loads too quickly for detailed analysis. This new knowledge will be applied to improving foundations for buildings, managing undeveloped land, and handling powdered and granular materials in chemical, agricultural, and other industries. NASA wants to understand the way soil behaves under different gravity levels so that crews can safely build habitats on Mars and the Moon. Future MGM experiments will benefit from extended tests aboard the International Space Station, including experiments under simulated lunar and Martian gravity in the science centrifuge.

  8. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt

    2015-12-01

    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.

  9. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  10. Calibration of micromechanical parameters for DEM simulations by using the particle filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Hongyang; Shuku, Takayuki; Thoeni, Klaus; Yamamoto, Haruyuki

    2017-01-01

    The calibration of DEM models is typically accomplished by trail and error. However, the procedure lacks of objectivity and has several uncertainties. To deal with these issues, the particle filter is employed as a novel approach to calibrate DEM models of granular soils. The posterior probability

  11. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  12. Determination of Juice Removal Difficulty from Mash Cake in Cassava Mash Dewatering Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Peter KOLAWOLE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava processing equipment operators have limited knowledge; this militates against the success recorded in the research so far in cassava mash dewatering. New dewatering schemes to make food processing economical to handle are in progress. Common dewatering processes use a variety of mechanical means such as screw presses and belt presses. Experiments were conducted using three samples of TMS 4(2 1425 variety while evaluating the difficulty of separating juice from mash cake. Average specific cake resistance (a of 5×1011 m/kg was obtained confirming that it is moderately easy to dewatering.

  13. Building PHP Applications with Symfony, CakePHP, and Zend Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Porebski, Bartosz; Nowak, Leszek

    2011-01-01

    The first detailed, unbiased comparison of the three leading PHP frameworksWeb developers have been eager for an impartial comparison of leading PHP frameworks so they can make educated decisions about the most effective tool for their needs. This guide uses Symfony, CakePHP, and Zend Framework to solve key problems, providing source code examples and comparisons for each. It explains the approach and reviews the similarities and differences in the three frameworks, providing reliable information on which to base your decisions.Symfony, CakePHP, and Zend Framework are considered the leading PH

  14. DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% ± 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of –1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's –5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

  15. Adsorptive performance of granular activated carbon in aquaculture and aquaria: a simplified method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Daniel; Kuhn, David D.; Smith, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    and aquaculture is not well-established due to innate heterogeneity of these waters. The means to completely characterize adsorption between carbon sources are generally not available to end users provided their level of expertise and/or resources at their disposal. This study introduces a relatively simple...... used to comparatively test adsorptive performance between two filter groups (i.e. sources of granular activated carbon) by tracking spectral absorbance with non-linear regression statistics, and validating removal trends against mature aquaculture water. Greater adsorptive capacities were consistently...... observed in one filter group throughout the indicator testing battery. Similar findings were observed between the two indicator tests, thereby confirming the method. This method can be adopted by commercial aquaculture operations or aquarists to assist in comparatively screening particular types, particle...

  16. Settling properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Saad, Azlina; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Ibrahim, Naimah; Yasina Yusuf, Sara; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Aerobic granulation technology is applied to treat domestic and industrial wastewater. The Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) cultivated has strong properties that appears to be denser and compact in physiological structure compared to the conventional activated sludge. It offers rapid settling for solid:liquid separation in wastewater treatment. Aerobic granules were developed using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aerobic - anaerobic mode with 8 cycles in 24 hr. This study examined the settling velocity performance of cultivated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM). The elemental composition in both AGS and AGSM were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that AGSM has higher settling velocity 30.5 m/h compared to AGS.

  17. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Geng Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and discrete element method (DEM. It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  18. Mechanical trapping of particles in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, Abdulla; Mavko, Gary; Mukerji, Tapan; Al Ibrahim, Mustafa A.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical trapping of fine particles in the pores of granular materials is an essential mechanism in a wide variety of natural and industrial filtration processes. The progress of invading particles is primarily limited by the network of pore throats and connected pathways encountered by the particles during their motion through the porous medium. Trapping of invading particles is limited to a depth defined by the size, shape, and distribution of the invading particles with respect to the size, shape, and distribution of the host porous matrix. Therefore, the trapping process, in principle, can be used to obtain information about geometrical properties, such as pore throat and particle size, of the underlying host matrix. A numerical framework is developed to simulate the mechanical trapping of fine particles in porous granular media with prescribed host particle size, shape, and distribution. The trapping of invading particles is systematically modeled in host packings with different host particle distributions: monodisperse, bidisperse, and polydisperse distributions of host particle sizes. Our simulation results show quantitatively and qualitatively to what extent trapping behavior is different in the generated monodisperse, bidisperse, and polydisperse packings of spherical particles. Depending on host particle size and distribution, the information about extreme estimates of minimal pore throat sizes of the connected pathways in the underlying host matrix can be inferred from trapping features, such as the fraction of trapped particles as a function of invading particle size. The presence of connected pathways with minimum and maximum of minimal pore throat diameters can be directly obtained from trapping features. This limited information about the extreme estimates of pore throat sizes of the connected pathways in the host granular media inferred from our numerical simulations is consistent with simple geometrical estimates of extreme value of pore and

  19. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  20. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Anirban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem. Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. Results In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. Conclusion This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on

  1. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  2. Granular computing analysis and design of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Information granules, as encountered in natural language, are implicit in nature. To make them fully operational so they can be effectively used to analyze and design intelligent systems, information granules need to be made explicit. An emerging discipline, granular computing focuses on formalizing information granules and unifying them to create a coherent methodological and developmental environment for intelligent system design and analysis. Granular Computing: Analysis and Design of Intelligent Systems presents the unified principles of granular computing along with its comprehensive algo

  3. Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications: an experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Serra, Joel; Romero Morales, Enrique Edgar; Rodríguez Ferran, Antonio; Caba, Joan; Arderiu, Xavier; Padullés, Josep-Manel; González, Juanjo

    2017-01-01

    Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can ...

  4. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  5. Concentration, partial characterization, and immobilization of lipase extract from P. brevicompactum by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake and castor bean cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marceli Fernandes; Freire, Denise M G; de Castro, Aline Machado; Di Luccio, Marco; Mazutti, Marcio A; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; de Oliveira, Débora

    2011-07-01

    One relevant limitation hindering the industrial application of microbial lipases has been attributed to their production cost, which is determined by the production yield, enzyme stability among other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration and immobilization of lipase extracts from Penicillium brevicompactum obtained by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake and castor bean cake. The precipitation with ammonium sulfate 60% of saturation of crude extract obtained with babassu cake as raw material showed an enhancement in hydrolytic and esterification activities from 31.82 to 227.57 U/g and from 170.92 to 207.40 U/g, respectively. Concentrated lipase extracts showed preference to medium-chain triglycerides and fatty acids. It is shown that the enzyme activity is maintained during storage at low temperatures (4 and -10°C) for up to 30 days. Higher esterification activities were achieved when the lipase extract was immobilized in sodium alginate and activated coal.

