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Sample records for film photovoltaic modules

  1. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Radue, C.; Dyk, E.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P MAX ) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 ∼30% and a total degradation of ∼42%. For Si-2 the initial P MAX was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of ∼10% and a total degradation of ∼17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  2. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  3. The Thickness Effect of the Functional Film for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Module.

    Shan, Bowen; Kim, Jung Hyun; Choi, Wonseok

    2018-09-01

    In this study, a functional coating technology to improve the anti-fouling properties of the photo-voltaic module is introduced. The coating was applied on the cover glass, which is the same material as the photovoltaic module. After coating the cover glass once, twice, and three times in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, the anti-fouling properties was tested according to the coating times and the thickness of the coating film. To ensure the durability of the coating film, the annealing process was performed for 1 hour at 200 °C in a furnace after coating. Finally, the photovoltaic module will be coated with the best coating method. Compared to uncoated modules, the coated photovoltaic modules showed significantly improved anti-fouling properties and also good performance in hardness and adhesion.

  4. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  5. Presence and future of thin-film photovoltaics modules; Gegenwart und Zukunft von Duennschichtphotovoltaikmodulen

    Voswinckel, Sebastian [Fachhochschule Nordhausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Regenerative Energietechnik (in.RET)

    2012-07-01

    The thin-film photovoltaics is a technology with a high level of future potential of the solar energy industry. An enhanced potential of expense reduction and technical development provided a massive development of production capacities. The thin-film photovoltaics has advantageous technical properties such as a pronounced low-light behaviour and an enhanced efficiency at higher temperatures. In contrast, there are technical challenges. Beside the lower efficiency, an irreversible degradation of the transparent front contact may result especially in the case of amorphous silicon modules under certain circumstances. Effective measures for the protection of the so-called TCO corrosion have to be developed and implemented on module level and system level. Similarly, time-saving and cost-saving test methods for the evaluation of the damage potential have to be developed. The growing pricing pressure of crystalline solar cells put the thin-film industry under pressure. With respect to the technical and economic expectations aroused in the past as well as with respect to partly unsolved problems of the thin-film technology, the author of the contribution under consideration tries to present an outlook on the future chances and threats of this technology. Advantages and disadvantages of thin-film photovoltaics modules as well as possible approaches of a solution of technical difficulties are presented.

  6. Investigation of the degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photovoltaic module

    van Dyk, E.E.; Audouard, A.; Meyer, E.L. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Woolard, C.D. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2007-01-23

    The degradation of a thin-film hydrogenated single-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic (PV) module has been studied. We investigated the different modes of electrical and physical degradation of a-Si:H PV modules by employing a degradation and failure assessment procedure used in conjunction with analytical techniques, including, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry. This paper reveals that due to their thickness, thin films are very sensitive to the type of degradation observed. Moreover, this paper deals with the problems associated with the module encapsulant, poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA). The main objective of this study was to establish the influence of outdoor environmental conditions on the performance of a thin-film PV module comprising a-Si:H single-junction cells. (author)

  7. Thin Film CIGS Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Modules, and the Problems of Modeling

    Antonino Parisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the results regarding a nonvacuum technique to fabricate CIGS thin films for solar cells by means of single-step electrodeposition, we focus on the methodological problems of modeling at cell structure and photovoltaic module levels. As a matter of fact, electrodeposition is known as a practical alternative to costly vacuum-based technologies for semiconductor processing in the photovoltaic device sector, but it can lead to quite different structural and electrical properties. For this reason, a greater effort is required to ensure that the perspectives of the electrical engineer and the material scientist are given an opportunity for a closer comparison and a common language. Derived parameters from ongoing experiments have been used for simulation with the different approaches, in order to develop a set of tools which can be used to put together modeling both at single cell structure and complete module levels.

  8. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    2018-04-10

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.

  9. Estimating the Effects of Module Area on Thin-Film Photovoltaic System Costs: Preprint

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue University; Alam, Muhammad A [Purdue University

    2018-03-29

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to 0.10 dollars/W and 0.13 dollars/W in module manufacturing costs for CdTe and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional 0.04 dollars/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. Sensitivity of the dollar/W cost savings to module efficiency, manufacturing yield, and other parameters is presented. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy; the effects of module size on energy yield for monolithic thin-film modules are not yet well understood. Finally, we discuss possible non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  10. Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint

    Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

    2011-09-01

    The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

  11. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: measurements and energy prediction improvement.

    Lay-Ekuakille, A; Arnesano, A; Vergallo, P

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m(2). About 37,000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m(2) and from -1 to 40 W/m(2) from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  12. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    Steinberger, H.; Thumm, W.; Freitag, R.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Chapin, R.

    1994-01-01

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC 50 in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats

  13. Reliability and Engineering of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules. Research forum proceedings

    Ross, R. G., Jr. (Editor); Royal, E. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A Research Forum on Reliability and Engineering of Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules, under sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project and the U.S. Department of Energy, was held in Washington, D.C., on March 20, 1985. Reliability attribute investigations of amorphous silicon cells, submodules, and modules were the subjects addressed by most of the Forum presentations. Included among the reliability research investigations reported were: Arrhenius-modeled accelerated stress tests on a Si cells, electrochemical corrosion, light induced effects and their potential effects on stability and reliability measurement methods, laser scribing considerations, and determination of degradation rates and mechanisms from both laboratory and outdoor exposure tests.

  14. Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules.

    Leem, Jung Woo; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-02-04

    We propose two-dimensional periodic conical micrograting structured (MGS) polymer films as a multifunctional layer (i.e., light harvesting and self-cleaning) at the surface of outer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) cover-substrates for boosting the solar power generation in silicon (Si)-based photovoltaic (PV) modules. The surface of ultraviolet-curable NOA63 MGS polymer films fabricated by the soft imprint lithography exhibits a hydrophobic property with water contact angle of ∼121° at no inclination and dynamic advancing/receding water contact angles of ∼132°/111° at the inclination angle of 40°, respectively, which can remove dust particles or contaminants on the surface of PV modules in real outdoor environments (i.e., self-cleaning). The NOA63 MGS film coated on the bare PET leads to the reduction of reflection as well as the enhancement of both the total and diffuse transmissions at wavelengths of 300-1100 nm, indicating lower solar weighted reflectance (RSW) of ∼8.2%, higher solar weighted transmittance (TSW) of ∼93.1%, and considerably improved average haze ratio (HAvg) of ∼88.3% as compared to the bare PET (i.e., RSW ≈ 13.5%, TSW ≈ 86.9%, and HAvg ≈ 9.1%), respectively. Additionally, it shows a relatively good durability at temperatures of ≤160 °C. The resulting Si PV module with the NOA63 MGS/PET has an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.26% (cf., PCE = 12.55% for the reference PV module with the bare PET) due to the mainly improved short circuit current from 49.35 to 52.01 mA, exhibiting the PCE increment percentage of ∼5.7%. For light incident angle-dependent PV module current-voltage characteristics, superior solar energy conversion properties are also obtained in a broad angle range of 10-80°.

  15. Commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. 1995 annual report

    Brog, T.K. [Golden Photon, Inc., CO (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents a general overview of progress made in Golden Photon Inc.`s commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. It describes the improvement in the number of batch runs processed through substrate deposition, all inter-connection, and encapsulation process steps; a progressive increase in the total number of panels processed each month; an improvement in cumulative process yields; and the continual attention given to modifying operating parameters of each major process step. The report also describes manpower status and staffing issues. The description of the status of subcontract progress includes engineering design; process improvement and development; cost improvement and raw materials; environment, safety, and health; and manufacturing cost and productivity optimization. Milestones and deliverables are also described.

  16. Experiences on the integration of thin film photovoltaic modules in a Mediterranean greenhouse

    Urena, R.; Perez, J.; Carreno, A.; Callejon, A.J.; Vazquez, F.J. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Rural Engineering; Perez, M. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). CIESOL Research Center on Solar Energy

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of photovoltaic (PV) thin film modules in solar based energy generation systems in greenhouses in Spain, where feed-in tariffs for renewable energy sources serve to increase the yearly income of such agricultural exploitations. Experiments were performed at the University of Almeria, where a 1000 m{sup 2} pilot installation was built and monitored to analyze the key features of the system design and functionalities in terms of overall electricity injected into the grid as well as crop productivity. The installation involved dividing the greenhouse sections into 2 identical and contiguous sections, where one of the roof sections was equipped with a set of carefully designed thin film PV module strips. Both sections were grown under similar conditions for a period of 6 months. Continuous monitoring of the power injected to the grid showed that such a system is feasible. In terms of greenhouse crop results, this study showed that there is need for further research regarding the impact of changes in optical properties to the roof by the PV strips that reduced the available PV active radiation (PAR light) for crops.

  17. A photovoltaic module

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  18. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  19. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  20. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  1. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  2. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  3. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  4. Photovoltaic cell module and method of forming

    Howell, Malinda; Juen, Donnie; Ketola, Barry; Tomalia, Mary Kay

    2017-12-12

    A photovoltaic cell module, a photovoltaic array including at least two modules, and a method of forming the module are provided. The module includes a first outermost layer and a photovoltaic cell disposed on the first outermost layer. The module also includes a second outermost layer disposed on the photovoltaic cell and sandwiching the photovoltaic cell between the second outermost layer and the first outermost layer. The method of forming the module includes the steps of disposing the photovoltaic cell on the first outermost layer, disposing a silicone composition on the photovoltaic cell, and compressing the first outermost layer, the photovoltaic cell, and the second layer to form the photovoltaic cell module.

  5. Photovoltaic Cells and Modules towards Terawatt Era

    Vitezslav Benda

    2017-01-01

    Progresses in photovoltaic technologies over the past years are evident from the lower costs,the rising efficiency,to the great improvements in system reliability and yield.Cumulative installed power yearly growths were on an average more than 40% in the period from 2007 to 2016 and in 2016,the global cumulative photovoltaic power installed has reached 320 GWp.The level 0.5 TWp could be reached before 2020.The production processes in the solar industry still have great potential for optimization both wafer based and thin film technologies.Trends following from the present technology levels are discussed,also taking into account other parts of photovoltaic systems that influence the cost of electrical energy produced.Present developments in the three generations of photovoltaic modules are discussed along with the criteria for the selection of appropriate photovoltaic module manufacturing technologies.The wafer based crystalline silicon (c-silicon) technologies have the role of workhorse of present photovoltaic power generation,representing more than 90% of total module production.Further technology improvements have to be implemented without significantly increasing costs per unit,despite the necessarily more complex manufacturing processes involved.The tandem of c-silicon and thin film cells is very promising.Durability may be a limiting factor of this technology due to the dependence of the produced electricity cost on the module service time.

  6. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  7. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  8. Improved ATIR concentrator photovoltaic module

    Adriani, Paul M.; Mao, Erwang

    2013-09-01

    Novel aggregated total internal reflection (ATIR) concentrator photovoltaic module design comprises 2-D shaped primary and secondary optics that effectively combine optical efficiency, low profile, convenient range of acceptance angles, reliability, and manufacturability. This novel optical design builds upon previous investigations by improving the shapes of primary and secondary optics to enable improved long-term reliability and manufacturability. This low profile, low concentration (5x to 10x) design fits well with one-axis trackers that are often used for flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in large scale ground mount installations. Standard mounting points, materials, and procedures apply without changes from flat plate modules.

  9. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  10. Cost effective flat plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping

    Bain, C. N.; Gordon, B. A.; Knasel, T. M.; Malinowski, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Work in optical trapping in 'thick films' is described to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. A thick optical film can trap light by diffusive reflection and total internal reflection. Light can be propagated reasonably long distances compared with layer thicknesses by this technique. This makes it possible to conduct light from inter-cell and intra-cell areas now not used in photovoltaic modules onto active cell areas.

  11. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    Cibira, Gabriel, E-mail: cibira@lm.uniza.sk; Koščová, Marcela, E-mail: mkoscova@lm.uniza.sk

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab{sup ®} and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  12. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab ® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  13. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  14. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  15. Price/efficiency correlations for 2004 photovoltaic modules

    Green, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The claim is often made that efficiency is a key factor in determining the marketability of photovoltaic products. If this is the case, a strong correlation between the price of modules and their efficiency might be expected. This relationship is investigated using module pricing data that have recently become available. Conclusions are that there is little correlation between module price and efficiency in this data set and that some thin-film modules currently appear to attract a pricing premium. (Author)

  16. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  17. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Charging a Capacitor with a Photovoltaic Module

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Navarro, Luis Barba

    2017-01-01

    Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module is an experiment which reveals a lot about the modules characteristics. It is customary to represent these characteristics with an equivalent circuit whose elements represent its physical parameters. The behavior of a photovoltaic module is very similar to that of a single cell but the electric…

  19. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  20. Feasibility of photovoltaic: thermoelectric hybrid modules

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules suffers from elevated temperatures. Conversion efficiency losses of up to about 25% can result, depending on the type of integration of the modules in the roof. Cooling of modules would therefore enhance annual PV performance. Instead of module

  1. Defect design of insulation systems for photovoltaic modules

    Mon, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    A defect-design approach to sizing electrical insulation systems for terrestrial photovoltaic modules is presented. It consists of gathering voltage-breakdown statistics on various thicknesses of candidate insulation films where, for a designated voltage, module failure probabilities for enumerated thickness and number-of-layer film combinations are calculated. Cost analysis then selects the most economical insulation system. A manufacturing yield problem is solved to exemplify the technique. Results for unaged Mylar suggest using fewer layers of thicker films. Defect design incorporates effects of flaws in optimal insulation system selection, and obviates choosing a tolerable failure rate, since the optimization process accomplishes that. Exposure to weathering and voltage stress reduces the voltage-withstanding capability of module insulation films. Defect design, applied to aged polyester films, promises to yield reliable, cost-optimal insulation systems.

  2. Quantification of Shading Tolerability for Photovoltaic Modules

    Ziar, H.; Asaei, Behzad; Farhangi, Shahrokh; Isabella, O.; Korevaar, M.A.N.; Zeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite several decades of research in the field of photovoltaic (PV) systems, shading tolerance has still not been properly addressed. PV modules are influenced by shading concerning many factors, such as number and configuration of cells in the module, electrical and thermal characteristics of

  3. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshops

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  4. 2016 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology - both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  5. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  6. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  7. The AC photovoltaic module is here!

    Strong, Steven J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Wills, Robert H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and performance results of a large-area photovoltaic module whose electrical output is ac power suitable for direct connection to the utility grid. The large-area ac PV module features a dedicated, integrally mounted, high-efficiency dc-to-ac power inverter with a nominal output of 250 watts (STC) at 120 Vac, 60 H, that is fully compatible with utility power. The module's output is connected directly to the building's conventional ac distribution system without need for any dc wiring, string combiners, dc ground-fault protection or additional power-conditioning equipment. With its advantages, the ac photovoltaic module promises to become a universal building block for use in all utility-interactive PV systems. This paper discusses AC Module design aspects and utility interface issues (including islanding).

  8. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  9. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Butler, B.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Booysen, P. [Setsolar, P. O. Box 15934, Panorama 7506 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  10. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Butler, B.A.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Booysen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  11. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Butler, B. A.; van Dyk, E. E.; Vorster, F. J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M. K.; Booysen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  12. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost and Throughput Improvements for Thin Film CIGS-Based Modules: Final Technical Report, July 1998 -- September 2001

    Britt, J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the marked improvements made of the production line under the PVMaT program: successfully developed a high-speed, all-laser, monolithic integration process for CIGS-based modules on polyimide substrates; exceeded PVMaT goals for scribing rate and total interconnect width; developed robust, well-controlled techniques for selective scribing; improved CIGS evaporation sources to allow uniform, controllable delivery; completed foundation required to integrate higher CIGS deposition rates into the production line; developed well-controlled Se delivery system to minimize Se consumption; successfully integrated the parallel-detector spectroscope ellipsometer (PDSE) into a production CIGS deposition chamber; collected useful, in-situ data with PDSE; validated the performance of the X-ray fluorescometry (XRF) sensor in the production CIGS deposition chamber; and successfully incorporated the XRF sensor into the control architecture of the production CIGS deposition chamber .

  13. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  14. Field failure mechanisms for photovoltaic modules

    Dumas, L. N.; Shumka, A.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning in 1976, Department of Energy field centers have installed and monitored a number of field tests and application experiments using current state-of-the-art photovoltaic modules. On-site observations of module physical and electrical degradation, together with in-depth laboratory analysis of failed modules, permits an overall assessment of the nature and causes of early field failures. Data on failure rates are presented, and key failure mechanisms are analyzed with respect to origin, effect, and prospects for correction. It is concluded that all failure modes identified to date are avoidable or controllable through sound design and production practices.

  15. Harnessing the Sun with Thin Film Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Birkmire, R. W.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have a substantial role in meeting electric power needs in the next century, especially with an expected competitive position compared to conventional power-generation and other renewable- energy technologies. Thin-film photovoltaic modules based on CdTe, CuInSe2 or Si can potentially be produced by economical, high-volume manufacturing techniques, dramatically reducing component cost. However, the translation of laboratory thin-film technologies to first-time, large-scale manufacturing has been much more difficult than expected. This is due to the complexity of the processes involved for making large-area PV modules at high rates and with high yields, and compounded by the lack of a fundamental scientific and engineering base required to properly engineer and operate manufacturing equipment. In this paper, we discuss the need to develop diagnostics tools and associated predictive models that quantitatively assess processing conditions and pro duct properties. Incorporation of the diagnostic sensors into both laboratory reactors and manufacturing facilities will (1) underpin the development of solar cells with improved efficiency, and (2) accelerate the scale-up process through intelligent process-control schemes. ''Next-generation'' high-performance (e.g., and gt;25% conversion efficiency) thin-film PV modules will also be assessed, along with critical issues associated with their development

  16. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wohlgemuth, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bosco, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Nancy [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States); Earnest, Thomas [DuPont, Wilmington, DE (United States); Romero, Ralph [Black & Veatch, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  17. Microinverters for employment in connection with photovoltaic modules

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Johnson, Brian Benjamin; Krein, Philip T.

    2015-09-22

    Microinverters useable in association with photovoltaic modules are described. A three phase-microinverter receives direct current output generated by a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell and converts such direct current output into three-phase alternating current out. The three-phase microinverter is interleaved with other three-phase-microinverters, wherein such microinverters are integrated in a photovoltaic module with the microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell.

  18. Qualification standard for photovoltaic concentrator modules

    McConnell, R.; Kurtz, S.; Bottenberg, W. R.; Hammond, R.; Jochums, S. W.; McDanal, A. J.; Roubideaux, D.; Whitaker, C.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2000-05-05

    The paper describes a proposed qualification standard for photovoltaic concentrator modules. The standard's purpose is to provide stress tests and procedures to identify any component weakness in photovoltaic concentrator modules intended for power generation applications. If no weaknesses are identified during qualification, both the manufacturer and the customer can expect a more reliable product. The qualification test program for the standard includes thermal cycles, humidity-freeze cycles, water spray, off-axis beam damage, hail impact, hot-spot endurance, as well as electrical tests for performance, ground continuity, isolation, wet insulation resistance, and bypass diodes. Because concentrator module performance can not be verified using solar simulator and reference cell procedures suitable for flat-plate modules, the standard specifies an outdoor I-V test analysis allowing a performance comparison before and after a test procedure. Two options to this complex analysis are the use of a reference concentrator module for side-by-side outdoor comparison with modules undergoing various tests and a dark I-V performance check.

  19. Non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules

    Bora, Mihail; Kotovsky, Jack

    2017-03-07

    Systems and techniques for non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules include and/or are configured to illuminate a photovoltaic module comprising a photovoltaic cell and an encapsulant with at least one beam of light having a wavelength in a range from about 1400 nm to about 2700 nm; capture one or more images of the illuminated photovoltaic module, each image relating to a water content of the photovoltaic module; and determine a water content of the photovoltaic module based on the one or more images. Systems preferably include one or more of a light source, a moving mirror, a focusing lens, a beam splitter, a stationary mirror, an objective lens and an imaging module.

  20. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  1. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  2. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Teo, H.G.; Lee, P.S.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  3. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat

    2017-09-12

    A photovoltaic (PV) module includes an absorber layer coupled to an optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of PV elements. The optic layer includes a close-packed array of Keplerian telescope elements, each corresponding to one of an array of pupil elements. The Keplerian telescope substantially couple radiation that is incident on their objective surfaces into the corresponding pupil elements. Each pupil element relays radiation that is coupled into it from the corresponding Keplerian telescope element into the corresponding PV element.

  4. Reflective photovoltaics

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  5. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  6. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Gok, Cara Fagerholm, David M. Burns, Timothy J. Peshek, Laura S. Bruckman, Roger H. French Backsheet Chen, C. H. Hsueh, W. J. Hsieh Accurately Measuring PV Power Loss Due to Soiling-Michael Gostein and Walters, Stephen Barkaszi Tracking PV Changes: Bridging Between Thin-Film Cells and Modules-Russell

  7. Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing: Potential Emissions and Abatement Strategies

    Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Agostinelli, G.; Dekkers, H.; Roth, K.; Kinzig, V.

    2007-01-01

    Some fluorinated gases (F-gases) which are used, or considered to be used, in crystalline silicon photovoltaic solar cell and film silicon module manufacturing have a very high global warming effect. CF4, C2F6, SF6 and NF3 have global warming potentials 7390, 12200, 22800 and 17200 times higher than

  8. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  9. Producer responsibility and recycling solar photovoltaic modules

    McDonald, N.C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid expansion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is quickly causing solar to play a growing importance in the energy mix of the world. Over the full life cycle, although to a smaller degree than traditional energy sources, PV also creates solid waste. This paper examines the potential need for PV recycling policies by analyzing existing recycling protocols for the five major types of commercialized PV materials. The amount of recoverable semiconductor material and glass in a 1 m 2 area solar module for the five types of cells is quantified both physically and the profit potential of recycling is determined. The cost of landfill disposal of the whole solar module, including the glass and semiconductor was also determined for each type of solar module. It was found that the economic motivation to recycle most PV modules is unfavorable without appropriate policies. Results are discussed on the need to regulate for appropriate energy and environmental policy in the PV manufacturing industry particularly for PV containing hazardous materials. The results demonstrate the need to encourage producer responsibility not only in the PV manufacturing sector but also in the entire energy industry.

  10. Self-Cleaning Microcavity Array for Photovoltaic Modules.

    Vüllers, Felix; Fritz, Benjamin; Roslizar, Aiman; Striegel, Andreas; Guttmann, Markus; Richards, Bryce S; Hölscher, Hendrik; Gomard, Guillaume; Klampaftis, Efthymios; Kavalenka, Maryna N

    2018-01-24

    Development of self-cleaning coatings is of great interest for the photovoltaic (PV) industry, as soiling of the modules can significantly reduce their electrical output and increase operational costs. We fabricated flexible polymeric films with novel disordered microcavity array (MCA) topography from fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) by hot embossing. Because of their superhydrophobicity with water contact angles above 150° and roll-off angles below 5°, the films possess self-cleaning properties over a wide range of tilt angles, starting at 10°, and contaminant sizes (30-900 μm). Droplets that impact the FEP MCA surface with velocities of the same order of magnitude as that of rain bounce off the surface without impairing its wetting properties. Additionally, the disordered MCA topography of the films enhances the performance of PV devices by improving light incoupling. Optical coupling of the FEP MCA films to a glass-encapsulated multicrystalline silicon solar cell results in 4.6% enhancement of the electrical output compared to that of an uncoated device.

  11. Outdoor thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems

    Herteleer, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Current and future investors in photovoltaic systems are interested in how well the system performs, and how predictable this is over the expected lifetime. To do so, models have been developed and measurements of photovoltaic systems have been done. This dissertation presents the outdoor measurement set-up that has been developed for thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems, aimed at measuring transient effects and changes. The main design decisions and ...

  12. Design and Implementation of a Simulator for Photovoltaic Modules

    Kuang-Hui Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is the development of a photovoltaic module simulator, one capable of running an output characteristic simulation under normal operation according to various electrical parameters specified and exhibiting multiple advantages of being low cost, small sized, and easy to implement. In comparison with commercial simulation tools, Pspice and Solar Pro, the simulator developed demonstrates a comparable I-V as well as a P-V output characteristic curve. In addition, a series-parallel configuration of individual modules constitutes a photovoltaic module array, which turns into a photovoltaic power generation system with an integrated power conditioner.

  13. Power Inverter Topologies for Photovoltaic Modules - A Review

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    This review-paper focuses on the latest development of inverters for photovoltaic AC-Modules. The power range for these inverters is usually within 90 Watt to 500 Watt, which covers the most commercial photovoltaic-modules. Self-commutated inverters have replaced the grid-commutated ones. The same...... is true for the bulky low-frequency transformers versus the high-frequency transformers, which are used to adapt the voltage level. The AC-Module provides a modular design and a flexible behaviour in various grid conditions. It hereby opens the market for photovoltaic-power for everyone at a low cost due...

  14. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    Cooley, W.T.; Adams, S.F.; Reinhardt, K.C.; Piszczor, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cell or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application

  15. Ecodesign perspectives of thin-film photovoltaic technologies

    Chatzisideris, Marios Dimos; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Laurent, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review 33 life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies that have had a holistic coverage in their assessments and/or have included ecodesign aspects. Only five of them were found to have a comprehensive life cycle and impact coverage, and their analyses...... ecodesign considerations in parts of the PV life cycle, the analysis of the eleven of them addressing primary energy demand during module production suggests that electricity consumption during the metal deposition processes is a top contributor and should be prioritised by PV technology developers....... A similar analysis of the ten studies having included the balance of system components (BOS) in the assessments showed that these contribute significantly to most environmental impact categories. Beyond recommending that stakeholders in the PV field rely on LCA to support decision-making and to guide...

  16. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    L. A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; A. Januszka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current an...

  17. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  18. Module-level DC/DC conversion for photovoltaic systems

    Bergveld, H.J.; Büthker, D.; Castello, C.; Doorn, T.S.; Jong, de A.; van Otten, R.; Waal, de K.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly used to generate electrical energy from solar irradiance incident on PV modules. Each PV module is formed by placing a large amount of PV cells, typically 60, in series. The PV system is then formed by placing a number, typically 10–12, of PV modules in

  19. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  20. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future

  1. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  2. Thin film silicon photovoltaics: Architectural perspectives and technological issues

    Mercaldo, Lucia Vittoria; Addonizio, Maria Luisa; Noce, Marco Della; Veneri, Paola Delli; Scognamiglio, Alessandra; Privato, Carlo [ENEA, Portici Research Center, Piazzale E. Fermi, 80055 Portici (Napoli) (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Thin film photovoltaics is a particularly attractive technology for building integration. In this paper, we present our analysis on architectural issues and technological developments of thin film silicon photovoltaics. In particular, we focus on our activities related to transparent and conductive oxide (TCO) and thin film amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The research on TCO films is mainly dedicated to large-area deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) by low pressure-metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. ZnO material, with a low sheet resistance (<8 {omega}/sq) and with an excellent transmittance (>82%) in the whole wavelength range of photovoltaic interest, has been obtained. ''Micromorph'' tandem devices, consisting of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell, are fabricated by using the very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. An initial efficiency of 11.1% (>10% stabilized) has been obtained. (author)

  3. Development of photovoltaic array and module safety requirements

    1982-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations likely to be used in residential, intermediate, and large-scale applications were identified and developed. The National Electrical Code and Building Codes were reviewed with respect to present provisions which may be considered to affect the design of photovoltaic modules. Limited testing, primarily in the roof fire resistance field was conducted. Additional studies and further investigations led to the development of a proposed standard for safety for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Additional work covered the initial investigation of conceptual approaches and temporary deployment, for concept verification purposes, of a differential dc ground-fault detection circuit suitable as a part of a photovoltaic array safety system.

  4. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays

    Levins, A.; Smoot, A.; Wagner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications are investigated. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the Underwriters Laboratory UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the proposed UL standard for plat plate photovoltaic modules and panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit groundings, and the type of circuit ground are covered.

  5. Design and development of a data acquisition system for photovoltaic modules characterization

    Belmili, Hocine [Unite de Developpement des Equipements Solaires (UDES), Route Nationale No11, Bou-Isamil BP 365, Tipaza 42415, Algerie; Ait Cheikh, Salah Med; Haddadi, Mourad; Larbes, Cherif [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Laboratoire de Dispositifs de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique (LDCCP), 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach 16200 Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Testing photovoltaic generators performance is complicated. This is due to the influence of a variety of interactive parameters related to the environment such as solar irradiation and temperature in addition to solar cell material (mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, amorphous and thin films). This paper presents a computer-based instrumentation system for the characterization of the photovoltaic (PV) conversion. It based on a design of a data acquisition system (DAQS) allowing the acquisition and the drawing of the characterization measure of PV modules in real meteorological test conditions. (author)

  6. Effect of diffusion of light on thin-film photovoltaic laminates

    Lipi Mohanty

    Full Text Available A large fraction of the daylight incident on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV laminates is diffuse irradiance. In this study, fabrics of various weaves were used to simulate combinations of direct and diffuse irradiance on façade-mounted PV. The scattering of light achieved with the fabrics at varying angles of incidence was measured with a goniophotometer. The transmittance distribution was used to quantify the percentage of diffusion created by the fabrics. A photovoltaic (PV laminate was shaded with the fabrics to simulate diffuse irradiance and the short circuit current of the module was measured. The experimental results indicate fabrics of different porosity can be used to simulate various combinations of direct and diffuse irradiance. However, these fabrics can affect the module output. Preliminary results show that the proximity of the fabric to the thin-film PV laminate during the test skews the measured electrical parameters. Keywords: Scattering, BRDF, Solar energy, Diffused irradiance, Photovoltaics, Goniophotometry

  7. Morphology of polymer-based films for organic photovoltaics

    Ruderer, Matthias A.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, polymer-based films are examined for applications in organic photovoltaics. Polymer-fullerene, polymer-polymer and diblock copolymer systems are characterized as active layer materials. The focus is on experimental parameters influencing the morphology formation of the active layer in organic solar cells. Scattering and imaging techniques provide a complete understanding of the internal structure on different length scales which is compared to spectroscopic and photovoltaic pr...

  8. Novel structuring routines of titania films for application in photovoltaics

    Niedermeier, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Novel routines to structure titania thin films on various length scales are investigated regarding photovoltaic applications. The main focus of the investigations lies on the custom-tailoring of the morphologies of the titania films using sol-gel chemistry in combination with block copolymer templating. Additionally, a low-temperature routine for functional hybrid films as well as the growth of gold as electrode material on top of an organic hole-conductor are investigated. Im Hinblick auf...

  9. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  10. All-back-Schottky-contact thin-film photovoltaics

    Nardone, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The concept of All-Back-Schottky-Contact (ABSC) thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) devices is introduced and evaluated using 2D numerical simulation. Reach-through Schottky junctions due to two metals of different work functions in an alternating, side-by-side pattern along the non-illuminated side generate the requisite built-in field. It is shown that our simulation method quantitatively describes existing data for a recently demonstrated heterojunction thin-film cell with interdigitated back contacts (IBCs) of one metal type. That model is extended to investigate the performance of ABSC devices with bimetallic IBCs within a pertinent parameter space. Our calculations indicate that 20% efficiency is achievable with micron-scale features and sufficient surface passivation. Bimetallic, micron-scale IBCs are readily fabricated using photo-lithographic techniques and the ABSC design allows for optically transparent surface passivation layers that need not be electrically conductive. The key advantages of the ABSC-TFPV architecture are that window layers, buffer layers, heterojunctions, and module scribing are not required because both contacts are located on the back of the device.

  11. Standard Practice for Visual Inspections of Photovoltaic Modules

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures and criteria for visual inspections of photovoltaic modules. 1.2 Visual inspections of photovoltaic modules are normally performed before and after modules have been subjected to environmental, electrical, or mechanical stress testing, such as thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, damp heat exposure, ultraviolet exposure, mechanical loading, hail impact testing, outdoor exposure, or other stress testing that may be part of photovoltaic module testing sequence. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  13. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  14. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2011: February 16-17, 2011

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  15. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-10-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  16. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  17. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules; Annual Technical Progress Report: 15 June 1999--14 July 2000

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J.

    2000-09-29

    Spire is addressing the PVMaT project goals of photovoltaic (PV) module cost reduction and improved module manufacturing process technology. New cost-effective automation processes are being developed for post-lamination PV module assembly, where post-lamination is defined as the processes after the solar cells are encapsulated. These processes apply to both crystalline and thin-film solar cell modules. Four main process areas are being addressed: (1) Module buffer storage and handling between steps; (2) Module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing; (3) Junction-box installation; and (4) Testing for module performance, electrical isolation, and ground-path continuity.

  18. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    Menon, Rajesh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-11-11

    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  19. Operating Cell Temperature Determination in Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules

    Chenlo, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two procedures (simplified and complete) to determine me operating cell temperature in photovoltaic modules operating in real conditions assuming isothermal stationary modules are presented in this work. Some examples are included that show me dependence of this temperature on several environmental (sky, ground and ambient temperatures, solar irradiance, wind speed, etc.) and structural (module geometry and size, encapsulating materials, anti reflexive optical coatings, etc.) factors and also on electrical module performance. In a further step temperature profiles for non-isothermal modules are analysed besides transitory effects due to variable irradiance and wind gusts. (Author) 27 refs

  20. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  1. Investigation of solar photovoltaic module power output by various models

    Jakhrani, A.Q.; Othman, A.K.; Rigit, A.R.H.; Baini, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the power output of a solar photovoltaic module by various models and to formulate a suitable model for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic modules. The model was used to correct the configurations of solar photovoltaic systems for sustainable power supply. Different types of models namely the efficiency, power, fill factor and current-voltage characteristic curve models have been reviewed. It was found that the examined models predicted a 40% yield of the rated power in cloudy weather conditions and up to 80% in clear skies. The models performed well in terms of electrical efficiency in cloudy days if the influence of low irradiance were incorporated. Both analytical and numerical methods were employed in the formulation of improved model which gave +- 2% error when compared with the rated power output of solar photovoltaic module. The proposed model is more practical in terms of number of variables used and acceptable performance in humid atmospheres. Therefore, it could be useful for the estimation of power output of the solar photovoltaic systems in Sarawak region. (author)

  2. 77 FR 25400 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2012-04-30

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of... crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells) from the People's... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  3. 76 FR 78313 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    2011-12-16

    ...)] Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided... imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China. Accordingly, effective October...

  4. 77 FR 72884 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    2012-12-06

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China, provided for in subheadings 8501... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China. Chairman Irving A. Williamson and Commissioner Dean A...

  5. 76 FR 81914 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2011-12-29

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the People..., 2012. \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the...

  6. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  7. Grid-connected of photovoltaic module using nonlinear control

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of controlling single-phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system is considered. The control objective is fourfold: (i) asymptotic stability of the closed loop system, (ii) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV module (iii) tight regulation of the DC bus voltage, and (iv) unity...

  8. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module’s electrolumin...

  9. Exploration of external light trapping for photovoltaic modules

    van Dijk, L.; van de Groep, J.; Di Vece, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2016-01-01

    The reflection of incident sunlight by photovoltaic modules prevents them from reaching their theoretical energy conversion limit. We explore the effectiveness of a universal external light trap that can tackle this reflection loss. A unique feature of external light traps is their capability to

  10. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  11. Multiphysics modelling and experimental validation of high concentration photovoltaic modules

    Theristis, Marios; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Sumner, Mike; O'Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiphysics modelling approach for concentrating photovoltaics was developed. • An experimental campaign was conducted to validate the models. • The experimental results were in good agreement with the models. • The multiphysics modelling allows the concentrator’s optimisation. - Abstract: High concentration photovoltaics, equipped with high efficiency multijunction solar cells, have great potential in achieving cost-effective and clean electricity generation at utility scale. Such systems are more complex compared to conventional photovoltaics because of the multiphysics effect that is present. Modelling the power output of such systems is therefore crucial for their further market penetration. Following this line, a multiphysics modelling procedure for high concentration photovoltaics is presented in this work. It combines an open source spectral model, a single diode electrical model and a three-dimensional finite element thermal model. In order to validate the models and the multiphysics modelling procedure against actual data, an outdoor experimental campaign was conducted in Albuquerque, New Mexico using a high concentration photovoltaic monomodule that is thoroughly described in terms of its geometry and materials. The experimental results were in good agreement (within 2.7%) with the predicted maximum power point. This multiphysics approach is relatively more complex when compared to empirical models, but besides the overall performance prediction it can also provide better understanding of the physics involved in the conversion of solar irradiance into electricity. It can therefore be used for the design and optimisation of high concentration photovoltaic modules.

  12. Technology developments toward 30-year-life of photovoltaic modules

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the United States National Photovoltaics Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) has maintained a comprehensive reliability and engineering sciences activity addressed toward understanding the reliability attributes of terrestrial flat-plate photovoltaic arrays and to deriving analysis and design tools necessary to achieve module designs with a 30-year useful life. The considerable progress to date stemming from the ongoing reliability research is discussed, and the major areas requiring continued research are highlighted. The result is an overview of the total array reliability problem and of available means of achieving high reliability at minimum cost.

  13. Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Module Stability and Reliability

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Profits realized from investment in photovoltaic will benefit from decades of reliable operation. Service life prediction through accelerated tests is only possible if indoor tests duplicate power loss and failure modes observed in fielded systems. Therefore, detailing and quantifying power loss and failure modes is imperative. In the first section, we examine recent trends in degradation rates, the gradual power loss observed for different technologies, climates and other significant factors. In the second section, we provide a summary of the most commonly observed failure modes in fielded systems.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James

    2016-11-15

    A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.

  15. Characterization and Diagnostics for Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays

    Spataru, Sergiu

    part of this work were developed based on two well-known module characterization techniques, namely current-voltage (I-V) characterization, and electroluminescence imaging. he I-V based module diagnostic methods were developed by combining the strengths of light I-V and dark I-V characterization......, characterization and diagnostic methods are increasingly important in identifying and understanding the failures and degradation modes affecting PV modules and arrays, as well as developing relevant tools and tests for assessing the reliability and lifetime of PV modules. This thesis investigates diagnostic...... methods for characterizing and detecting degradation modes in crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules and arrays, and is structured into two parts. The first part of this work is focused on developing PV module characterization and diagnostic methods for use in module diagnostics and failure...

  16. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  17. An Advanced Photovoltaic Array Regulator Module

    Button, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Current trends in satellite design are focused on developing small, reliable, and inexpensive spacecraft. To that end, a modular power management and distribution system is proposed which will help transition the aerospace industry towards an assembly line approach to building spacecraft. The modular system is based on an innovative DC voltage boost converter called the Series Connected Boost Unit (SCBU). The SCBU uses any isolating DC-DC converter and adds a unique series connection. This simple modification provides the SCBU topology with many advantages over existing boost converters. Efficiencies of 94-98%, power densities above 1,000 W/kg, and inherent fault tolerance are just a few of the characteristics presented. Limitations of the SCBU technology are presented, and it is shown that the SCBU makes an ideal photovoltaic an-ay regulator. A set of photovoltaic power system requirements are presented that can be applied to almost any low Earth orbit satellite. Finally, a modular design based on the series connected boost unit is outlined and functional descriptions of the components are given.

  18. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  19. Ultrathin TaOx film based photovoltaic device

    Tyagi, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    Application of the economical metal oxide thin-film photovoltaic devices is hindered by the poor energy efficiency. This paper investigates the photovoltaic effect with an ultrathin tantalum oxide (TaOx) tunnel barrier, formed by the plasma oxidation of a pre-deposited tantalum (Ta) film. These ∼ 3 nm TaOx tunnel barriers showed approximately 160 mV open circuit voltage and 3-5% energy efficiency, for varying light intensity. The ultrathin TaOx (∼ 3 nm) could absorb approximately 12% of the incident light radiation in 400-1000 nm wavelength range; this strong light absorbing capability was found to be associated with the dramatically large extinction coefficient. Spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed that the extinction coefficient of 3 nm TaOx was ∼ 0.2, two orders higher than that of tantalum penta oxide (Ta 2 O 5 ). Interestingly, refractive index of this 3 nm thick TaOx was comparable with that of stochiometeric Ta 2 O 5 . However, heating and prolonged high-intensity light exposure deteriorated the photovoltaic effect in TaOx junctions. This study provides the basis to explore the photovoltaic effect in a highly economical and easily processable ultrathin metal oxide tunnel barrier or analogous systems.

  20. 77 FR 10478 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2012-02-22

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... determination in the countervailing duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not... Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of...

  1. 77 FR 4764 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2012-01-31

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Second... preliminary determination of the countervailing duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells... February 13, 2012.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules...

  2. 77 FR 37877 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2012-06-25

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (``solar cells''), from the.... Correction In the Federal Register notice Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled...

  3. Experimental research on photovoltaic module for asymmetrical compound parabolic concentrator

    Yuan, Jinshe; Wang, Mingyue [Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing (China). Department of Physics; Yang, Changmin [Xian University of Technology, Xian (China). Department of Applied Physics

    2008-07-01

    The photovoltaic module for the use of fixed asymmetrical CPC concentrator was designed and fabricated based on the performance of polycrystalline-silicon solar cells with back surface field (BSF) structure. The performance of the combination of the module and asymmetrical CPC concentrator was investigated. The results show its effective concentration ratio to be 2.46 and the output power of the PV-a-CPC system to be increased by 2.13 times compared with that of the module approximately. (orig.)

  4. Semitransparent organic photovoltaic modules with Ag nanowire top electrodes

    Guo, Fei; Kubis, Peter; Przybilla, Thomas; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2014-10-01

    Semitransparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are promising for applications in transparent architectures where their opaque counterparts are not suitable. Manufacturing of large-area modules without performance losses compared to their lab-scale devices is a key step towards practical applications of this PV technology. In this paper, we report the use of solution-processed silver nanowires as top electrodes and fabricate semitransparent OPV modules based on ultra-fast laser scribing. Through a rational choice of device architecture in combination with high-precision laser patterning, we demonstrate efficient semitransparent modules with comparable performance as compared to the reference devices.

  5. I-V Curves from Photovoltaic Modules Deployed in Tucson

    Kopp, Emily; Brooks, Adria; Lonij, Vincent; Cronin, Alex

    2011-10-01

    More than 30 Mega Watts of photo-voltaic (PV) modules are connected to the electric power grid in Tucson, AZ. However, predictions of PV system electrical yields are uncertain, in part because PV modules degrade at various rates (observed typically in the range 0% to 3 %/yr). We present I-V curves (PV output current as a function of PV output voltage) as a means to study PV module efficiency, de-ratings, and degradation. A student-made I-V curve tracer for 100-Watt modules will be described. We present I-V curves for several different PV technologies operated at an outdoor test yard, and we compare new modules to modules that have been operated in the field for 10 years.

  6. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  7. Schottky contact analysis of photovoltaic chalcopyrite thin film absorbers

    Schlenker, E.; Mertens, V.; Parisi, J.; Reineke-Koch, R.; Koentges, M.

    2007-01-01

    Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements serve to analyze thermally evaporated Al Schottky contacts on Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 based photovoltaic thin film devices, either taken as grown or etched in a bromine-methanol solution. The characteristics of the Schottky contacts on the as-grown films give evidence for some dielectric layer developing between the metal and the semiconductor. Etching the semiconductor surface prior to evaporation of the Al front contact yields a pure metal-semiconductor behavior, including effects that can be attributed to an additional diode at the Mo contact. Simulations confirm the experimental results

  8. Practical issues for testing thin film PV modules at standard test conditions.

    Marín González, Omar; Raga Arroyo, Manuela Pilar; Alonso Garcia, M. Carmen; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic (TF) modules have gained importance in the photovoltaic (PV) market. New PV plants increasingly use TF technologies. In order to have a reliable sample of a PV module population, a huge number of modules must be measured. There is a big variety of materials used in TF technology. Some of these modules are made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon. Other are made of CIS or CdTe. Not all these materials respond the same under standard test conditions (STC) of power...

  9. Photovoltaics: The present presages the future

    Thornton, J.; Brown, L.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a technical assessment on photovoltaics and what effect new technology has on the ability of photovoltaics to compete in the utility market. The topics of the article include the solar resource, photovoltaic cells and systems, thick and thin film cells, the spherical cell, photovoltaic modules and systems, photovoltaic economics and utility applications, and technology transfer programs in the area of photovoltaic manufacturing

  10. Research of the photovoltaic properties of anodized films of Sn

    Afanasyev, D. A.; Ibrayev, N. Kh; Omarova, G. S.; Smagulov, Zh K.

    2015-04-01

    The results of studies of photovoltaic properties of solar cells based on porous tin oxide films, sensitized with an organic dye are presented. Porous films were prepared by electrochemical anodization of tin in alkaline electrolytes based on aqueous solution of NaOH and aqueous ammonia NH4OH. It was found that the time of anodizing of the Sn films affects on conversion efficiency of light energy into electrical energy. Increasing of the sorption time leads to an increase of the number of molecules on the surface of the porous film. For the solar cell based on tin oxide there is a strong dark current, which significantly reduces the efficiency of conversion of light energy into electrical energy.

  11. Improvement of Shade Resilience in Photovoltaic Modules Using Buck Converters in a Smart Module Architecture

    Golroodbari, S. Mirbagheri; Waal, Arjen. de; Sark, Wilfried van

    2018-01-01

    Partial shading has a nonlinear effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules. Different methods of optimizing energy harvesting under partial shading conditions have been suggested to mitigate this issue. In this paper, a smart PV module architecture is proposed for improvement of shade

  12. Testing flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial environment

    Hoffman, A. R.; Arnett, J. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    New qualification tests have been developed for flat plate photovoltaic modules. Temperature cycling, cyclic pressure load, and humidity exposure are especially useful for detecting design and fabrication deficiencies. There is positive correlation between many of the observed field effects, such as power loss, and qualification test induced degradation. The status of research efforts for the development of test methodology for field-related problems is reviewed.

  13. Vertically mounted bifacial photovoltaic modules: A global analysis

    Guo, Siyu; Walsh, Timothy Michael; Peters, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Bifacial PV (photovoltaic) modules have recently come to increasing attention and various system designs have been investigated. In this paper, a global comparison is made between vertically mounted bifacial modules facing East–West and conventionally mounted mono-facial modules. An analytical method is used to calculate the radiation received by these two module configurations. It is found that the answer to the question which of these two module configurations performs better strongly depends on three factors: (i) the latitude, (ii) the local diffuse fraction and (iii) the albedo. In a subsequent part of the paper, the minimum albedo required to result in a better performance for vertically mounted bifacial modules is calculated for every place in the world. The calculation is based on measured data of the diffuse light fraction and the results are shown in the form of a global map. Finally, the albedo requirements are compared with the measured global albedo distribution. The calculation allows a distinct decision which module configuration is more suitable for a certain place in the world. The result is also shown as a map defining the corresponding areas. - Highlights: • Vertically mounted bifacial module and conventionally monofacial module are compared. • The key factors affecting the performance of the two configurations are investigated. • Which module configuration is more suitable for each place is shown in a world map. • The minimum albedo for bifacial modules to have a better performance is calculated

  14. 77 FR 35425 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    2012-06-13

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8501.31.80, 8501.61.00, 8507.20.80... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells...

  15. A Quantitative Analysis of Photovoltaic Modules Using Halved Cells

    S. Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a silicon wafer-based photovoltaic (PV module, significant power is lost due to current transport through the ribbons interconnecting neighbour cells. Using halved cells in PV modules is an effective method to reduce the resistive power loss which has already been applied by some major PV manufacturers (Mitsubishi, BP Solar in their commercial available PV modules. As a consequence, quantitative analysis of PV modules using halved cells is needed. In this paper we investigate theoretically and experimentally the difference between modules made with halved and full-size solar cells. Theoretically, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.8% absolute and output power of 90 mW for the halved cell minimodule. Experimentally, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.3% absolute and output power of 60 mW for the halved cell module. Also, we investigate theoretically how this effect confers to the case of large-size modules. It is found that the performance increment of halved cell PV modules is even higher for high-efficiency solar cells. After that, the resistive loss of large-size modules with different interconnection schemes is analysed. Finally, factors influencing the performance and cost of industrial halved cell PV modules are discussed.

  16. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    Ben Dkhil, S.; Bourguiga, R.; Davenas, J.; Cornu, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. ► We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. ► The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. ► We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV–visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V oc and short-circuit current density J sc are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  17. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W.; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E.; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-01-01

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD

  18. Bending cyclic load test for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Suzuki, Soh; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2018-02-01

    The failures induced by thermomechanical fatigue within crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are a common issue that can occur in any climate. In order to understand these failures, we confirmed the effects of compressive or tensile stresses (which were cyclically loaded on photovoltaic cells and cell interconnect ribbons) at subzero, moderate, and high temperatures. We found that cell cracks were induced predominantly at low temperatures, irrespective of the compression or tension applied to the cells, although the orientation of cell cracks was dependent on the stress applied. The fracture of cell interconnect ribbons was caused by cyclical compressive stress at moderate and high temperatures, and this failure was promoted by the elevation of temperature. On the basis of these results, the causes of these failures are comprehensively discussed in relation to the viscoelasticity of the encapsulant.

  19. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Shahatha Salim, Majid; Mohammed Najim, Jassim [College of Science, University of Anbar (Iraq); Mohammed Salih, Salih [Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  20. Environmental testing of terrestrial flat plate photovoltaic modules

    Hoffman, A.; Griffith, J.

    1979-01-01

    The Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has as one objective: the development and implementation of environmental tests for flat plate photovoltaic modules as part of the Department of Energy's terrestrial photovoltaic program. Modules procured under this program have been subjected to a variety of laboratory tests intended to simulate service environments, and the results of these tests have been compared to available data from actual field service. This comparison indicates that certain tests (notably temperature cycling, humidity cycling, and cyclic pressure loading) are effective indicators of some forms of field failures. Other tests have yielded results useful in formulating module design guidelines. Not all effects noted in field service have been successfully reproduced in the laboratory, however, and work is continuing in order to improve the value of the test program as a tool for evaluating module design and workmanship. This paper contains a review of these ongoing efforts and an assessment of significant test results to date.

  1. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2012-03-13

    ... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... of an antidumping duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not... currently due no later than March 27, 2012. \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not...

  2. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic modules

    Dyk, E.E. van; Radue, C.; Gxasheka, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic (PV) modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure. The assessment is to be used as a baseline for future evaluation of the modules deployed outdoors as part of an ongoing evaluation of device performance and degradation. The main focus of the study is the long term monitoring of the devices to determine service lifetime. In this paper we will present initial results of the baseline evaluation, namely I-V characteristics, thorough visual inspection and an analysis of performance parameters. The results obtained revealed that the performance of one of the modules was inferior to the others evaluated. In order to further investigate this, laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements were conducted on regions that had a non-uniform appearance as observed visually

  3. Photovoltaic module reliability improvement through application testing and failure analysis

    Dumas, L. N.; Shumka, A.

    1982-01-01

    During the first four years of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltatic Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project purchased about 400 kW of photovoltaic modules for test and experiments. In order to identify, report, and analyze test and operational problems with the Block Procurement modules, a problem/failure reporting and analysis system was implemented by the LSA Project with the main purpose of providing manufacturers with feedback from test and field experience needed for the improvement of product performance and reliability. A description of the more significant types of failures is presented, taking into account interconnects, cracked cells, dielectric breakdown, delamination, and corrosion. Current design practices and reliability evaluations are also discussed. The conducted evaluation indicates that current module designs incorporate damage-resistant and fault-tolerant features which address field failure mechanisms observed to date.

  4. An Improved Nonlinear Five-Point Model for Photovoltaic Modules

    Sakaros Bogning Dongue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved nonlinear five-point model capable of analytically describing the electrical behaviors of a photovoltaic module for each generic operating condition of temperature and solar irradiance. The models used to replicate the electrical behaviors of operating PV modules are usually based on some simplified assumptions which provide convenient mathematical model which can be used in conventional simulation tools. Unfortunately, these assumptions cause some inaccuracies, and hence unrealistic economic returns are predicted. As an alternative, we used the advantages of a nonlinear analytical five-point model to take into account the nonideal diode effects and nonlinear effects generally ignored, which PV modules operation depends on. To verify the capability of our method to fit PV panel characteristics, the procedure was tested on three different panels. Results were compared with the data issued by manufacturers and with the results obtained using the five-parameter model proposed by other authors.

  5. An Analysis of the Cost and Performance of Photovoltaic Systems as a Function of Module Area

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Alam, Mohammed A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-04-07

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with mc-Si and thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to $0.04/W, $0.10/W, and $0.13/W in module manufacturing costs for mc-Si, CdTe, and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional $0.05/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. However, these savings are dependent on the ability to maintain efficiency and manufacturing yield as area scales. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy. We explore the possible effects of module size on efficiency and energy production, and find that more research is required to understand these issues for each technology. Sensitivity of the $/W cost savings to module efficiency and manufacturing yield is presented. We also discuss non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  6. Analysis of Electrical Characteristics of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells

    Kasick, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant form of energy in many terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Often in extraterrestrial environments sunlight is the only readily available form of energy. Thus the ability to efficiently harness solar energy is one of the ultimate goals in the design of space power systems. The essential component that converts solar energy into electrical energy in a solar energy based power system is the photovoltaic cell. Traditionally, photovoltaic cells are based on a single crystal silicon absorber. While silicon is a well understood technology and yields high efficiency, there are inherent disadvantages to using single crystal materials. The requirements of weight, large planar surfaces, and high manufacturing costs make large silicon cells prohibitively expensive for use in certain applications. Because of silicon s disadvantages, there is considerable ongoing research into alternative photovoltaic technologies. In particular, thin film photovoltaic technologies exhibit a promising future in space power systems. While they are less mature than silicon, the better radiation hardness, reduced weight, ease of manufacturing, low material cost, and the ability to use virtually any exposed surface as a substrate makes thin film technologies very attractive for space applications. The research group lead by Dr. Hepp has spent several years researching copper indium disulfide as an absorber material for use in thin film photovoltaic cells. While the group has succeeded in developing a single source precursor for CuInS2 as well as a unique method of aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition, the resulting cells have not achieved adequate efficiencies. While efficiencies of 11 % have been demonstrated with CuInS2 based cells, the cells produced by this group have shown efficiencies of approximately 1 %. Thus, current research efforts are turning towards the analysis of the individual layers of these cells, as well as the junctions between

  7. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  8. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development

    Osterwald, C.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zerlaut, G.A. [SC-International Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States); D`Aiello, R.V. [RD Associates, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This document provides an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. The overview is followed by a model program which could serve as the basis for a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. The model covers quality assurance procedures for the testing laboratory and manufacturer, third-party certification and labeling, and testing requirements (performance and reliability). A 30-member Criteria Development Committee was established to guide, review, and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories.

  9. Reliability Evaluation of Concentrator Photovoltaic Modules per IEC Qualification Specifications

    Tamizhmani, Govindasamy

    2012-12-05

    This project is related to the qualification testing of new generation CPV (concentrator photovoltaics) modules at lower testing costs and lower turnaround time. In this project, the first testing program was completed for two CPV manufacturers, the second testing program was completed for two manufacturers at 65% of the actual testing cost and at less than 3 months of testing turnaround time and the third testing program was completed for two manufacturers at 65% of the actual testing cost and at less than 3 months of testing turnaround time. Due to their financial situation and restructuring, Amonix (one of the CPV manufacturers) intermittently terminated the test programs.

  10. DC Magnetron Sputtered IZTO Thin Films for Organic Photovoltaic Application.

    Lee, Hye Ji; Noviyana, Imas; Putri, Maryane; Koo, Chang Young; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Youngu; Lee, Hee Young

    2018-02-01

    IZTO20 (In0.6Zn0.2Sn0.2O1.5) ceramic target was prepared from oxide mixture of In2O3, ZnO, and SnO2 powders. IZTO20 thin films were then deposited onto glass substrate at 400 °C by DC magnetron sputtering. The average optical transmittance determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was higher than 85% for all films. The minimum resistivity of the annealed IZTO20 thin film was approximately 6.1×10-4 Ω·cm, which tended to increase with decreasing indium content. Substrate heating and annealing were found to be important parameters affecting the electrical and optical properties. An organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell was fabricated using the IZTO20 film deposited under the optimized condition as an anode electrode and the efficiency of up to 80% compared to that of a similar OPV cell using ITO film was observed. Reduction of surface roughness and electrical resistivity through annealing treatment was found to contribute to the improved efficiency of the OPV cell.

  11. Temperature Effect on Power Drop of Different Photovoltaic Modules

    Emad Talib Hahsim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar module operating temperature is the second major factor affects the performance of solar photovoltaic panels after the amount of solar radiation. This paper presents a performance comparison of mono-crystalline Silicon (mc-Si, poly-crystalline Silicon (pc-Si, amorphous Silicon (a-Si and Cupper Indium Gallium di-selenide (CIGS photovoltaic technologies under Climate Conditions of Baghdad city. Temperature influence on the solar modules electric output parameters was investigated experimentally and their temperature coefficients was calculated. These temperature coefficients are important for all systems design and sizing. The experimental results revealed that the pc-Si module showed a decrease in open circuit voltage by -0.0912V/ºC while mc-Si and a-Si had nearly -0.07V/ºC and the CIGS has -0.0123V/ºC. The results showed a slightly increase in short circuit current with temperature increasing about 0.3mA/ºC ,4.4mA/ºC and 0.9mA/ºC for mc-Si , pc-Si and both a-Si and CIGS. The mc-Si had the largest drop in output power about -0.1353W/ºC while -0.0915, -0.0114 and -0.0276 W/ºC for pc-Si, a-Si and CIGS respectively. The amorphous silicon is the more suitable module for high operation temperature but it has the lowest conversion efficiency between the tested modules.

  12. Performance of Photovoltaic Modules of Different Solar Cells

    Ankita Gaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt of performance evaluation of semitransparent and opaque photovoltaic (PV modules of different generation solar cells, having the maximum efficiencies reported in the literature at standard test conditions (STC, has been carried out particularly for the months of January and June. The outdoor performance is also evaluated for the commercially available semitransparent and opaque PV modules. Annual electrical energy, capitalized cost, annualized uniform cost (unacost, and cost per unit electrical energy for both types of solar modules, namely, semitransparent and opaque have also been computed along with their characteristics curves. Semitransparent PV modules have shown higher efficiencies compared to the opaque ones. Calculations show that for the PV modules made in laboratory, CdTe exhibits the maximum annual electrical energy generation resulting into minimum cost per unit electrical energy, whereas a-Si/nc-Si possesses the maximum annual electrical energy generation giving minimum cost per unit electrical energy when commercially available solar modules are concerned. CIGS has shown the lowest capitalized cost over all other PV technologies.

  13. Energy metrics analysis of hybrid - photovoltaic (PV) modules

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, 13 k.m. stone, Ghaziabad - Meerut Road, Ghaziabad 201 206, UP (India); Barnwal, P.; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, energy metrics (energy pay back time, electricity production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency) of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) modules have been analyzed and presented for the composite climate of New Delhi, India. For this purpose, it is necessary to calculate (1) the energy consumption in making different components of the PV modules and (2) the annual energy (electrical and thermal) available from the hybrid-PV modules. A set of mathematical relations have been reformulated for computation of the energy metrics. The manufacturing energy, material production energy, energy use and distribution energy of the system have been taken into account, to determine the embodied energy for the hybrid-PV modules. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. For hybrid PV module, it has been observed that the EPBT gets significantly reduced by taking into account the increase in annual energy availability of the thermal energy in addition to the electrical energy. The values of EPF and LCCE of hybrid PV module become higher as expected. (author)

  14. Comparison of Performance Measurements of Photovoltaic Modules during Winter Months in Taxila, Pakistan

    Muhammad Anser Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative performance evaluation of three commercially available photovoltaic modules (monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and single junction amorphous silicon in Taxila, Pakistan. The experimentation was carried out at outdoor conditions for winter months. Power output, module efficiency, and performance ratio were calculated for each module and the effect of module temperature and solar irradiance on these parameters was investigated. Module parameters showed strong dependence on the solar irradiance and module temperature. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules showed better performance in high irradiance condition whereas it decreased suddenly with decrease in irradiance. Amorphous solar module also showed good performance in low irradiance due to its better light absorbing characteristics and thus showed higher average performance ratio. Monocrystalline photovoltaic module showed higher monthly average module efficiency and was found to be more efficient at this site. Module efficiency and performance ratio showed a decreasing trend with increase of irradiance and photovoltaic module back surface temperature.

  15. 76 FR 66748 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Institution of Antidumping and...

    2011-10-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-481 and 731-TA-1190 (Preliminary)] Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing... imports from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8541...

  16. 77 FR 73017 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2012-12-07

    ... photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells), from the People's Republic of China... published its final determination in the countervailing duty investigation of solar cells from the PRC.\\2... covered by this order is crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels...

  17. Photovoltaic thermal module concepts and their performance analysis: A review

    Hasan, M. Arif; Sumathy, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the available literature covering the latest module aspects of different photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and their performances in terms of electrical as well as thermal output. The review covers detailed description of flat-plate and concentrating PV/T systems, using liquid or air as the working fluid, numerical model analysis, experimental work and qualitative evaluation of thermal and electrical output. Also an in-depth review on the performance parameters such as, optimum mass flow rate, PV/T dimensions, air channel geometry is presented in this study. Based on the thorough review, it is clear that PV/T modules are very promising devices and there exists lot of scope to further improve their performances. Appropriate recommendations are made which will aid PV/T systems to improve their efficiency and reducing their cost, making them more competitive in the present market. (author)

  18. Ecodesign of organic photovoltaic modules from Danish and Chinese perspectives

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Laurent, Alexis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of a solar park made using organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology is assessed here. The modules have been fabricated in a pilot scale plant and they have been installed together with other components to evaluate the balance of system, in a solar park located in Denmark. Three possible...... pollution and metal depletion. The establishment of resource recovery systems for the end-of-life management of the OPV modules is therefore crucial to reduce overall environmental impacts. Liability on the manufacturers or on the operators should be implemented. The electricity produced from OPV solar...... waste management practices have been contemplated for the end of life of the solar park: recycling, incineration or the average local mix. The assessment of the environmental impacts of such a system reveals that silver used in the electrodes is overall the largest source of impacts, such as chemical...

  19. Energy analysis of solar photovoltaic module production in India

    Prakash, R.; Bansal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This is comparable to energy payback periods of similar modules produced internationally. However, if an ambitious program of introducing SPV power production is undertaken to contribute substantially to the power scenario in the country, an annual growth rate beyond 21% will render the program an energy sink rather than an energy source, as borne out by dynamic energy analysis. Policy implications are also discussed in light of this analysis

  20. Photovoltaic thermal module concepts and their performance analysis: A review

    Hasan, M. Arif; Sumathy, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents a review of the available literature covering the latest module aspects of different photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and their performances in terms of electrical as well as thermal output. The review covers detailed description of flat-plate and concentrating PV/T systems, using liquid or air as the working fluid, numerical model analysis, experimental work and qualitative evaluation of thermal and electrical output. Also an in-depth review on the performance parameters such as, optimum mass flow rate, PV/T dimensions, air channel geometry is presented in this study. Based on the thorough review, it is clear that PV/T modules are very promising devices and there exists lot of scope to further improve their performances. Appropriate recommendations are made which will aid PV/T systems to improve their efficiency and reducing their cost, making them more competitive in the present market. (author)

  1. Solution-deposited CIGS thin films for ultra-low-cost photovoltaics

    Eldada, Louay A.; Hersh, Peter; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2010-09-01

    We describe the production of photovoltaic modules with high-quality large-grain copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films obtained with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based precursors and a reactive transfer printing method. The proprietary metal-organic inks contain a variety of soluble Cu-, In- and Ga- multinary selenide materials; they are called metal-organic decomposition (MOD) precursors, as they are designed to decompose into the desired precursors. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process that produces CIGS through the chemical reaction between two separate precursor films, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are rapidly reacted together under pressure in the presence of heat. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. In a few minutes, the process produces high quality CIGS films, with large grains on the order of several microns, and preferred crystallographic orientation, as confirmed by compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% were achieved using this method. The atmospheric deposition processes include slot die extrusion coating, ultrasonic atomization spraying, pneumatic atomization spraying, inkjet printing, direct writing, and screen printing, and provide low capital equipment cost, low thermal budget, and high throughput.

  2. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    Zweibel, K.; Moskowitz, P.; Fthenakis, V.

    1998-02-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  3. Thin films of copper antimony sulfide: A photovoltaic absorber material

    Ornelas-Acosta, R.E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León-CIIDIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León-CIIDIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CuSbS{sub 2} thin films were prepared by heating Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu layers. • Analyzed the structure, composition, optical, and electrical properties. • PV structures: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/n-CdS/p-CuSbS{sub 2}/C/Ag were formed at different conditions. • The PV parameters (J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and FF) were evaluated from the J–V characteristics. • J{sub sc}: 0.52–3.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}:187–323 mV, FF: 0.27–0.48 were obtained. - Abstract: In this work, we report preparation and characterization of CuSbS{sub 2} thin films by heating glass/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu layers and their use as absorber material in photovoltaic structures: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/n-CdS/p-CuSbS{sub 2}/C/Ag. The Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of 600 nm were prepared by chemical bath deposition on which copper thin films of 50 nm were thermally evaporated, and the glass/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu multilayers were heated in vacuum at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of orthorhombic CuSbS{sub 2} after heating the precursor layers. Studies on identification and chemical state of the elements were done using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical band gap of the CuSbS{sub 2} thin films was 1.55 eV and the thin films were photoconductive. The photovoltaic parameters of the devices using CuSbS{sub 2} as absorber and CdS as window layer were evaluated from the J–V curves, yielding J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and FF values in the range of 0.52–3.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, 187–323 mV, and 0.27–0.48, respectively, under illumination of AM1.5 radiation.

  4. Degradation Analysis of Field-Exposed Photovoltaic Modules with Non-Fluoropolymer-Based Backsheets

    Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fairbrother, Andrew [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Julien, Scott [Northeastern University; Wan, Kai-Tak [Northeastern University; Ji, Liang [Underwriters Laboratory; Boyce, Kenneth [Underwriters Laboratory; Merzlic, Sebastien [Arkema; Lefebvre, Amy [Arkema; O' Brien, Greg [Arkema; Wang, Yu [Case Western Reserve University; Bruckman, Laura [Case Western Reserve University; French, Roger [Case Western Reserve University; Gu, Xiaohong [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2017-08-23

    The selection of polymeric materials utilized in photovoltaic (PV) modules has changed relatively little since the inception of the PV industry, with ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and fluoropolymer-based laminates being the most widely adopted primary components of the encapsulant and backsheet materials. The backsheet must serve to electrically insulate the solar cells and protect them from the effects of weathering. Due to continued downward pressure on cost, other polymeric materials are being formulated to withstand outdoor exposure for use in backsheets to replace either the PET film, the fluoropoymer film, or both. Because of their relatively recent deployment, less is known about their reliability and if they are durable enough to fulfill the greater than or equal to 25 year warranties of current PV modules. This work presents a degradation analysis of field-exposed modules with polyamide- and polyester-based backsheets. Modules were exposed for up to five years in different geographic locations: USA (Maryland, Ohio), China, and Italy. Surface and cross-sectional analysis included visual inspection, colorimetry, glossimetry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Each module experienced different types of degradation depending on the exposure site, even for the same material and module brand. For instance, the polyamide-based backsheet experienced hairline cracking and greater yellowing and chemical changes in China (Changsu, humid subtropical climate), while in Italy (Rome, hot-summer Mediterranean climate) it underwent macroscopic cracking and greater losses in gloss. Spectroscopic studies have permitted identification of degradation products and changes in polymer structure over time. Comparisons are made to fielded modules with fluoropolymer-based backsheets, as well as backsheet materials in accelerated laboratory exposures. Implications for qualification testing and service life prediction of the non

  5. Degradation analysis of field-exposed photovoltaic modules with non-fluoropolymer-based backsheets

    Fairbrother, Andrew; Julien, Scott; Wan, Kai-Tak; Ji, Liang; Boyce, Kenneth; Merzlic, Sebastien; Lefebvre, Amy; O'Brien, Greg; Wang, Yu; Bruckman, Laura; French, Roger; Kempe, Michael; Gu, Xiaohong

    2017-08-01

    The selection of polymeric materials utilized in photovoltaic (PV) modules has changed relatively little since the inception of the PV industry, with ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and fluoropolymer-based laminates being the most widely adopted primary components of the encapsulant and backsheet materials. The backsheet must serve to electrically insulate the solar cells and protect them from the effects of weathering. Due to continued downward pressure on cost, other polymeric materials are being formulated to withstand outdoor exposure for use in backsheets to replace either the PET film, the fluoropoymer film, or both. Because of their relatively recent deployment, less is known about their reliability and if they are durable enough to fulfill the >=25 year warranties of current PV modules. This work presents a degradation analysis of field-exposed modules with polyamide- and polyester-based backsheets. Modules were exposed for up to five years in different geographic locations: USA (Maryland, Ohio), China, and Italy. Surface and cross-sectional analysis included visual inspection, colorimetry, glossimetry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Each module experienced different types of degradation depending on the exposure site, even for the same material and module brand. For instance, the polyamide-based backsheet experienced hairline cracking and greater yellowing and chemical changes in China (Changsu, humid subtropical climate), while in Italy (Rome, hot-summer Mediterranean climate) it underwent macroscopic cracking and greater losses in gloss. Spectroscopic studies have permitted identification of degradation products and changes in polymer structure over time. Comparisons are made to fielded modules with fluoropolymer-based backsheets, as well as backsheet materials in accelerated laboratory exposures. Implications for qualification testing and service life prediction of the non-fluoropolymer-based backsheets are

  6. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules.

    Yang, Hong-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li-Zhong; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2015-07-09

    Many of the photovoltaic (PV) systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time ( t ig ), mass loss, heat release rate (HRR), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m². This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  7. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules

    Hong-Yun Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of the photovoltaic (PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time (tig, mass loss, heat release rate (HRR, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m2. This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  8. Organic Photovoltaic Devices Based on Oriented n-Type Molecular Films Deposited on Oriented Polythiophene Films.