  6. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  7. Granular Leidenfrost effect in vibrated beds with bumpy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E W C

    2010-08-01

    The effects of subjecting a bed of granular materials to horizontal vibrations by a bumpy oscillating surface have been investigated computationally in this study. The behaviour of the granular bed is determined by the vibration conditions applied which include the vibrating frequency and amplitude as well as the bumpiness of the oscillating surface. Under sufficiently vigorous vibration conditions, the granular Leidenfrost effect whereby the entire granular bed is levitated above the vibrating base by a layer of highly energetic particles may be observed. Granular temperature profiles of systems that exhibit the granular Leidenfrost effect indicate an unequal distribution of energy between particles near the vibrating base and those in the bulk. A bumpy oscillating surface was also observed to be more effective at introducing perturbations and transferring energy into a granular bed. The granular Leidenfrost effect can be induced by the application of larger grain sizes of particles constituting the bumpy vibrating base under vibration conditions that are normally insufficient for the onset of the effect. Lastly, a phase diagram which can be utilized for predicting the behaviours of granular beds that are subjected to oscillations by various types of bumpy surfaces has been constructed based on the simulation results obtained.

  8. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  9. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  10. Study of the effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber HEPA filters has been studied. At humidifies above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the HEPA filter increased non-linearly with the areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance, K 2 , has been computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K. was found to decrease with increasing humidity for the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and the hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) is derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor

  11. Effect of humidity and particle hygroscopicity on the mass loading capacity of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Biswas, P.; Monson, P.R.; Novick, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity, and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber high efficiency particulate air filters was studied. Above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the filter increased nonlinearly with areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of a NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or nonhygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance K 2 was computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K 2 was found to decrease with increasing humidity for nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and for hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) was derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide, the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Substitution of Cottonseed Cake with Palm Kernel Meal in Diets for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight gain and feed utilization declined significantly as dietary level of palm kernel meal were increased to 24% or higher, probably due to reductions in diet palatability and presence of increased levels of dietary fibre. The result of this study suggest that tilapia diet can comprise 20% cottonseed cake and 16% palm kernel ...

  13. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  14. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six unsexed day old Marshall broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups of 3 replicates each on weight equalization basis (42.87 – 43.24g). The chicks were used to determine the effect of partial replacement of maize with combinations of palm kernel cake (PKC), yam peel meal (YPM) and plantain peel meal (PPM) ...

  15. The influence of supplements of cotton seed cake on the utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A juidicious use of the protein concentrate for optimum feed intake and feed utilization makes the 50% CSC supplementation more desireable. A 50% cotton seed cake supplementation of the sorghum glume is recommended as suitable in the dry season feeding of the goat. Key words: Goat, sorghum glume, crop residue, ...

  16. Puffing of okara/rice blends using a rice cake machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Huff, H; Hsieh, F; Mustapha, A

    2008-10-01

    Okara is the insoluble byproduct of soymilk and tofu manufactures. It is cheap, high in nutrients, and possesses great potential to be applied to functional human foods. In this study, a puffed okara/rice cake product was developed with blends of okara pellets and parboiled rice. Consumer preference and acceptance tests were conducted for the product. Okara pellets were prepared by grinding the strands obtained from extruding a mixture of dried okara and rice flour (3:2, w/w) with a twin-screw extruder. Okara pellets and parboiled rice were blended in 4 ratios, 90:10, 70:30, 40:60, and 0:100 (w/w), and tempered to 14% and 17% moisture. The blends were puffed at 221, 232, and 243 degrees C for 4, 5, or 6 s. The okara/rice cakes were evaluated for specific volume (SPV), texture, color, and percent weight loss after tumbling. Overall, the decrease in okara content and increase in moisture, heating temperature and time led to greater specific volume (SPV) and hardness, lighter color, and lower percent weight loss after tumbling. The consumer tests indicated that the okara/rice cake containing 70% okara pellets was preferred and the 90% one was liked the least. The possible drivers of liking for the puffed okara/rice cakes could be the okara content, hardness, SPV, bright color, and percent weight loss after tumbling.

  17. Direct estimate of cocoa powder content in cakes by colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kulcsar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was

  18. Chemical, physical and sensory properties of orange cakes and breads with addition of inulin and oligofructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kelli Souza-Borges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inulin and oligofructose are fructans that can change important characteristics in original products when added in food. Two formulations of orange cakes (one containing 77.7g of inulin and another one 77.7g of oligofructose/inulin and two formulations of breads (one containing 130g of inulin and another one 175g of oligofructose/inulin were compared to the respective standard formulations (with no fructans in relation to chemical composition, texture, volume, color and sensory acceptability with a nine-point hedonic scale. The cakes and breads with inulin and oligofructose/inulin showed greater amount of total dietary fiber in relation to standard products. The orange cake with inulin had lower cohesiveness and yellower dough when compared to the standard cake, but the addition of inulin and oligofructose/inulin reduced the acceptability for appearance, texture and flavor and the overall acceptability, although the acceptability for aroma was the same for the three products. The breads with inulin and oligofructose/inulin were harder and less cohesive than the standard bread, and bread with inulin showed minor volume in relation to the standard. The bread with inulin also presented crust with lower luminosity, dough with higher intensity of redness and yellowness and higher intensity of color in relation to standard, besides different hue. In relation to sensory acceptability, the bread with oligofructose/inulin had higher overall acceptability and flavor when compared to standard bread.

  19. Lead and silver extraction from waste cake from hydrometallurgical zinc production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN D. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results of the extraction of lead and silver from a lead–silver waste cake obtained in the process of hydrometallurgical zinc production. While controlling the pH value, the lead–silver cake was leached at a temperature close to boiling point in different concentrations of aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The experiments were performed applying different ratios between the mass of cake and the volume of the leaching agent under different durations of the process. It was concluded that at the optimal process parameters (pH 2.0–2.5; CaCl2 concentration, 3.6 mol dm-3; temperature, 95 °C; solid/liquid ratio, 1:5, the leaching efficiency of lead and silver could reach the approximate value of 94 %. Applying the same optimal process parameters, the method was applied to the leaching of a lead–silver cake in a magnesium chloride solution, but with significantly lower efficiencies. The results show that leaching of lead and silver in a calcium chloride solution could be a prospective method for increasing the recovery of lead and silver during hydrometallurgical zinc production.

  20. Competing for a Slice of the Budget Cake: An Academic Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the different ways in which a library could obtain a larger slice of the budget cake. These include leveraging of library assets to enhance funding, relating funding to mission, the use of library statistics (both internal and external), lobbying, and a strong show of support from users. It notes that the ...

  1. Effects of dietary replacement of cotton seed cake with dried poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five concentrate supplements were formulated in which dried poultry litter (DPL) was included at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% dry weight in the rations which contained mainly maize bran, to replace 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cotton seed cake (CSC). The animals were fed on basal poor quality groundnut haulms ad lib in addition to ...

  2. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  3. Treated Neem Kernel Cake. *1A. Aruwayo, 2S.A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding alkali- treated neem kernel cake (ATNKC) on haematological and biochemical parameters of Uda lambs. It was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto with 20 male Uda lambs. The experimental animals ...