    Mizokuro, Toshiko; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Shibata, Yousei; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    The molecular orientation of π-conjugated molecules has been reported to significantly affect the performance of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) based on molecular films. Hence, the control of molecular orientation is a key issue toward the improvement of OPV performance. In this research, oriented thin films of an n-type molecule, 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Bisbenzimida-zole (PTCBI), were formed by deposition on in-plane oriented polythiophene (PT) films. Orientation of the PTCBI films was evaluated by polarized UV-vis spectroscopy and 2D-Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Results indicated that PTCBI molecules on PT film exhibit nearly edge-on and in-plane orientation (with molecular long axis along the substrate), whereas PTCBI molecules without PT film exhibit neither. OPVs composed of PTCBI molecular film with and without PT were fabricated and evaluated for correlation of orientation with performance. The OPVs composed of PTCBI film with PT showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of film without PT. The experiment indicated that in-plane orientation of PTCBI molecules absorbs incident light more efficiently, leading to increase in PCE.

  9. Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by ...

    Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by SCAPS. ... use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic ... η for typical structures of ZnO / i- ZnO / CdS / CZTS and ITO / ZnO / CdS / CZTS.

  10. CuInSe2-Based Thin-Film Photovoltaic Technology in the Gigawatt Production Era

    Kushiya, Katsumi

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to review current status and future prospect on CuInSe2 (CIS)-based thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology. In CIS-based thin-film PV technology, total-area cell efficiency in a small-area (i.e., smaller than 1 cm2) solar cell with top grids has been over 20%, while aperture-area efficiency in a large-area (i.e., larger than 800 cm2 as definition) monolithic module is approaching to an 18% milestone. However, most of the companies with CIS-based thin-film PV technology still stay at a production research stage, except Solar Frontier K.K. In July, 2011, Solar Frontier has joined the gigawatt (GW) group by starting up their third facility with a 0.9-GW/year production capacity. They are keeping the closest position to pass a 16% module-efficiency border by transferring the developed technologies in the R&D and accelerating the preparation for the future based on the concept of a product life-cycle management.

  11. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development: Implementation handbook

    Osterwald, C.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Zerlaut, G.A. [SC-International, Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States); D`Aiello, R.V. [RD Associates, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This document covers the second phase of a two-part program. Phase I provided an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. This report (Phase H) provides most of the draft documents that will be necessary for the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. These include organizational documents such as articles of incorporation, bylaws, and rules of procedure, as well as marketing and educational program documents. In Phase I, a 30-member criteria development committee was established to guide, review and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. A similar committee was established for Phase II; the criteria implementation committee consisted of 29 members. Twenty-one of the Phase I committee members also served on the Phase II committee, which helped to provide program continuity during Phase II.

  12. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  13. Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market

    Duke, R.D.; Jacobson, A.; Kammen, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    As one of the largest unsubsidized markets for solar home systems (SHSs) in the world, Kenya represents a promising model for rural electrification based on private purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate the market and most brands provide high quality and affordable service. Product quality varies widely, however, and the public has limited capacity to distinguish among competing brands. This imposes direct hardships on households with the misfortune to purchase low-quality equipment, and it constrains sales as some customers refrain from purchasing solar equipment due to the associated performance uncertainty. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market and develops strategies to address the problem - emphasizing that similar quality problems may exist for other SHS components and in other markets. The principal conclusion is that domestic product testing with public disclosure represents an inexpensive low-risk strategy, but it may prove inadequate. Mandatory product quality standards based on international testing regimes (e.g. IEC standards), augmented with a basic domestic testing option, would provide stronger assurance, but the risks associated with this intervention suggest caution. An emerging multilateral SHS market support effort (PVMTI) should ensure quality for the credit-based sales it promotes in Kenya; however, the long-term impact of this approach is not yet clear and it is unlikely to address quality problems associated with the unsubsidized sales-based markets for SHSs. Finally, fee-for-service models would decisively address quality problems, but launching this model in the Kenyan market would likely require large subsidies. (author)

  14. Characteristic and comparison of different submounts on concentrating photovoltaic module

    Lee, Yueh-Mu; Shih, Zun-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Shin, Hwa-Yuh; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong

    2014-09-01

    High concentration photovoltaics systems employ concentrating optics consisting of dish reflectors or fresnel lenses that concentrate sunlight to 500 suns or more. In general, under concentrating light operation condition, the device temperature rises quickly and the open-circuit voltage of solar cell will decrease with increasing temperature; therefore, the system output power or energy-conversion efficiency will decrease while temperature of solar cell increased. In this study, we analyze the ceramic thermal resistance and propose a direct temperature measurement method of the solar cell. The direct temperature measurement of the cell and the ceramic was achieved by utilizing buried thermocouples with a diameter of 50 μm between the cell/ceramic and aluminum plate. The different light flux densities ranging from 500 to 800 W/m2 at 100 W/m2 interval by solar simulator are provided to measure temperature, and the cell temperatures measured are 39.8 °C, 41 °C, 45 °C and 48 °C, respectively. The temperature differences between the cell and aluminum plate of the light flux densities from 500 W/m2 to 800 W/m2 are in the range of 4.2 °C to 8 °C. Accordingly we can obtain the temperature distribution of HCPV module at difference region. The results can help us to optimize module package technology and to choose better material applied to the module to improve conversion efficiency of the cell.

  15. Reliability and performance experience with flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical models developed to define the most likely sources of photovoltaic (PV) array failures and the optimum method of allowing for the defects in order to achieve a 20 yr lifetime with acceptable performance degradation are summarized. Significant parameters were the cost of energy, annual power output, initial cost, replacement cost, rate of module replacement, the discount rate, and the plant lifetime. Acceptable degradation allocations were calculated to be 0.0001 cell failures/yr, 0.005 module failures/yr, 0.05 power loss/yr, a 0.01 rate of power loss/yr, and a 25 yr module wear-out length. Circuit redundancy techniques were determined to offset cell failures using fault tolerant designs such as series/parallel and bypass diode arrangements. Screening processes have been devised to eliminate cells that will crack in operation, and multiple electrical contacts at each cell compensate for the cells which escape the screening test and then crack when installed. The 20 yr array lifetime is expected to be achieved in the near-term.

  16. Anthradithiophene-Containing Copolymers for Thin-Film Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells

    Jiang, Ying; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Becerril, Hector A.; Hong, Sanghyun; Tang, Ming Lee; Mayer, Alex C.; Parmer, Jack E.; McGehee, Michael D.; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    compatible with fullerenes, acceptor material commonly used in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. The polymers exhibit high film absorption coefficients of 105 cm-1, an order of magnitude higher than previously reported anthradithiophene

  17. Application of composition modulated thin films

    Hilliard, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Film produced by evaporating two components through a rotating pinwheel shutter which cuts off the vapor first from one source and then the other are evaluated. These films have a modulated composition rather than a layered structure. Mechanical properties were determined using a bulge tester

  18. Scale-up issues of CIGS thin film PV modules

    Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Photovoltaics cost has been declining following a 70% learning curve. Now the challenge is to bring down the cost of solar electricity to make it competitive with conventional sources within the next decade. In the long run, the module efficiencies tend to reach 80% of the champion cell efficiencies. Using a semiempirical methodology, it has been shown earlier that while the triple junction a-Si:H thin film technology is competitive, CIGS and CdTe thin film module technologies are highly competitive and presently offer the best approach for significantly exceeding the cost/performance levels of standard and non-standard crystalline Si PV technologies. Since 2006, the production of thin film solar cell in the U.S. has surpassed that of c-Si. At present, the production of CIGS PV modules lags considerably behind that of CdTe PV modules. This is mainly because of its complexity. Scale-up issues related to various CIGS preparation technologies such as co-evaporation, metallic precursor deposition by magnetron sputtering and non-vacuum techniques such as ink-jet printing, electroplating or doctor-blade technology followed by their selenization/sulfurization are discussed so as to assist the CIGS technology to attain its full potential. Besides the welcome announcements of large volume production, it is essential to achieve the production cost below $1/Wp in the near term and attain production speeds comparable to CdTe production speeds. Comparable production speeds are expected to be achieved within the next decade. This will enable reduction of CIGS module production costs to {proportional_to}65 cents /Wp that would be comparable to the CdTe module projected production cost. Additionally CIGS will have a higher efficiency premium. (author)

  19. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of thin film poly-crystalline solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a high throughput forming technology and a modularization technology for thin film poly-crystalline solar cell modules. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the high throughput forming technology for a high-quality thin film, research has been made on a low-cost VEST process to re-utilize substrates by separating the thin film from the substrate. In the melting re-crystallization process, it was discovered that plasticity deformation of the substrate can be reduced greatly by raising the substrate heating temperatures. It was also found out that substrate warping amount can be reduced to about one-fifth of the conventional amount by making the thickness greater than 1.5 mm and raising the heating temperatures higher than 1300 degree C. In developing the thin film modularization technology, it was indicated that the property improving effect remains the same even if the hydrogen passivation method is changed from the hydrogen ion injection to the hydrogen plasma processing. In the trial fabrication of the thin film modules, a conversion efficiency of 13.1% was achieved in nine-cell structured modules. (NEDO)

  20. Illuminating the Potential of Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Katahara, John K.

    Widespread adoption of photovoltaics (PV) as an alternative electricity source will be predicated upon improvements in price performance compared to traditional power sources. Solution processing of thin-film PV is one promising way to reduce the capital expenditure (CAPEX) of manufacturing solar cells. However, it is imperative that a shift to solution processing does not come at the expense of device performance. One particularly problematic parameter for thin-film PV has historically been the open-circuit voltage (VOC ). As such, there is a pressing need for characterization tools that allow us to quickly and accurately evaluate the potential performance of solution-processed PV absorber layers. This work describes recent progress in developing photoluminescence (PL) techniques for probing optoelectronic quality in semiconductors. We present a generalized model of absorption that encompasses ideal direct-gap semiconductor absorption and various band tail models. This powerful absorption model is used to fit absolute intensity PL data and extract quasi-Fermi level splitting (maximum attainable VOC) for a variety of PV absorber technologies. This technique obviates the need for full device fabrication to get feedback on optoelectronic quality of PV absorber layers and has expedited materials exploration. We then use this absorption model to evaluate the thermodynamic losses due to different band tail cases and estimate tail losses in Cu 2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). The effect of sub-bandgap absorption on PL quantum yield (PLQY) and voltage is elucidated, and new analysis techniques for extracting VOC from PLQY are validated that reduce computation time and provide us even faster feedback on material quality. We then use PL imaging to develop a mechanism describing the degradation of solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3 films under applied bias and illumination.

  1. Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative photovoltaic (PV power installed in 2016 was equal to 305 GW. Five countries (China, Japan, Germany, the USA, and Italy shared about 70% of the global power. End-of-life (EoL management of waste PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and recycling is a valid option. Technological solutions are already available in the market and environmental benefits are highlighted by the literature, while economic advantages are not well defined. The aim of this paper is investigating the financial feasibility of crystalline silicon (Si PV module-recycling processes. Two well-known indicators are proposed for a reference 2000 tons plant: net present value (NPV and discounted payback period (DPBT. NPV/size is equal to −0.84 €/kg in a baseline scenario. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. NPV/size varies from −1.19 €/kg to −0.50 €/kg. The absence of valuable materials plays a key role, and process costs are the main critical variables.

  2. Transparent indium zinc oxide thin films used in photovoltaic cells based on polymer blends

    Besleaga, Cristina; Ion, L.; Ghenescu, Veta; Socol, G.; Radu, A.; Arghir, Iulia; Florica, Camelia; Antohe, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were obtained using pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared by ablation of targets with In concentrations, In/(In + Zn), of 80 at.%, at low substrate temperatures under reactive atmosphere. IZO films were used as transparent electrodes in polymer-based – poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 1:1 blend – photovoltaic cells. The action spectra measurements revealed that IZO-based photovoltaic structures have performances comparable with those using indium–tin–oxide as transparent electrode. - Highlights: ► Indium zinc oxide films were grown by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. ► The films had large free carrier density and reasonably high mobility. ► These films fit for transparent electrodes in polymer-based photovoltaic cells.

  3. A high-efficiency solution-deposited thin-film photovoltaic device

    Mitzi, David B; Yuan, Min; Liu, Wei; Chey, S Jay; Schrott, Alex G [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Kellock, Andrew J; Deline, Vaughn [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2008-10-02

    High-quality Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films are deposited from hydrazine-based solutions and are employed as absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaic devices. The CIGS films exhibit tunable stoichiometry and well-formed grain structure without requiring post-deposition high-temperature selenium treatment. Devices based on these films offer power conversion efficiencies of 10% (AM1.5 illumination). (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. An investigation of room temperature ''oxidized'' thin films of A1 for photovoltaic applications

    Adegboyega, G.A.

    1985-12-01

    Sheet resistance and transmittance changes of thin films of A1 evaporated in high vacuum were measured during sorption of oxygen at room atmosphere. An increase of both sheet resistance and transmittance with a tendency to saturation has been observed. Evaluation of various thicknesses of the films for possible use as transparent electrode material for photovoltaic applications shows that for very thin films ( = 200 A) the ''oxidized'' films are superior. (author)

  5. One-dimensional modulation instability in biased two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals

    Zhan Kaiyun; Hou Chunfeng; Li Xin

    2010-01-01

    The one-dimensional modulation instability of broad optical beams in biased two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals is investigated under steady-state conditions. Our analysis indicates that the modulation instability growth rate depends on the external bias field, the bulk photovoltaic effect and the ratio of the intensity of the incident beam to that of the dark irradiance. Moreover, our results show that this modulation instability growth rate is the same as that in two-photon photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals under open circuit conditions in the absence of an external bias field, and the modulation instability growth rate in two-photon biased photorefractive-nonphotovoltaic crystals can be predicted when the bulk photovoltaic effect is neglected.

  6. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-08

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  7. Comparison between two photovoltaic module models based on transistors

    Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Petit, Pierre; Maufay, Fabrice; Aillerie, Michel

    2018-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to verify the possibility to reduce to a simple electronic circuit with very few components the behavior simulation of an un-shaded photovoltaic (PV) module. Particularly, two models based on well-tried elementary structures, i.e., the Darlington structure in first model and the voltage regulation with programmable Zener diode in the second are analyzed. Specifications extracted from the behavior of a real I-V characteristic of a panel are considered and the principal electrical variables are deduced. The two models are expected to match with open circuit voltage, maximum power point (MPP) and short circuit current, without forgetting realistic current slopes on the both sides of MPP. The robustness is mentioned when irradiance varies and is considered as an additional fundamental property. For both models, two simulations are done to identify influence of some parameters. In the first model, a parameter allowing to adjust current slope on left side of MPP proves to be also important for the calculation of open circuit voltage. Besides this model does not authorize an entirely adjustment of I-V characteristic and MPP moves significantly away from real value when irradiance increases. On the contrary, the second model seems to have only qualities: open circuit voltage is easy to calculate, current slopes are realistic and there is perhaps a good robustness when irradiance variations are simulated by adjusting short circuit current of PV module. We have shown that these two simplified models are expected to make reliable and easier simulations of complex PV architecture integrating many different devices like PV modules or other renewable energy sources and storage capacities coupled in parallel association.

  8. Evidence for oxygen vacancy or ferroelectric polarization induced switchable diode and photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3 based thin films

    Guo Yiping; Guo Bing; Dong Wen; Li Hua; Liu Hezhou

    2013-01-01

    The diode and photovoltaic effects of BiFeO 3 and Bi 0.9 Sr 0.1 FeO 3−δ polycrystalline thin films were investigated by poling the films with increased magnitude and alternating direction. It was found that both electromigration of oxygen vacancies and polarization flipping are able to induce switchable diode and photovoltaic effects. For the Bi 0.9 Sr 0.1 FeO 3−δ thin films with high oxygen vacancy concentration, reversibly switchable diode and photovoltaic effects can be observed due to the electromigration of oxygen vacancies under an electric field much lower than its coercive field. However, for the pure BiFeO 3 thin films with lower oxygen vacancy concentration, the reversibly switchable diode and photovoltaic effect is hard to detect until the occurrence of polarization flipping. The switchable diode and photovoltaic effects can be explained well using the concepts of Schottky-like barrier-to-Ohmic contacts resulting from the combination of oxygen vacancies and polarization. The sign of photocurrent could be independent of the direction of polarization when the modulation of the energy band induced by oxygen vacancies is large enough to offset that induced by polarization. The photovoltaic effect induced by the electromigration of oxygen vacancies is unstable due to the diffusion of oxygen vacancies or the recombination of oxygen vacancies with hopping electrons. Our work provides deep insights into the nature of diode and photovoltaic effects in ferroelectric films, and will facilitate the advanced design of switchable devices combining spintronic, electronic, and optical functionalities. (paper)

  9. Shading Ratio Impact on Photovoltaic Modules and Correlation with Shading Patterns

    Alonso Gutiérrez Galeano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of a simplified approach to model and analyze the performance of partially shaded photovoltaic modules using the shading ratio. This approach integrates the characteristics of shaded area and shadow opacity into the photovoltaic cell model. The studied methodology is intended to improve the description of shaded photovoltaic systems by specifying an experimental procedure to quantify the shadow impact. Furthermore, with the help of image processing, the analysis of the shading ratio provides a set of rules useful for predicting the current–voltage behavior and the maximum power points of shaded photovoltaic modules. This correlation of the shading ratio and shading patterns can contribute to the supervision of actual photovoltaic installations. The experimental results validate the proposed approach in monocrystalline and polycrystalline technologies of solar panels.

  10. Photovoltaic behaviour of titanyl phthalocyanine thin films and titania bilayer films

    Drabik, M.; Zachary, A. M.; Choi, Y.; Hanuš, J.; Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Cimrová, Věra; Slavinská, D.; Biederman, H.; Hanley, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2008), s. 57-60 ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. Prague, 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE0241425; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conjugated polymers * photovoltaics * phthalocyanine * thin films * titania Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  11. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of thin-film polycrystalline solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to realize the practical application of the above-named solar module expected to exhibit higher efficiency and reliability and achieve cost reduction through consumption of less materials. In fiscal 1998, 1) technologies were developed to reduce substrate warpage during recrystallization for the higher-throughput fabrication of high-quality thin films and 2) technologies were also developed for the realization of higher-throughput fabrication of thin films and for efficiency improvement for thin-film modules. Under item 1), experiments were conducted by simulation for reducing warpage to occur in thin-film polycrystalline Si substrates during fabrication by melting and recrystallization. Under item 2), for the development of thin-film cell high-throughput technologies, studies were started on a more practical hydrogen plasma process to challenge the conventional process of crystal defect inactivation by hydrogen ion injection with which achievement of high throughputs is difficult. For the development of technologies for the enhancement of thin-film module efficiency, efforts were exerted to realize a 10cm times 10cm square shape for the enhancement of efficiency in the process of filling modules with cells. These efforts achieved a great step toward future practical application. (NEDO)

  12. Nanocrystal synthesis and thin film formation for earth abundant photovoltaics

    Carter, Nathaniel J.

    Providing access to on-demand energy at the global scale is a grand challenge of our time. The fabrication of solar cells from nanocrystal inks comprising earth abundant elements represents a scalable and sustainable photovoltaic technology with the potential to meet the global demand for electricity. Solar cells with Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorber layers are of particular interest due to the high absorption coefficient of CZTSSe, its band gap in the ideal range for efficient photovoltaic power conversion, and the relative abundance of its constituent elements in the earth's crust. Despite the promise of this material system, CZTSSe solar cell efficiencies reported throughout literature have failed to exceed 12.6%, principally due to the low open-circuit voltage (VOC) achieved in these devices compared to the absorber band gap. The work presented herein primarily aims to address the low VOC problem. First, the fundamental cause for such low VOC's is investigated. Interparticle compositional inhomogeneities identified in the synthesized CZTS nanocrystals and their effect on the absorber layer formation and device performance are characterized. Real-time energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) elucidates the role of these inhomogeneities in the mechanism by which a film of CZTS nanocrystals converts into a dense absorber layer comprising micron-sized CZTSSe grains upon annealing in a selenium atmosphere (selenization). Additionally, a direct correlation between the nanocrystal inhomogeneities and the VOC in completed devices is observed. Detailed characterization of CZTSSe solar cells identifies electrical potential fluctuations in the CZTSSe absorber - due to spatial composition variations not unlike those observed in the nanocrystals - as a primary V OC inhibitor. Additional causes for low VOC's in CZTSSe solar cells proposed in the literature involve recombination at the interface between the CZTSSe absorber and: (1) the n-type, CdS buffer layer, or (2) the

  13. Thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cells and methods of making the same

    Basol, Bulent M.; Tseng, Eric S.; Rod, Robert L.

    1983-06-14

    A method of fabricating a thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing a film of a near intrinsic or n-type semiconductor compound formed of at least one of the metal elements of Class II B of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least tellurium and then heating said film at a temperature between about 250.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. for a time sufficient to convert said film to a suitably low resistivity p-type semiconductor compound. Such film may be deposited initially on the surface of an n-type semiconductor substrate. Alternatively, there may be deposited on the converted film a layer of n-type semiconductor compound different from the film semiconductor compound. The resulting photovoltaic cell exhibits a substantially increased power output over similar cells not subjected to the method of the present invention.

  14. Results of the PRDA 35 qualification tests of the Motorola concentrating photovoltaic module

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1981-10-01

    A passively-cooled, Fresnel lens, concentrating photovoltaic module, designed and built by Motorola, Incorporated, was tested to the PRDA 35 specifications. The PRDA 35 module test program is described. Physical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the module are presented. Module performance is shown using multiple linear regression techniques: some change was measured after environmental exposure. In addition, sample cell assemblies were evaluated for effects of severe environmental conditions. Results presented herein show the module has met the qualification goals.

  15. Application of Bond Graph Modeling for Photovoltaic Module Simulation

    Madi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, photovoltaic generator is represented using the bond-graph methodology. Starting from the equivalent circuit the bond graph and the block diagram of the photovoltaic generator have been derived. Upon applying bond graph elements and rules a mathematical model of the photovoltaic generator is obtained. Simulation results of this obtained model using real recorded data (irradiation and temperature at the Renewable Energies Development Centre in Bouzaréah – Algeria are obtained using MATLAB/SMULINK software. The results have compared with datasheet of the photovoltaic generator for validation purposes.

  16. Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials as Active Layer Components in Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Shastry, Tejas Attreya

    Thin-film photovoltaics offer the promise of cost-effective and scalable solar energy conversion, particularly for applications of semi-transparent solar cells where the poor absorption of commercially-available silicon is inadequate. Applications ranging from roof coatings that capture solar energy to semi-transparent windows that harvest the immense amount of incident sunlight on buildings could be realized with efficient and stable thin-film solar cells. However, the lifetime and efficiency of thin-film solar cells continue to trail their inorganic silicon counterparts. Low-dimensional nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides, have recently been explored as materials in thin-film solar cells due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties, solution-processability, and chemical inertness. Thus far, issues with the processing of these materials has held back their implementation in efficient photovoltaics. This dissertation reports processing advances that enable demonstrations of low-dimensional nanomaterials in thin-film solar cells. These low-dimensional photovoltaics show enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and environmental stability in comparison to previous devices, with a focus on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as an active layer component. The introduction summarizes recent advances in the processing of carbon nanotubes and their implementation through the thin-film photovoltaic architecture, as well as the use of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides in photovoltaic applications and potential future directions for all-nanomaterial solar cells. The following chapter reports a study of the interaction between carbon nanotubes and surfactants that enables them to be sorted by electronic type via density gradient ultracentrifugation. These insights are utilized to construct of a broad distribution of carbon nanotubes that absorb throughout the solar spectrum. This polychiral distribution is then shown

  17. Simple, fast and accurate two-diode model for photovoltaic modules

    Ishaque, Kashif; Salam, Zainal; Taheri, Hamed [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes an improved modeling approach for the two-diode model of photovoltaic (PV) module. The main contribution of this work is the simplification of the current equation, in which only four parameters are required, compared to six or more in the previously developed two-diode models. Furthermore the values of the series and parallel resistances are computed using a simple and fast iterative method. To validate the accuracy of the proposed model, six PV modules of different types (multi-crystalline, mono-crystalline and thin-film) from various manufacturers are tested. The performance of the model is evaluated against the popular single diode models. It is found that the proposed model is superior when subjected to irradiance and temperature variations. In particular the model matches very accurately for all important points of the I-V curves, i.e. the peak power, short-circuit current and open circuit voltage. The modeling method is useful for PV power converter designers and circuit simulator developers who require simple, fast yet accurate model for the PV module. (author)

  18. Energy Saving Assessment of Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Modules Integrated into NZEB

    Cristina Cornaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic semi-transparent materials (STPV integrated into glazing systems can offer good potential for energy saving to buildings, influencing heating loads, cooling loads, and lighting, as well as electricity production. Moreover, with the new stringent regulations issued by various European countries, following the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD, 2010/31/EC, the building envelope, including the glazing elements, needs to have high thermal performance to guarantee Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB behavior. This work presents an assessment of energy saving potential of 4 different types of STPV with respect to conventional double pane glass. Dye sensitized solar modules (DSM and thin film modules were considered in the study. Simulations based on an IEA reference office building (STD and on reference buildings prescribed by the new Italian building energy performance regulation (NZEB were carried out. All the glazing peculiarities could be simulated using only one simulation tool, namely IDA ICE 4.7.1. Dye sensitized solar modules resulted as the best performing devices for all orientations and climate zones. The work also evidenced how the requirements of NZEB seem to be too stringent for insulation properties, especially for the climate zone of Rome.

  19. Progress in piezo-phototronic effect modulated photovoltaics.

    Que, Miaoling; Zhou, Ranran; Wang, Xiandi; Yuan, Zuqing; Hu, Guofeng; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-11-02

    Wurtzite structured materials, like ZnO, GaN, CdS, and InN, simultaneously possess semiconductor and piezoelectric properties. The inner-crystal piezopotential induced by external strain can effectively tune/control the carrier generation, transport and separation/combination processes at the metal-semiconductor contact or p-n junction, which is called the piezo-phototronic effect. This effect can efficiently enhance the performance of photovoltaic devices based on piezoelectric semiconductor materials by utilizing the piezo-polarization charges at the junction induced by straining, which can modulate the energy band of the piezoelectric material and then accelerate or prevent the separation process of the photon-generated electrons and vacancies. This paper introduces the fundamental physics principles of the piezo-phototronic effect, and reviews recent progress in piezo-phototronic effect enhanced solar cells, including solar cells based on semiconductor nanowire, organic/inorganic materials, quantum dots, and perovskite. The piezo-phototronic effect is suggested as a suitable basis for the development of an innovative method to enhance the performance of solar cells based on piezoelectric semiconductors by applied extrinsic strains, which might be appropriate for fundamental research and potential applications in various areas of optoelectronics.

  20. Thin-film filament-based solar cells and modules

    Tuttle, J. R.; Cole, E. D.; Berens, T. A.; Alleman, J.; Keane, J.

    1997-04-01

    This concept paper describes a patented, novel photovoltaic (PV) technology that is capable of achieving near-term commercialization and profitability based upon design features that maximize product performance while minimizing initial and future manufacturing costs. DayStar Technologies plans to exploit these features and introduce a product to the market based upon these differential positions. The technology combines the demonstrated performance and reliability of existing thin-film PV product with a cell and module geometry that cuts material usage by a factor of 5, and enhances performance and manufacturability relative to standard flat-plate designs. The target product introduction price is 1.50/Watt-peak (Wp). This is approximately one-half the cost of the presently available PV product. Additional features include: increased efficiency through low-level concentration, no scribe or grid loss, simple series interconnect, high voltage, light weight, high-throughput manufacturing, large area immediate demonstration, flexibility, modularity.

  1. Improvement of Shade Resilience in Photovoltaic Modules Using Buck Converters in a Smart Module Architecture

    S. Zahra Mirbagheri Golroodbari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial shading has a nonlinear effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV modules. Different methods of optimizing energy harvesting under partial shading conditions have been suggested to mitigate this issue. In this paper, a smart PV module architecture is proposed for improvement of shade resilience in a PV module consisting of 60 silicon solar cells, which compensates the current drops caused by partial shading. The architecture consists of groups of series-connected solar cells in parallel to a DC-DC buck converter. The number of cell groups is optimized with respect to cell and converter specifications using a least-squares support vector machine method. A generic model is developed to simulate the behavior of the smart architecture under different shading patterns, using high time resolution irradiance data. In this research the shading patterns are a combination of random and pole shadows. To investigate the shade resilience, results for the smart architecture are compared with an ideal module, and also ordinary series and parallel connected architectures. Although the annual yield for the smart architecture is 79.5% of the yield of an ideal module, we show that the smart architecture outperforms a standard series connected module by 47%, and a parallel architecture by 13.4%.

  2. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  3. Performance evaluation of photovoltaic cells using functionalized carbon nanotube and polyaniline film

    Kavita, S; Mohan, B; Babu, J Sarat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The use of polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as photovoltaic materials has been presented in this paper. The promising properties of PANI and CNTs have encouraged utilizing them in photovoltaic devices and studying their performance. The photovoltaic performance of PANI has been studied with and without CNTs. We found that there is a considerable increase in the short circuit current density from 3.49 to 8.86 mA cm"−"2 with the use of CNTs in the device and also an increase in power conversion efficiency. The incorporation of CNTs film had led to an efficient transport of photo-generated holes to the anode and suppressed the recombination of free charges generated, thus increasing the efficiency of the device. The performance of the device shows that the PANI and CNTs can be effectively utilized as photovoltaic materials in a photovoltaic cell. (paper)

  4. Structural and optical properties of electrodeposited culnSe2 thin films for photovoltaic solar cells

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.; Galiano, F.

    1990-01-01

    Optical an structural properties of electrodeposited copper indium diselenide, CulnSe2, thin films were studied for its application in photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that thin films were grown in chalcopyrite phase after suitable treatments. Values of Eg for the CulnSe2 thin films showed a dependence on the deposition potential as determined by optical measurements. (Author) 47 refs

  5. FY 1999 research and development of technologies for commercialization of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of technologies for production of thin-film solar cells and low-cost, large-area modules (Development of technologies for high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for production of low-cost, large-area modules of CdTe solar cells by the high-quality film-making process and high-function patterning, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The research program for the large-area TCO film-making technologies involves investigations on improvement of SnO{sub 2} film quality by the mist method and continuous film-making, which lead to continuous, stable production of 34 substrates of low resistance of 9.7{omega} on the average. The program for production of the large-area, thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells involves production of TCO and CdS by the mist method, and patterning of the laminated TCO/CdS film by laser scribing. The CdTe film is formed by the atmospheric pressure CSS method, and treated with CdCl{sub 2} to improve its crystallinity. The CdTe film is patterned by sand blasting, and provided with the carbon and silver electrodes by screen printing, to complete the cell. The process is totally effected at the atmospheric pressure, needing no vacuum device. The CdTe solar cell assembly (130 cells connected in series, opening area: 5,413cm{sup 2}), fabricated on a trial basis, achieves a conversion efficiency of 10%. (NEDO)

  6. Improvements in CdTe- and CIGS-based thin-film solar cells and investigation on new materials for photovoltaic applications.

    Rosa, Greta

    2018-01-01

    Currently, thin-film solar cells are one of the most promising technologies for low-cost renewable energy production. CdTe- and CuInGaSe2-based cells, which achieved record efficiencies of 22.1% and 22.6% respectively, are the most attractive among thin-film solar cells. These high efficiencies have had a huge influence in making them highly competitive in the photovoltaic market, with an estimated final cost per module lower than US $ 0.50 per peak-watt. At the Thin Film Laboratory of the...

  7. Enhanced Switchable Ferroelectric Photovoltaic Effects in Hexagonal Ferrite Thin Films via Strain Engineering.

    Han, Hyeon; Kim, Donghoon; Chu, Kanghyun; Park, Jucheol; Nam, Sang Yeol; Heo, Seungyang; Yang, Chan-Ho; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2018-01-17

    Ferroelectric photovoltaics (FPVs) are being extensively investigated by virtue of switchable photovoltaic responses and anomalously high photovoltages of ∼10 4 V. However, FPVs suffer from extremely low photocurrents due to their wide band gaps (E g ). Here, we present a promising FPV based on hexagonal YbFeO 3 (h-YbFO) thin-film heterostructure by exploiting its narrow E g . More importantly, we demonstrate enhanced FPV effects by suitably exploiting the substrate-induced film strain in these h-YbFO-based photovoltaics. A compressive-strained h-YbFO/Pt/MgO heterojunction device shows ∼3 times enhanced photovoltaic efficiency than that of a tensile-strained h-YbFO/Pt/Al 2 O 3 device. We have shown that the enhanced photovoltaic efficiency mainly stems from the enhanced photon absorption over a wide range of the photon energy, coupled with the enhanced polarization under a compressive strain. Density functional theory studies indicate that the compressive strain reduces E g substantially and enhances the strength of d-d transitions. This study will set a new standard for determining substrates toward thin-film photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices.

  8. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  9. Geospatial analysis of the energy yield and environmental footprint of different photovoltaic module technologies

    Louwen, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of currently installed photovoltaic (PV) systems are based on mono- and polycrystalline silicon PV modules. Manufacturers of competing technologies often argue that due to the characteristics of their PV technologies, PV systems based on their modules are able to achieve higher annual

  10. Isolated high-efficiency grid-connected de-central inverter for photovoltaic modules

    Vermulst, B.J.D.

    2012-01-01

    While an increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) systems is installed, those systems typically use central inverters. In practical cases, output-power differences between PV modules will cause these central-inverter-based systems not to achieve Maximum Power Point (MPP) for each PV module.

  11. 77 FR 17439 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    2012-03-26

    ... cells or solar cells assembled into modules or panels, and thus quantity is not recorded consistently in... silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells) from the People's Republic... History The Department initiated a countervailing duty (CVD) investigation of solar cells from the PRC on...

  12. An analysis of the dust deposition on solar photovoltaic modules.

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Jaszczur, Marek; Teneta, Janusz; Hassan, Qusay; Burzyńska, Paulina; Marcinek, Ewelina; Łopian, Natalia; Samek, Lucyna

    2018-03-29

    Solid particles impair the performance of the photovoltaic (PV) modules. This results in power losses which lower the efficiency of the system as well as the increases of temperature which additionally decreases the performance and lifetime. The deposited dust chemical composition, concentration and formation of a dust layer on the PV surface differ significantly in reference to time and location. In this study, an evaluation of dust deposition on the PV front cover glass during the non-heating season in one of the most polluted European cities, Kraków, was performed. The time-dependent particle deposition and its correlation to the air pollution with particulate matter were analysed. Dust deposited on several identical PV modules during variable exposure periods (from 1 day up to 1 week) and the samples of total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz fibre filters using a low volume sampler were collected during the non-heating season in the period of 5 weeks. The concentration of TSP in the study period ranged between 12.5 and 60.05 μg m -3 while the concentration of PM10 observed in the Voivodeship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection traffic station, located 1.2 km from the TSP sampler, ranged from 14 to 47 μg m -3 . It was revealed that dust deposition density on a PV surface ranged from 7.5 to 42.1 mg m -2 for exposure periods of 1 day while the measured weekly dust deposition densities ranged from 25.8 to 277.0 mg m -2 . The precipitation volume and its intensity as well as humidity significantly influence the deposited dust. The rate of dust accumulation reaches approximately 40 mg m -2 day -1 in the no-precipitation period and it was at least two times higher than fluxes calculated on the basis of PM10 and TSP concentrations which suggest that additional forces such as electrostatic forces significantly influence dust deposition.

  13. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  14. An Improved Mathematical Model for Computing Power Output of Solar Photovoltaic Modules

    Abdul Qayoom Jakhrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to determine the input parameters values for equivalent circuit models of photovoltaic modules through analytical methods. Thus, the previous researchers preferred to use numerical methods. Since, the numerical methods are time consuming and need long term time series data which is not available in most developing countries, an improved mathematical model was formulated by combination of analytical and numerical methods to overcome the limitations of existing methods. The values of required model input parameters were computed analytically. The expression for output current of photovoltaic module was determined explicitly by Lambert W function and voltage was determined numerically by Newton-Raphson method. Moreover, the algebraic equations were derived for the shape factor which involves the ideality factor and the series resistance of a single diode photovoltaic module power output model. The formulated model results were validated with rated power output of a photovoltaic module provided by manufacturers using local meteorological data, which gave ±2% error. It was found that the proposed model is more practical in terms of precise estimations of photovoltaic module power output for any required location and number of variables used.

  15. Non-Epitaxial Thin-Film Indium Phosphide Photovoltaics: Growth, Devices, and Cost Analysis

    Zheng, Maxwell S.

    In recent years, the photovoltaic market has grown significantly as module prices have continued to come down. Continued growth of the field requires higher efficiency modules at lower manufacturing costs. In particular, higher efficiencies reduce the area needed for a given power output, thus reducing the downstream balance of systems costs that scale with area such as mounting frames, installation, and soft costs. Cells and modules made from III-V materials have the highest demonstrated efficiencies to date but are not yet at the cost level of other thin film technologies, which has limited their large-scale deployment. There is a need for new materials growth, processing and fabrication techniques to address this major shortcoming of III-V semiconductors. Chapters 2 and 3 explore growth of InP on non-epitaxial Mo substrates by MOCVD and CSS, respectively. The results from these studies demonstrate that InP optoelectronic quality is maintained even by growth on non-epitaxial metal substrates. Structural characterization by SEM and XRD show stoichiometric InP can be grown in complete thin films on Mo. Photoluminescence measurements show peak energies and widths to be similar to those of reference wafers of similar doping concentrations. In chapter 4 the TF-VLS growth technique is introduced and cells fabricated from InP produced by this technique are characterized. The TF-VLS method results in lateral grain sizes of >500 mum and exhibits superior optoelectronic quality. First generation devices using a n-TiO2 window layer along with p-type TF-VLS grown InP have reached ˜12.1% power conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination with VOC of 692 mV, JSC of 26.9 mA/cm2, and FF of 65%. The cells are fabricated using all non-epitaxial processing. Optical measurements show the InP in these cells have the potential to support a higher VOC of ˜795 mV, which can be achieved by improved device design. Chapter 5 describes a cost analysis of a manufacturing process using an

  16. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Various Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modules in Hot and Arid Environment

    Alamoud, A. R. M.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a simplified methods for evaluating the performance of selected photovoltaic (PV?) modules in use in Saudi Arabia and makes a comparative assessment at standard reporting conditions. Experimental results, normalized to standard reporting conditions using the two-axis translation I-V model have revealed that all PV module parameters, except Isc decreased during the period the modules were exposed to outdoor environment. The degradation resulted in a decrease in the module efficiency of 0.22% to 11% depending on the make of the module. Moreover, the measured PV module parameters were found to differ from manufacturer's specified values yielding a decrease in efficiency (Author)

  18. Bulk photovoltaic effect in epitaxial (K, Nb) substituted BiFeO3 thin films

    Agarwal, Radhe; Zheng, Fan; Sharma, Yogesh; Hong, Seungbum; Rappe, Andrew; Katiyar, Ram

    We studied the bulk photovoltaic effect in epitaxial (K, Nb) modified BiFeO3 (BKFNO) thin films using theoretical and experimental methods. Epitaxial BKFNO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). First, we have performed first principles density function theory (DFT) using DFT +U method to calculate electronic band structure, including Hubbard-Ueff (Ueff =U-J) correction into Hamiltonian. The electronic band structure calculations showed a direct band gap at 1.9 eV and a defect level at 1.7 eV (in a 40 atom BKFNO supercell), sufficiently lower in comparison to the experimentally observed values. Furthermore, the piezoforce microscopy (PFM) measurements indicated the presence of striped polydomains in BKFNO thin films. Angle-resolved PFM measurements were also performed to find domain orientation and net polarization directions in these films. The experimental studies of photovoltaic effect in BKNFO films showed a short circuit current of 59 micro amp/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.78 V. We compared our experimental results with first principles shift current theory calculations of bulk photovoltaic effect (BPVE).The synergy between theory and experimental results provided a realization of significant role of BPVE in order to understand the photovoltaic mechanism in ferroelectrics.

  19. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project intends to improve on large-area amorphous silicon solar cell performance and to develop high-throughput manufacturing technologies for a reduction in the cost of modules. A film substrate type amorphous solar cell structure of the serial connection type named SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) is contrived. Under this method, film formation using a stepping roll system newly developed for glass substrates may be applied, and the number of manhours required is allowed to be less than under conventional serial connection forming processes. The new technique is characterized in that serial connections are established via through-holes provided in plastic substrates. Making use of the technology, progress is attained in the development of high-throughput process technology for film substrate type amorphous solar cells and of efficiency enhancement technology. In fiscal 1997, an electron beam unit for plasma generation aiming at the elucidation of reaction processes in plasma was introduced, and technologies based on the equilibrium discharge technique were developed enabling high-speed a-Si film formation without degradation in film quality. The effect of trace boron addition to the tandem cell bottom I layer was investigated, and a stabilization rate of 8.05% was achieved using a 40cm times 80cm large SCAF cell. In fiscal 1998, endeavors were exerted for similar developments. (NEDO)

  20. Degradation analysis of the encapsulation polymer in photovoltaic modules by Raman spectroscopy

    Peike, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the degradation behavior of photovoltaic modules is of great importance for the production of reliable and durable PV modules. Within this work, the applicability of Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for PV module degradation analysis was investigated. In addition, the influence of polymer stabilizers on the photochemical discoloration of EVA as well as the impact of EVA aging on the cell metallization degradation under damp-heat conditions was studied.

  1. Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Celis, M.; Larraga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields

  2. Experimental investigation of an optical water filter for Photovoltaic/Thermal conversion module

    Al-Shohani, Wisam A.M.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad; Butt, Haider

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New design of Photovoltaic/Thermal system is proposed. • Using the optical water layer as a spectrum splitter is tested experimentally. • Optical rig is developed to study the optical performance of water layer. • Energy conversion under different water layer thicknesses is determined. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of a novel optical water filter used for Photovoltaic/Thermal and Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal modules. A water layer is used as a spectrum splitter of solar radiation placed above the photovoltaic cells and as a thermal working fluid simultaneously. The water layer absorbs the ultraviolet and part of infrared, which are not used by the photovoltaic, but transmits the visible and some of infrared to the solar cell surface which are used by the photovoltaic. In this work, the transmittance of the optical water filter was measured for different water thicknesses (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm) and radiation wavelength ranging from 0.35 to 1 μm. Results show that there is a significant effect of the water layer thickness on the transmittance of the spectra where the transmittance decreases as the water layer increases. Moreover, energy conversion rate of photovoltaic with the optical water filter at different water layer thicknesses has been determined.

  3. Real time estimation of photovoltaic modules characteristics and its application to maximum power point operation

    Garrigos, Ausias; Blanes, Jose M.; Carrasco, Jose A. [Area de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ejea, Juan B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Dr Moliner 50, 46100 Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, an approximate curve fitting method for photovoltaic modules is presented. The operation is based on solving a simple solar cell electrical model by a microcontroller in real time. Only four voltage and current coordinates are needed to obtain the solar module parameters and set its operation at maximum power in any conditions of illumination and temperature. Despite its simplicity, this method is suitable for low cost real time applications, as control loop reference generator in photovoltaic maximum power point circuits. The theory that supports the estimator together with simulations and experimental results are presented. (author)

  4. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    Simon, F.-G., E-mail: franz-georg.simon@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Holm, O.; Berger, W. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  5. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    Simon, F.-G.; Holm, O.; Berger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources

  6. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    Munir, Rahim

    2016-11-07

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  7. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    Munir, Rahim; Sheikh, Arif D.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Hu, Hanlin; Yu, Liyang; Zhao, Kui; Kim, Taesoo; El Tall, Omar; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef M.; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  8. Back contact to film silicon on metal for photovoltaic cells

    Branz, Howard M.; Teplin, Charles; Stradins, Pauls

    2013-06-18

    A crystal oriented metal back contact for solar cells is disclosed herein. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device and methods for making the photovoltaic device are disclosed. The photovoltaic device includes a metal substrate with a crystalline orientation and a heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer having the same crystal orientation of the metal substrate. A heteroepitaxial buffer layer having the crystal orientation of the metal substrate is positioned between the substrate and the crystal silicon layer to reduce diffusion of metal from the metal foil into the crystal silicon layer and provide chemical compatibility with the heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer. Additionally, the buffer layer includes one or more electrically conductive pathways to electrically couple the crystal silicon layer and the metal substrate.

  9. The optical characterization of organometallic complex thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photovoltaic diode application

    Özaydın, C. [Batman University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Computer Eng., Batman (Turkey); Güllü, Ö., E-mail: omergullu@gmail.com [Batman University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey); Pakma, O. [Batman University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey); Ilhan, S. [Siirt University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Siirt (Turkey); Akkılıç, K. [Dicle University, Education Faculty, Department of Physics Education, Diyarbakır (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Optical properties and thickness of the A novel organometallic complex (OMC) film were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). • Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated • This paper presents the I–V analysis of Au/OMC/n-Si MIS diode. • Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the diode were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, organometallic complex (OMC) films have been deposited onto glass or silicon substrates by spin coating technique and their photovoltaic application potential has been investigated. Optical properties and thickness of the film have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Also, transmittance spectrum has been taken by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Also, Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated. Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the structure were investigated. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ{sub b}) values of the diode were found to be 2.89 and 0.79 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage of 396 mV and a short circuit current of 33.8 μA under 300 W light.

  10. The optical characterization of organometallic complex thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photovoltaic diode application

    Özaydın, C.; Güllü, Ö.; Pakma, O.; Ilhan, S.; Akkılıç, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optical properties and thickness of the A novel organometallic complex (OMC) film were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). • Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated • This paper presents the I–V analysis of Au/OMC/n-Si MIS diode. • Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the diode were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, organometallic complex (OMC) films have been deposited onto glass or silicon substrates by spin coating technique and their photovoltaic application potential has been investigated. Optical properties and thickness of the film have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Also, transmittance spectrum has been taken by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Also, Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated. Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the structure were investigated. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ_b) values of the diode were found to be 2.89 and 0.79 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage of 396 mV and a short circuit current of 33.8 μA under 300 W light.

  11. Standard Test Method for Saltwater Pressure Immersion and Temperature Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand repeated immersion or splash exposure by seawater as might be encountered when installed in a marine environment, such as a floating aid-to-navigation. A combined environmental cycling exposure with modules repeatedly submerged in simulated saltwater at varying temperatures and under repetitive pressurization provides an accelerated basis for evaluation of aging effects of a marine environment on module materials and construction. 1.2 This test method defines photovoltaic module test specimens and requirements for positioning modules for test, references suitable methods for determining changes in electrical performance and characteristics, and specifies parameters which must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be ...

  12. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Galagan, Y.O.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Grossiord, N.; Blom, P.W.M.; Kroon, J.; Veenstra, S.; Verhees, W.; Slooff, L.; Pex, P.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a transparent conductive electrode such as indium tin oxide (ITO) limits the reliability and cost price of organic photovoltaic devices as it is brittle and expensive. Moreover, the relative high sheet resistance of an ITO electrode on flexible substrates limits the maximum width of

  13. Assessing the early degradation of photovoltaic modules performance in the Saharan region

    Kahoul, Nabil; Houabes, Mourad; Sadok, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The study underlines the reliability of PV modules in South Algeria. • Early degradation of PV modules operating in the Saharan region for 11 years. • Performance analysis of these PV panels with suitable explanation of results. • Discovery of early degradation of PV modules performance and some PV defects. - Abstract: In this study, the electrical performance degradation of photovoltaic modules (UDTS-50) functioning for a period of 11 years in a region of the Sahara (URER-MS ADRAR) is analyzed. This paper is devoted to an experimental study of current–voltage characteristics of several PV modules exposed to the extreme weather conditions in desert area. The electrical performance degradation and failure modes are estimated from series of current–voltage characteristics performed in the field. Experimental results show that some PV modules degrade up to 12% compared to their initial state. The performance analysis of the others tested modules revealed some defects, such as cracked cells and physical material defects. The identification of the origin of degradation and failure modes and how they affect the photovoltaic modules is necessary to improve the reliability of photovoltaic installations

  14. Effect of dust on performances of single-crisal photovoltaic solar module

    Benatiallah, A.; Kaddi, L.; Mostefaou, R.; Dakyo, B.

    2006-01-01

    The solar energy is most promising of renewable energy, it is decentralized, own to the environment and inexhaustible. The Sahara area is favorable for the development of this energy in order to provide electrical needs of the population. The production of energy by the photovoltaic system is very fluctuates and depend of meteorological conditions. Wind is a very important and often neglected parameter in the behavior of the solar module. The electric performances of a solar module to the silicon are very appreciable to the blows, in the present work we have studies the behavior of solar module. An evaluation permits to affirm that a solar module under the effect of sand will collect a lower flux to the normal conditions. The exploitation of the solar energy to satisfy the energy demand in sahara areas is limited by the effect of sand on the performances of photovoltaic generator. In this work, we investigate a experimental study of photovoltaic module performances by influence of dust. Our results show that the sand provoked a fall of the electric parameters of the module, the power deliver by module decreases of 17% according to sand density, as well as the efficiency that falls of 1.9% and the current Icc following a fast variation of 27%. It permitted to show sand density produce a reduction in performances of the solar module, and therefore one regular cleaning of the face is necessry and permits to increase the power and efficiency (specilly in desert area).(Author)

  15. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  16. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi [Széchenyi István University of Applied Sciences, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 701, H-9007 Győr (Hungary)

    2016-06-08

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  17. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and dessolution deposition process); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu (yokai sekishutsuho))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to manufacture low-cost large-area solar cell modules, developmental research has been performed on a film manufacturing technology using the dessolution deposition process. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a technology to form a thin silicon film directly on carbon substrates being substrates of different kinds, without using seed crystals. The researches made up to the previous fiscal year has made possible to form the film onto a substrate of about 5-cm square, has fabricated cells although with a small area, and indicated the importance of reducing concentrations of impurities in the solvent metals used. The researches performed during the current fiscal year executed modifications to reduce the temperature distribution in the substrate surfaces, including size increase in the heater, and improvement in the cooling heat conduction mechanism. As a result, films were formed successfully on 7.5-cm square substrates. In reducing the process temperatures, it was made clear that films can be formed at lower than 700 degrees C by using zinc as a solvent metal. Furthermore, the purity enhancement in the solvent metal achieved a conversion efficiency of 11.6% although the area is as small as 3.73 cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  18. Cost reduction by using micro-fingers in thin film silicon modules

    Slooff, L.H.; Bosman, J.; Loffler, J.; Budel, T. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    A finite element electrical model is described that can be used to calculate the performance of monolithic thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is suitable for all type of thin film modules, like e.g. p-i-n a-Si:H, CIGS and polymer based modules and it includes losses due to interconnection. Using this model a parameter study is performed for a-Si:H cells with the aim to reduce metal consumption in the cell and interconnection. It is shown that a reduction in metal consumption by a factor 1.3 can be achieved with only marginal loss in performance if short cell are used with very short fingers.

  19. Characterization of a photovoltaic-thermal module for Fresnel linear concentrator

    Chemisana, D.; Ibanez, M.; Rosell, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A combined domed Fresnel lens - CPC PVT system is designed and characterized. → Electrical and thermal experiments have been performed. → CFD analysis has been used to determine thermal characteristic dimensionless numbers. - Abstract: An advanced solar unit is designed to match the needs of building integration and concentrating photovoltaic/thermal generation. The unit proposed accurately combines three elements: a domed linear Fresnel lens as primary concentrator, a compound parabolic reflector as secondary concentrator and a photovoltaic-thermal module. In this work the photovoltaic-thermal generator is built, analysed and characterized. Models for the electrical and thermal behaviour of the module are developed and validated experimentally. Applying a thermal resistances approach the results from both models are combined. Finally, efficiency electrical and thermal curves are derived from theoretical analysis showing good agreement with experimental measurements.

  20. SOFAS market inquiry 1998. Solar collectors and photovoltaic modules in the year 1998

    Nordmann, T.

    1999-04-01

    Beginning 1984, the Swiss Professional Association of Solar Energy Firms (SOFAS) collects data on solar collector and photovoltaic module sales in Switzerland. The data enter the 'Swiss statistics of renewable energy sources' in the annual report of the action programme 'Energy 2000' as well as the 'General energy statistics' of the Swiss government. In this way, the total energy output of solar heating systems (for domestic hot water preparation, space heating, swimming pool heating, and hay drying) as well as that of photovoltaic systems is available since 1993 in Switzerland. For years, the installed collector and module area is growing continuously. Especially for photovoltaics the subsidy programme of the government has a clear impact on the market tabs., figs [de

  1. Polymer Photovoltaic Cell Using TiO2/G-PEDOT Nanocomplex Film as Electrode

    F. X. Xie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TiO2/G-PEDOT (PEDOT/PSS doped with glycerol nanocomplex film as a substitute for metal electrode in organic photovoltaic cell is described. Indium tin oxide (ITO worked as cathode and TiO2/G-PEDOT nanocomplex works as anode. The thickness of TiO2 layer in nanocomplex greatly affects the act of this nonmetallic electrode of the device. To enhance its performance, this inverted organic photovoltaic cell uses another TiO2 layer as electron selective layer contacted to ITO coated glass substrates. All films made by solution processing techniques are coated on the transparent substrate (glass with a conducting film ITO. The efficiency of this solar cell is compared with the conventional device using Al as electrode.

  2. Concepts for external light trapping and its utilization in colored and image displaying photovoltaic modules

    van Dijk, L.; van de Groep, J.; Veldhuizen, L.W.; Di Vece, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2017-01-01

    The reflection of incident sunlight prevents photovoltaic modules from reaching their full energy conversion potential. Recently, we demonstrated significant absorption enhancement in various solar cells by external light trapping, using 3D-printed and milled light traps. In order to facilitate

  3. Series Resistance Monitoring for Photovoltaic Modules in the Vicinity of MPP

    Sera, Dezso

    2010-01-01

    Faults and performance deterioration issues related to increases of the series resistance in PV modules or arrays are one of the most common causes to decrease the energy yield of photovoltaic installations. Therefore, the early detection of such failure types is very important in order to minimize...

  4. Low-cost, High Flexibility I-V Curve Tracer for Photovoltaic Modules

    Ibirriaga, Julen Joseba Maestro; Pena, Xabier Miquelez de Mendiluce; Opritescu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and test of an in-door low cost, high flexibility I-V curve tracer for photovoltaic modules. The tracer is connected to a Xenon lamp based flashing solar simulator. The designed tracer is able to deal with the very fast changing irradiation conditions...

  5. Generating systems: PV modules. Interconnections, operation and installation. The photovoltaic generator

    Lorenzo, E.

    1992-01-01

    A method to predict the electrical performances of a photovoltaic generator, at any operation mode, is given. Data are taken from manufactures catalogues and assuming all the cells identical. On the other hand, it is demonstrated the necessity to attach the modules following determined rules to minimize dispersion losses and use diodes to avoid the formation of hot spots

  6. Price development of photovoltaic modules, inverters, and systems in the Netherlands in 2012

    Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Muizebelt, Peter; Cace, Jadranka; de Vries, Arthur; de Rijk, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010 the Dutch photovoltaic (PV) market has been growing fast, with around doubling of installed capacity in 2011 and 2012. Four quarterly inventories have been made in 2012 for modules, inverters, and systems that are presently available for purchase in the Netherlands. We have found that the

  7. Price Development of Photovoltaic Modules, Inverters and Systems in the Netherlands

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Muizebelt, P.; Cace, J.; Vries, A. de; Rijk, P. de

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010 the Dutch photovoltaic (PV) market has been growing fast, with around doubling of installed capacity in 2011 and 2012. Four quarterly inventories have been made in 2012 for modules, inverters, and systems that are presently available for purchase in the Netherlands. We have found that

  8. Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    2015-09-01

    Direct current (DC) power optimizers and microinverters (together known as module-level power electronics, or MLPE) are one of the fastest growing market segments in the solar industry. According to GTM Research in The Global PV Inverter Landscape 2015, over 55% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States used some form of MLPE in 2014.

  9. Decision framework of photovoltaic module selection under interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environment

    Long, Shengping; Geng, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The evaluation index system is set by the engineering and supply chain perspectives. • The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS) to express the performances. • The IVIFS entropy weight method is applied to improve the objectivity of weights. - Abstract: The selection of appropriate photovoltaic module is of extremely high importance for the solar power station project; however the comprehensive problem of evaluation index system, the information loss problem and the lack-objectivity problem in the selection process will decrease the reasonability of the selection result. The innovation points of this paper are as follows: first, the comprehensive evaluation index system of photovoltaic module is established from the engineering management and supply chain management perspectives to solve the comprehensive problem; second, the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS) are introduced into the photovoltaic modules selection process to express the alternatives’ performances to solve the information loss problem; third, the IVIFS entropy weight method is applied to improve the objectivity of the criteria’s weights. According to the aforementioned solutions, the decision framework of photovoltaic module selection under interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environment are established and used in a case study to demonstrate its effectiveness. Therefore, from the theoretical modeling and empirical demonstration, the decision framework proposed in this paper can effectively handle such a complicated problem and lead to an outstanding result.

  10. Report of an exploratory study: Safety and liability considerations for photovoltaic modules/panels

    Weinstein, A. S.; Meeker, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of legal issues as they apply to design, manufacture and use of photovoltaic module/array devices is provided and a methodology is suggested for use of the design stage of these products to minimize or eliminate perceived hazards. Questions are posed to stimulate consideration of this area.

  11. Near Infrared Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in LaTiO3 Films

    Wujun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported on the lateral photovoltaic effect of LaTiO3 films epitaxially grown on (100 SrTiO3 substrates. Under illumination of continuous 1064 nm laser beam on the LaTiO3 film through SrTiO3 substrate, the open-circuit photovoltage depended linearly on the illuminated position. The photosensitivity can be modified by bias current. These results indicated that the LaTiO3 films give rise to a potentially photoelectronic device for near infrared position-sensitive detection.

  12. Excimer-laser-irradiation-induced effects in C60 films for photovoltaic applications

    Narayanan, K.L.; Yamaguchi, M.; Azuma, H.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of fullerene C 60 deposited by the molecular-beam epitaxy method have been subjected to a 248 nm excimer laser for various timings. Reduction in the electrical resistance of the films and the spectral evolution of the D and G bands in the Raman spectra, due to the sharp tendency towards graphitization accompanied by an increasing level of structural disorder, are observed during laser irradiation. Based on the above results, an attempt has been carried out on these irradiated C 60 films to make a device sandwiched with n-type Si, and the photovoltaic parameters are reported as a function of the laser exposure times

  13. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  14. Estimating Parameters for the PVsyst Version 6 Photovoltaic Module Performance Model

    Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm to determine parameters for the photovoltaic module perf ormance model encoded in the software package PVsyst(TM) version 6. Our method operates on current - voltage (I - V) measured over a range of irradiance and temperature conditions. We describe the method and illustrate its steps using data for a 36 cell crystalli ne silicon module. We qualitatively compare our method with one other technique for estimating parameters for the PVsyst(TM) version 6 model .

  15. Thermal and optical performance of encapsulation systems for flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Minning, C. P.; Coakley, J. F.; Perrygo, C. M.; Garcia, A., III; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical power output from a photovoltaic module is strongly influenced by the thermal and optical characteristics of the module encapsulation system. Described are the methodology and computer model for performing fast and accurate thermal and optical evaluations of different encapsulation systems. The computer model is used to evaluate cell temperature, solar energy transmittance through the encapsulation system, and electric power output for operation in a terrestrial environment. Extensive results are presented for both superstrate-module and substrate-module design schemes which include different types of silicon cell materials, pottants, and antireflection coatings.

  16. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells: Long-Term Metal(loid) Leaching at Their End-of-Life

    Zimmermann, Y.S.; Schäffer, A.; Corvini, P.F.X.; Lenz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic effect of thin-film copper indium gallium selenide cells (CIGS) is conferred by the latter elements. Organic photovoltaic cells (OPV), relying on organic light-absorbing molecules, also contain a variety of metals (e.g., Zn, Al, In, Sn, Ag). The environmental impact of such

  17. Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays Using Reference Cells

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays under natural or simulated sunlight using a calibrated reference cell. 1.1.1 These test methods allow a reference module to be used instead of a reference cell provided the reference module has been calibrated using these test methods against a calibrated reference cell. 1.2 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of reporting conditions (RC) to facilitate comparison of results. 1.3 These test methods apply only to nonconcentrator terrestrial modules and arrays. 1.4 The performance parameters determined by these test methods apply only at the time of the test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 These test methods apply to photovoltaic modules and arrays that do not contain series-connected photovoltaic multijunction devices; such module and arrays should be tested according to Test Methods E 2236. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  18. Geometric photovoltaics applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells

    Kirkpatrick, Timothy

    Geometrically generalized analytical expressions for device transport are derived from first principles for a photovoltaic junction. Subsequently, conventional planar and unconventional coaxial and hemispherical photovoltaic architectures are applied to detail the device physics of the junction based on their respective geometry. For the conventional planar cell, the one-dimensional transport equations governing carrier dynamics are recovered. For the unconventional coaxial and hemispherical junction designs, new multi-dimensional transport equations are revealed. Physical effects such as carrier generation and recombination are compared for each cell architecture, providing insight as to how non-planar junctions may potentially enable greater energy conversion efficiencies. Numerical simulations are performed for arrays of vertically aligned, nanostructured coaxial and hemispherical amorphous silicon solar cells and results are compared to those from simulations performed for the standard planar junction. Results indicate that fundamental physical changes in the spatial dependence of the energy band profile across the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon p-i-n junction manifest as an increase in recombination current for non-planar photovoltaic architectures. Despite an increase in recombination current, however, the coaxial architecture still appears to be able to surpass the efficiency predicted for the planar geometry, due to the geometry of the junction leading to a decoupling of optics and electronics.

  19. Energy production estimation for Kosh-Agach grid-tie photovoltaic power plant for different photovoltaic module types

    Gabderakhmanova, T. S.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Frid, S. E.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed.

  20. Energy production estimation for Kosh-Agach grid-tie photovoltaic power plant for different photovoltaic module types

    Gabderakhmanova, T S; Frid, S E; Tarasenko, A B; Kiseleva, S V

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed. (paper)

  1. Dipole pinning effect on photovoltaic characteristics of ferroelectric BiFeO3 films

    Biswas, P. P.; Thirmal, Ch.; Pal, S.; Murugavel, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ferroelectric bismuth ferrite is an attractive candidate for switchable devices. The effect of dipole pinning due to the oxygen vacancy layer on the switching behavior of the BiFeO3 thin film fabricated by the chemical solution deposition method was studied after annealing under air, O2, and N2 environment. The air annealed film showed well defined and dense grains leading to a lower leakage current and superior electrical properties compared to the other two films. The photovoltage and transient photocurrent measured under positive and negative poling elucidated the switching nature of the films. Though the air and O2 annealed films showed a switchable photovoltaic response, the response was severely affected by oxygen vacancies in the N2 annealed film. In addition, the open circuit voltage was found to be mostly dependent on the polarization of BiFeO3 rather than the Schottky barriers at the interface. This work provides an important insight into the effect of dipole pinning caused by oxygen vacancies on the switchable photovoltaic effect of BiFeO3 thin films along with the importance of stoichiometric, defect free, and phase pure samples to facilitate meaningful practical applications.

  2. Photovoltaics

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  3. Solar radiation inside greenhouses covered with semitransparent photovoltaic film: first experimental results

    Alvaro Marucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern Italian regions are characterized by climatic conditions with high values of solar radiation and air temperature. This has allowed the spread of protected structures both as a defense against critical winter conditions both for growing off-season. The major energy source for these greenhouses is given by solar energy and artificial energy is used rarely. So the problem in the use of greenhouses in these areas, if anything, is opposite to that of the northern areas. In these places you must try to mitigate often the solar radiation inside the greenhouses with suitable measures or abandon for a few months the cultivation inside these structures. The solar radiation intercepted by passive means can be used for other purposes through the uptake and transformation by the photovoltaic panels whose use however is problematic due to complete opacity of the cells. New photosensitive materials partially transparent to solar radiation onto flexible media, allow to glimpse the possibility of using them to greenhouses cover, getting the dual effect of partially screen the greenhouse and use the surplus to generate electricity. The research was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using a flexible photovoltaic film realized by the University of Rome Tor Vergata (research group of ECOFLECS project coordinated by prof. Andrea Reale for covering greenhouses. Two greenhouses in small scale were built: one covered with photovoltaic film and one covered with EVA film for test. In both greenhouses during the first research period it was grown a variety of dwarf tomato. The research was carried out comparing the solar radiation that enters into greenhouse in the summer (August 2012 and in winter conditions (December 2012 in both greenhouses. The result show that the average ratio between the daily global solar radiation under the photovoltaic film and outside radiation is about 37%, while between the radiation under EVA film and outside radiation

  4. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost and large-area module manufacturing technologies, and new type amorphous solar cell manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to put amorphous solar cells for power use into practical use, research and development has been performed on a low-cost mass production technology for modules with large area and less deterioration using film substrates. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing an efficiency enhancing technology, development of an a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple cell structure was launched, and discussions were given on band gaps, film forming conditions, and film thickness. In developing a film forming speed enhancing technology, systematic experiments were performed, as well as theoretical analysis on the film forming mechanism in the plasma CVD process. In developing the process technology for film substrate solar cells, with regard to an a-Si production device of the multi-chamber arranged stepping roll system, six plasma CVD chambers were increased to 13 chambers to improve the electrode forming speed and such processes as drilling low-cost substrates, and laser patterning. In trial fabrication of a triple cell, a module in which one row of the SCAF cell is laminated provided an initial efficiency of 9.64%. (NEDO)

  5. Structure, morphology and optical properties of CuInS2 thin films prepared by modulated flux deposition

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M.T.; Briones, F.

    2005-01-01

    The structure, morphology and optical properties of copper indium sulfide thin films prepared by a novel modulated flux deposition procedure have been investigated for layers from 200 to 400 nm thickness. These polycrystalline CuInS 2 films grown onto glass substrates showed CuAu-like structure, similar to epitaxial CuInS 2 films grown onto monocrystalline substrates, and direct band gap values Eg=1.52-1.55 eV, optimum for single-junction photovoltaic applications. The increase in the layer thickness leads to growth of the average crystallite size and increases slightly the surface roughness and the absorption coefficient

  6. The optimal configuration of photovoltaic module arrays based on adaptive switching controls

    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Lai, Pei-Lun; Liao, Bo-Jyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a strategy for determining the optimal configuration of a PV array. • The proposed strategy was based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. • It can identify the optimal module array connection scheme in the event of shading. • It can also find the optimal connection of a PV array even in module malfunctions. - Abstract: This study proposes a strategy for determining the optimal configuration of photovoltaic (PV) module arrays in shading or malfunction conditions. This strategy was based on particle swarm optimization (PSO). If shading or malfunctions of the photovoltaic module array occur, the module array immediately undergoes adaptive reconfiguration to increase the power output of the PV power generation system. First, the maximal power generated at various irradiation levels and temperatures was recorded during normal array operation. Subsequently, the irradiation level and module temperature, regardless of operating conditions, were used to recall the maximal power previously recorded. This previous maximum was compared with the maximal power value obtained using the maximum power point tracker to assess whether the PV module array was experiencing shading or malfunctions. After determining that the array was experiencing shading or malfunctions, PSO was used to identify the optimal module array connection scheme in abnormal conditions, and connection switches were used to implement optimal array reconfiguration. Finally, experiments were conducted to assess the strategy for identifying the optimal reconfiguration of a PV module array in the event of shading or malfunctions

  7. Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices

    Kymakis, E.; Stratakis, E.; Stylianakis, M.M.; Koudoumas, E.; Fotakis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many research efforts have been devoted to the replacement of the traditional indium–tin-oxide (ITO) electrode in organic photovoltaics. Solution-based graphene has been identified as a potential replacement, since it has less than two percent absorption per layer, relative high carrier mobility, and it offers the possibility of deposition on large area and flexible substrates, compatible with roll to roll manufacturing methods. In this work, soluble reduced graphene films with high electrical conductivity and transparency were fabricated and incorporated in poly(3-hexylthiophene) [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester photovoltaic devices, as the transparent electrode. The graphene films were spin coated on glass from an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a reduction process combining hydrazine vapor and annealing under argon, in order to reduce the sheet resistance. The photovoltaic devices obtained from the graphene films showed lower performance than the reference devices with ITO, due to the higher sheet resistance (2 kΩ/sq) and the poor hydrophilicity of the spin coated graphene films.

  8. Electrochemical preparation and characterization of CuInSe2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Guillen Arqueros, C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the electrodeposition as a low-cost, large-area fabrication process to obtain CuInSe 2 this films for efficient photovoltaic devices. this objective entails the elucidation of thin film deposition mechanism, the study of the fundamental properties of electrodeposited material, and also the modification of their physical and chemical parameters for photovoltaic applications. CuInSe 2 thin films have been successfully electrodeposited from a citric was characterized by compositional, structural, electrical, optical and electrochemical measurements, relating their properties with the preparation parameters and also studying the effect of various thermal and chemical treatments. The results showed post-deposition treatment are needed for optimizing these films for solar cells fabrication: first, an annealing in inert atmosphere at temperatures above 400 degrees celsius to obtain a high recrystallization in the chalcopyrite structure, and after a chemical etching in KCN solution to remove secondary phases of Cu x Se and Se which are frequently electrodeposited with the CuInSe 2 . The treated samples showed appropriate photovoltaic activity in a semiconductor-electrolite liquid junction. (author) 193 ref

  9. Morphological analysis of co-evaporated blend films based on initial growth for organic photovoltaics

    Shibata, Yosei, E-mail: yosei.shibata@aist.go.jp [Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Taima, Tetsuya [Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Zhou, Ying; Ohashi, Noboru; Kono, Takahiro [Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Yoshida, Yuji, E-mail: yuji.yoshida@aist.go.jp [Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Initial growth mode of co-evaporated films was observed. • Balanced crystal growth leads to improvement of photovoltaic performance. • Crystal growth of fullerene during co-evaporation process was restricted. • The power conversion efficiency of 3% was obtained without electron blocking layer. - Abstract: Bulk heterojunction structures composed of electron donor and acceptor molecules for application in high-performance organic photovoltaics studied. To fabricate these structures, the co-evaporation method in vacuum is commonly applied; however, the details of the crystal growth process during co-evaporation have not yet been established. Here, we focused on structural analysis of blend films composed of phthalocyanine and fullerene based on initial growth stage. Similar crystal growth behavior to that typically observed in single-component molecules is obtained for the films. These results suggest that the competitive crystal growth between donors and acceptors occurs during co-evaporation process. The balance of thin film growth among donor and acceptor molecules can be related to improved photovoltaic performance. The homogeneous blend structure leads to improvement of the power conversion efficiency from 1.2% to 3.0%.

  10. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency.

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-05

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm(2).