  4. Prediction during Language Processing Is a Piece of Cake--But Only for Skilled Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Are there individual differences in children's prediction of upcoming linguistic input and what do these differences reflect? Using a variant of the preferential looking paradigm (Golinkoff, Hirsh-Pasek, Cauley, & Gordon, 1987), we found that, upon hearing a sentence like, "The boy eats a big cake," 2-year-olds fixate edible objects…

  5. The effect of plastic addition on coal caking properties during carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Kenji Kato; Tomoyuki Nakagawa; Ikuo Komaki [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment & Process Technology Center, Ironmaking R & D Division

    2003-10-01

    The recycling process of waste plastics using coke ovens is now being studied. The effect of plastic addition on coal caking property was investigated. It was revealed that thermal decomposition products of plastics interacted with bituminous coal during carbonization in coke ovens. The effect of plastic addition on coal caking property varied with types of plastics. The addition of aliphatic polymers such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) had only a small effect on coal caking property and coke strength and in some cases PE addition increased coke strength. On the other hand, the addition of polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and terephtalic acid (TFA) inhibited coal expansion and fusion, decreased maximum fluidity and total dilatation, and deteriorated the coke strength. These differences were discussed from the viewpoint of the interaction between thermal decomposition products of plastics and hydrogen in coal. It was suggested that the radical formed as a result of PS or PET thermal decomposition abstracted hydrogen from coal, which resulted in the decrease in coal caking property. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 1 - A parameter study on stampability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the coke making plant using cost efficient raw materials, but oven throughput is also increased. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend depending on the stamping energy. The first part of this paper defines the overall process objectives and presents results from systematic investigations of the effects of several coal properties on the so called stampability as the integral model parameter for compacting. Surface moisture, coal granulometry and mechanical properties have significant influence on the densification. The incorporation of these parameters into the model allows the differentiated calculation of the cake density.

  7. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% ...

  8. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  9. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  10. Segregation induced fingering instabilities in granular avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Mark; Thornton, Anthony; Johnson, Chris; Kokelaar, Pete; Gray, Nico

    2013-04-01

    It is important to be able to predict the distance to which a hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. snow slab avalanches, debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) might travel, as this information is vital for accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In the high solids fraction regions of these flows the large particles commonly segregate to the surface, where they are transported to the margins to form bouldery flow fronts. In many natural flows these bouldery margins experience a much greater frictional force, leading to frontal instabilities. These instabilities create levees that channelize the flow vastly increasing the run-out distance. A similar effect can be observed in dry granular experiments, which use a combination of small round and large rough particles. When this mixture is poured down an inclined plane, particle size segregation causes the large particles to accumulate near the margins. Being rougher, the large particles experience a greater friction force and this configuration (rougher material in front of smoother) can be unstable. The instability causes the uniform flow front to break up into a series of fingers. A recent model for particle size-segregation has been coupled to existing avalanche models through a particle concentration dependent friction law. In this talk numerical solutions of this coupled system are presented and compared to both large scale experiments carried out at the USGS flume and more controlled small scale laboratory experiments. The coupled depth-averaged model captures the accumulation of large particles at the flow front. We show this large particle accumulation at the head of the flow can lead to the break-up of the initially uniform front into a series of fingers. However, we are unable to obtain a fully grid-resolved numerical solution; the width of the fingers decreases as the grid is refined. By considering the linear stability of a steady, fully-developed, bidisperse granular layer it is shown that

  11. In vitro starch digestion and cake quality: impact of the ratio of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Im Kyung; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    The influence of the ratio of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on the in vitro starch digestion, predicted glycemic index (pGI), and the physicochemical properties of fiber-enriched cakes were evaluated. The hydration and pasting properties were affected by the ratio of SDF and IDF. According to the increase of IDF ratio (SDF ratio reduction) in 3 g fiber-enriched cakes, slowly digestible starch (SDS) contents increased, while the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased. The pGI values were significantly different with control in 3 g fiber-enriched cake containing more than 50% IDF contents (pfiber-enriched cake samples were not significantly different by SDF and IDF ratio. With the exception of the SDF 100% cake, volume index, hardness, and color values of the fiber-enriched cakes increased according to reductions in the SDF ratio. The cakes containing 3 g of total dietary fiber (the same ratio of SDF and IDF) per serving were shown to have low pGI and acceptable quality attributes. Specially, total dietary fiber amount and IDF ratio are more effective than SDF ratio to lower the pGI value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of waxy rice flour substitution for wheat flour on characteristics of batter and freeze-thawed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Nisachon; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2013-09-12

    This study aimed to improve the freeze-thawed cake properties by10-20% waxy rice flour (WRF) substitution for wheat flour (WF). Viscosity of WRF-substituted batters was lower; consequently, trapped air was less uniformly distributed than WF batter. After five freeze-thaw cycles, firmness and enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin of WF- and WRF-substituted cakes increased and the matrix surrounding the air pores from SEM images was denser than in fresh-baked cakes. Sensory evaluation showed an increase in firmness and a decrease in firmness acceptability of freeze-thawed cakes. However, freeze-thawed cake with WRF substitution had significantly less firmness, less dense matrix and more acceptability than WF cake. This could have been due to a low amylose content of WRF and the spread of ruptured waxy rice starch granules around swollen wheat starch granules as observed by CLSM. Thus, WRF could be used for WF substitution to improve the firmness in freeze-thawed cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How granular vortices can help understanding rheological and mixing properties of dense granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense granular flows exhibit fascinating kinematic patterns characterised by strong fluctuations in grain velocities. In this paper, we analyse these fluctuations and discuss their possible role on macroscopic properties such as effective viscosity, non-locality and shear-induced diffusion. The analysis is based on 2D experimental granular flows performed with the stadium shear device and DEM simulations. We first show that, when subjected to shear, grains self-organised into clusters rotating like rigid bodies. The average size of these so-called granular vortices is found to increase and diverge for lower inertial numbers, when flows decelerate and stop. We then discuss how such a microstructural entity and its associated internal length scale, possibly much larger than a grain, may be used to explain two important properties of dense granular flows: (i the existence of shear-induced diffusion of grains characterised by a shear-rate independent diffusivity and (ii the development of boundary layers near walls, where the viscosity is seemingly lower than the viscosity far from walls.

  14. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  15. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials. [Detonation hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO/sub 3/. Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450/sup 0/C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175/sup 0/C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig. (DLC)

  16. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO 3 . Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450 0 C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175 0 C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig

  17. Pyrolysis of Waste Castor Seed Cake: A Thermo-Kinetics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Muhammad Sokoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical conversion process that is of both industrial and ecological importance. The efficient chemical transformation of waste biomass to numerous products via pyrolysis reactions depends on process kinetic rates; hence the need for kinetic models to best design and operate the pyrolysis. Also, for an efficient design of an environmentally sustainable pyrolysis process of a specific lignocellulosic waste, a proper understanding of its thermo-kinetic behavior is imperative. Thus, pyrolysis kinetics of castor seed de-oiled cake (Ricinus communis using thermogravimetric technique was studied. The decomposition of the cake was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 100mL min-1 from ambient temperature to 900 °C. The results of the thermal profile showed moisture removal and devolatilization stages, and maximum decomposition of the cake occurred at a temperature of 200-400 °C. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction were determined using Friedman (FD, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS, and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO kinetic models. The average apparent activation energy values of 124.61, 126.95 and 129.80 kJmol-1 were calculated from the slopes of the respective models. The apparent activation energy values obtained depends on conversion, which is an evidence of multi-step kinetic process during the pyrolytic decomposition of the cake. The kinetic data would be of immense benefit to model, design and develop a suitable thermo-chemical system for the conversion of waste de-oil cake to energy carrier.

  18. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERTAS,DENIZ; GREST,GARY S.; HALSEY,THOMAS C.; DEVINE,DOV; SILBERT,LEONARDO E.

    2000-03-29

    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.

  20. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.; Loudon, Catherine; Steeples, Don W.