  11. [Prediction of Encapsulation Temperatures of Copolymer Films in Photovoltaic Cells Using Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques and Chemometrics].

    Lin, Ping; Chen, Yong-ming; Yao, Zhi-lei

    2015-11-01

    A novel method of combination of the chemometrics and the hyperspectral imaging techniques was presented to detect the temperatures of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymer (EVA) films in photovoltaic cells during the thermal encapsulation process. Four varieties of the EVA films which had been heated at the temperatures of 128, 132, 142 and 148 °C during the photovoltaic cells production process were used for investigation in this paper. These copolymer encapsulation films were firstly scanned by the hyperspectral imaging equipment (Spectral Imaging Ltd. Oulu, Finland). The scanning band range of hyperspectral equipemnt was set between 904.58 and 1700.01 nm. The hyperspectral dataset of copolymer films was randomly divided into two parts for the training and test purpose. Each type of the training set and test set contained 90 and 10 instances, respectively. The obtained hyperspectral images of EVA films were dealt with by using the ENVI (Exelis Visual Information Solutions, USA) software. The size of region of interest (ROI) of each obtained hyperspectral image of EVA film was set as 150 x 150 pixels. The average of reflectance hyper spectra of all the pixels in the ROI was used as the characteristic curve to represent the instance. There kinds of chemometrics methods including partial least squares regression (PLSR), multi-class support vector machine (SVM) and large margin nearest neighbor (LMNN) were used to correlate the characteristic hyper spectra with the encapsulation temperatures of of copolymer films. The plot of weighted regression coefficients illustrated that both bands of short- and long-wave near infrared hyperspectral data contributed to enhancing the prediction accuracy of the forecast model. Because the attained reflectance hyperspectral data of EVA materials displayed the strong nonlinearity, the prediction performance of linear modeling method of PLSR declined and the prediction precision only reached to 95%. The kernel-based forecast models were

  12. Cell-to-module optical loss/gain analysis for various photovoltaic module materials through systematic characterization

    Hsian Saw, Min; Khoo, Yong Sheng; Singh, Jai Prakash; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Reducing levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is important for solar photovoltaics to compete against other energy sources. Thus, the focus should not only be on improving the solar cell efficiency, but also on continuously reducing the losses (or achieving gain) in the cell-to-module process. This can be achieved by choosing the appropriate module material and design. This paper presents a detailed and systematic characterization of various photovoltaic (PV) module materials (encapsulants, tabbing ribbons, and backsheets) and an evaluation of their impact on the output power of silicon wafer-based PV modules. Various characterization tools/techniques, such as UV-vis (reflectance) measurement, external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement and EQE line-scan are used. Based on the characterization results, we use module materials with the best-evaluated optical performance to build “optimized modules”. Compared to the standard mini-module, an optical gain of more than 5% is achievable for the “optimized module” with selected module materials.

  13. Guiding principle for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules with high tolerance to acetic acid

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko

    2018-04-01

    A guiding principle for highly reliable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules, especially those with high tolerance to acetic acid generated by hydrolysis reaction between water vapor and an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, is proposed. Degradation behavior evaluated by the damp heat test strongly depends on Ag finger electrodes and also EVA encapsulants. The acetic acid concentration in EVA on the glass side directly determines the degradation behavior. The most important factor for high tolerance is the type of Ag finger electrode materials when using an EVA encapsulant. Photovoltaic modules using newly developed crystalline Si cells with improved Ag finger electrode materials keep their maximum power of 80% of the initial value even after the damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity for 10000 h. The pattern of dark regions in electroluminescence images is also discussed on the basis of the dynamics of acetic acid in the modules.

  14. Experimental Learning of Digital Power Controller for Photovoltaic Module Using Proteus VSM

    Abhijit V. Padgavhankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric power supplied by photovoltaic module depends on light intensity and temperature. It is necessary to control the operating point to draw the maximum power of photovoltaic module. This paper presents the design and implementation of digital power converters using Proteus software. Its aim is to enhance student’s learning for virtual system modeling and to simulate in software for PIC microcontroller along with the hardware design. The buck and boost converters are designed to interface with the renewable energy source that is PV module. PIC microcontroller is used as a digital controller, which senses the PV electric signal for maximum power using sensors and output voltage of the dc-dc converter and according to that switching pulse is generated for the switching of MOSFET. The implementation of proposed system is based on learning platform of Proteus virtual system modeling (VSM and the experimental results are presented.

  15. PVSIM{copyright}: A simulation program for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays

    King, D.L.; Dudley, J.K.; Boyson, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    An electrical simulation model for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays has been developed that will be useful to a wide range of analysts in the photovoltaic industry. The Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} based program can be used to analyze individual cells, to analyze the effects of cell mismatch or reverse bias(`hot spot`) heating in modules and to analyze the performance of large arrays of modules including bypass and blocking diodes. User defined statistical variance can be applied to the fundamental parameters used to simulate the cells and diodes. The model is most appropriate for cells that can be accurately modeled using a two-diode equivalent circuit. This paper describes the simulation program and illustrates its versatility with examples.

  16. TwinFocus, a concentrated photovoltaic module based on mature technologies

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among solar power generation, concentrated photovoltaics (CPV based on multijunction (MJ solar cells, is one of the most promising technology for hot climates. The fact that multijunction solar cells based on direct band gap semiconductors demonstrate lower dependence on temperature than silicon solar cells boosted their use in concentrated photovoltaics modules. Departing from the mainstream design of Fresnel lenses, the CPV module based on TwinFocus design with off-axis quasi parabolic mirrors differentiates itself for its compactness and the possibility of easy integration also in roof-top applications. A detailed description of the module and of the systems will be given together with measured performances, and expectations for the next release.

  17. Investigation of Processing, Microstructures and Efficiencies of Polycrystalline CdTe Photovoltaic Films and Devices

    Munshi, Amit Harenkumar

    CdTe based photovoltaics have been commercialized at multiple GWs/year level. The performance of CdTe thin film photovoltaic devices is sensitive to process conditions. Variations in deposition temperatures as well as other treatment parameters have a significant impact on film microstructure and device performance. In this work, extensive investigations are carried out using advanced microstructural characterization techniques in an attempt to relate microstructural changes due to varying deposition parameters and their effects on device performance for cadmium telluride based photovoltaic cells deposited using close space sublimation (CSS). The goal of this investigation is to apply advanced material characterization techniques to aid process development for higher efficiency CdTe based photovoltaic devices. Several techniques have been used to observe the morphological changes to the microstructure along with materials and crystallographic changes as a function of deposition temperature and treatment times. Traditional device structures as well as advanced structures with electron reflector and films deposited on Mg1-xZnxO instead of conventional CdS window layer are investigated. These techniques include Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to study grain structure and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with electron diffraction and EDS. These investigations have provided insights into the mechanisms that lead to change in film structure and device performance with change in deposition conditions. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is used for chemical mapping of the films as well as to understand interlayer material diffusion between subsequent layers. Electrical performance of these devices has been studied using current density vs voltage plots. Devices with efficiency over 18% have been fabricated on low cost commercial glass substrates

  18. Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films as Effective Anodes of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Ziyang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO thin films were prepared by low-cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP. Both a low resistivity (3.13×10−3 Ω cm and an average direct transmittance (400∼1500 nm about 80% of the IZO films were achieved. The IZO films were investigated as anodes in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester. The device fabricated on IZO film-coated glass substrate showed an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, a short circuit current of 8.49 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 0.40, and a power conversion efficiency of 1.91%, demonstrating that the IZO films prepared by USP technique are promising low In content and transparent electrode candidates of low-cost OPV devices.

  19. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  20. Controllable Photovoltaic Effect of Microarray Derived from Epitaxial Tetragonal BiFeO3 Films.

    Lu, Zengxing; Li, Peilian; Wan, Jian-Guo; Huang, Zhifeng; Tian, Guo; Pan, Danfeng; Fan, Zhen; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2017-08-16

    Recently, the ferroelectric photovoltaic (FePV) effect has attracted great interest due to its potential in developing optoelectronic devices such as solar cell and electric-optical sensors. It is important for actual applications to realize a controllable photovoltaic process in ferroelectric-based materials. In this work, we prepared well-ordered microarrays based on epitaxially tetragonal BiFeO 3 (T-BFO) films by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The polarization-dependent photocurrent image was directly observed by a conductive atomic force microscope under ultraviolet illumination. By choosing a suitable buffer electrode layer and controlling the ferroelectric polarization in the T-BFO layer, we realized the manipulation of the photovoltaic process. Moreover, based on the analysis of the band structure, we revealed the mechanism of manipulating the photovoltaic process and attributed it to the competition between two key factors, i.e., the internal electric field caused by energy band alignments at interfaces and the depolarization field induced by the ferroelectric polarization in T-BFO. This work is very meaningful for deeply understanding the photovoltaic process of BiFeO 3 -based devices at the microscale and provides us a feasible avenue for developing data storage or logic switching microdevices based on the FePV effect.

  1. Zinc sulfide thin films deposited by RF reactive sputtering for photovoltaic applications

    Shao Lexi; Chang, K.-H.; Hwang, H.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films with nano-scale grains of about 50 nm were deposited on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C via RF reactive sputtering by using zinc plate target and hydrogen sulfide gas. The structure, compositions, electrical and optical characteristics of the deposited films were investigated for the photovoltaic device applications. All films showed a near stoichiometric composition as indicated in their AES data. Distinct single crystalline phase with preferential orientation along the (0 0 0 1) plane of wurtzite or the (1 1 1) plane of zinc blende (ZB) was revealed in their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and the spacing of the planes are well matched to those of (1 1 2) plane of the chalcopyrite CuInS 2 (CIS). UV-Vis measurement showed that the films had more than 65% transmittance in the wavelength larger than 350 nm, and the fundamental absorption edge shifted to shorter wavelength with the increase of sulfur incorporated in the films, which corresponds to an increase in the energy band gap ranging from 3.59 to 3.72 eV. It was found that ZnS films are suitable for use as the buffer layer of the CIS solar cells, and it is the viable alternative for replacing CdS in the photovoltaic cell structure

  2. Photovoltaic installation with amorphous thin-film cells on a gymnasium roof; Dachanlage Turnhalle Wiesendangen mit amorphen Duennschichtzellen. Schlussbericht

    Stettler, S.; Toggweiler, P.

    2008-03-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a photovoltaic installation on the roof of the gymnasium of a school in Wiesendangen, Switzerland. The installation features amorphous thin-film solar cells. The solar panels were mounted on the existing roof with the help of the schoolchildren within the framework of the Greenpeace solar project for young persons. Measurements on the performance of the installation were made and the results are compared with those obtained at a nearby installation that uses crystalline solar cells. The energy production figures measured are commented on and the advantages offered by the solar modules used - particularly on their temperature behaviour - are briefly discussed.

  3. Improved photovoltaic performance from inorganic perovskite oxide thin films with mixed crystal phases

    Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Harnagea, Catalin; Celikin, Mert; Rosei, Federico; Nechache, Riad

    2018-05-01

    Inorganic ferroelectric perovskites are attracting attention for the realization of highly stable photovoltaic cells with large open-circuit voltages. However, the power conversion efficiencies of devices have been limited so far. Here, we report a power conversion efficiency of 4.20% under 1 sun illumination from Bi-Mn-O composite thin films with mixed BiMnO3 and BiMn2O5 crystal phases. We show that the photocurrent density and photovoltage mainly develop across grain boundaries and interfaces rather than within the grains. We also experimentally demonstrate that the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent measured in the films are tunable by varying the electrical resistance of the device, which in turn is controlled by externally applying voltage pulses. The exploitation of multifunctional properties of composite oxides provides an alternative route towards achieving highly stable, high-efficiency photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

  4. Enhanced photovoltaic currents in strained Fe-doped LiNbO{sub 3} films

    Inoue, Ryotaro [Division of Physics, Institute of Liberal Education, School of Medicine, Nihon University, 31-10, Ooyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8601 (Japan); Takahashi, Shusuke; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the impact of strain on photovoltaic current (J{sub z}) characteristics for iron-doped LiNbO{sub 3} (Fe-LN) under visible light illumination by thin-film experiments. The J{sub z} values are demonstrated to be dramatically enhanced for the film with a tensile strain along the P{sub s} direction, which is over 500 times as large as that of the bulk (strain-free) Fe-LN crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the tensile strain increases an off-center displacement of Fe{sup 2+} that is opposite to the P{sub s} direction. Our experimental and DFT study demonstrates that the control of the lattice strain is effective in enhancing the photovoltaic effect in the Fe-LN system. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules

    Kjaer, Soren Baekhoej; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    -phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out......This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single...

  6. Enhancement of photovoltaic characteristics of nanocrystalline 2,3-naphthalocyanine thin film-based organic devices

    Farag, A.A.M.; Osiris, W.G.; Ammar, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of NPC films: (a) cross section view, (b) surface morphology of the film at 300 K, (c) surface morphology of the annealed film at 350 K, (d) surface morphology of the annealed film at 400 K, (e) surface morphology of the annealed film at 450 K, and (f) surface morphology of the annealed film at 500 K. Highlights: ► The absorption edge shifts to the lower energy for the annealed NPC film. ► The device of Au/NPC/ITO exhibit rectifying characteristics. ► The devices show improvement in photovoltaic parameters. ► The power conversion efficiency of the devices show enhancement under annealing. - Abstract: In this work, nanocrystalline thin films of 2,3-naphthalocyanine (NPC) were successfully deposited by a thermal evaporation technique at room temperature under high vacuum (∼10 −4 Pa). The crystal structure and surface morphology were measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. A preferred orientation along the (0 0 1) direction was observed in all the studied films and the average crystallite size was calculated. Scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM) images of NPC films at different thermal treatment indicated significant changes on surface level patterns and gave clear evidence of agglomeration of nanocrystalline structures. The molecular structural properties of the thin films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which revealed the stability of the chemical bonds of the compound under thermal treatment. The dark electrical conductivity of the films at various heat treatment stages showed that NPC films have a better conductivity than that of its earlier reported naphthalocyanine films and the activation energy was found to decrease with annealing temperature. The absorption edge shifted to the lower energy as a consequence of the thermal annealing of the film and the fundamental absorption edges correspond to a

  7. Increasing the Endurance and Payload Capacity of Unmanned Vehicles with Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    2014-06-01

    unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be significantly extended using thin film photovoltaic cells. The different power requirements of the RQ-11B...43  Figure 33.  A load test of the MPPT /boost controller to confirm the functionality of the power circuit equipment...36  Table 7.  The resistance of the surface mounted resistors used for voltage partitioning in the MPPT /boost controller

  8. Structural and chemical transformations in SnS thin films used in chemically deposited photovoltaic cells

    Avellaneda, David; Delgado, Guadalupe; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemically deposited SnS thin films possess p-type electrical conductivity. We report a photovoltaic structure: SnO 2 :F-CdS-SnS-(CuS)-silver print, with V oc > 300 mV and J sc up to 5 mA/cm 2 under 850 W/m 2 tungsten halogen illumination. Here, SnO 2 :F is a commercial spray-CVD (Pilkington TEC-8) coating, and the rest deposited from different chemical baths: CdS (80 nm) at 333 K, SnS (450 nm) and CuS (80 nm) at 293-303 K. The structure may be heated in nitrogen at 573 K, before applying the silver print. The photovoltaic behavior of the structure varies with heating: V oc ∼ 400 mV and J sc 2 , when heated at 423 K in air, but V oc decreases and J sc increases when heated at higher temperatures. These photovoltaic structures have been found to be stable over a period extending over one year by now. The overall cost of materials, simplicity of the deposition process, and possibility of easily varying the parameters to improve the cell characteristics inspire further work. Here we report two different baths for the deposition of SnS thin films of about 500 nm by chemical deposition. There is a considerable difference in the nature of growth, crystalline structure and chemical stability of these films under air-heating at 623-823 K or while heating SnS-CuS layers, evidenced in XRF and grazing incidence angle XRD studies. Heating of SnS-CuS films results in the formation of SnS-Cu x SnS y . 'All-chemically deposited photovoltaic structures' involving these materials are presented

  9. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    Andriessen, R. [Holst Centre - Solliance, PO Box 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroon, J.M. [ECN - Solliance, Petten (Netherlands); Aernouts, T. [Imec, Solliance, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Solliance, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    This article describes how the Solliance Organic PhotoVoltaics (OPV) shared research Program addresses efficiency, lifetime and production costs for (near) future OPV applications. The balance of these three parameters depends of the envisaged application, but at the end, OPV should be able to compete somehow with Si PV in the future. Efficiency improvements are realized by developing new materials, by exploring and optimizing new device structures and novel interconnection technologies. Lifetime improvements are realized by using stabilized device stacks and materials and by applying high end flexible barriers. Production cost control is done by using a home made Cost of Ownership tool which guides towards the use of low-cost materials and processes.

  10. Collapsible Photovoltaic Module for a Large-Scale Solar Power Plant

    2014-01-01

    An elongate photovoltaic (PV) module for use in a solar energy conversion plant for the production of electricity from incident light, the PV-module comprising a top portion with a support panel (G) carrying on a front side a plurality of electrically connected PV cells (D), and a transparent...... protective layer (A) sealed to the support panel (G) so as to encapsulate the PV-cells (D) between the support panel (G) and the protective layer (A), wherein prior to installation of the PV-module at the deployment site a collapsible portion of the PV-module is configured to be collapsible in a longitudinal...... direction by folding and/or rolling, wherein the collapsible portion includes at least the top portion, wherein the PV-module further comprises one or more integrated ballast chambers (I) in a bottom portion of the PV-module arranged on a rear side of the support panel (G), wherein said integrated ballast...

  11. Durable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules based on silicone-sheet encapsulants

    Hara, Kohjiro; Ohwada, Hiroto; Furihata, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline Si photovoltaic (PV) modules were fabricated with sheets of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (silicone) as an encapsulant. The long-term durability of the silicone-encapsulated PV modules was experimentally investigated. The silicone-based modules enhanced the long-term durability against potential-induced degradation (PID) and a damp-heat (DH) condition at 85 °C with 85% relative humidity (RH). In addition, we designed and fabricated substrate-type Si PV modules based on the silicone encapsulant and an Al-alloy plate as the substratum, which demonstrated high impact resistance and high incombustible performance. The high chemical stability, high volume resistivity, rubber-like elasticity, and incombustibility of the silicone encapsulant resulted in the high durability of the modules. Our results indicate that silicone is an attractive encapsulation material, as it improves the long-term durability of crystalline Si PV modules.

  12. Preparation of Surlyn films reinforced with cellulose nanofibres and feasibility of applying the transparent composite films for organic photovoltaic encapsulation

    Lertngim, Anantaya; Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn; Yuwawech, Kitti; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Muangnapoh, Tanyakorn

    2017-10-01

    This research concerns the development of Surlyn film reinforced with micro-/nanofibrillated celluloses (MFC) for use as an encapsulant in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of fibre types and the mixing methods on the structure-properties of the composite films. Three types of cellulose micro/nanofibrils were prepared: the as-received MFC, the dispersed MFC and the esterified MFC. The fibres were mixed with Surlyn via an extrusion process, using two different mixing methods. It was found that the extent of fibre disintegration and tensile modulus of the composite films prepared by the master-batching process was superior to that of the composite system prepared by the direct mixing method. Using the esterified MFC as a reinforcement, compatibility between polymer and the fibre increased, accompanied with the improvement of the percentage elongation of the Surlyn composite film. The percentage of light transmittance of the Surlyn/MFC films was above 88, regardless of the fibre types and fibre concentrations. The water vapour transmission rate of the Surlyn/esterified MFC film was 65% lower than that of the neat Surlyn film. This contributed to the longer lifetime of the OPV encapsulated with the Surlyn/esterified MFC film.

  13. Electrodeposition of near stoichiometric CuInSe2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Chandran, Ramkumar; Mallik, Archana

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates on the single step electrodeposition of quality CuInSe2 (CIS) thin film absorber layer for photovoltaics applications. The electrodeposition was carried using an aqueous acidic solution with a pH of 2.25. The deposition was carried using a three electrode system in potentiostatic conditions for 50 minutes. The as-deposited and nitrogen (N2) annealed films were characterized using XRD, FE-SEM and Raman spectroscopy. It has been observed that the SDS has the tendency to suppress the copper selenide (CuxSe) secondary phase which is detrimental to the device performance.

  14. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic arrays beyond the next generation is discussed with attention given to the potentials of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells. Of particular importance is the efficiency (the fraction of incident solar energy converted to electricity) and specific power (power to weight ratio). It is found that the radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1-MeV electrons.

  15. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    Sang, Liwen, E-mail: SANG.Liwen@nims.go.jp [International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, The Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sumiya, Masatomo [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); JST-ALCA, The Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-03-14

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  16. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2015-03-01

    InxGa1-xN, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In0.08Ga0.92N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 1018 cm-3. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  17. Improved ITO thin films for photovoltaic applications with a thin ZnO layer by sputtering

    Herrero, J.; Guillen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The improvement of the optical and electrical characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers is pursued to achieve a higher efficiency in its application as frontal electrical contacts in thin film photovoltaic devices. In order to take advantage of the polycrystalline structure of ZnO films as growth support, the properties of ITO layers prepared at room temperature by sputtering onto bare and ZnO-coated substrates have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. It has been found that by inserting a thin ZnO layer, the ITO film resistivity can be reduced as compared to that of a single ITO film with similar optical transmittance. The electrical quality improvement is related to ITO grain growth enhancement onto the polycrystalline ZnO underlayer

  18. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  19. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    Macedo, Andreia G. [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni [Laboratorio de Polimeros Paulo Scarpa, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Reis, Francoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Roman, Lucimara S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO{sub 2} films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  20. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    Macedo, Andreia G.; Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S.; Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni; Reis, Françoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Roman, Lucimara S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO 2 films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  1. Photovoltaic effect in transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Chrisey, Douglas B; Pradhan, Dhiren Kumar; Katiyar, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Pankaj; Scott, J F; Katiyar, Ram S; Coondoo, Indrani; Panwar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    We report photovoltaic (PV) effect in multiferroic Bi 0.9 Sm 0.1 Fe 0.95 Co 0.05 O 3 (BSFCO) thin films. Transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si substrate successfully through pulsed laser deposition (PLD). PV response is observed under illumination both in sandwich and lateral electrode configurations. The open-circuit voltage (V oc ) and the short-circuit current density (J sc ) of the films in sandwich electrode configuration under illumination are measured to be 0.9 V and −0.051 µA cm −2 . Additionally, we report piezoresponse for BSFCO films, which confirms ferroelectric piezoelectric behaviour. (paper)

  2. Thin film removal mechanisms in ns-laser processing of photovoltaic materials

    Bovatsek, J.; Tamhankar, A.; Patel, R.S.; Bulgakova, N.M.; Bonse, J.

    2010-01-01

    The removal of thin films widely used in photovoltaics (amorphous silicon, tin oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum, and molybdenum) is studied experimentally using multi-kHz Q-switched solid-state lasers at 532 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths. The processing ('scribing') is performed through the film-supporting glass plate at scribing speeds of the order of m/s. The dependence of the film removal threshold on the laser pulse duration (8 ns to 40 ns) is investigated and the results are complemented by a multi-layer thermal model used for numerical simulations of the laser-induced spatio-temporal temperature field within the samples. Possible film removal mechanisms are discussed upon consideration of optical, geometrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the layers.

  3. Research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy. Survey on the specific purpose modules; Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Taiyoto module ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the specific purpose modules for photovoltaic power generation in fiscal 1994. (1) On the feasibility survey on new application fields, it was clarified that photovoltaic power generation is applicable to extensive areas such as farmland, road, railway and public facility as latent demand sites. (2) On the optimum modules for various specific purposes, the structure, production method, cost estimation and issues of various modules were studied for desert, wasteland, coast, ocean, river, embankment, railway, road, mobile facility and arcade. (3) On the survey on new materials and material development, various conventional materials and materials promising for required performance were surveyed for every application. (4) On the survey on technology trends, the survey members participated in the first international photovoltaic energy conversion conference and the photovoltaic power generation workshop, while the members held the 1st-5th specific purpose module subcommittees. 1 tab.

  4. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihtsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a technology to manufacture CIS-based thin film solar cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research of a large-area light absorbing layer manufacturing technology, investigation was made on light absorbing layers in manufacturing sub-modules with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. With regard to the temperature condition in the light absorbing layer forming process, it was found that the cooling rate affects particularly the adhesion in the connecting interface of the light absorbing layer and the Mo rear electrode layer. In addition, it was revealed that the sulfur take-in amount can be increases by extending the retention time at the sulfurizing temperature and by decreasing the temperature to turn the gas phase into selenium. In the research of elementary technologies to establish the mass production process, developments were performed on the high-resistance buffer layer manufacturing technology, the high-quality window layer film manufacturing technology, and the technology to manufacture rear electrode layer made of high-quality metals. In developing the patterning technology, two kinds of the existing patterning devices were modified and adjusted for patterning the substrates with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. In addition, a processing device was installed in the conventional manually operated process for module finishing. (NEDO)

  5. Small-Molecule Organic Photovoltaic Modules Fabricated via Halogen-Free Solvent System with Roll-to-Roll Compatible Scalable Printing Method.

    Heo, Youn-Jung; Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sehyun; Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Donmin; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-11-15

    For the first time, the photovoltaic modules composed of small molecule were successfully fabricated by using roll-to-roll compatible printing techniques. In this study, blend films of small molecules, BTR and PC 71 BM were slot-die coated using a halogen-free solvent system. As a result, high efficiencies of 7.46% and 6.56% were achieved from time-consuming solvent vapor annealing (SVA) treatment and roll-to-roll compatible solvent additive approaches, respectively. After successful verification of our roll-to-roll compatible method on small-area devices, we further fabricated large-area photovoltaic modules with a total active area of 10 cm 2 , achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.83%. This demonstration of large-area photovoltaic modules through roll-to-roll compatible printing methods, even based on a halogen-free solvent, suggests the great potential for the industrial-scale production of organic solar cells (OSCs).

  6. Photovoltaics

    Prince, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  7. Advances in Photovoltaics at NREL

    von Roedern, B.

    1999-09-09

    This paper discusses the critical strategic research and development issues in the development of next-generation photovoltaic technologies, emphasizing thin-film technologies that are believed to ultimately lead to lower production costs. The critical research and development issues for each technology are identified. An attempt is made to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the different technologies, and to identify opportunities for fundamental research activities suited to advance the introduction of improved photovoltaic modules.

  8. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  9. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  10. RESEARCH INTO PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES EFFICIENCY IN THE ŻYWIEC BESKIDS ENVIRONMENT

    Danuta Hilse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into photovoltaic modules in the highlands, based on the example of the Żywiec Beskids, was conducted in 2009 in the town of Stryszawa on the border between the regions of Lesser Poland and Silesia. It involved measurements of the quantity of the produced electric power in three different systems of diverse power (570 Wp, 360 Wp oraz 200 Wp and different technical solutions (rotary modules tracing the Sun rotation and stationary modules. Efficiency of the photovoltaic modules was compared to the intensity of the solar radiation in the city of Żywiec. This way the efficiency of the solar energy processing was determined. The conducted research indicates that with the intensity of the solar radiation amounting to 890 kWh/ m2·year it is possible to produce electric power in the quantity of over 150 kWh/m2·year (rotary modules or about 110 kWh/ m2·year (stationary modules. The highest efficiency of the solar energy processing into the electric energy has been observed in the winter season (ca. 26%.

  11. Predicting the costs of photovoltaic solar modules in 2020 using experience curve models

    La Tour, Arnaud de; Glachant, Matthieu; Ménière, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Except in few locations, photovoltaic generated electricity remains considerably more expensive than conventional sources. It is however expected that innovation and learning-by-doing will lead to drastic cuts in production cost in the near future. The goal of this paper is to predict the cost of PV modules out to 2020 using experience curve models, and to draw implications about the cost of PV electricity. Using annual data on photovoltaic module prices, cumulative production, R and D knowledge stock and input prices for silicon and silver over the period 1990–2011, we identify a experience curve model which minimizes the difference between predicted and actual module prices. This model predicts a 67% decrease of module price from 2011 to 2020. This rate implies that the cost of PV generated electricity will reach that of conventional electricity by 2020 in the sunniest countries with annual solar irradiation of 2000 kWh/year or more, such as California, Italy, and Spain. - Highlights: • We predict the cost of PV modules out to 2020 using experience curve models. • The model predicts a 67% decrease of module price from 2011 to 2020. • We draw implications about the cost of PV electricity

  12. Study on Mitigation Method of Solder Corrosion for Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of 62Sn36Pb2Ag solder connections poses serious difficulties for outdoor-exposed photovoltaic (PV modules, as connection degradation contributes to the increase in series resistance (RS of PV modules. In this study, we investigated a corrosion mitigation method based on the corrosion mechanism. The effect of added sacrificial metal on the reliability of PV modules was evaluated using the oxidation-reduction (redox reaction under damp heat (DH conditions. Experimental results after exposure to DH show that the main reason for the decrease in power was a drop in the module’s fill factor. This drop was attributed to the increase of RS. The drop in output power of the PV module without added sacrificial metal is greater than that of the sample with sacrificial metal. Electroluminescence and current-voltage mapping analysis also show that the PV module with sacrificial metal experienced less degradation than the sample without sacrificial metal.

  13. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  14. Yield from photovoltaic modules under real working situations in west Paraná - Brazil

    Roger Nabeyama Michels

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the external factors that influence the yield obtained from photovoltaic modules (Solarex® - MSX 56, as solar irradiance, temperature, placement angle and dust deposition on the photovoltaic modules  installed at the facilities of the Medianeira campus of the UTFPR, working under real conditions. To obtain the data it was used a datalogger from Campbell Scientific, Inc, model CR23X. It was observed that under solar irradiance below 550 W m-2 the panel did not convert maximum power, and above this value the panel reached saturation levels. Temperature increase led to reduced voltage, and consequently lower module output power, decreasing the efficiency value by nearly 6% at temperatures 15oC above the Standard Test Conditions (STC temperature. These panels are usually placed at different angles according to local latitude, remaining fixed in that position. In comparison with a horizontally-placed panel, it was obtained a 4-hour increase in yield when the panel reached saturation value. Dust levels reduced electricity production levels by approximately 16%. These factors must be taken into account for placement and maintenance of photovoltaic systems, so they can function efficiently.

  15. Spectral analysis to detection of short circuit fault of solar photovoltaic modules in strings

    Sevilla-Camacho, P.Y.; Robles-Ocampo, J.B.; Zuñiga-Reyes, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    This research work presents a method to detect the number of short circuit faulted solar photovoltaic modules in strings of a photovoltaic system by taking into account speed, safety, and non-use of sensors and specialized and expensive equipment. The method consists on apply the spectral analysis and statistical techniques to the alternating current output voltage of a string and detect the number of failed modules through the changes in the amplitude of the component frequency of 12 kHz. For that, the analyzed string is disconnected of the array; and a small pulsed voltage signal of frequency of 12 kHz introduces him under dark condition and controlled temperature. Previous to the analysis, the signal is analogic filtered in order to reduce the direct current signal component. The spectral analysis technique used is the Fast Fourier Transform. The obtained experimental results were validated through simulation of the alternating current equivalent circuit of a solar cell. In all experimental and simulated test, the method allowed to identify correctly the number of photovoltaic modules with short circuit in the analyzed string. (author)

  16. A review of module inverter topologies suitable for photovoltaic system

    Variath, Reshmi C; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Nielsen, Ole Neis

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates eight module inverter topologies and provides an overview of the merits and demerits of each on the basis of circuit level Pspice simulation. The complete system is modeled in Pspice and the model is made as realistic as possible by including the parasitic elements. Only...

  17. SISGR: Defect Studies of CZTSSe & Related Thin Film Photovoltaic Materials

    Scarpulla, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The research objectives of this project centered around investigations of the basic properties of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 especially the electronic defects in the bulk, at the interface with heterojunction partners used in solar cells, and at the polycrystalline grain boundaries. In the course of the project we addressed many specific sub-areas in 17 peer reviewed publications listed at the end of this report (2 more are also in preparation). The impact of this research is to generate basic but critical materials knowledge about this emerging alloy system that may be capable of photovoltaic efficiency on par with CdTe and CIGS but at lower cost and having the benefit of avoiding constraints on scale-up from rare and expensive elements using earth abundant elements. In the final phase of this project, Prof. Scarpulla worked with Dr. Kirstin Alberi at NREL and rigorously solved a theoretical problem that is general across all semiconductors – the prediction of point defect concentrations in the presence of excess carriers.

  18. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made with an objective to achieve conversion efficiency of 13% in a 30 cm times 30 cm size submodule of a CIS-based thin film solar cell, and to develop a manufacturing technology that can achieve 140 yen/Wp. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. In fiscal 1997, based on the achievements reached during the previous year, a submodule with a size of 10 cm times 30 cm was fabricated for an attempt of improving the open voltage and short circuit current density. Simultaneously, the applicability thereof to a module with an area as large as 30 cm times 30 cm was evaluated. As a result of experimental discussions, enhancement in the open voltage was verified by increasing amount of Ga or sulfur, but it was not possible to achieve 600 mV or higher. In the research of component technologies to establish a mass production process, research and development was made on a high-resistance buffer layer film forming technology, a high-quality window layer film forming technology, a high-quality metallic rear electrode film forming technology, and patterning technologies. The outdoor exposure test was continued on laminated mini-modules with a size of 10 cm times 10 cm. (NEDO)

  19. Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics.

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness ( approximately 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Omega/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (eta) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138 degrees , whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60 degrees . Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications.

  20. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness (∼ 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Ω/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138°, whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60°. Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. II-IV-V Based Thin Film Tandem Photovoltaic Cell

    Newman, Nathan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); van Schilfgaarde, Mark [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2012-10-04

    [Through a combination of theory and experiment that, absent unknown mitigating factors, a tandem cell whose (wide-gap. 1.8 eV) top layer is made of ZnSnP2 and whose (narrow gap, 1.1 eV) bottom layer consisting of ZnGeAs2 are near-ideal materials for a tandem cell. Not only are there gaps optimally adjusted to the solar spectrum, but the two compounds are lattice-matched, and their energy band structure and optical absorption are also near-ideal (they closely resemble that of GaAs). Our first major challenge is to establish that high-quality II-IV-V thin films can be synthesized. We have begun growing and characterizing films of ZnGeAs2 and ZnSnP2, initially grown on Ge substrates (the lattice constant of Ge matches these compounds) by pulsed laser ablation and sputtering. In tandem are theoretical calculations to guide the experiments. The goal is to develop methods that can be used to produce a pair of lattice-matched thin films that will be useful in tandem cells.

  2. A review of manufacturing metrology for improved reliability of silicon photovoltaic modules

    Davis, Kristopher O.; Walters, Joseph; Schneller, Eric; Seigneur, Hubert; Brooker, R. Paul; Scardera, Giuseppe; Rodgers, Marianne P.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Shiradkar, Narendra; Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Wohlgemuth, John; Rudack, Andrew C.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the use of manufacturing metrology across the supply chain to improve crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) module reliability and durability is addressed. Additionally, an overview and summary of a recent extensive literature survey of relevant measurement techniques aimed at reducing or eliminating the probability of field failures is presented. An assessment of potential gaps is also given, wherein the PV community could benefit from new research and demonstration efforts. This review is divided into three primary areas representing different parts of the c-Si PV supply chain: (1) feedstock production, crystallization and wafering; (2) cell manufacturing; and (3) module manufacturing.

  3. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology

    Huang Qi-Zhang; Zhu Yan-Qing; Shi Ji-Fu; Wang Lei-Lei; Zhong Liu-Wen; Xu Gang

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is employed to improve the photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) module. The 3D-printed concentrator is optically designed and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of the DSC module from 5.48% to 7.03%. Additionally, with the 3D-printed microfluidic device serving as water cooling, the temperature of the DSC can be effectively controlled, which is beneficial for keeping a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency for DSC module. Moreover, the 3D-printed microfluidic device can realize photothermal conversion with an instantaneous photothermal efficiency of 42.1%. The integrated device realizes a total photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of 49% at the optimal working condition. (paper)

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology

    Qi-Zhang Huang; Yan-Qing Zhu; Ji-Fu Shi; Lei-Lei Wang; Liu-Wen Zhong; Gang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is employed to improve the photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) module.The 3D-printed concentrator is optically designed and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of the DSC module from 5.48% to 7.03%.Additionally,with the 3D-printed microfluidic device serving as water cooling,the temperature of the DSC can be effectively controlled,which is beneficial for keeping a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency for DSC module.Moreover,the 3D-printed microfluidic device can realize photothermal conversion with an instantaneous photothermal efficiency of 42.1%.The integrated device realizes a total photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of 49% at the optimal working condition.

  6. Supply risks associated with CdTe and CIGS thin-film photovoltaics

    Helbig, Christoph; Bradshaw, Alex M.; Kolotzek, Christoph; Thorenz, Andrea; Tuma, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Supply risks associated with thin film photovoltaic technologies are considered. • Eleven supply risk indicators are used to evaluate Cd, Te, Cu, In, Ga, Se and Mo. • Indicator weighting based on peer assessment and an Analytic Hierarchy Process. • Various possibilities for the aggregation of elemental supply risks discussed. • Aggregated results show a marginally lower supply risk for CdTe than for CIGS. - Abstract: As a result of the global warming potential of fossil fuels there has been a rapid growth in the installation of photovoltaic generating capacity in the last decade. While this market is dominated by crystalline silicon, thin-film photovoltaics are still expected to make a substantial contribution to global electricity supply in future, due both to lower production costs and to recent increases in conversion efficiency. At present, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper-indium-gallium diselenide (CuIn_xGa_1_−_xSe_2) seem to be the most promising materials and currently have a share of ≈9% of the photovoltaic market. An expected stronger market penetration by these thin-film technologies raises the question as to the supply risks associated with the constituent elements. Against this background, we report here a semi-quantitative, relative assessment of mid- to long-term supply risk associated with the elements Cd, Te, Cu, In, Ga, Se and Mo. In this approach, the supply risk is measured using 11 indicators in the four categories “Risk of Supply Reduction”, “Risk of Demand Increase”, “Concentration Risk” and “Political Risk”. In a second step, the single indicator values, which are derived from publicly accessible databases, are weighted relative to each other specifically for the case of thin film photovoltaics. For this purpose, a survey among colleagues and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach are used, in order to obtain a relative, element-specific value for the supply risk. The aggregation of these

  7. Photovoltaic

    Fechner, H.; Heidenreich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 a wide test for photovoltaic (PV) was carried out in Austria, 110 stations were built and precise measurements were done. At that time the demand of integrating direct current from solar cells into the 50 Hz alternating current network was a weak point. At present four european research projects dealing with security, reliability, network compatibility and its integration in buildings are being developed. The cost development of PVs in Germany from 1983 to 1998 is given. Because of the PV environmental quality, one million of new intallations are demanded (until 2010) by the European commission. In Austria exists ∼5,000 kWp installed capacity and the growth rate average in the last years was 30 %. (nevyjel)

  8. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  9. Thermotropic Phase Transition of Benzodithiophene Copolymer Thin Films and Its Impact on Electrical and Photovoltaic Characteristics

    Ko, Sangwon

    2015-02-24

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. We observed a thermotropic phase transition in poly[3,4-dihexyl thiophene-2,2′:5,6′-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene] (PDHBDT) thin films accompanied by a transition from a random orientation to an ordered lamellar phase via a nearly hexagonal lattice upon annealing. We demonstrate the effect of temperature-dependent molecular packing on charge carrier mobility (μ) in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and photovoltaic characteristics, such as exciton diffusion length (LD) and power conversion efficiency (PCE), in organic solar cells (OSCs) using PDHBDT. The μ was continuously improved with increasing annealing temperature and PDHBDT films annealed at 270 °C resulted in a maximum μ up to 0.46 cm2/(V s) (μavg = 0.22 cm2/(V s)), which is attributed to the well-ordered lamellar structure with a closer - stacking distance of 3.5 Å as shown by grazing incidence-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD). On the other hand, PDHBDT films with a random molecular orientation are more effective in photovoltaic devices than films with an ordered hexagonal or lamellar phase based on current-voltage characteristics of PDHBDT/C60 bilayer solar cells. This observation corresponds to an enhanced dark current density (JD) and a decreased LD upon annealing. This study provides insight into the dependence of charge transport and photovoltaic characteristics on molecular packing in polymer semiconductors, which is crucial for the management of charge and energy transport in a range of organic optoelectronic devices.

  10. A Novel Semiconductor CIGS Photovoltaic Material and Thin-Film ED Technology

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells, a novel Semiconductor Photovoltaic (PV) active material CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) and thin-film Electro-Deposition (ED) technology is explored. Firstly,the PV materials and technologies is investigated, then the detailed experimental processes of CIGS/Mo/glass structure by using the novel ED technology and the results are reported. These results shows that high quality CIGS polycrystalline thin-films can be obtained by the ED method, in which the polycrystalline CIGS is definitely identified by the (112), (204, 220) characteristic peaks of the tetragonal structure, the continuous CIGS thin-film layers with particle average size of about 2μm of length and around 1.6μm of thickness. The thickness and solargrade quality of CIGS thin-films can be produced with good repeatability. Discussion and analysis on the ED technique, CIGS energy band and sodium (Na) impurity properties, were also performed. The alloy CIGS exhibits not only increasing band-gap with increasing x, but also a change in material properties that is relevant to the device operation. The beneficial impurity Na originating from the low-cost soda-lime glass substrate becomes one prerequisite for high quality CIGS films. These novel material and technology are very useful for low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells and other devices.

  11. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  12. Electrical contacts on polyimide substrates for flexible thin film photovoltaic devices

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J

    2003-05-01

    Both frontal and back electrical contacts have been developed onto polyimide sheets (Kapton KJ[reg]) as alternative substrates to the conventional glasses, for application in lightweight and flexible thin film photovoltaic devices. Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by r.f.-magnetron sputtering as the frontal electrical contact. On the other hand, Mo, Cr and Ni layers have been prepared by e-gun evaporation for the back electrical connections. ITO films deposited onto polyimide have shown similar optical transmittance and higher electrical conductivity than onto glass substrates. The transmittance decreases and the conductivity increases after heating at 400 sign C in vacuum atmosphere. Mo, Cr and Ni layers deposited onto polyimide showed similar structure and electrical conductivity than onto conventional glasses. The properties of Mo and Cr layers remained unchanged after heating at 400 sign C in selenium atmosphere.

  13. Potential-induced degradation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic modules

    Yamaguchi, Seira; Jonai, Sachiko; Hara, Kohjiro; Komaki, Hironori; Shimizu-Kamikawa, Yukiko; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru; Kawakami, Yuji; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Potential-induced degradation (PID) of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules fabricated from integrated submodules is investigated. PID tests were performed by applying a voltage of -1000 V to connected submodule interconnector ribbons at 85 °C. The normalized energy conversion efficiency of a standard module decreases to 0.2 after the PID test for 14 days. This reveals that CIGS modules suffer PID under this experimental condition. In contrast, a module with non-alkali glass shows no degradation, which implies that the degradation occurs owing to alkali metal ions, e.g., Na+, migrating from the cover glass. The results of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry show Na accumulation in the n-ZnO transparent conductive oxide layer of the degraded module. A CIGS PV module with an ionomer (IO) encapsulant instead of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate shows no degradation. This reveals that the IO encapsulant can prevent PID of CIGS modules. A degraded module can recover from its performance losses by applying +1000 V to connected submodule interconnector ribbons from an Al plate placed on the test module.

  14. The Possibility of Phase Change Materials (PCM Usage to Increase Efficiency of the Photovoltaic Modules

    Klugmann-Radziemska Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is widely available, free and inexhaustible. Furthermore this source of energy is the most friendly to the environment. For direct conversion of solar energy into useful forms like of electricity and thermal energy, respectively photovoltaic cells and solar collectors are being used. Forecast indicate that the first one solution will soon have a significant part in meeting the global energy demand. Therefore it is highly important to increase their efficiency in the terms of providing better energy conversion conditions. It can be obtain by designing new devices or by modifications of existing ones. This article presents general issues of photovoltaic installations exposed to work in high temperatures and basic concepts about phase change materials (PCMs. The paper presents the possibility of PCM usage to receive heat from the photovoltaic module. Specially designed test stand, consisting of PV module covered with a layer of PCM has been build and tested. Current-voltage characteristics of the cell without PCM material and with a layer of PCM have been presented. Authors also describe the results of the electrical and thermal characteristic of a coupled PV-PCM system.

  15. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon/thin film poly-crystalline silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon / usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on large-area low-cost manufacturing technologies on hybrid thin film solar cells of amorphous silicon and poly-crystalline silicon. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a texture construction formed naturally on silicon surface, and thin film poly-crystalline silicon cells with STAR structure having a rear side reflection layer to increase light absorption. The research achievements during the current fiscal year may be summarized as follows: the laser scribing technology for thin film poly-crystalline silicon was established, which is important for modularization, making fabrication of low-cost and large-area modules possible; a stabilization efficiency of 11.3% was achieved in a hybrid mini module comprising of ten-stage series integrated amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystalline silicon; structures different hybrid modules were discussed, whereas an initial efficiency of 10.3% (38.78W) was achieved in a sub-module having a substrate size of 910 mm times 455 mm; and feasibility of forming large-area hybrid modules was demonstrated. (NEDO)

  16. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules, development of technologies to increase high-quality film area; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With an objective to improve efficiency and reduce cost of CIS-based thin film solar cells, research and development has been made on technologies to increase high-quality CIS film area and technologies to increase speed in the manufacturing process. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. The research covered development of technologies to form high-grade Cu (In, Ga) Se{sub 2} (CIGS) film by using the multi-dimensional deposition process, component technologies for forming a rear electrode, a buffer layer and a transparent electrode, and patterning technologies. As a result of the research, thickness of the CIGS film was reduced to half as much as that of the conventional films, having achieved conversion efficiency of 13.1%, which corresponds to about 90% of the conventional CIGS solar cells. In addition, elucidation was made on the effect of an MoSe{sub 2} layer existing on interface with CIGS/Mo in a CIGS solar cell imposed on solar cell characteristics. In developing an Mo film laser scribing technology, intensity dependence of laser energy was made clear, the energy being required for scribing according to surface condition of the Mo film. (NEDO)

  17. Photovoltaics: tests of thin-film technologies. 6 thin-film technologies in 3 different BIPV modes compared in a real outdoor performance test; PV-ThinFilmTest. 6 thin-film technologies in 3 different BIPV modes compared in a real outdoor performance test

    Frei, R.; Meier, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a comparison made between six types of thin-film, building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technologies used in three different modes of building-integration. More than 450 thin-film modules including amorphous silicon and CIS technologies were monitored. Each type of module was installed in three different modes: inclined (20{sup o}), flat with free back air flow, and flat with thermal back insulation. The performance of these commercially available thin-film BIPV systems was monitored using an extensive monitoring program. Additionally, three mono-crystalline PV arrays allowed direct comparison of the technologies. The results of the monitoring work are presented and further work to be done is discussed, including the monitoring of possible long-term degradation.

  18. Kësterite thin films for photovoltaics : a review

    Delbos S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years to come, electricity production is bound to increase, and Cu2ZnSn(S, Se4 (CZTS compounds, due to their suitability to thin-film solar cells, could be a means to fulfill the demand. After explaining the reasons of the sudden interest of the CIGS scientific community for CZTS solar cells, this paper reviews recent papers published on the subject of kësterites-based solar cells. After a description of crystallographic and optoelectronic properties, including CZTS crystalline structure, defect formation and metal composition, this review paper focuses on CZTS synthesis processes and device properties. Synthesis strategies, including one- or two-step processes, deposition temperature, binary formation control via atmosphere control and their effect on device properties are discussed.

  19. Spatially resolved characterization in thin-film photovoltaics

    Bokalic, Matevz

    2015-01-01

    The book is devoted to the spatial characterization of solar cells and PV modules. It is written both as a monograph as well as a succinct guide for the state-of-the-art spatial characterization techniques and approaches. Amongst the approaches discussed are visual imaging, electro- and photo-luminescence imaging, thermography, and light beam induced mapping techniques. Emphasis is given on the luminescence image acquisition and interpretation due to its great potential. Characterization techniques are accompanied by simulation tools. The contents are aimed at a readership of students and s

  20. Industrial perspectives on earth abundant, multinary thin film photovoltaics

    Haight, Richard; Gershon, Talia; Gunawan, Oki; Antunez, Priscilla; Bishop, Douglas; Seog Lee, Yun; Gokmen, Tayfun; Sardashti, Kasra; Chagarov, Evgueni; Kummel, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The most efficient earth abundant, non-toxic thin film multelemental PV devices are fabricated from Cu, Zn, Sn, S and Se, with the chemical formula of Cu2ZnSn(S x Se1-x )4 (CZTS,Se). This material has enjoyed relatively rapid increases in efficiency from its inception to its present-day power conversion efficiency of 12.6%. But further increases in efficiency have been hampered by the inability to substantially increase Voc, the open circuit voltage. In this review article we will discuss the fundamentals of this important kesterite material including methods of film growth, post growth processing and device fabrication. Detailed studies of the properties of CZTS,Se including chemical, structural and electronic as well as full device electrical characterization have been performed in an effort to coax out the critical issues that limit performance. These experimental studies, enhanced by density functional theory calculations have pointed to fundamental bulk point defects, such as Cu-Zn antisites, and clusters of defects, as the primary culprits in limiting Voc increases. Improvements in device performance through grain boundary passivation and interface modifications are described. Exfoliation of functioning solar cells to expose the back surface along with engineering of new back contacts designed to impose electrostatic fields that drive electron-hole separation and increase Voc are discussed. A parallel route to increasing device performance by alloying Ag with CZTS,Se in order to inhibit Cu-Zn antisite defect formation has shown significant improvement in material properties. Finally, applications of high S (and hence higher Voc) CZTS,Se based devices to energy harvesting for ‘Internet-of-Things’ devices is discussed.

  1. FPGA-based implementation of a fuzzy controller (MPPT) for photovoltaic module

    Messai, A.; Mellit, A.; Massi Pavan, A.; Guessoum, A.; Mekki, H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → FL-MPPT controller is implemented on FPGA. → Results obtained with ModelSim show a satisfactory performance. → Results will be useful for future development in PV. -- Abstract: This paper describes the hardware implementation of a two-inputs one-output digital Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) on a Xilinx reconfigurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using VHDL Hardware Description Language. The FLC is designed for seeking the maximum power point deliverable by a photovoltaic module using the measures of the photovoltaic current and voltage. The simulation results obtained with ModelSim Xilinx Edition-III show a satisfactory performance with a good agreement between the expected and the obtained values.

  2. Pump and Flow Control Subassembly of Thermal Control Subsystem for Photovoltaic Power Module

    Motil, Brian; Santen, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    The pump and flow control subassembly (PFCS) is an orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module (PVM). The PFCS pumps liquid ammonia at a constant rate of approximately 1170 kg/hr while providing temperature control by flow regulation between the radiator and the bypass loop. Also, housed within the ORU is an accumulator to compensate for fluid volumetric changes as well as the electronics and firmware for monitoring and control of the photovoltaic thermal control system (PVTCS). Major electronic functions include signal conditioning, data interfacing and motor control. This paper will provide a description of each major component within the PFCS along with performance test data. In addition, this paper will discuss the flow control algorithm and describe how the nickel hydrogen batteries and associated power electronics will be thermally controlled through regulation of coolant flow to the radiator.

  3. FPGA-based implementation of a fuzzy controller (MPPT) for photovoltaic module

    Messai, A. [CRNB Ain Oussera, P.O. Box 180, 17200, Djelfa (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria); Mellit, A., E-mail: a.mellit@yahoo.co.u [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Jijel University, Ouled-aissa, P.O. Box 98, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria); Massi Pavan, A. [Department of Materials and Natural Resources, University of Trieste, Via A. Valerio, 2 - 34127 Trieste (Italy); Guessoum, A. [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria); Mekki, H. [CRNB Ain Oussera, P.O. Box 180, 17200, Djelfa (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, Blida University, Blida 90000 (Algeria)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} FL-MPPT controller is implemented on FPGA. {yields} Results obtained with ModelSim show a satisfactory performance. {yields} Results will be useful for future development in PV. -- Abstract: This paper describes the hardware implementation of a two-inputs one-output digital Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) on a Xilinx reconfigurable Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using VHDL Hardware Description Language. The FLC is designed for seeking the maximum power point deliverable by a photovoltaic module using the measures of the photovoltaic current and voltage. The simulation results obtained with ModelSim Xilinx Edition-III show a satisfactory performance with a good agreement between the expected and the obtained values.

  4. Standard Test Methods for Insulation Integrity and Ground Path Continuity of Photovoltaic Modules

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for (1) testing for current leakage between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components while a user-specified voltage is applied and (2) for testing for possible module insulation breakdown (dielectric voltage withstand test). 1.2 A procedure is described for measuring the insulation resistance between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components (insulation resistance test). 1.3 A procedure is provided for verifying that electrical continuity exists between the exposed external conductive surfaces of the module, such as the frame, structural members, or edge closures, and its grounding point (ground path continuity test). 1.4 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.5 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if a...

  5. New Sunshine Project FY 1996 report on the results of development of photovoltaic power generation system commercialization technologies. Research on commercialization of the technologies for production of thin-film photovoltaic cells (Development of fabrication technologies of high-quality CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cells); 1996 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu (kohinshitsuka gijutsu (CuInSe{sub 2} taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu))

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1996 results of development of fabrication technologies for high-quality CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaic cells. The Cu-Ga alloy/In-stacked precursor film is prepared for production of the high-quality thin-film absorber applicable to large-area module fabrication, and selenized by the vapor-phase selenization in a H{sub 2}Se gas atmosphere to produce the thin light-absorbing film in which In and Ga are present at graded concentrations. Increasing Ga alloy content in the CIGS-based thin-film photovoltaic cell fails to widen the forbidden band and improve V{sub oc}, and further optimization works are needed. The method is developed for production of thin-film buffer layer of sulfur-containing Zn compound which can give the cell characteristics equivalent to those of CdS generally used for CIS-based thin-film photovoltaic cell. It is clarified that the photovoltaic cell characteristics can be improved by use of a transparent electroconductive ZnO film of stacked structure, produced by a combination of RF sputtering and DC sputtering. For the patterning technologies necessary for forming series connection on a mini-module, the laser scribing method is applicable to the metal base-electrode, and the mechanical scribing method to the light absorber and window layer. (NEDO)

  6. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials (detachable plane panel); Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (chakudatsushiki heiban panel)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of technology for module structures, specifications of the horizontal muntin system module were newly determined in addition to the improved muntin system module, and the prototype pseudo-module integrated with construction material was prepared. The comparison results of the basic performance of both system modules clarified superior waterproofing and module temperature uniformity of the horizontal muntin system. Based on this specifications, integration technology of modules with back metal plates was studied. Formation of the integrated module close to final specifications was ascertained to be possible by use of passivation equipment to irregular form. (2) On development of construction and installation methods of modules, improvement of the waterproofing and workability of both system modules was studied. (3) On the study on practical use of modules, their design and ventilation/cooling structure were studied. 38 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Influence of thin film thickness of working electrodes on photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Lai Yeong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of the influence of thin film thickness of working electrodes on the photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films, with the thickness from 7.67 to 24.3 μm, were used to fabricate the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A TiO2 film was coated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass substrate and then sintered in a high-temperature furnace. On the other hand, platinum (Pt solution was coated onto an FTO substrate for the fabrication of the counter electrode of a DSSC. The working electrode immersed in a dye, the counter electrode, and the electrolyte were assembled to complete a sandwich-structure DSSC. The material analysis of the TiO2 films of DSSCs was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs were measured by an AM-1.5 sunlight simulator. The light transmittance characteristics of the TiO2 working electrode depend on the TiO2 film thickness. The thin film thickness of the working electrode also affects the light absorption of a dye and results in the photovoltaic characteristics of the DSSC, including open-circuited voltage (VOC, short-circuited current density (JSC, fill factor, and photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  8. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  9. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  10. Photovoltaic Properties of Co-doped ZnO Thin Film on Glass Substrate

    Sabia Aye; Zin Ma Ma; May Nwe Oo; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Cobalt (Co) 0.4 mol doped zinc oxide (ZnO) fine powder was prepared by solid state mixed oxide route. Phase formation and crystal structure of Co-doped ZnO (CZO) powder were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the micro structure of Co doped ZnO powder. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique gave the elemental content of cobalt and zinc. Co-doped ZnO film was formed on glass substrate by spin coating technique. Photovoltaic properties of CZO/glass cell were measured.

  11. Photovoltaic Properties and Ultrafast Plasmon Relaxation Dynamics of Diamond-Like Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Embedded Ag Nanoparticles.

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Peckus, Domantas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Čiegis, Arvydas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2017-12-01

    Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) and photovoltaic properties of heterojunctions consisting of DLC:Ag and crystalline silicon (DLC:Ag/Si) were investigated by means of transient absorption (TAS) spectroscopy and photovoltaic measurements. The heterojunctions using both p type and n type silicon were studied. It was found that TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films were dependent on the used excitation wavelength. At wavelengths where Ag nanoparticles absorbed light most intensively, only DLC signal was registered. This result is in good accordance with an increase of the DLC:Ag/Si heterojunction short circuit current and open circuit voltage with the excitation wavelength in the photovoltaic measurements. The dependence of the TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films and photovoltaic properties of DLC:Ag/Si heterostructures on the excitation wavelength was explained as a result of trapping of the photoexcited hot charge carriers in DLC matrix. The negative photovoltaic effect was observed for DLC:Ag/p-Si heterostructures and positive ("conventional") for DLC:Ag/n-Si ones. It was explained by the excitation of hot plasmonic holes in the Ag nanoparticles embedded into DLC matrix. Some decrease of DLC:Ag/Si heterostructures photovoltage as well as photocurrent with DLC:Ag film thickness was observed, indicating role of the interface in the charge transfer process of photocarriers excited in Ag nanoparticles.

  12. A circuit-based photovoltaic module simulator with shadow and fault settings

    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chao, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Jyun-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a photovoltaic (PV) module simulator. The proposed simulator, using electrical parameters from solar cells, could simulate output characteristics not only during normal operational conditions, but also during conditions of partial shadow and fault conditions. Such a simulator should possess the advantages of low cost, small size and being easily realizable. Experiments have shown that results from a proposed PV simulator of this kind are very close to that from simulation software during partial shadow conditions, and with negligible differences during fault occurrence. Meanwhile, the PV module simulator, as developed, could be used on various types of series-parallel connections to form PV arrays, to conduct experiments on partial shadow and fault events occurring in some of the modules. Such experiments are designed to explore the impact of shadow and fault conditions on the output characteristics of the system as a whole.

  13. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} photovoltaic modules

    Dyk, E.E. van [Physics Department, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)]. E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za; Radue, C. [Physics Department, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa); Gxasheka, A.R. [Physics Department, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2007-05-31

    In this study copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic (PV) modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure. The assessment is to be used as a baseline for future evaluation of the modules deployed outdoors as part of an ongoing evaluation of device performance and degradation. The main focus of the study is the long term monitoring of the devices to determine service lifetime. In this paper we will present initial results of the baseline evaluation, namely I-V characteristics, thorough visual inspection and an analysis of performance parameters. The results obtained revealed that the performance of one of the modules was inferior to the others evaluated. In order to further investigate this, laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements were conducted on regions that had a non-uniform appearance as observed visually.

  14. Portable and wireless IV-curve tracer for >5 kV organic photovoltaic modules

    Garcia Valverde, Rafael; Chaouki-Almagro, Samir; Corazza, Michael

    2016-01-01

    voltage applications, the design is based on low cost components, battery-based isolated supply and wireless communication. A prototype has been implemented and field tested for characterization of different organic photovoltaic modules (OPV) made according to the infinity concept with a large number......The practical design of a wirelessly controlled portable IV-curve tracer based on a capacitive load is described. The design is optimized for the measurement of solar cell modules presenting a high open circuit voltage of up to 6 kV and a low short circuit current below 100 mA. The portable IV......-tracer allows for on-site/in-situ characterization of large modules under real operating conditions and enables fast detection of potential failure of anomalies in electrical behavior. Currently available electronic loads only handle voltages up to around 1 kV. To overcome cost and safety issues related to high...

  15. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-12-06

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  16. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  17. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  18. The Semitransparent Photovoltaic Films for Mediterranean Greenhouse: A New Sustainable Technology

    Alvaro Marucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean countries offer very favorable climatic conditions for growing plants in a protected environment: as a matter of fact, the high solar radiation allows the use of greenhouses with simple structures, covered with plastic film and without fixed installations for winter heating. They are called “Mediterranean greenhouses” and are totally different from those in Central and Northern Europe. In the photovoltaic greenhouses, the cover on the pitch facing south is usually replaced by very opaque panels. However, this solution compromises the possibility to grow plants in covered and protected environments since solar radiation availability is limited and strongly nonuniform. In order to overcome this problem, semitransparent photovoltaic materials can be used to let the solar energy, necessary for plant growth, pass into the green house. The aim of this research is to analyze the radiometric properties of innovative semitransparent flexible photovoltaic materials in order to evaluate their performances in comparison with materials commonly used in the coverage of the greenhouses. Particular attention is paid to the transmittance of these materials in the visible range and in the long wave infrared for the achievement of greenhouse effect.

  19. Fundamental Issues in Manufacturing Photovoltaic Modules Beyond the Current Generation of Materials

    G. F. Alapatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to improve the solar cell’s efficiency beyond current generation of bulk and thin film of photovoltaic (PV devices have been reported during the last five decades. Concepts such as multiple exciton generations (MEG, carrier multiplication (CM, hot carrier extraction, and intermediate band solar cells have fundamental flaws, and there is no experimental evidence of fabricating practical higher efficiency solar cells based on the proposed concepts. To take advantages of quantum features of nanostructures for higher performance PV devices, self-assembly-based bottom-up processing techniques are not suitable for manufacturing due to inherent problems of variability, defects, reliability, and yield. For processing nanostructures, new techniques need to be invented with the features of critical dimensional control, structural homogeneity, and lower cost of ownership as compared to the processing tools used in current generations of bulk and thin-film solar cells.

  20. Prediction Model of Photovoltaic Module Temperature for Power Performance of Floating PVs

    Waithiru Charles Lawrence Kamuyu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction in the price of photovoltaic (solar PV cells and modules has resulted in a rapid increase in solar system deployments to an annual expected capacity of 200 GW by 2020. Achieving high PV cell and module efficiency is necessary for many solar manufacturers to break even. In addition, new innovative installation methods are emerging to complement the drive to lower $/W PV system price. The floating PV (FPV solar market space has emerged as a method for utilizing the cool ambient environment of the FPV system near the water surface based on successful FPV module (FPVM reliability studies that showed degradation rates below 0.5% p.a. with new encapsulation material. PV module temperature analysis is another critical area, governing the efficiency performance of solar cells and module. In this paper, data collected over five-minute intervals from a PV system over a year is analyzed. We use MATLAB to derived equation coefficients of predictable environmental variables to derive FPVM’s first module temperature operation models. When comparing the theoretical prediction to real field PV module operation temperature, the corresponding model errors range between 2% and 4% depending on number of equation coefficients incorporated. This study is useful in validation results of other studies that show FPV systems producing 10% more energy than other land based systems.

  1. Quantitative Prediction of Power Loss for Damaged Photovoltaic Modules Using Electroluminescence

    Timo Kropp

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescence (EL is a powerful tool for the qualitative mapping of the electronic properties of solar modules, where electronic and electrical defects are easily detected. However, a direct quantitative prediction of electrical module performance purely based on electroluminescence images has yet to be accomplished. Our novel approach, called “EL power prediction of modules” (ELMO as presented here, used just two electroluminescence images to predict the electrical loss of mechanically damaged modules when compared to their original (data sheet power. First, using this method, two EL images taken at different excitation currents were converted into locally resolved (relative series resistance images. From the known, total applied voltage to the module, we were then able to calculate absolute series resistance values and the real distribution of voltages and currents. Then, we reconstructed the complete current/voltage curve of the damaged module. We experimentally validated and confirmed the simulation model via the characterization of a commercially available photovoltaic module containing 60 multicrystalline silicon cells, which were mechanically damaged by hail. Deviation between the directly measured and predicted current/voltage curve was less than 4.3% at the maximum power point. For multiple modules of the same type, the level of error dropped below 1% by calibrating the simulation. We approximated the ideality factor from a module with a known current/voltage curve and then expand the application to modules of the same type. In addition to yielding series resistance mapping, our new ELMO method was also capable of yielding parallel resistance mapping. We analyzed the electrical properties of a commercially available module, containing 72 monocrystalline high-efficiency back contact solar cells, which suffered from potential induced degradation. For this module, we predicted electrical performance with an accuracy of better

  2. Smart Global Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller of Photovoltaic Module Arrays

    Long-Yi Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study first explored the effect of shading on the output characteristics of modules in a photovoltaic module array. Next, a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO method was employed to track the maximum power point of the multiple-peak characteristic curve of the array. Through the optimization method, the weighting value and cognition learning factor decreased with an increasing number of iterations, whereas the social learning factor increased, thereby enhancing the tracking capability of a maximum power point tracker. In addition, the weighting value was slightly modified on the basis of the changes in the slope and power of the characteristic curve to increase the tracking speed and stability of the tracker. Finally, a PIC18F8720 microcontroller was coordinated with peripheral hardware circuits to realize the proposed PSO method, which was then adopted to track the maximum power point of the power–voltage (P–V output characteristic curve of the photovoltaic module array under shading. Subsequently, tests were conducted to verify that the modified PSO method exhibited favorable tracking speed and accuracy.

  3. Standard Test Methods for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide procedures to determine the insulation resistance of a photovoltaic (PV) module, i.e. the electrical resistance between the module's internal electrical components and its exposed, electrically conductive, non-current carrying parts and surfaces. 1.2 The insulation integrity procedures are a combination of wet insulation resistance and wet dielectric voltage withstand test procedures. 1.3 These procedures are similar to and reference the insulation integrity test procedures described in Test Methods E 1462, with the difference being that the photovoltaic module under test is immersed in a wetting solution during the procedures. 1.4 These test methods do not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of these test methods. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.6 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety conce...

  4. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of photovoltaic power utilizing system and peripheral technologies (Research and development of novel type solar cell module integratable with building materials - Highly durable roof module); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu - kotaikyusei yane module)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A thin-film solar array, a large roof panel, and an interconnecting power conditioner are integrated into one and single structural member for the development of a residential photovoltaic power system in which a unit AC (alternating current) output is collected from each panel. In fiscal 1999, in the study of highly durable materials for solar cell modules and of their structure, a thin film compound solar cell module was enlarged to 82cm times 71cm, evaluated for performance, and installed on the third test house. In the study of collecting AC power from the solar cell module, a compact power conditioner for a roof panel which had been in test operation on the roof of the laboratory since 1998 was checked for practical performance, improved, and evaluated for system generation efficiency. In the study of a highly durable roof module structure, problems pertaining to heat radiation from the rear side steel sheet, the burning of the junction box, etc., were solved, and the module passed a verification test under the Building Standard Law. In the validation of the roof module for which power generation performance and meteorological conditions had already been continuously measured for 19 months, it was found that the roof module suffered no troubles such as water leak or deformation. (NEDO)

  5. Quantifying Local Thickness and Composition in Thin Films of Organic Photovoltaic Blends by Raman Scattering

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Xabier

    2017-07-06

    We report a methodology based on Raman spectroscopy that enables the non-invasive and fast quantitative determination of local thickness and composition in thin films (from few monolayers to hundreds of nm) of one or more components. We apply our methodology to blends of organic conjugated materials relevant in the field of organic photovoltaics. As a first step, we exploit the transfer-matrix formalism to describe the Raman process in thin films including reabsorption and interference effects of the incoming and scattered electric fields. This allows determining the effective solid-state Raman cross-section of each material by studying the dependence of the Raman intensity on film thickness. These effective cross sections are then used to estimate the local thickness and composition in a series of polymer:fullerene blends. We find that the model is accurate within ±10 nm in thickness and ±5 vol% in composition provided that (i) the film thickness is kept below the thickness corresponding to the first maximum of the calculated Raman intensity oscillation; (ii) the materials making up the blend show close enough effective Raman cross-sections; and (iii) the degree of order attained by the conjugated polymer in the blend is similar to that achieved when cast alone. Our methodology opens the possibility to make quantitative maps of composition and thickness over large areas (from microns to centimetres squared) with diffraction-limited resolution and in any multi-component system based thin film technology.

  6. Recovery Act : Near-Single-Crystalline Photovoltaic Thin Films on Polycrystalline, Flexible Substrates

    Venkat Selvamanickam; Alex Freundlich

    2010-11-29

    III-V photovoltaics have exhibited efficiencies above 40%, but have found only a limited use because of the high cost of single crystal substrates. At the other end of the spectrum, polycrystalline and amorphous thin film solar cells offer the advantage of low-cost fabrication, but have not yielded high efficiencies. Our program is based on single-crystalline-like thin film photovoltaics on polycrystalline substrates using biaxially-textured templates made by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD). MgO templates made by IBAD on flexible metal substrate have been successfully used for epitaxial growth of germanium films. In spite of a 4.5% lattice mismatch, heteroepitaxial growth of Ge was achieved on CeO2 that was grown on IBAD MgO template. Room temperature optical bandgap of the Ge films was identified at 0.67 eV indicating minimal residual strain. Refraction index and extinction coefficient values of the Ge films were found to match well with that measured from a reference Ge single crystal. GaAs has been successfully grown epitaxially on Ge on metal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. RHEED patterns indicate self annihilation of antiphase boundaries and the growth of a single domain GaAs. The GaAs is found to exhibit strong photoluminescence signal and, an existence of a relatively narrow (FWHM~20 meV) band-edge excitons measured in this film indicates a good optoelectronic quality of deposited GaAs. While excellent epitaxial growth has been achieved in GaAs on flexible metal substrates, the defect density of the films as measured by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and etch pit experiments showed a high value of 5 * 10^8 per cm^2. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy of the multilayer architecture showed concentration of threading dislocations near the germanium-ceria interface. The defect density was found decrease as the Ge films were made thicker. The defects appear to originate from the MgO layer presumably because of large lattice mismatches

  7. Worldwide outdoor round robin study of organic photovoltaic devices and modules

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Gevorgyan, Suren; Pacios, R.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate characterization and reporting of organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance remains one of the important challenges in the field. The large spread among the efficiencies of devices with the same structure reported by different groups is significantly caused by different procedures......-to-roll coated OPV cells and modules conducted among 46 laboratories worldwide is presented, where the samples and the testing equipment were integrated in a compact suitcase that served both as a sample transportation tool and as a holder and test equipment during testing. In addition, an internet based...