    2002-03-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates the ability to sort the sand by size in a dynamic manner. An imaging technique is developed to investigate the potential role of air viscosity on the pit construction process.

  1. Mach cone in a shallow granular fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, Patrick; Rericha, E. C.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2004-01-01

    We study the V-shaped wake (Mach cone) formed by a cylindrical rod moving through a thin, vertically vibrated granular layer. The wake, analogous to a shock (hydraulic jump) in shallow water, appears for rod velocities v R greater than a critical velocity c. We measure the half angle θ of the wake as a function of v R and layer depth h. The angle satisfies the Mach relation, sin θ=c/v R , where c=√(gh), even for h as small as one-particle diameter

  2. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  3. Archimedes' principle in fluidized granular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, D A; Sosa, Victor; Vargas, M C; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2005-09-01

    We fluidize a granular bed in a rectangular container by injecting energy through the lateral walls with high-frequency sinusoidal horizontal vibrations. In this way, the bed is brought to a steady state with no convection. We measured buoyancy forces on light spheres immersed in the bed and found that they obey Archimedes' principle. The buoyancy forces decrease when we reduce the injected energy. By measuring ascension velocities as a function of gamma, we can evaluate the frictional drag of the bed; its exponential dependence agrees very well with previous findings. Rising times of the intruders ascending through the bed were also measured, they increase monotonically as we increase the density.

  4. Dynamics of the wet granular Leidenfrost phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeller, Klaus; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2012-08-01

    By event-driven molecular dynamics simulations, we study the Leidenfrost effect for wet granular matter driven from below. In marked contrast to all earlier studies on other fluids, the dense plug hovering on the hot gas cushion undergoes an undamped oscillation. The location of the Hopf bifurcation leading to this oscillation is strongly dependent on the inelasticity of the grain impacts. The vertical separation into a gas phase with a condensed plug hovering above it is particularly pronounced due to the cohesiveness of the granulate. For sufficiently large system sizes, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability terminates the oscillatory state at late times.

  5. Rolling friction on a granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blasio, Fabio Vittorio; Saeter, May-Britt

    2009-02-01

    We present experimental results for the rolling of spheres on a granular bed. We use two sets of glass and steel spheres with varying diameters and a high-speed camera to follow the motion of the spheres. Despite the complex phenomena occurring during the rolling, the results show a friction coefficient nearly independent of the velocity (0.45-0.5 for glass and 0.6-0.65 for steel). It is found that for a given sphere density, the large spheres reach a longer distance, a result that may also help explain the rock sorting along natural stone accumulations at the foot of mountain slopes.

  6. Sensors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andreas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment is currently developing high granularity calorimeter endcapsfor its HL-LHC upgrade. The design foresees silicon sensors as the active material for the high radiation region close to the beampipe. Regions of lower radiation are additionally equipped with plastic scintillator tiles. This technology is similar to the calorimeter prototypes developed in the framework of the Linear Collider by the CALICE collaboration. The current status of the silicon sensor development is presented. Results of single diode measurements are shown as well as tests of full 6-inch hexagonal sensor wafers. A short summary of test beam results concludes the article.

  7. Special relativity induced by granular space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizba, Petr; Scardigli, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    We show that the special relativistic dynamics, when combined with quantum mechanics and the concept of superstatistics, can be interpreted as arising from two interlocked non-relativistic stochastic processes that operate at different energy scales. This framework leads to Feynman amplitudes that are, in the Euclidean regime, identical to the transition probability of a Brownian particle propagating through a granular space. For illustration we consider the dynamics and the propagator of a Klein-Gordon particle. Implications for deformed special relativity, quantum field theory, quantum gravity and cosmology are also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Granular convection driven by shearing inertial forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Liñán, G M; Nahmad-Molinari, Y

    2006-01-01

    Convection velocity measurements in vertically vibrated granular materials are presented. The convection velocity close to the walls grows quadratically with the difference between the maximum and critical, or excess, amplitude (proposed as a dynamic parameter to describe related problems) and it is shown numerically that the average bed-bottom relative velocity during the distancing between them, grows linearly with the squared as well. This is interpreted as the signature of an inertial shearing force or momentum transfer proportional to the bed-container relative velocity, acting mainly during the bed-plate distancing part of each cycle which leads to the formation of the convective flux.

  9. Granular contact dynamics using mathematical programming methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Huang, J.

    2012-01-01

    granular contact dynamics formulation uses an implicit time discretization, thus allowing for large time steps. Moreover, in the limit of an infinite time step, the general dynamic formulation reduces to a static formulation that is useful in simulating common quasi-static problems such as triaxial tests...... and similar laboratory experiments. A significant portion of the paper is dedicated to exploring the consequences of the associated frictional sliding rule implied by the variational formulation adopted. In this connection, a new interior-point algorithm for general linear complementarity problems...

  10. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  11. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  12. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  13. Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular

    OpenAIRE

    Bryla, D R; Machado, RMA

    2011-01-01

    Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry David R. Bryla1* and Rui M. A. Machado2 1 Horticultural Crops Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Corvallis, OR, USA 2 Departamento de Fitotecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Évora, Portugal A 2-year study was done to co...

  14. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  15. Tap water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Moen PureTouch filters remove impurities from tap water without removing fluoride. These carbon block filters consist of finely powdered activated carbon that is combined with a plastic binder material and heated to form a hollow cylinder. The blocks are further wrapped with material to improve performance and reduce clogging. The filters are available with different filtering capabilities (Table 1). The filters mount in the faucet spout or under the sink.

  16. Granular cell tumour of the larynx - A case report | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Granular cell tumour of the larynx - A case report. P Appiah-Thompson, KK Baidoo. Abstract. Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are benign tumours rarely found in the larynx even though they are common in the head and neck region. The laryngeal tumour may be asymptomatic but typically patients present with hoarseness of ...

  17. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some electrical and mechanical properties for pure polyvinyl alcohol. A B Elaydy M Hafez ... Keywords. Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielectric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve.

  18. Immunoreactivity of granular cell lesions of skin, mucosa, and jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Courtney, R M; Crissman, J D

    1989-10-01

    Granular cell lesions from many different sites share similar light and electron microscopic features. Immunologically, however, these lesions do not appear to be a homogenous group. This study determines the extent of immunologic heterogeneity of granular cell lesions from a wide variety of sites in skin, mucosa, and jaw. Thirty-one granular cell lesions (26 granular cell tumors [GCT] and five other granular cell lesions) from 18 different sites were evaluated immunohistochemically for keratins, vimentin, desmin, muscle actin, ACT, HLA-DR, and S-100 protein. Paraffin-embedded sections were utilized with an avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase technique. Except for ameloblastomas, all lesions were negative for keratin and positive for vimentin. All lesions were negative for desmin and actin. Positive ACT reactivity was found in one of seven GCT of tongue, a colonic lesion, a nose lesion, and a granular cell ameloblastic fibroma. All lesions were positive for HLA-DR except a few in which fixation appeared inadequate. S-100 immunoreactivity was found in all lesions except the congenital epulis, a GCT of the skin of the nose, a colonic lesion, and the odontogenic tumors. The antigenic profile of GCT of skin and mucosa is consistent with Schwann cell origin. However, some GCT and other granular cell lesions appear to be derived from macrophages, epithelial cells, or other cells. The expression of HLA-DR by granular cells is believed to be unrelated to cellular origin but rather to some common immunologic function.

  19. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  20. Nonlinear instability and convection in a vertically vibrated granular bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, P.; Ansari, I.H.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Lohse, Detlef; Alam, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear instability of the density-inverted granular Leidenfrost state and the resulting convective motion in strongly shaken granular matter are analysed via a weakly nonlinear analysis of the hydrodynamic equations. The base state is assumed to be quasi-steady and the effect of harmonic

  1. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  2. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  3. Granular Leidenfrost effect: Experiment and theory of floating particle clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Granular material is vertically vibrated in a 2D container: above a critical shaking strength, and for a sufficient number of beads, a crystalline cluster is elevated and supported by a dilute gaseous layer of fast beads underneath. We call this phenomenon the granular Leidenfrost effect. The

  4. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  5. Granular Cell Tumor Of The Esophagus: An Unusual Cause Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report an uncommon case of dysphagia caused by a granular cell tumor in a 38 year old black female. Previously documented granular cell tumors are reported as being small and treated endoscopically. This is probably the largest reported in literature and possibly the fi rst documented in the West African subregion.

  6. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular and stirred curd cheese. 133.144 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.144 Granular and stirred curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  7. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES: Effective Date: January... from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010). However, Commerce's notice...

  8. Weakly nonlinear analysis of two dimensional sheared granular flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2011-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear analysis of a two dimensional sheared granular flow is carried out under the Lees-Edwards boundary condition. We derive the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation of a disturbance amplitude starting from a set of granular hydrodynamic equations and discuss the bifurcation of the

  9. Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Mark L.; Gallant, Thomas R.; Kim, Do Heui; Maupin, Gary D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2010-08-01

    The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is essential for exhaust system optimization. The acicular mullite (ACM) diesel particulate filter substrate is under continuing development by Dow Automotive. ACM is made up of long mullite crystals which intersect to form filter wall framework and protrude from the wall surface into the DPF channels. ACM filters have been demonstrated to effectively remove diesel exhaust particles while maintaining relatively low backpressure. Modeling approaches developed for more conventional ceramic filter materials, such as silicon carbide and cordierite, have been difficult to apply to ACM because of properties arising from its unique microstructure. Penetration of soot into the high-porosity region of projecting crystal structures leads to a somewhat extended depth filtration mode, but with less dramatic increases in pressure drop than are normally observed during depth filtration in cordierite or silicon carbide filters. Another consequence is greater contact between the soot and solid surfaces, which may enhance the action of some catalyst coatings in filter regeneration. The projecting crystals appear to provide a two-fold benefit for maintaining low backpressures during filter loading: they help prevent soot from being forced into the throats of pores in the lower porosity region of the filter wall, and they also tend to support the forming filter cake, resulting in lower average cake density and higher permeability. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits may also tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial

  10. Granular motions near the threshold of entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, athanasios-Theodosios

    2016-04-01

    Our society is continuously impacted by significant weather events many times resulting in catastrophes that interrupt our normal way of life. In the context of climate change and increasing urbanisation these "extreme" hydrologic events are intensified both in magnitude and frequency, inducing costs of the order of billions of pounds. The vast majority of such costs and impacts (even more to developed societies) are due to water related catastrophes such as the geomorphic action of flowing water (including scouring of critical infrastructure, bed and bank destabilisation) and flooding. New tools and radically novel concepts are in need, to enable our society becoming more resilient. This presentation, emphasises the utility of inertial sensors in gaining new insights on the interaction of flow hydrodynamics with the granular surface at the particle scale and for near threshold flow conditions. In particular, new designs of the "smart-sphere" device are discussed with focus on the purpose specific sets of flume experiments, designed to identify the exact response of the particle resting at the bed surface for various below, near and above threshold flow conditions. New sets of measurements are presented for particle entrainment from a Lagrangian viewpoint. Further to finding direct application in addressing real world challenges in the water sector, it is shown that such novel sensor systems can also help the research community (both experimentalists and computational modellers) gain a better insight on the underlying processes governing granular dynamics.

  11. Ferromagnetic resonance studies of granular materials (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark; Das, Badri; Chrisey, D. B.; Horwitz, J.; Koon, N. C.

    1994-05-01

    We have investigated the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of several granular alloys displaying giant magnetoresistance (GMR). For this task, we have produced melt-spun ribbons of Fe5Co15Cu80 and Co20Cu80 by rapid quenching and thin films of Co80Cu20 by pulsed laser deposition. The salient feature of the FMR spectra is the increase of the resonance linewidth as a function of increasing annealing temperature. We have deconvoluted the FMR spectra to a single-domain powder pattern and a multidomain powder pattern. As a function of annealing temperature, the GMR of these samples attains a maximum value. Near the peak of the GMR curve, the FMR spectrum reveals that the ferromagnetic particles are half mono- and half multidomain. Since the maximum size of a single-domain particle is known, this enables us to estimate the spin diffusion length of the Cu conduction electrons. We have also demonstrated, theoretically and experimentally, that the appropriate demagnetizing field to apply to the ensemble of spherical magnetic particles that comprise our granular thin film is simply the field corresponding to the average magnetization.

  12. Ultrasonic compaction of granular geological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Andrew; Sikaneta, Sakalima; Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    It has been shown that the compaction of granular materials for applications such as pharmaceutical tableting and plastic moulding can be enhanced by ultrasonic vibration of the compaction die. Ultrasonic vibrations can reduce the compaction pressure and increase particle fusion, leading to higher strength products. In this paper, the potential benefits of ultrasonics in the compaction of geological granular materials in downhole applications are explored, to gain insight into the effects of ultrasonic vibrations on compaction of different materials commonly encountered in sub-sea drilling. Ultrasonic vibrations are applied, using a resonant 20kHz compactor, to the compaction of loose sand and drill waste cuttings derived from oolitic limestone, clean quartz sandstone, and slate-phyllite. For each material, a higher strain for a given compaction pressure was achieved, with higher sample density compared to that in the case of an absence of ultrasonics. The relationships between the operational parameters of ultrasonic vibration amplitude and true strain rate are explored and shown to be dependent on the physical characteristics of the compacting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical mechanics framework for static granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Silke; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2009-06-01

    The physical properties of granular materials have been extensively studied in recent years. So far, however, there exists no theoretical framework which can explain the observations in a unified manner beyond the phenomenological jamming diagram. This work focuses on the case of static granular matter, where we have constructed a statistical ensemble which mirrors equilibrium statistical mechanics. This ensemble, which is based on the conservation properties of the stress tensor, is distinct from the original Edwards ensemble and applies to packings of deformable grains. We combine it with a field theoretical analysis of the packings, where the field is the Airy stress function derived from the force and torque balance conditions. In this framework, Point J characterized by a diverging stiffness of the pressure fluctuations. Separately, we present a phenomenological mean-field theory of the jamming transition, which incorporates the mean contact number as a variable. We link both approaches in the context of the marginal rigidity picture proposed by Wyart and others.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  15. Three-phase fracturing in granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Sandnes, Bjornar

    2015-04-01

    There exist numerous geo-engineering scenarios involving the invasion of a gas into a water-saturated porous medium: in fracking, this may occur during the fracking process itself or during subsequent gas penetration into propant beds; the process is also at the heart of carbon dioxide sequestration. We use a bed of water-saturated glass beads confined within a Hele-Shaw cell as a model system to illuminate these processes. Depending on packing density, injection rate and other factors, air injected into this system may invade in a broad variety of patterns, including viscous fingering, capillary invasion, bubble formation and fracturing. Here we focus primarily on the latter case. Fracturing is observed when air is injected into a loosely packed bed of unconsolidated granular material. Our approach allows us to image the complete fracture pattern as it forms, and as such to study both the topographical properties of the resulting pattern (fracture density, braching frequency etc) and the dynamics of its growth. We present an overview of the fracturing phenomenon within the context of pattern formation in granular fluids as a whole. We discuss how fracturing arises from an interplay between frictional, capillary and viscous forces, and demonstrate the influence of various parameters on the result.