  8. A Novel Method for Surface Defect Detection of Photovoltaic Module Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Xuewu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method for surface defect detection of photovoltaic module based on independent component analysis (ICA reconstruction algorithm. Firstly, a faultless image is used as the training image. The demixing matrix and corresponding ICs are obtained by applying the ICA in the training image. Then we reorder the ICs according to the range values and reform the de-mixing matrix. Then the reformed de-mixing matrix is used to reconstruct the defect image. The resulting image can remove the background structures and enhance the local anomalies. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively detect the presence of defects in periodically patterned surfaces.

  9. Building integration photovoltaic module with reference to Ghana: using triple junction amorphous silicon

    Essah, Emmanuel Adu

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential for using building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) \\ud roof shingles made from triple-junction amorphous silicon (3a-Si) for electrification \\ud and as a roofing material in tropical countries, such as Accra, Ghana. A model roof \\ud was constructed using triple-junction amorphous (3a-Si) PV on one section and \\ud conventional roofing tiles on the other. The performance of the PV module and tiles \\ud were measured, over a range of ambient temperatures and solar...

  10. Efficient photovoltaic conversion of graphene–carbon nanotube hybrid films grown from solid precursors

    Gan, Xin; Lv, Ruitao; Bai, Junfei; Zhang, Zexia; Wei, Jinquan; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Zhu, Hongwei; Kang, Feiyu; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Large-area (e.g. centimeter size) graphene sheets are usually synthesized via pyrolysis of gaseous carbon precursors (e.g. methane) on metal substrates like Cu using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), but the presence of grain boundaries and the residual polymers during transfer deteriorates significantly the properties of the CVD graphene. If carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be covalently bonded to graphene, the hybrid system could possess excellent electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical strength. In this work, conducting and transparent CNT–graphene hybrid films were synthesized by a facile solid precursor pyrolysis method. Furthermore, the synthesized CNT–graphene hybrid films display enhanced photovoltaic conversion efficiency when compared to devices based on CNT membranes or graphene sheets. Upon chemical doping, the graphene–CNT/Si solar cells reveal power conversion efficiencies up to 8.50%. (paper)

  11. Organic photovoltaics using thin gold film as an alternative anode to indium tin oxide

    Haldar, Amrita; Yambem, Soniya D.; Liao, Kang-Shyang; Alley, Nigel J.; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Barron, Andrew R.; Curran, Seamus A.

    2011-01-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is the most commonly used anode as a transparent electrode and more recently as an anode for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, there are significant drawbacks in using ITO which include high material costs, mechanical instability including brittleness and poor electrical properties which limit its use in low-cost flexible devices. We present initial results of poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester OPVs showing that an efficiency of 1.9% (short-circuit current 7.01 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage 0.55 V, fill factor 0.49) can be attained using an ultra thin film of gold coated glass as the device anode. The initial I-V characteristics demonstrate that using high work function metals when the thin film is kept ultra thin can be used as a replacement to ITO due to their greater stability and better morphological control.

  12. Surface plasmon effect in electrodeposited diamond-like carbon films for photovoltaic application

    Ghosh, B.; Ray, Sekhar C.; Espinoza-González, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Roberto; Hevia, Samuel A.; Alvarez-Vega, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and nanocrystalline silver particles containing diamond-like carbon (DLC:Ag) films were electrodeposited on n-type silicon substrate (n-Si) to prepare n-Si/DLC and n-Si/DLC:Ag heterostructures for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in this cell structure and its overall performance have been studied in terms of morphology, optical absorption, current-voltage characteristics, capacitance-voltage characteristics, band diagram and external quantum efficiency measurements. Localized surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in n-Si/DLC:Ag PV structure exhibited an enhancement of ∼28% in short circuit current density (JSC), which improved the overall efficiency of the heterostructures.

  13. Charge conduction process and photovoltaic effects in thiazole yellow (TY) thin film based Schottky devices

    Roy, M.S. [Defence Lab., Jodhpur (India). Camouflage Div.; Sharma, G.D.; Gupta, S.K. [Department of Physics, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur (Raj.) (India)

    1997-11-21

    The charge generation and photovoltaic effects observed with thin films of TY in the form of sandwich structures, were analysed by J-V, C-V and photoaction spectra. These measurements were explained in terms of n-type semiconductivity of TY thin film and by the formation of a Schottky barrier with ITO while Ohmic contact with an Al or In electrode. The existence of thermionic emission over the ITO-TY barrier has been observed in low voltage region, whereas at high voltages, the process is dominant by the series resistance of TY layer. Various electrical parameters were calculated from the analysis of J-V and C-V characteristics of the devices and discussed in details. The diode quality factor is higher for Al/TY/ITO than In/TY/ITO device which can be attributed to the formation of thin layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} between Al and TY. The photoaction spectra of the devices reveal that the fraction of light which is absorbed near the ITO-TY interface, to the depth of 180 A, is responsible for producing the charge carriers. The photovoltaic parameters were also calculated from the J-V characteristics of the devices, under illumination and described in detail. (orig.) 21 refs.

  14. Efficiency simulations of thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells for different indoor lighting conditions

    Minnaert, B.; Veelaert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is an efficient natural energy source for outdoor applications. However, for indoor applications, the efficiency of PV cells is much lower. Typically, the light intensity under artificial lighting conditions is less than 10 W/m 2 as compared to 100-1000 W/m 2 under outdoor conditions. Moreover, the spectrum is different from the outdoor solar spectrum. In this context, the question arises whether thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells are suitable for indoor use. This paper contributes to answering that question by comparing the power output of different thin film chalcogenide solar cells with the classical crystalline silicon cell as reference. The comparisons are done by efficiency simulation based on the quantum efficiencies of the solar cells and the light spectra of typical artificial light sources i.e. an LED lamp, a 'warm' and a 'cool' fluorescent tube and a common incandescent and halogen lamp, which are compared to the outdoor AM 1.5 spectrum as reference.

  15. An Image-Based Gamut Analysis of Translucent Digital Ceramic Prints for Coloured Photovoltaic Modules

    Roland Schregle

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colouring the frontglass of photovoltaic (PV modules via digital ceramic printing aids in concealing the PV modules when integrated into existing building façades as building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV, while admitting sufficient light to produce electricity. This promotes the visual acceptance and adoption of PV modules as a source of renewable energy in urban environments. The effective colour of the PV laminate is a combination of the transparent colour on glass and the colour of the PV cells. This colour should ideally match the architect’s visual expectations in terms of fidelity, but also in terms of relative PV efficiency as a function of print density. In practice, these requirements are often contradictory, particularly for vivid colours, and the visual results may deviate significantly. This paper presents an objective analysis of how colours appear on ceramically printed frontglass when laminated with a PV module, using an image-based colour acquisition process. Given a set of 1044 nominal colours uniformly distributed in the RGB colour space, each printed in 10 opacities, we quantify the range of effective colours observed when printed on glass and combined with a PV module, and their deviation from the nominals. Our results confirm that the effective colour gamuts are significantly constrained and skewed, depending on the ink volume and glass finish used for printing. In particular, blue–magenta hues cannot be reliably rendered with this process. These insights can serve as guidelines for selecting target colours for BIPV that can be well approximated in practice.

  16. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics: 2016 Performance Data Update

    Deline, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meydbray, Jenya [PV Evolution Labs (PVEL), Davis, CA (United States); Donovan, Matt [PV Evolution Labs (PVEL), Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The 2012 NREL report 'Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics' provides a standard methodology for estimating the performance benefit of distributed power electronics under partial shading conditions. Since the release of the report, experiments have been conducted for a number of products and for different system configurations. Drawing from these experiences, updates to the test and analysis methods are recommended. Proposed changes in data processing have the benefit of reducing the sensitivity to measurement errors and weather variability, as well as bringing the updated performance score in line with measured and simulated values of the shade recovery benefit of distributed PV power electronics. Also, due to the emergence of new technologies including sub-module embedded power electronics, the shading method has been extended to include power electronics that operate at a finer granularity than the module level. An update to the method is proposed to account for these emerging technologies that respond to shading differently than module-level devices. The partial shading test remains a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations as would be experienced by typical residential or commercial rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. Performance data for multiple products tested using this method are discussed, based on equipment from Enphase, Solar Edge, Maxim Integrated and SMA. In general, the annual recovery of shading losses from the module-level electronics evaluated is 25-35%, with the major difference between different trials being related to the number of parallel strings in the test installation rather than differences between the equipment tested. Appendix D data has been added in this update.

  17. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Volume 1. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules and survey and research on analyzing how to put products into practical use); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1))

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to assist research and development to put thin film solar cells for power use into practical use and a research to put thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies into practical use, survey and research have been performed on trends in the technologies inside and outside the country. Characteristic points in thin film solar cells during the current fiscal year include: expansion of production scale of amorphous silicon solar cells, rapid progress in poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cell technologies, and enhancement of performance in large-area modules in the a-Si, CIGS, and CdTe systems. In the trends in research and development of amorphous systems, expectation is heightening on elucidation of optical deterioration phenomena, and establishment of suppression technologies thereof. Although the highest efficiency was not renewed in thin film solar cells of small areas, progress was seen in the post-stabilization efficiency in large-area modules. A thin film solar cell manufacturing plant having an annual production capacity of 20 MW was put into operation in October in Japan. Micro (poly) crystalline silicon based solar cells have high possibility of being compatible in cost reduction and performance improvement, and energetic researches are being carried out on them in recent years as the most promising candidate of the next generation solar cells. (NEDO)

  18. Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Module with an Integrated Energy Storage System

    Manel Hammami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is proposing and analyzing an electric energy storage system fully integrated with a photovoltaic PV module, composed by a set of lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4 flat batteries, which constitutes a generation-storage PV unit. The batteries were surface-mounted on the back side of the PV module, distant from the PV backsheet, without exceeding the PV frame size. An additional low-emissivity sheet was introduced to shield the batteries from the backsheet thermal irradiance. The challenge addressed in this paper is to evaluate the PV cell temperature increase, due to the reduced thermal exchanges on the back of the module, and to estimate the temperature of the batteries, verifying their thermal constraints. Two one-dimensional (1D thermal models, numerically implemented by using the thermal library of Simulink-Matlab accounting for all the heat exchanges, are here proposed: one related to the original PV module, the other related to the portion of the area of the PV module in correspondence of the proposed energy-storage system. Convective and radiative coefficients were then calculated in relation to different configurations and ambient conditions. The model validation has been carried out considering the PV module to be at the nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT, and by specific experimental measurements with a thermographic camera. Finally, appropriate models were used to evaluate the increasing cell batteries temperature in different environmental conditions.

  19. Comparative study of the reliability of MPPT algorithms for the crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in variable weather conditions

    Abraham Dandoussou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are widely used as power supply sources in the tropical areas where the weather conditions change abruptly. Fortunately, many MPPT algorithms are implemented to improve their performance. In the other hand, it is well known that these power supply sources are nonlinear dipoles and so, their intrinsic parameters may vary with the irradiance and the temperature. In this paper, the MPPT algorithms widely used, i.e. Perturb and Observe (P&O, Incremental Conductance (INC, Hill-Climbing (HC, are implemented using Matlab®/Simulink® model of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module whose intrinsic parameters were extracted by fitting the I(V characteristic to experimental points. Comparing the simulation results, it is obvious that the variable step size INC algorithm has the best reliability than both HC and P&O algorithms for the near to real Simulink® model of photovoltaic modules. With a 60 Wp photovoltaic module, the daily maximum power reaches 50.76 W against 34.40 W when the photovoltaic parameters are fixed. Meanwhile, the daily average energy is 263 Wh/day against 195 Wh/day.

  20. Siemens solar CIS photovoltaic module and system performance at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Strand, T.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Willett, D. [Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper evaluates the individual module and array performance of Siemens Solar Industries copper indium diselenide (CIS) polycrystalline thin-film technology. This is accomplished by studying module and array performance over time. Preliminary temperature coefficients for maximum power, maximum-power voltage, maximum-power current, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor are determined at both the module and array level. These coefficients are used to correct module/array performance to 25{degrees}C to evaluate stability. The authors show that CIS exhibits a strong inverse correlation between array power and back-of-module temperature. This is due mainly to the narrow bandgap of the CIS material, which results in a strong inverse correlation between voltage and temperature. They also show that the temperature-corrected module and array performance has been relatively stable over the evaluation interval ({approx}2 years).

  1. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Dissolution/deposition method); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to manufacture the above at low cost by a dissolution/deposition method. Under this method, a film is fabricated containing crystals high in quality and large in size though the film area is very small. In fiscal 1998, an effort to fabricate a film to cover a 10cm square substrate failed. The failure is explained by that the heater was too small for the substrate area and that the failure to uniformly heat the substrate resulted in an inplane temperature distribution greater than expected. The furnace was modified in a minor way to narrow substrate temperature distribution as much as possible. Another attempt was made to fabricate a larger-area film on a 5cm square substrate, and then crystals grew to cover approximately the whole surface of the 5cm square substrate. Efforts will continue to achieve the goal. As for the mechanism of film fabrication on substrates of different kinds, self-coating is now described by difference in heat conductivity between a carbon substrate and silicon substrate. Thanks to individual control in a small film fabricating unit, a film thickness of approximately 100 micrometers was achieved. The distance of diffusion was 30 micrometers or more in the case of a small area, and the efficiency of a solar cell using this film was found at 10.2%. (NEDO)

  2. Organic solar cell modules for specific applications-From energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics

    Niggemann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Haschke, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Gombert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of two types of organic solar cell modules one for energy autonomous systems and one for large area energy harvesting. The first requires a specific tailoring of the solar cell geometry and cell interconnection in order to power an energy autonomous system under its specific operating conditions. We present an organic solar cell module with 22 interconnected solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 2% under solar illumination has been reached on the active area of 46.2 cm 2 . A voltage of 4 V at the maximum power point has been obtained under indoor illumination conditions. Micro contact printing of a self assembling monolayer was employed for the patterning of the polymer anode. Large area photovoltaic modules have to meet the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs simultaneously. To minimize the production costs, a suitable concept for efficient reel-to-reel production of large area modules is needed. A major contribution to reduce the costs is the substitution of the commonly used indium tin oxide electrode by a cheap material. We present the state of the art of the anode wrap through concept as a reel-to-reel suited module concept and show comparative calculations of the module interconnection of the wrap through concept and the standard ITO-based cell architecture. As a result, the calculated overall module efficiency of the anode wrap through module exceeds the overall efficiency of modules based on ITO on glass (sheet resistance 15 Ω/square) and on foils (sheet resistance 60 Ω/square)

  3. Optimization of particle trapping and patterning via photovoltaic tweezers: role of light modulation and particle size

    Matarrubia, J; García-Cabañes, A; Plaza, J L; Agulló-López, F; Carrascosa, M

    2014-01-01

    The role of light modulation m and particle size on the morphology and spatial resolution of nano-particle patterns obtained by photovoltaic tweezers on Fe : LiNbO 3 has been investigated. The impact of m when using spherical as well as non-spherical (anisotropic) nano-particles deposited on the sample surface has been elucidated. Light modulation is a key parameter determining the particle profile contrast that is optimum for spherical particles and high-m values (m ∼ 1). The minimum particle periodicities reachable are also investigated obtaining periodic patterns up to 3.5 µm. This is a value at least one order of magnitude shorter than those obtained in previous reported experiments. Results are successfully explained and discussed in light of the previous reported models for photorefraction including nonlinear carrier transport and dielectrophoretic trapping. From the results, a number of rules for particle patterning optimization are derived. (paper)

  4. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell / low-cost and large-area module / next-generation thin-film solar cell (Manufacture of thin-film polycrystalline solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fiscal 1997 is the first year of another 4-year-long research and development phase. In addition to researches for improving on thin-film polycrystalline Si cell efficiency that have been under way, new efforts are started, which include the development of practicality-conscious thin film producing technologies aiming at higher throughput and yield and the development of modularization process technologies which are necessary for putting thin-film cells to practical use. Concerning the formation of a power generation layer on a polycrystalline Si thin film formed by the ZMR (zone-melting recrystallization) process, studies are conducted for improvement on its throughput and yield using a new CVD (chemical vapor deposition) unit. A method of modularization is evaluated, which involves a laminate of a thin-film cell attached to a resin-coated, reinforced glass substrate and an EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) back film. A remarkable achievement is earned toward the practicalization of technologies of thin film formation enhanced in quality and throughput and technologies of thin film modularization. (NEDO)

  6. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    Trinh, Cong

    2012-07-10

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz), forming a film composed of the metal-ligand complex. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex leads to marked changes in the morphology and optical properties of the film. X-ray diffraction studies show that the chemical annealing process converts amorphous ZnTPP films to crystalline ZnTPP•ligand films, whose porphryin planes lie nearly parallel to the substrate (average deviation is 8° for the ZnTPP•pz film). Organic solar cells were prepared with ZnTPP donor and C 60 acceptor layers. Devices were prepared with and without chemical annealing of the ZnTPP layer with a pyrazine ligand. The devices with chemically annealed ZnTPP donor layer show an increase in short-circuit current (J SC) and fill factor (FF) relative to analogous unannealed devices, presumably because of enhanced exciton diffusion length and improved charge conductivity. The open circuit voltages (V OC) of the chemically annealed devices are lower than their unannealed counterpart because of enhanced polaron pair recombination at the donor/acceptor heterojunction. A net improvement of 5-20% in efficiency has been achieved, after chemical annealing of ZnTPP films with pyrazine. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew T.; Steiner, Andrew; Tassone, Christopher J.; Toney, Michael F.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz

  8. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules (dissolution and deposition process); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed by noticing on the plasma spraying method as a process that can manufacture thin poly-crystalline silicon films at a high speed. Fiscal 1997 has established a technology that can form a silicon film directly without using seed crystals in an area of 2-cm square on a carbon supported substrate by using a small film manufacturing equipment using the dissolution and deposition process. The size of the crystal is as very large as several hundred {mu}m, by which a possibility of making high-performance solar cells was verified. Discussions were given to apply this technology to large-area substrates, whereas a device was developed, which is capable of forming a film in an area corresponding to 10-cm square. According to a film forming experiment using this device, the film has begun being formed on part of a 10-cm square substrate, verifying the effectiveness of this method. While the film thickness is about 100 {mu}m, it was confirmed that the crystal size will not change even if the thickness is made mechanically as thin as about 50 {mu}m. Further discussions were given on enhancement of wettability by means of coating, and light enclosing structure. (NEDO)

  9. Characterization of Novel Thin-Films and Structures for Integrated Circuit and Photovoltaic Applications

    Zhao, Zhao

    Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer in silicon can be treated as ion implanted thin film, which plays an essential role in the integrated circuits fabrication. Novel rapid annealing methods, i.e. microwave annealing and laser annealing, are conducted to activate ion dopants and repair the damages, and then are compared with the conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). In terms of As+ and P+ implanted Si, the electrical and structural characterization confirms that the microwave and laser annealing can achieve more efficient dopant activation and recrystallization than conventional RTA. The efficient dopant activation in microwave annealing is attributed to ion hopping under microwave field, while the liquid phase growth in laser annealing provides its efficient dopant activation. The characterization of dopants diffusion shows no visible diffusion after microwave annealing, some extent of end range of diffusion after RTA, and significant dopant diffusion after laser annealing. For photovoltaic applications, an indium-free novel three-layer thin-film structure (transparent composited electrode (TCE)) is demonstrated as a promising transparent conductive electrode for solar cells. The characterization of TCE mainly focuses on its optical and electrical properties. Transfer matrix method for optical transmittance calculation is validated and proved to be a desirable method for predicting transmittance of TCE containing continuous metal layer, and can estimate the trend of transmittance as the layer thickness changes. TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAgT) electrode for organic solar cells (OSCs) is then designed using numerical simulation and shows much higher Haacke figure of merit than indium tin oxide (ITO). In addition, TAgT based OSC shows better performance than ITO based OSC when compatible hole transfer layer

  10. Tuning the photovoltaic effect of multiferroic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} composite films by magnetic fields

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Bi, Gui-Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Hao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo, E-mail: wanjg@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-05-30

    The 0–3 type CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (CFO-PZT) multiferroic composite films have been prepared by a sol-gel process and spin-coating technique. A confirmable photovoltaic effect is observed under ultraviolet light irradiation. Moreover, this photovoltaic effect can be tuned by external magnetic fields. The maximum magnetic modulation ratios of short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage can reach as high as 13.7% and 12.8% upon the application of 6 kOe DC magnetic field. Through remnant polarization measurements under various magnetic fields and detailed analysis of the energy band structures, we elucidate the mechanism of tuning photovoltaic effect by magnetic fields and attribute it to the combination of two factors. One is the decreased ferroelectric-polarization-induced depolarization electric field and another is the band structure reconstruction at CFO-PZT interfaces, both of which are dominated by the magnetoelectric coupling via interfacial stress transferring at nanoscale. This work makes some attempts of coupling photo-induced effects with magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic materials and will widen the practical ranges of multiferroic-based applications.

  11. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    Crozier, J.L.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I–V curves of the whole module with the I–V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  12. Characterization of cell mismatch in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module

    Crozier, J.L., E-mail: s207094248@live.nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this study the causes and effects of cell mismatch were identified in a multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module. Different techniques were used to identify the causes of the mismatch, including Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, Infrared (IR) imaging, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, worst-case cell determination and Large Area Laser Beam Induced Current (LA-LBIC) scans. In EL images the cracked cells, broken fingers and material defects are visible. The presence of poorly contacted cells results in the formation of hot-spots. LA-LBIC line scans give the relative photoresponse of the cells in the module. However, this technique is limited due to the penetration depth of the laser beam. The worst case cell determination compares the I-V curves of the whole module with the I-V curve of the module with one cell covered, allowing the evaluation of the performance of each cell in a series-connected string. These methods allowed detection of the poorly performing cells in the module. Using all these techniques an overall view of the photoresponse in the cells and their performance is obtained.

  13. Single-Carrier Modulation for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters in Three-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Cavalcanti, Marcelo C.; Farias, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation strategy is one of the most important issues for three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters in three-phase transformerless photovoltaic systems. A challenge for modulation is how to keep the common-mode voltages constant to reduce the leakage currents. A single-carrier modulation...... strategy is proposed. It has a very simple structure, and the common-mode voltages can be kept constant with no need of complex space-vector modulation or multicarrier pulsewidth modulation. Experimental results verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the presented method....

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Manufacture of high-reliability CdTe solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The target is a low-cost CdS/CdTe solar cell of a large area (60cm times 90cm), the establishment of mass-production technologies for the cell, and the enhancement of production efficiency. A thin film formation technology of subjecting CdS film organic metal to pyrolysis is established, which reduces photoabsorption loss in the shortwave domain of wavelength of not longer than 500nm, reduces reflection loss in the film, and improves on short-circuit current density. Improvement is also achieved on CdTe film quality and junction quality by use of a proximity sublimation method in a vacuum, when a conversion rate of 16.0% (1cm{sup 2}) is attained which is the highest in the world. Based on the results of the above-said efforts, a 3.3mm-thick glass substrate is employed for CdTe film to develop into a 30cm times 60cm-large size, with the film thereon uniformly thick over a large area thanks to a normal pressure proximity sublimation method. Studies are made toward a process nearer to the ultimate product and, using the patterning technique, a 30cm times 60cm-large CdTe solar cell is tentatively built realizing a conversion rate of 9.8%. (NEDO)

  15. Study of curved glass photovoltaic module and module electrical isolation design requirements

    1980-06-01

    The design of a 1.2 by 2.4 m curved glass superstrate and support clip assembly is presented, along with the results of finite element computer analysis and a glass industry survey conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Installed costs for four curved glass module array configurations are estimated and compared with cost previously reported for comparable flat glass module configurations. Electrical properties of candidate module encapsulation systems are evaluated along with present industry practice for the design and testing of electrical insulation systems. Electric design requirements for module encapsulation systems are also discussed.

  16. Research progress on large-area perovskite thin films and solar modules

    Zhichun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskites have exhibited a bright future as photovoltaic semiconductor in next generation solar cells due to their unique and promising physicochemical properties. Over the past few years, we have witnessed a tremendous progress of efficiency record evolution of perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Up to now, the highest efficiency record of PSCs has reached 22.1%; however, it was achieved at a very small device area of <0.1 cm2. With the device area increasing to mini-module scale, the efficiency record dropped dramatically. The inherent causes are mainly ascribed to inadequate quality control of large-area perovskite thin films and insufficient optimization of solar module design. In current stage of PSCs research and development, to overcome these two obstacles is in urgent need before this new technology could realize scale-up industrialization. Herein, we present an overview of recently developed strategies for preparing large-area perovskite thin films and perovskite solar modules (PSMs. At last, cost analysis and future application directions of PSMs have also been discussed.

  17. Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module using fuzzyfied genetic algorithm

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal modeling of novel dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal hybrid module. • Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of dual channel photovoltaic thermal module. • Annual performance has been evaluated for Srinagar, Jodhpur, Bangalore and New Delhi (India). • There are improvements in results for optimized system as compared to un-optimized system. - Abstract: The work has been carried out in two steps; firstly the parameters of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module has been optimized using a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. During the course of optimization, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function and different design parameters of the proposed module have been optimized. Fuzzy controller is used to improve the performance of genetic algorithms and the approach is called as a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. In the second step, the performance of the module has been analyzed for four cities of India such as Srinagar, Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi. The performance of the module has been evaluated for daytime 08:00 AM to 05:00 PM and annually from January to December. It is to be noted that, an average improvement occurs in electrical efficiency of the optimized module, simultaneously there is also a reduction in solar cell temperature as compared to un-optimized module.

  18. Development of thin-film Si HYBRID solar module

    Nakajima, Akihiko; Gotoh, Masahiro; Sawada, Toru; Fukuda, Susumu; Yoshimi, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nomura, Takuji [Kaneka Corporation, 2-1-1, Hieitsuji, Otsu, Shiga 520-0104 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The device current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of thin-film silicon stacked tandem solar modules (HYBRID modules), consisting of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) cell and a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell ({mu}c-Si), have been investigated under various spectral irradiance distributions. The performance of the HYBRID module varied periodically in natural sunlight due to the current-limiting property of the HYBRID module and the environmental effects. The behavior based on the current-limiting property was demonstrated by the modelling of the I-V curves using the linear interpolation method for each component cell. The improvement of the performance for the HYBRID module in natural sunlight will also be discussed from the viewpoint of the device design of the component cells. (author)

  19. Efficiency and degradation of a copper indium diselenide photovoltaic module and yearly output at a sunny site in Jordan

    Durisch, Wilhelm; Lam, King-Hang; Close, Josie

    2006-01-01

    The present work mainly deals with the testing and modeling of a commercially-available copper indium diselenide (CIS) ST40 module from the former Siemens Solar Industries (SSI). For this purpose, a large quantity of current/voltage characteristics were measured in the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI)'s photovoltaic test-facility under different cell temperatures, solar irradiation and air mass, AM, conditions. They were used to develop a semi-empirical efficiency model to correlate all measured data sets. The goal was to make available a model, allowing quick and accurate calculation of the performance of the CIS module under all relevant operating conditions. For the undegraded state of the module, the efficiency model allowed us to deduce the efficiency at Standard Test Conditions, STC, and its temperature coefficient at STC, which were 11.58% and minus 0.050% deg. C, respectively. The output of the undegraded module under STC was found to be 42.4 W, i.e., 6% higher than specified by the manufacturer (40 W). Furthermore, the efficiency does not decrease with increasing air mass. At a cell temperature of 25 deg. C and a relative air mass of 1.5, the module has a maximum in efficiency of 12.0% at an irradiance of about 650 W/m 2 . This indicates that the series-resistance losses become significant at higher irradiances. Hence, improving the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrode on the front side of the cells might lead to a higher output at high irradiances. Identical testing and modeling were repeated after having exposed the module to real weather conditions for one year. We found that the STC efficiency was reduced by 9.0%, from 11.58 down to 10.54%. The temperature coefficient of the efficiency had changed from minus 0.050 % deg. C to minus 0.039% deg. C. These results indicate possible chemical changes in the semiconductor film. The output of the module at STC was reduced by 9.0% from 42.4 W down to 38.6 W. Using meteorological data from a sunny site in

  20. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of high-reliability CdS/CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Cost reduction for the above-named solar cells is the aim of this effort. On the basis of the results of past studies, a technology is established of fabricating a thin CdS film by subjecting a CdS film to organometal pyrolysis, and this brings about a decrease in photoabsorption loss in the range of waves shorter than 500nm and a decrease in in-film reflection loss for an increase in short-circuit current density. A proximity sublimation method is used for CdTe film fabrication, which improves on film quality and film adhesion. These efforts result in the achievement of a conversion efficiency of 16.0% which is the highest in the world. Studies are promoted in a process nearer to the ultimate form, and a 30cm times 60cm large CdTe solar cell is fabricated on the basis of a patterning technique, and the product attains a conversion efficiency of 9.8%. In fiscal 1998, studies center about the establishment of a film fabrication process for a medium-are substrate and about the enhancement of its conversion efficiency, and facilities capable of dealing with large-area substrates are introduced and operated. In a typical achievement, a CdTe solar cell is experimentally fabricated in a process which is wholly under normal pressure, and the product with an aperture area of 1376cm{sup 2} exhibits a conversion efficiency of 10.5% according to JQA (Japan Quality Assurance Organization). (NEDO)

  1. Photovoltaic roof construction

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-02-26

    In a batten-seam roof construction employing at least one photovoltaic cell module, the electrical conduits employed with the at least one photovoltaic cell module are disposed primarily under the battens of the roof.

  2. Novel patterning of CdS / CdTe thin film with back contacts for photovoltaic application

    Ilango, Murugaiya Sridar; Ramasesha, Sheela K.

    2018-04-01

    The heterostructure of patterned CdS / CdTe thin films with back contact have been devised with electron beam lithography and fabricated using sputter deposition technique. The metallic contacts for n-CdS and p-CdTe are patterned such that both are placed at the bottom of the cell. This avoids losses due to contact shading and increases absorption in the window layer. Patterning of the device surface helps in increasing the junction area which can modulate the absorption of more number of photons due to total internal reflection. Computing the surface area between a planar and a patterned device has revealed 133% increase in the junction area. The physical and optical properties of the sputter-deposited CdS / CdTe layers are also presented. J- V characteristics of the solar cell showed the fill factor to be 25.9%, open circuit voltage to be 17 mV and short-circuit current density to be 113.68 A/m2. The increase in surface area is directly related to the increase in the short circuit current of the photovoltaic cell, which is observed from the results of simulated model in Atlas / Silvaco.

  3. High index glass thin film processing for photonics and photovoltaic (PV) applications

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu Anthony

    To favorably compete with fossil-fuel technology, the greatest challenge for thin film solar-cells is to improve efficiency and reduce material cost. Thickness scaling to thin film reduces material cost but affects the light absorption in the cells; therefore a concept that traps incident photons and increases its optical path length is needed to boost absorption in thin film solar cells. One approach is the integration of low symmetric gratings (LSG), using high index material, on either the front-side or backside of 30 um thin c-Si cells. In this study, Multicomponent TeO2--Bi2O 3--ZnO (TBZ) glass thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The influences of oxygen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of the resulting thin films were investigated. The structural origin of the optical property variation was studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that TBZ glass thin film is a suitable material for front side LSG material photovoltaic and photonics applications due to their amorphous nature, high refractive index (n > 2), broad band optical transparency window, low processing temperature. We developed a simple maskless method to pattern sputtered tellurite based glass thin films using unconventional agarose hydrogel mediated wet etching. Conventional wet etching process, while claiming low cost and high throughput, suffers from reproducibility and pattern fidelity issues due to the isotropic nature of wet chemical etching when applied to glasses and polymers. This method overcomes these challenges by using an agarose hydrogel stamp to mediate a conformal etching process. In our maskless method, agarose hydrogel stamps are patterned following a standard soft lithography and replica molding process from micropatterned masters and soaked in a chemical etchant. The micro-scale features on the stamp are

  4. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  5. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technology - Development of high-quality film enlargement technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / kohinshitsumaku no daimensekika gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to establish a manufacturing process that enables both high-quality CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) film solar cell enlargement and cost reduction and to develop a device structure which uses less heavy metal for the purposes of increasing the CIS thin-film solar cell size and efficiency and decreasing environmental impact. Several element technologies have been established for increasing the area of high-efficiency Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. Concerning the enlargement of the photoabsorption layer which is to assume the most important role, it is found that a high-quality CIGS film, which is near homogeneous though within a 10cm times 10cm area, is fabricated by an in-line vapor deposition method. As for dead area reduction and high-speed patterning, it is found that laser scribing works effectively in the patterning of the window layer and photoabsorption layer. As for reduction in the use of heavy metal, a high efficiency of 16.2% is attained in a cell not using a CdS film as expected in the case of a cell using a CdS film, this thanks to a CIGS film surface reforming technique. The technique of junction formation for CIGS solar cells is improved, and then a true efficiency of 18.5% is achieved. (NEDO)

  6. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules: Final Subcontract Report, April 1998 - April 2002

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore, S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the automated systems developed for PV module assembly and testing processes after lamination. These processes are applicable to a broad range of module types, including those made with wafer-based and thin-film solar cells. Survey data and input from module manufacturers gathered during site visits were used to define system capabilities and process specifications. Spire completed mechanical, electrical, and software engineering for four automation systems: a module edge trimming system, the SPI-TRIM 350; an edge sealing and framing system, the SPI-FRAMER 350; an integrated module testing system, the SPI-MODULE QA 350; and a module buffer storage system, the SPI-BUFFER 350. A fifth system for junction-box installation, the SPI-BOXER 350, was nearly completed during the program. A new-size solar simulator, the SPI-SUN SIMULATOR 350i, was designed as part of the SPI-MODULE QA 350. This simulator occupies minimal production floor space, and its test area is large enough to handle most production modules. The automated systems developed in this program are designed for integration to create automated production lines.

  7. Cu-based metal-organic framework thin films: A morphological and photovoltaic study

    Khajavian, Ruhollah; Ghani, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    This work explores the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of [Cu2(bdc)2(bpy)]n thin films by using pyridine and acetic acid as capping agents onto mesoporous titania surface. While in the presence of acetic acid highly-ordered crystals with nanoplate morphology are formed, modulation with pyridine gives rise to formation of leaf-like crystals. In addition, processing sequence also matters when modulator is added. According to our results, modulators should be added to metal solution rather than linker/pillar during LbL assembly. These films were subsequently shown to generate photocurrent in a sandwich-type Grätzel solar cell device in response to simulated 1 sun illumination. The results also demonstrated that the device consisted of well-aligned nanoplates exhibits higher power conversion efficiency than the similar cell with disordered leaf-like crystals after iodine loading.