  16. Characterizing granular networks using topological metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksman, Joshua A.; Kovalcinova, Lenka; Ren, Jie; Behringer, Robert P.; Kramar, Miroslav; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Kondic, Lou

    2018-04-01

    We carry out a direct comparison of experimental and numerical realizations of the exact same granular system as it undergoes shear jamming. We adjust the numerical methods used to optimally represent the experimental settings and outcomes up to microscopic contact force dynamics. Measures presented here range from microscopic through mesoscopic to systemwide characteristics of the system. Topological properties of the mesoscopic force networks provide a key link between microscales and macroscales. We report two main findings: (1) The number of particles in the packing that have at least two contacts is a good predictor for the mechanical state of the system, regardless of strain history and packing density. All measures explored in both experiments and numerics, including stress-tensor-derived measures and contact numbers depend in a universal manner on the fraction of nonrattler particles, fNR. (2) The force network topology also tends to show this universality, yet the shape of the master curve depends much more on the details of the numerical simulations. In particular we show that adding force noise to the numerical data set can significantly alter the topological features in the data. We conclude that both fNR and topological metrics are useful measures to consider when quantifying the state of a granular system.

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials labeled hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) flight hardware takes two twin double locker assemblies in the Space Shuttle middeck or the Spacehab module. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/MSFC).

  18. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment at the University of Colorado at Boulder include Tawnya Ferbiak (software engineer), Susan Batiste (research assistant), and Christina Winkler (graduate research assistant). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  19. Mechanic of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment are Mark Lankton (Program Manager at University Colorado at Boulder), Susan Batiste (research assistance, UCB), and Stein Sture (principal investigator). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  20. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-10-01

    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  1. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impac......The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  2. Research on Network Scanning Strategy Based on Information Granularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Futong; Shi, Pengfei; Du, Jing; Cheng, Ruosi; Zhou, Yunyan

    2017-10-01

    As the basic mean to obtain the information of the targets network, network scanning is often used to discover the security risks and vulnerabilities existing on the network. However, with the development of network technology, the scale of network is more and more large, and the network scanning efficiency put forward higher requirements. In this paper, the concept of network scanning information granularity is proposed, and the design method of network scanning strategy based on information granularity is proposed. Based on single information granularity and hybrid information granularity, four network scanning strategies were designed and verified experimentally. Experiments show that the network scanning strategies based on hybrid information granularity can improve the efficiency of network scanning.

  3. Transport phenomena in granular materials: Experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ialali, P.; Sarkomaa, P. [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Mo Li [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Granular materials are found in nature and in the technology. Common examples are sand, sugar, snow, synthetic powders, cement and soil. They are collections of individual solid grains with hybrid bulk properties so that they display both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors under various circumstances. Grains are interacting through collisions or contacts either with each other or with confining walls. The transport of mass, momentum and kinetic energy (not thermal energy) has been studied in deforming granular materials both theoretically and experimentally. In static granular media (no deformation), the distribution of forces and contact stresses has attracted a great deal of scientists' attention. In this article, different aspects of transport phenomena in sheared granular media are introduced based on experimental and numerical simulation results obtained by other scientists and via our research. The transport of mass and momentum are basically needed to understand the mixing phenomenon in granular materials. Deformation of granular material (the relative motion of grains) is extremely heterogeneous unlike the ordinary fluids and solids. Also, the most highlighted difference between granular materials and other states of matter is associated with the ineffectiveness of grains thermal energy in building the mechanical and physical properties of granular materials. Instead, the fluctuation of grains kinetic energy plays the major role in controlling the mechanics of granular materials. Strange behaviors of granular materials such as jamming the flow of discharging sand from a hopper and avalanching snow over the surface of mountains can be properly explained only based on the models addressing the transport and the dissipation of grains kinetic energy. (orig.)

  4. Estimation of shelf life of wikau maombo brownies cake using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) method with Arrhenius model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, S.; Holilah; Asranudin; Noviyanti

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour was predicted by ASLT method through the Arrhenius model. The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour. The storage temperature of brownies cake was carried out at 20°C, 30°C and 45°C. The results showed that TBA (Thio Barbaturic Acid) number of brownies cake decreased as the storage temperature increase. Brownies stored at 20°C and 30°C were overgrown with mold on the storage time of six days. Brownies product (WT0 and WT1) had shelf life at 40°C approximately six and fourteen days, respectively. Brownies made from wikau maombo and wheat flour (WT1) was the best product with had the longest of shelf life about fourteen days.

  5. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlling wave propagation through nonlinear engineered granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Andrea

    We study the fundamental dynamic behavior of a special class of ordered granular systems in order to design new, structured materials with unique physical properties. The dynamic properties of granular systems are dictated by the nonlinear, Hertzian, potential in compression and zero tensile strength resulting from the discrete material structure. Engineering the underlying particle arrangement of granular systems allows for unique dynamic properties, not observed in natural, disordered granular media. While extensive studies on 1D granular crystals have suggested their usefulness for a variety of engineering applications, considerably less attention has been given to higher-dimensional systems. The extension of these studies in higher dimensions could enable the discovery of richer physical phenomena not possible in 1D, such as spatial redirection and anisotropic energy trapping. We present experiments, numerical simulation (based on a discrete particle model), and in some cases theoretical predictions for several engineered granular systems, studying the effects of particle arrangement on the highly nonlinear transient wave propagation to develop means for controlling the wave propagation pathways. The first component of this thesis studies the stress wave propagation resulting from a localized impulsive loading for three different 2D particle lattice structures: square, centered square, and hexagonal granular crystals. By varying the lattice structure, we observe a wide range of properties for the propagating stress waves: quasi-1D solitary wave propagation, fully 2D wave propagation with tunable wave front shapes, and 2D pulsed wave propagation. Additionally the effects of weak disorder, inevitably present in real granular systems, are investigated. The second half of this thesis studies the solitary wave propagation through 2D and 3D ordered networks of granular chains, reducing the effective density compared to granular crystals by selectively placing wave

  7. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  8. Characterization of Aspergillus Niger 65i6 lipase from solid-state fermentation using Jatropha seed cake medium

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Chusnul; Darmasiwi, Sari; Nurikasari, Maulina; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake contains a high amount of protein, and consequently has very high potentialas a medium for lipase production. The objective of this research was to characterize lipase from Aspergillusniger 6516, which was produced by solid-state fermentation on Jatropha curcas seed cake as the medium. The effects of pH and temperature on enzyme activity were evaluated, along with substrate specifcity and enzyme stability. Fermentation was performed at a water concentration of 63% an...

  9. Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre G

    2016-06-01

    The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by-product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved under the following conditions: ethanol-water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization; and 1 h extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)-catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg(-1) . Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Modulatory effect of fibre-enriched cake on alloxan-induced diabetic toxicity in rat brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia and it is fast becoming a scourge in sub-Saharan Africa. The nutritional properties of developed fibre-enriched cake and its protective potential against diabetic induced neurotoxicity in rats were investigated. Fibre-enriched cake was developed from selected fruits and analysed for its nutritional and sensory attributes. Rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan and treated with the formulated cake. After 14 days treatment, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Their brain tissues were accessed for reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation as well as lipid profiles which cover for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Induction of diabetes led to significant reduction (p < 0.05 of GSH, catalase, SOD activities and protein content. Feeding on the formulated cake led to their significant increase. Decreased lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides, and increased concentration of HDL were also observed on feeding with the cake. These results indicate an antioxidant protective potential of the fibre-enriched cake against diabetic-induced brain toxicity. Thus, it can serve as an adjunct to dietary therapy for diabetes.

  11. The Effect of Persian Gums and Tragacanth on Texture and Sensory Characteristics of Non-Gluten ‎Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Ghasemi

    2017-08-01

    Methods: The effect of addition of Persian gums, Tragacanth, and a combination of both of these compounds at levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% on texture, color, and sensory characteristics of these cakes was evaluated in this study. Results: The results showed that solidity and viscosity factors were elevated by addition of gum to cake. Using of gums in cakes leads to moisture maintenance inside the cake texture and thus improves mastication property. Furthermore, the results of porosity evaluation showed that addition of Persian gums and Tragacanth decreases the size and increases the number of gas cells inside the cake texture and improves porosity. The best porosity was related to the sample containing 1.5% Persian gum and Tragacanth. The treatment that contained 0.75% Persian gum and 0.75% Tragacanth had the highest acceptability among consumers. Conclusions: Results showed that Persian and Tragacanth gums, whether used independently or in combination, can improve the quality and organoleptic characteristics of gluten-free cakes.

  12. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  13. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved........ The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...

  14. UV holographic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyashova, Zoya N.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to UV holographic filter's manufacturing, when the filters are the volume reflection holograms, working in UV region in the second Bragg diffraction order, is offered. The method is experimentally realized for wavelength of 266 nm.

  15. Rare events in granular media: a volcanic-like explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard

    2015-11-01

    Granular matter is ubiquitous in nature and exhibits a variety of nontrivial phenomena. Within the same system, different regions of granular media can be at a solid or a gas phase. Here we focus on a granular Leidenfrost effect: a solid-like cluster is levitating above the ``hot'' granular gas. This state was observed experimentally, when granular matter was vertically vibrated in a two-dimensional container. This solid-gas coexistence can be described by using granular hydrodynamics, taking into account the viscosity divergence in the solid cluster. The approach is similar to the one employed in investigating solid-fluid coexistence in dense shear granular flows. We performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a simple model of inelastic hard spheres driven by a ``thermal'' bottom wall. Simulations showed that for low wall temperatures, the levitating cluster is stable, while for high wall temperatures, it breaks down, and a hot gas bursts out resembling a volcanic explosion. We found a hysteresis: for a wide range of bottom wall temperatures, both the clustering state and the volcanic state are stable. However, even if the system is at the (stable) clustering state, a volcanic explosion is possible: it is a rare event driven by large fluctuations. We propose a special simulation technique that allows investigating such rare events.

  16. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  17. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Lan

    2017-06-01

    Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM), we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder) into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary) and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed), we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  18. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  19. Sorption of metaldehyde using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salvestrini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of granular activated carbon (GAC to sorb metaldehyde was evaluated. The kinetic data could be described by an intra-particle diffusion model, which indicated that the porosity of the sorbent strongly influenced the rate of sorption. The analysis of the equilibrium sorption data revealed that ionic strength and temperature did not play any significant role in the metaldehyde uptake. The sorption isotherms were successfully predicted by the Freundlich model. The GAC used in this paper exhibited a higher affinity and sorption capacity for metaldehyde with respect to other GACs studied in previous works, probably as a result of its higher specific surface area and high point of zero charge.

  20. Cohesive granular materials composed of nonconvex particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Baptiste; Radjai, Farhang; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Sornay, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    The macroscopic cohesion of granular materials made up of sticky particles depends on the particle shapes. We address this issue by performing contact dynamics simulations of 2D packings of nonconvex aggregates. We find that the macroscopic cohesion is strongly dependent on the strain and stress inhomogeneities developing inside the material. The largest cohesion is obtained for nearly homogeneous deformation at the beginning of unconfined axial compression and it evolves linearly with nonconvexity. Interestingly, the aggregates in a sheared packing tend to form more contacts with fewer neighboring aggregates as the degree of nonconvexity increases. We also find that shearing leads either to an isotropic distribution of tensile contacts or to the same privileged direction as that of compressive contacts.

  1. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  2. [Granular cell tumor of the male breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Youssef; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naïma; Benayad, Samira; Karkouri, Mehdi; Zamiati, Soumaya; Kadiri, Bouchaïb

    2013-04-01

    The granular cell tumor of the breast (TCGS) is a rare benign tumor, which grows from Schwann cells. It can be confused with a cancerous tumor clinically and radiologically. Only the histological appearance can make the diagnosis. We report a case of TCGS in a man, discovered as a result of self-examination of a breast lump. The authors emphasize the problem of differential diagnosis with breast cancer: clinically, a hard lump with an occasional skin retraction or a fixity to the deep plane; radiologically a stellar opaque appearance with irregular contours, sonographically unspecific, and even macroscopically during surgery, this lesion having morphological characteristics which need histologic examination and even immunohistochemistry in order to exclude a malignant tumor. They are cured by wide local excision and have generally a good prognosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Software digitizer for high granular gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Y; Boudry, V

    2014-01-01

    A sampling calorimeter using gaseous sensor layers with digital readout [1] is near perfect for ``Particle Flow Algorithm'' [2,3] approach, since it is homogeneous over large surfaces, robust, cost efficient, easily segmentable to any readout pad dimension and size and almost insensitive to neutrons. Monte-Carlo (MC) programs such as GEANT4 [4] simulate with high precision the energy deposited by particles. The sensor and electronic response associated to a pad are calculated in a separate ``digitization'' process. We develop a general method for simulating the pad response using the spatial information from a simulation done at high granularity. The digitization method proposed here has been applied to gaseous detectors including Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPC) and MicroMegas, and validated on test beam data. Experimental observable such as pad multiplicity and mean number of hits at different thresholds have been reproduced with high precision.

  4. Information granularity, big data, and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The recent pursuits emerging in the realm of big data processing, interpretation, collection and organization have emerged in numerous sectors including business, industry, and government organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather monitoring, intelligence gathering, quickly outpace the capacities of traditional techniques and tools of data analysis. The 3V (volume, variability and velocity) challenges led to the emergence of new techniques and tools in data visualization, acquisition, and serialization. Soft Computing being regarded as a plethora of technologies of fuzzy sets (or Granular Computing), neurocomputing and evolutionary optimization brings forward a number of unique features that might be instrumental to the development of concepts and algorithms to deal with big data. This carefully edited volume provides the reader with an updated, in-depth material on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligenc...

  5. Two methods to measure granular gas temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastaing, J.-Y.; Géminard, J.-C.; Naert, A.

    2017-07-01

    Grains are vibrated so as to achieve a granular gas, here regarded as an archetype of a dissipative non equilibrium steady state (NESS). We report on two distinct and concordant experimental measures of the system effective temperature. To do so, a blade fastened to the shaft of a small DC-motor, immersed in the grains, behaves as a driven 1D Brownian rotator, which is used as both actuator and sensor simultaneously. On the one hand, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, which involves a measure of the asymmetry of the energy exchanges between the rotator and the NESS reservoir, provides a first effective temperature. On the other hand, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which involves the relation between the spontaneous fluctuations and the response to a weak perturbation, defines a second, independent, effective temperature. Both methods, even though they are based on drastically different ideas, give nicely concordant results.

  6. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  7. Capturing gas in soft granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Jeremy; Xu, Feng; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    Bubble migration through soft granular materials involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This process is relevant to a variety of natural and industrial systems, from fluidized-bed reactors to the migration and venting of biogenic gas in sediments. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air into a quasi-2D, liquid-saturated packing of soft particles and measuring the morphology of the bubbles as they invade and then rise due to buoyancy. By systematically varying the confining stress, we show that the competition between buoyancy, capillarity, and elasticity leads to complex bubble-migration dynamics that transition from fluidization to pathway opening to pore invasion, with a strong and surprising impact on the amount of air trapped in the system. The authors are grateful for support from the Royal Society (IE150885), the John Fell Oxford University Press Research Fund, and the Maurice Lubbock Memorial Fund.

  8. Sound pulse broadening in stressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Vincent; Jia, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    The pulse broadening and decay of coherent sound waves propagating in disordered granular media are investigated. We find that the pulse width of these compressional waves is broadened when the disorder is increased by mixing the beads made of different materials. To identify the responsible mechanism for the pulse broadening, we also perform the acoustic attenuation measurement by spectral analysis and the numerical simulation of pulsed sound wave propagation along one-dimensional disordered elastic chains. The qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation reveals a dominant mechanism by scattering attenuation at the high-frequency range, which is consistent with theoretical models of sound wave scattering in strongly random media via a correlation length.

  9. Granular segregation driven by particle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C; Zuriguel, I; Garcimartín, A; Mullin, T

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of particle-particle interactions in a horizontally shaken granular layer that undergoes a second order phase transition from a binary gas to a segregation liquid as the packing fraction C is increased. By focusing on the behavior of individual particles, the effect of C is studied on (1) the process of cluster formation, (2) cluster dynamics, and (3) cluster destruction. The outcomes indicate that the segregation is driven by two mechanisms: attraction between particles with the same properties and random motion with a characteristic length that is inversely proportional to C. All clusters investigated are found to be transient and the probability distribution functions of the separation times display a power law tail, indicating that the splitting probability decreases with time.

  10. A Statistical Ensemble for Soft Granular Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Silke; O'Hern, Corey; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2007-03-01

    Work on packings of soft spheres (PRE 68, 011306 (2003)) has shown the existence of a Jamming transition and has highlighted the need for a general statistical framework to describe granular packings. This work presents an extension of the formalism proposed by Edwards (Physica A 157, 1080 (1989)) to packings of soft particles. We base our analysis on a height formalism developed in two dimensions (PRL 88, 115505 (2002)) to extract a topological invariant γ, the trace of the global stress tensor, which is conserved under internal rearrangements of the system. Upon assuming a flat measure in γ-space, we can derive a canonical distribution of the local γ-values in a grain packing. We then check the predictions of this ensemble against distributions of mechanically stable packings of frictionless disks obtained from computer simulations. Work supported by NSF-DMR 0549762.

  11. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  12. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  13. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih

    2016-04-01

    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  14. NMRI Measurements of Flow of Granular Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masami; Waggoner, R. Allen; Fukushima, Eiichi

    1996-01-01

    We investigate complex 3D behavior of granular mixtures in shaking and shearing devices. NMRI can non-invasively measure concentration, velocity, and velocity fluctuations of flows of suitable particles. We investigate origins of wall-shear induced convection flow of single component particles by measuring the flow and fluctuating motion of particles near rough boundaries. We also investigate if a mixture of different size particles segregate into their own species under the influence of external shaking and shearing disturbances. These non-invasive measurements will reveal true nature of convecting flow properties and wall disturbance. For experiments in a reduced gravity environment, we will design a light weight NMR imager. The proof of principle development will prepare for the construction of a complete spaceborne system to perform experiments in space.

  15. Granular Segregation by an Oscillating Ratchet Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, A.; Horiuchi, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a method to segregate granular mixtures which consist of two kinds of particles by an oscillating ''ratchet'' mechanism. The segregation system has an asymmetrical sawtooth-shaped base which is vertically oscillating. Such a ratchet base produces a directional current of particles owing to its transport property. It is a counterintuitive and interesting phenomenon that a vertically vibrated base transports particles horizontally. This system is studied with numerical simulations, and it is found that we can apply such a system to segregation of mixtures of particles with different properties (radius or mass). Furthermore, we find out that an appropriate inclination of the ratchet-base makes the quality of segregation high. (author)

  16. Transient response in granular bounded heap flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  17. Granular neural networks, pattern recognition and bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sankar K; Ganivada, Avatharam

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a uniform framework describing how fuzzy rough granular neural network technologies can be formulated and used in building efficient pattern recognition and mining models. It also discusses the formation of granules in the notion of both fuzzy and rough sets. Judicious integration in forming fuzzy-rough information granules based on lower approximate regions enables the network to determine the exactness in class shape as well as to handle the uncertainties arising from overlapping regions, resulting in efficient and speedy learning with enhanced performance. Layered network and self-organizing analysis maps, which have a strong potential in big data, are considered as basic modules,. The book is structured according to the major phases of a pattern recognition system (e.g., classification, clustering, and feature selection) with a balanced mixture of theory, algorithm, and application. It covers the latest findings as well as directions for future research, particularly highlighting bioinf...

  18. Multiple impacts in dissipative granular chains

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Ngoc Son

    2014-01-01

    The extension of collision models for single impacts between two bodies, to the case of multiple impacts (which take place when several collisions occur at the same time in a multibody system) is a challenge in Solid Mechanics, due to the complexity of such phenomena, even in the frictionless case. This monograph aims at presenting the main multiple collision rules proposed in the literature. Such collisions typically occur in granular materials, the simplest of which are made of chains of aligned balls. These chains are used throughout the book to analyze various multiple impact rules which extend the classical Newton (kinematic restitution), Poisson (kinetic restitution) and Darboux-Keller (energetic or kinetic restitution) approaches for impact modelling. The shock dynamics in various types of chains of aligned balls (monodisperse, tapered, decorated, stepped chains) is carefully studied and shown to depend on several parameters: restitution coefficients, contact stiffness ratios, elasticity coefficients (...

  19. Research on Improving Low Rank Coal Caking Ability by Moderate Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The hydrogenation test of low metamorphic coal was carried out by using a continuous hydrogen reactor at the temperature of (350-400)°C and the initial hydrogen pressure of 3 ~ 6Mpa. The purpose of the experiment was to increase the caking property, and the heating time was controlled from 30 to 50min. The test results show that the mild hydrogenation test, no adhesion of low metamorphic coal can be transformed into a product having adhesion, oxygen elements in coal have good removal, the calorific value of the product has been improved significantly and coal particles during pyrolysis, swelling, catalyst, hydrogenation, structural changes and the combined effects of particles a new component formed between financial and is a major cause of coal caking enhancement and lithofacies change, coal blending test showed that the product can be used effectively in the coking industry.

  20. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.