  8. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to improve cell efficiency, experiments were conducted for enhancing bottom a-SiGe cell efficiency for the embodiment of an enhanced-efficiency multi-junction cell, for improving crystallinity in microcrystalline silicon through the application of VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition), for texturizing metal electrodes on a film substrate, and so forth. In the effort to increase the film fabrication rate, a VHF plasma CVD device was used for studying the effect of the discharge frequency on film deposition and quality, Vpp between the electrodes, and so forth. Studies about the high-throughput production technology centered on the film substrate solar cell process technology and the designing of an optimum geometrical pattern for SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) cells. Production cost was estimated for the SCAF structure film substrate solar cell manufacturing process, and a production cost of 147.1 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was obtained as achievable under the currently available conditions. (NEDO)

  9. The field experiments and model of the natural dust deposition effects on photovoltaic module efficiency.

    Jaszczur, Marek; Teneta, Janusz; Styszko, Katarzyna; Hassan, Qusay; Burzyńska, Paulina; Marcinek, Ewelina; Łopian, Natalia

    2018-04-20

    The maximisation of the efficiency of the photovoltaic system is crucial in order to increase the competitiveness of this technology. Unfortunately, several environmental factors in addition to many alterable and unalterable factors can significantly influence the performance of the PV system. Some of the environmental factors that depend on the site have to do with dust, soiling and pollutants. In this study conducted in the city centre of Kraków, Poland, characterised by high pollution and low wind speed, the focus is on the evaluation of the degradation of efficiency of polycrystalline photovoltaic modules due to natural dust deposition. The experimental results that were obtained demonstrated that deposited dust-related efficiency loss gradually increased with the mass and that it follows the exponential. The maximum dust deposition density observed for rainless exposure periods of 1 week exceeds 300 mg/m 2 and the results in efficiency loss were about 2.1%. It was observed that efficiency loss is not only mass-dependent but that it also depends on the dust properties. The small positive effect of the tiny dust layer which slightly increases in surface roughness on the module performance was also observed. The results that were obtained enable the development of a reliable model for the degradation of the efficiency of the PV module caused by dust deposition. The novelty consists in the model, which is easy to apply and which is dependent on the dust mass, for low and moderate naturally deposited dust concentration (up to 1 and 5 g/m 2 and representative for many geographical regions) and which is applicable to the majority of cases met in an urban and non-urban polluted area can be used to evaluate the dust deposition-related derating factor (efficiency loss), which is very much sought after by the system designers, and tools used for computer modelling and system malfunction detection.

  10. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  11. A high efficiency photovoltaic module integrated converter with the asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter

    Kim, Heeje; Kim, Jongrak; Shin, Dongsul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Hosung; Lee, Kyungjun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Jonghyun; Yoo, Dongwook [New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    A module integrated converter (MIC) for a photovoltaic (PV) cell is important part of power conditioning system (PCS). It performs maximum power point tracking of a PV cell to generate the power as much as possible from solar energy. There are several methods for connection between the PV modules and the MICs. In order to avoid partial shading effects, converter-per-module approach was proposed. The MIC that performs maximum power point tracking (MPPT), if it is low efficiency, is no use. The MIC whose output is connected to the output of PV module was proposed for high efficiency. However, there are some problems. In this study, an asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter is proposed instead of the original flyback converter with same method to solve the problems. The proposed MIC was built to verify the performance. The new topology using soft switching technique showed good performance for the efficiency. At the higher power, the efficiency of the proposed converter is higher than existing converter. (author)

  12. Standard Test Methods for Photovoltaic Modules in Cyclic Temperature and Humidity Environments

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide procedures for stressing photovoltaic modules in simulated temperature and humidity environments. Environmental testing is used to simulate aging of module materials on an accelerated basis. 1.2 Three individual environmental test procedures are defined by these test methods: a thermal cycling procedure, a humidity-freeze cycling procedure, and an extended duration damp heat procedure. Electrical biasing is utilized during the thermal cycling procedure to simulate stresses that are known to occur in field-deployed modules. 1.3 These test methods define mounting methods for modules undergoing environmental testing, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.4 These test methods do not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of these test methods. 1.5 Any of the individual environmental tests may be performed singly, or may be combined into a test sequence with other environmental or non-envir...

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL BASED THIN FILMS CZTS BY SCAPS

    C. Mebarkiaa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the overall context of the diversification of the use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic has become increasingly indispensable. As such, the development of a new generation of photovoltaic cells based on CuZnSnS4 (CZTS looks promising. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS is a new film absorber, with good physical properties (band gap energy 1.4-1.6 eV [01] with a large absorption coefficient over 104 cm-1. Indeed, the performance of these cells exceeded 30% in recent years.In the present paper, our work based on modeling and numerical simulation, we used SCAPS to study the performance of solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS and thus evaluate the electrical efficiency η for typical structures of ZnO / i- ZnO / CdS / CZTS and ITO / ZnO / CdS / CZTS. Furthermore, the influence of the change of CdS by ZnSe buffer layer was treated in this paper.

  14. Exploration of Al-Doped ZnO in Photovoltaic Thin Films

    Ciccarino, Christopher; Sahiner, M. Alper

    The electrical properties of Al doped ZnO-based thin films represent a potential advancement in the push for increasing solar cell efficiency. Doping with Aluminum will theoretically decrease resistivity of the film and therefore achieve this potential as a viable option in the P-N junction phase of photovoltaic cells. The n-type semi-conductive characteristics of the ZnO layer will theoretically be optimized with the addition of Aluminum carriers. In this study, Aluminum doping concentrations ranging from 1-3% by mass were produced, analyzed, and compared. Films were developed onto ITO coated glass using the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Target thickness was 250 nm and ellipsometry measurements showed uniformity and accuracy in this regard. Active dopant concentrations were determined using Hall Effect measurements. Efficiency measurements showed possible applications of this doped compound, with upwards of 7% efficiency measured, using a Keithley 2602 SourceMeter set-up. XRD scans showed highly crystalline structures, with effective Al intertwining of the hexagonal wurtzile ZnO molecular structure. This alone indicates a promising future of collaboration between these two materials.

  15. Implementation of a submicrometer patterning technique in azopolymer films towards optimization of photovoltaic solar cells efficiency

    Cocoyer, C.; Rocha, L.; Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.; Sicot, L.; Vaufrey, D.; Sentein, C.; Geffroy, B.; Raimond, P.

    2006-01-01

    The weak absorption of the photoactive layer appears as a one of the main factors limiting organic photovoltaic solar cells performances. In order to increase the interaction of the incident light with the photoactive materials, we investigate the effect of a periodic patterning of the solar cells surface with microstructures in the optical wavelength scale. In this aim, we present an original all optical patterning technique of polymer films. The method is based on a laser controlled mass transport in azopolymer films leading to efficient deformation of the film surface in conjunction with the incoming light interference pattern. The technique is used to pattern one-dimensional gratings on the surface of solar cells. In the work presented here, the cell photoactive material is based on the interpenetrated network of a conjugated donor polymer and a fullerene derivative. The cells investigated are illuminated in a reverse configuration through a semi-transparent top cathode. The effect of the periodic structures onto the incident light propagation has been investigated through optical characterizations. We demonstrate that a part of the incident light can be trapped inside the solar cell layers due to diffraction onto the periodic structures

  16. A comparison of light-coupling into high and low index nanostructured photovoltaic thin films

    T. Pfadler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodically structured electrodes are typically introduced to thin-film photovoltaics for the purpose of light management. Highly effective light-trapping and optimal in-coupling of light is crucial to enhance the overall device performance in such thin-film systems. Here, wavelength-scale structures are transferred via direct laser interference patterning to electron-selective TiO2 electrodes. Two representative thin-film solar cell architectures are deposited on top: an organic solar cell featuring blended P3HT:PCBM as active material, and a hybrid solar cell with Sb2S3 as inorganic active material. A direct correlation in the asymmetry in total absorption enhancement and in structure-induced light in-coupling is spectroscopically observed for the two systems. The structuring is shown to be beneficial for the total absorption enhancement if a high n active material is deposited on TiO2, but detrimental for a low n material. The refractive indices of the employed materials are determined via spectroscopic ellipsometry. The study outlines that the macroscopic Fresnel equations can be used to investigate the spectroscopically observed asymmetry in light in-coupling at the nanostructured TiO2 active material interfaces by visualizing the difference in reflectivity caused by the asymmetry in refractive indices.

  17. Nearly zero transmission through periodically modulated ultrathin metal films

    Xiao, Sanshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Peng, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Transmission of light through an optically ultrathin metal film with a thickness comparable to its skin depth is significant. We demonstrate experimentally nearly-zero transmission of light through a film periodically modulated by a one-dimensional array of subwavelength slits. The suppressed...... optical transmission is due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons and the zero-transmission phenomenon is strongly dependent on the polarization of the incident wave....

  18. Photovoltaic properties of in-doped CDTE thin films deposited on metallic substrates

    Wagah F Mohamad; Khalid K Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    CDTE is a promising photovoltaic material due to its nearly optimum band gap and high optical absorption coefficient. This study looks into the effect of indium doping of the CdTe thin film deposited on stainless steel substrate. The conventional cells are usually manufactured on glass substrate and offer no weight advantage over single crystal cells. Since the metal foil support can be as thin as (40-60) μm and the weight saving is significant. The spectral response of the photo current with and without indium doping was studied in detail and compared with theory. The sub gap response of the resulted structure is particularly strong and extends to wavelengths up to 1000 nm

  19. Anthradithiophene-Containing Copolymers for Thin-Film Transistors and Photovoltaic Cells

    Jiang, Ying

    2010-08-10

    We synthesized anthradithiophene-cyclopentadithiophene conjugated copolymers via Stille coupling. The anthradithiophene core was verified to be superior in stability compared to pentacene toward Diels-Alder cycloaddition and therefore more compatible with fullerenes, acceptor material commonly used in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. The polymers exhibit high film absorption coefficients of 105 cm-1, an order of magnitude higher than previously reported anthradithiophene-dialkylfluorene copolymers. Short-circuit currents exceeding 5 mA/cm2 and a BHJ device efficiency close to 1% were achieved when device morphology was improved with diiodooctane as a solvent additive. This is the highest power conversion efficiency achieved by an acene-containing polymer so far. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Understanding the cell-to-module efficiency gap in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 photovoltaics scale-up

    Bermudez, Veronica; Perez-Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2018-06-01

    Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) solar cells show record efficiencies comparable to those of crystalline Si-based technologies. Their industrial module production costs are also comparable to those of Si photovoltaics in spite of their much lower production volume. However, the competitiveness of CIGS is compromised by the difference in performance between cell and module scales, known as the cell-to-module efficiency gap, which is significantly higher than in competing industrial photovoltaic technologies. In this Review, we quantify the main cell-to-module efficiency loss mechanisms and discuss the various strategies explored in academia and industry to reduce the efficiency gap: new transparent conductive oxides, hybrid modularization approaches and the use of wide-bandgap solar absorbers in the 1.4-1.5 eV range. To implement these strategies, research gaps relating to various device layers need to be filled.

  1. Roll-to-Roll Slot–Die Coated Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Modules with High Geometrical Fill Factors

    Galagan, Y.; Fledderus, H.; Gorter, H.; Mannetje, H.H. 't; Shanmugam, S.; Mandamparambil, R.; Bosman, J.; Rubingh, J.M.; Teunissen, J.P.; Salem, A.; Vries, I.G. de; Andriessen, R.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible semi-transparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were manufactured by roll-to-roll slot–die coating of three functional layers [ZnO, photoactive layer, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)] and either the screen printing or inkjet printing of the top

  2. Customized color patterning of photovoltaic cells

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Lentine, Anthony L.; Resnick, Paul J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, as well as methods of making and using such photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the photovoltaic cells selectively reflect visible light to provide the photovoltaic cells with a colorized appearance. Photovoltaic modules combining colorized photovoltaic cells may be used to harvest solar energy while providing a customized appearance, e.g., an image or pattern.

  3. Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si

    Raugei, Marco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of a thorough energy and life cycle assessment (LIA) of CdTe and CIS photovoltaic modules. The analysis is based on actual production data, making it one of the very first of its kind to be presented to the scientific community, and therefore especially worthy of attention as a preliminary indication of the future environmental impact that the up-scaling of thin film module production may entail. The analysis is consistent with the recommendations provided by ISO norms 14040 and updates, and makes use of an in-house developed multi-method impact assessment method named SUMMA, which includes resource demand indicators, energy efficiency indicators, and 'downstream' environmental impact indicators. A comparative framework is also provided, wherein electricity produced by thin film systems such as the ones under study is set up against electricity from poly-Si systems and the average European electricity mix. Results clearly show an overall very promising picture for thin film technologies, which are found to be characterised by favourable environmental impact indicators (with special reference to CdTe systems), in spite of their still comparatively lower efficiencies

  4. Development of Tandem Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Large-Area See-Through Color Solar Panels with Reflective Layer and 4-Step Laser Scribing for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Applications

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film large-area see-through color solar modules were successfully designed and developed for building-integrated photovoltaic applications. Novel and key technologies of reflective layers and 4-step laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to produce solar panels with various colors, such as purple, dark blue, light blue, silver, golden, orange, red wine, and coffee. The highest module power is 105 W and the highest visible light transmittance is near 20%.

  5. Analysis of twelve-month degradation in three polycrystalline photovoltaic modules

    Lai, T.; Potter, B. G.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    2016-09-01

    Polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules have the advantage of lower manufacturing cost as compared to their monocrystalline counterparts, but generally exhibit both lower initial module efficiencies and more significant early-stage efficiency degradation than do similar monocrystalline PV modules. For both technologies, noticeable deterioration in power conversion efficiency typically occurs over the first two years of usage. Estimating PV lifetime by examining the performance degradation behavior under given environmental conditions is, therefore, one of continual goals for experimental research and economic analysis. In the present work, accelerated lifecycle testing (ALT) on three polycrystalline PV technologies was performed in a full-scale, industrial-standard environmental chamber equipped with single-sun irradiance capability, providing an illumination uniformity of 98% over a 2 x 1.6m area. In order to investigate environmental aging effects, timedependent PV performance (I-V characteristic) was evaluated over a recurring, compressed day-night cycle, which simulated local daily solar insolation for the southwestern United States, followed by dark (night) periods. During a total test time of just under 4 months that corresponded to a year equivalent exposure on a fielded module, the temperature and humidity varied in ranges from 3°C to 40°C and 5% to 85% based on annual weather profiles for Tucson, AZ. Removing the temperature de-rating effect that was clearly seen in the data enabled the computation of normalized efficiency degradation with time and environmental exposure. Results confirm the impact of environmental conditions on the module long-term performance. Overall, more than 2% efficiency degradation in the first year of usage was observed for all thee polycrystalline Si solar modules. The average 5-year degradation of each PV technology was estimated based on their determined degradation rates.

  6. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Mustafa Hussain, Muhammad; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging classes of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV+ scheme (“+” denotes the addition of diffuse collector), the Si and MJ cells operate independently on indirect and direct solar radiation, respectively. On-sun experimental studies of CPV+ modules at latitudes of 35.9886° N (Durham, NC), 40.1125° N (Bondville, IL), and 38.9072° N (Washington, DC) show improvements in absolute module efficiencies of between 1.02% and 8.45% over values obtained using otherwise similar CPV modules, depending on weather conditions. These concepts have the potential to expand the geographic reach and improve the cost-effectiveness of the highest efficiency forms of PV power generation.

  7. Thin-film photovoltaic power generation offers decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing environmental co-benefits in the long term.

    Bergesen, Joseph D; Heath, Garvin A; Gibon, Thomas; Suh, Sangwon

    2014-08-19

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies have improved significantly recently, and similar improvements are projected into the future, warranting reevaluation of the environmental implications of PV to update and inform policy decisions. By conducting a hybrid life cycle assessment using the most recent manufacturing data and technology roadmaps, we compare present and projected environmental, human health, and natural resource implications of electricity generated from two common thin-film PV technologies-copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe)-in the United States (U.S.) to those of the current U.S. electricity mix. We evaluate how the impacts of thin films can be reduced by likely cost-reducing technological changes: (1) module efficiency increases, (2) module dematerialization, (3) changes in upstream energy and materials production, and (4) end-of-life recycling of balance of system (BOS). Results show comparable environmental and resource impacts for CdTe and CIGS. Compared to the U.S. electricity mix in 2010, both perform at least 90% better in 7 of 12 and at least 50% better in 3 of 12 impact categories, with comparable land use, and increased metal depletion unless BOS recycling is ensured. Technological changes, particularly efficiency increases, contribute to 35-80% reductions in all impacts by 2030.

  8. Thermal analysis of compositionally modulated Fe/Y films

    Kajiura, M.; Morishita, T.; Togami, Y.; Tsushima, K.

    1987-01-01

    Structures of compositionally modulated Fe/Y films were studied by thermal analysis. The exothermic peak found in the DSC curve of (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) most probably corresponds to crystallization of an amorphous material. SEM analysis suggested that the composition of crystallized (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) was YFe2. It is concluded that a compositionally modulated (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) is amorphous in structure as well as in magnetic properties

  9. Intelligent Prognostic Framework for Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Photovoltaic Module

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available All industrial systems and machines are subjected to degradation processes, which can be related to the operating conditions. This degradation can cause unwanted stops at any time and major maintenance work sometimes. The accurate prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL is an important challenge in condition-based maintenance. Prognostic activity allows estimating the RUL before failure occurs and triggering actions to mitigate faults in time when needed. In this study, a new smart prognostic method for photovoltaic module health degradation was developed based on two approaches to achieve more accurate predictions: online diagnosis and data-driven prognosis. This framework of forecasting integrates the strengths of real-time monitoring in the first approach and relevant vector machine in the second. The results show that the proposed method is plausible due to its good prediction of RUL and can be effectively applied to many systems for monitoring and prognostics.

  10. Output energy of a photovoltaic module mounted on a single-axis tracking system

    Chang, Tian Pau

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the electric energy from a photovoltaic module was calculated theoretically at different azimuths and tilt angles in Taiwan. The gain of the module mounted on a single-axis tracking panel relative to a traditional fixed panel was analyzed. To simulate different operation environments, both types of radiation will be considered in addition to observed radiation, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation and the global radiation predicted by an empirical model. The results show that the optimal tilt angle obtained from the observed data is flatter than those from other two radiation types and becomes flatter while the panel deviates from due south. The yearly gains obtained from the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations are 51.4%, 28.5% and 18.7%, respectively, if a single-axis tracked panel is installed with the yearly optimal tilt angle; the similar gains are 45.3%, 25.9% and 17.5%, respectively, while the panel is adjusted to its monthly optimal angle each month. The amount of yearly energy in due west (or east) is less than its maximum in due south by about 11%, 10% and 5% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation respectively. The yearly conversion efficiency of a fixed module is 10.2%, 9.2% and 8.3% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation, respectively.

  11. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  12. Estimating service lifetimes of a polymer encapsulant for photovoltaic modules from accelerated testing

    Czanderna, A.W.; Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper, most of the emphasis is on A9918 ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) used commercially as the pottant for encapsulating photovoltaic (PV) modules, in which the efficiencies in field-deployed modules have been reduced by 10-70% in 4-12 years. Yet, projections were made by several different research groups in the 1980s that the EVA lifetime could range from 2-100 years. The authors (1) elucidate the complexity of the encapsulation problem, (2) indicate the performance losses reported for PV systems deployed since 1981, (3) critically assess the service lifetime predictions for EVA as a PV pottant based on studies by others for which they review the inherent errors in their assumptions about the Arrhenius relation, (4) show how degradation of minimodules in laboratory experiments that simulate reality can produce efficiency losses comparable to those in field-degraded PV modules reported in the literature, and (5) outline an acceptable methodology for making a service lifetime prediction of the polymer encapsulant, including the essential need for relating accelerated lifetime testing to real-time testing with a sufficient number of samples.

  13. Enhanced photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si solar cells by insertion of a MoS₂ thin film.

    Tsuboi, Yuka; Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Funahashi, Kazuma; Mouri, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Takenobu, Taishi; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-09-14

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides exhibit great potential as active materials in optoelectronic devices because of their characteristic band structure. Here, we demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of graphene/Si Schottky junction solar cells were significantly improved by inserting a chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown, large MoS2 thin-film layer. This layer functions as an effective electron-blocking/hole-transporting layer. We also demonstrated that the photovoltaic properties are enhanced with the increasing number of graphene layers and the decreasing thickness of the MoS2 layer. A high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 11.1% was achieved with the optimized trilayer-graphene/MoS2/n-Si solar cell.

  14. Effects of filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) conditions on photovoltaic TiO{sub 2} films

    Aramwit, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootkul, D. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Supsermpol, B.; Seanphinit, N. [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Western Digital Thailand Co. Ltd., Ayutthaya 13160 (Thailand); Ruangkul, W. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Titanium dioxide films were synthesized using the FCVAD technique. • Various FCVAD conditions were tested. • The TiO{sub 2} films were characterized. • The FCVAD condition effects on the film characteristics were studied. • The O{sub 2} pressure had the most important effect on the film quality. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films for photovoltaic applications were synthesized using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition (FCVAD) technique. Various deposition conditions were tested for an optimal film formation. The conditions included the oxygen (O{sub 2}) pressure which was varied from a base pressure 10{sup −5} to 10{sup −4}, 10{sup −3}, 10{sup −2} and 10{sup −1} Torr, sample holder bias varied using 0 or −250 V, deposition time varied from 10, 20 to 30 min, and deposition distance varied from 1 to 3 cm. The deposited films were also annealed and compared with unannealed ones. The films under various conditions were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The film transparency increased and thickness decreased to a nanoscale with increasing of the O{sub 2} pressure. The transparent deposited films contained stoichiometric titanium and oxygen under the medium O{sub 2} pressure. The as-deposited films were TiO{sub 2} containing some rutile but no anatase which needed annealing to form.

  15. Thin film silicon modules on plastic superstrates

    Rath, J.K.; Liu, Y; Borreman, A.; Hamers, E.A.G.; Schlatmann, R.; Jongerden, G.J.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to fabricate high efficiency a-Si/μc-Si tandem solar cell modules on flexible (polymer) superstrates using the Helianthos concept. As a first step we began by depositing the top cell which contains an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) i-layer of 350 nm made by VHF PECVD at 50

  16. Thin film solar modules: the low cost, high throughput and versatile alternative to Si wafers

    Hegedus, S. [Delaware Univ., Inst. of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) have passed adolescence and are ready to make a substantial contribution to the world's electricity generation. They can have advantages over c-Si solar modules in ease of large area, lower cost manufacturing and in several types of applications. Factors which limit TFSC module performance relative to champion cell performance are discussed along with the importance of increased throughput and yield. The consensus of several studies is that all TFSC can achieve costs below 1 $/W if manufactured at sufficiently large scale >100 MW using parallel lines of cloned equipment with high material utilization and spray-on encapsulants. There is significant new commercial interest in TFSC from small investors and large corporations, validating the thin film approach. Unique characteristics are discussed which give TFSC an advantage over c-Si in two specific markets: small rural solar home systems and building integrated photovoltaic installations. TFSC have outperformed c-Si in annual energy production (kWhrs/kW), have demonstrated outdoor durability comparable to c-Si and are being used in MW scale installations worldwide. The merits of the thin film approach cannot be judged on the basis of efficiency alone but must also account for module performance and potential for low cost. TFSC advocates should promote their unique virtues compared to c-Si: lower cost, higher kWhr/kW output, higher battery charging current, attractive visual appearance, flexible substrates, long-term stability comparable to c-Si, and multiple pathways for deposition with room for innovation and evolutionary improvement. There is a huge market for TFSC even at today's efficiency if costs can be reduced. A brief window of opportunity exists for TFSC over the next few years due the Si shortage. The demonstrated capabilities and advantages of TFSC must be proclaimed more persistently to funding decision-makers and customers without minimizing the remaining

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell and of low-cost/large-area module (Formation of low-temperature film); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usukau taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (teion maku keisei gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A polycrystalline Si thin film formation technology is developed, which uses the flux process in which a reaction occurs between the target crystal and a flux component which is eutectic. Using this process, a crystal grain relatively large in diameter is obtained at a relatively low temperature. This method is now attracting attention as one of the technologies for producing crystalline Si film for use in thin-film polycrystalline Si solar cells. Especially when Al is used for flux, since Al is automatically doped into the target crystalline Si film, it is expected that the resulting film will serve as the ground for a photoactive layer provided with the BSF (back surface field) function which is important for the improvement of solar cell efficiency. A polycrystalline Si thin film is formed on a 2cm times 2cm-large glass substrate at a temperature not higher than 600 degrees C. It is recognized that films selectively oriented towards the (111) or (100) plane are acquired when other processes are employed. It is expected that the said Al-doped film provides a ground on which a BSF function-provided photoactive layer will be formed. (NEDO)

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POLYCRYSTALLINE AND THIN-FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC FARM IN THE DOLINA ZIELAWY

    Piotr Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an opportunity not only to improve the energy efficiency of individual customers, but also to ensure energy security for local governments. In 2007, in Lublin province 5 municipalities have formed a partnership government called "Valley of Zielawa". The objectives of the partnership is the cooperation in the field of education, tasks in the field of culture, health protection, social welfare, fire protection and street lighting. One of the overarching goals of the partnership include ensure energy security and improving energy efficiency through the utilization of solar energy. Solar energy resources in the Lublin region are mainly characterized by a very high degree of sunlight compared to other regions of the country. The greatest potential for solar energy use is the eastern area of the province (including the area of partnership. In order to ensure the energy security of the community established a company Energy Valley of Zielawa, which in 2014 built a photovoltaic farm with a capacity of 1.4 MW in the Bordziłówka in Municipality Rossosz. This paper presents an analysis of photovoltaic farm work over the year and a half and the analysis of the energy efficiency of various types of photovoltaic panels which produce energy on a farm in photovoltaic Bordziłówce.

  19. Low Cost Production of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells Final Report

    McCamy, James [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Hung, Cheng-Hung [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States); Ma, Zhixun [PPG Industries, Inc. Glass R& D, Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2015-06-04

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of online deposition of the active layer for thin-film PV modules. The envisioned PV online manufacturing process has a number of discrete unit operations integrated into a single process. Demonstration of feasibility would be deemed successful with the individual demonstration of each of these unit operations and development of the integrated process was not within the scope of this phase.

  20. Mass productions of thin film silicon PV modules

    Tawada, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Mass production technologies of a-Si single junction and a-Si/poly-Si hybrid modules with stable 8% and 10% efficiency were developed in the Shiga factory of Kaneka Corporation. Kaneka instituted Kaneka Solartech Corporation (KST) as a subsidiary company of 100% shareholder and invested 20 MW production plant in Toyooka City in 1999. There are fully automatic thin film fabrication equipments. KST started the manufacturing amorphous silicon PV modules in 1999 and those of hybrid type PV modules in 2001. The largest size glass substrates used for these modules are 95x98 cm and variable size of modules are being produced by cutting these large area base modules. Recent production yields are higher than 98%. Production technologies of a-Si, thin c-Si and solar cells, performances of modules, applications to the rooftop PV systems will be presented. We estimate the production cost of a-Si solar modules and a-Si/thin c-Si hybrid solar modules. The future business plan of our new type solar modules and our production lines will be discussed. (author)

  1. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer:fullerene nanoparticle films with thermally stable morphology for organic photovoltaic applications

    Holmes, Natalie P. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Vaughan, Ben [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle (Australia); Williams, Evan L. [Inst. of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), Singapore (Singapore); Kroon, Renee [Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). Ian Wark Research Inst.; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology; Anderrson, Mats R. [Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). Ian Wark Research Inst.; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology; Kilcoyne, A. L. David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Sonar, Prashant [Inst. of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), Singapore (Singapore); Queensland Univ. of Technology (QUT), Brisbane (Australia). School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering; Zhou, Xiaojing [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Dastoor, Paul C. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics; Belcher, Warwick J. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW (Australia). Centre for Organic Electronics

    2017-02-02

    Polymer:fullerene nanoparticles (NPs) offer two key advantages over bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films for organic photovoltaics (OPVs), water-processability and potentially superior morphological control. Once an optimal active layer morphology is reached, maintaining this morphology at OPV operating temperatures is key to the lifetime of a device. Here in this paper we study the morphology of the PDPP-TNT (poly{3,6-dithiophene-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-naphthalene}):PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) NP system and then compare the thermal stability of NP and BHJ films to the common poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) system. We find that material Tg plays a key role in the superior thermal stability of the PDPP-TNT:PC71BM system; whereas for the P3HT:PC61BM system, domain structure is critical.

  2. Nanoscale Morphology of Doctor Bladed versus Spin-Coated Organic Photovoltaic Films

    Pokuri, Balaji Sesha Sarath

    2017-08-17

    Recent advances in efficiency of organic photovoltaics are driven by judicious selection of processing conditions that result in a “desired” morphology. An important theme of morphology research is quantifying the effect of processing conditions on morphology and relating it to device efficiency. State-of-the-art morphology quantification methods provide film-averaged or 2D-projected features that only indirectly correlate with performance, making causal reasoning nontrivial. Accessing the 3D distribution of material, however, provides a means of directly mapping processing to performance. In this paper, two recently developed techniques are integrated—reconstruction of 3D morphology and subsequent conversion into intuitive morphology descriptors —to comprehensively image and quantify morphology. These techniques are applied on films generated by doctor blading and spin coating, additionally investigating the effect of thermal annealing. It is found that morphology of all samples exhibits very high connectivity to electrodes. Not surprisingly, thermal annealing consistently increases the average domain size in the samples, aiding exciton generation. Furthermore, annealing also improves the balance of interfaces, enhancing exciton dissociation. A comparison of morphology descriptors impacting each stage of photophysics (exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport) reveals that spin-annealed sample exhibits superior morphology-based performance indicators. This suggests substantial room for improvement of blade-based methods (process optimization) for morphology tuning to enhance performance of large area devices.

  3. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules

    Rowell, Michael W.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power conversion efficiency. Reflection, absorption, resistive losses and lost active area either from the scribed interconnect region in monolithically integrated modules or from the shadow losses of a metal grid in standard modules typically reduce the efficiency by 10-25%. Here, we perform calculations to show that a competitive TC must have a transparency of at least 90% at a sheet resistance of less than 10 Ω/sq (conductivity/absorptivity ≥ 1 Ω -1) for monolithically integrated modules. For standard modules, losses are much lower and the performance of alternative lower cost TC materials may already be sufficient to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Fabrication and study of sol-gel ZnO films for use in Si-based heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    Daniya Mukhamedshina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the use of zinc oxide thin films prepared via the sol-gel route as an n-type layer in heterojunction ZnO/Si solar cells. The ZnO films were prepared via a simple spin-coating technique using zinc acetate dihydrate as a zinc precursor, isopropanol as a solvent and monoethanolamine as a stabilizing agent. Optical, structural and morphological properties of ZnO were investigated for thin films grown from sol-gel solutions with different concentrations both on glass and silicon substrates. As such, a distribution of crystallite sizes and surface topology parameters corresponding to various zinc acetate dihydrate concentrations were obtained to elucidate optimal film deposition conditions. Correlation between thin film morphology and structural characteristics of ZnO thin films was made based on atomic-force microscopy studies. Finally, our results on fabrication, characterization and simulation of ZnO/Si heterojunctions for use as photovoltaic devices are presented. Although noticeable rectifying and photovoltaic properties were observed for Al/Si/ZnO/Ti/Au devices, there appears to exist a considerable room for device improvement with simulation studies suggesting that efficiencies of the order of 24% may be obtained for devices with optimal silicon wafer passivation, i.e. with lifetimes of the order of 1000 μs.

  5. Study of the refractive index change in a-Si:H thin films patterned by 532 nm laser radiation for photovoltaic applications

    Colina, M., E-mail: monica.colina.brito@upm.e [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C.; Holgado, M. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Gandia, J. [Dept. de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nos, O. [CeRMAE Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ocana, J.L. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Laser scribing of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a crucial step in the fabrication of thin film photovoltaic modules. During such process, inherent thermo-mechanical effects associated to laser ablation mechanisms lead to thermal damages. In that sense, the state of the material remaining in the vicinity of the ablated area has a critical influence on the electrical properties of the final devices. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of refractive index variations for the material surrounding the ablated area by means of Infrared-Visible Fourier transform spectrometry is proposed. Besides, in order to evaluate the material microstructure, Raman spectroscopy is employed as a complimentary technique. It was seen that the refractive index variation decreased as the distance from the center of the ablated groove was increased. Likewise, a clear transition from highly crystalline to amorphous material could be also observed as a function of the distance from the groove.

  6. Study of the refractive index change in a-Si:H thin films patterned by 532 nm laser radiation for photovoltaic applications

    Colina, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Holgado, M.; Gandia, J.; Nos, O.; Ocana, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Laser scribing of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a crucial step in the fabrication of thin film photovoltaic modules. During such process, inherent thermo-mechanical effects associated to laser ablation mechanisms lead to thermal damages. In that sense, the state of the material remaining in the vicinity of the ablated area has a critical influence on the electrical properties of the final devices. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of refractive index variations for the material surrounding the ablated area by means of Infrared-Visible Fourier transform spectrometry is proposed. Besides, in order to evaluate the material microstructure, Raman spectroscopy is employed as a complimentary technique. It was seen that the refractive index variation decreased as the distance from the center of the ablated groove was increased. Likewise, a clear transition from highly crystalline to amorphous material could be also observed as a function of the distance from the groove.

  7. Monolithically interconnected Silicon-Film{trademark} module technology: Annual technical report, 25 November 1997--24 November 1998

    Hall, R.B.; Ford, D.H.; Rand, J.A.; Ingram, A.E.

    1999-11-11

    AstroPower continued its development of an advanced thin-silicon-based photovoltaic module product. This module combines the performance advantages of thin, light-trapped silicon layers with the capability of integration into a low-cost, monolithically interconnected array. This report summarizes the work carried out over the first year of a three-year, cost-shared contract, which has yielded the following results: Development of a low-cost, insulating, ceramic substrate that provides mechanical support at silicon growth temperatures, is matched to the thermal expansion of silicon, provides the optical properties required for light trapping through random texturing, and can be formed in large areas on a continuous basis. Different deposition techniques have been investigated, and AstroPower has developed deposition processes for the back conductive layer, the p-type silicon layer, and the mechanical/chemical barrier layer. Polycrystalline films of silicon have been grown on ceramics using AstroPower's Silicon-Film{trademark} process. These films are from 50 to 75 {micro}m thick, with columnar grains extending through the thickness of the film. Aspect ratios from 5:1 to 20:1 have been observed in these films.

  8. Impact of regioregularity on thin-film transistor and photovoltaic cell performances of pentacene-containing polymers

    Jiang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Regioregular pentacene-containing polymers were synthesized with alkylated bithiophene (BT) and cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) as comonomers. Among them, 2,9-conjugated polymers PnBT-2,9 and PnCPDT-2,9 achieved the best performance in transistor and photovoltaic devices respectively. The former achieved the most highly ordered structures in thin films, yielding ambipolar transistor behavior with hole and electron mobilities up to 0.03 and 0.02 cm 2 V -1 s -1 on octadecylsilane-treated substrates. The latter achieved photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies up to 0.33%. The impact of regioregularity and direction of conjugation-extension (2,9 vs. 2,10), on thin-film order and device performance has been demonstrated for the pentacene-containing polymers for the first time, providing insight towards future functional material design. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic properties of Mn-doped Sb2S3 thin film

    Horoz Sabit

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of Mn-doped Sb2S3 thin films (TFs prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD at room temperature have been documented and their structural, optical, morphological, magnetic and photovoltaic properties have been examined for the first time. Their structural properties reveal that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF has an orthorhombic phase structure of Sb2S3, and that the grain size of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF (72.9 nm becomes larger than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF (69.3 nm. It has been observed that Mn content causes the Sb2S3 TF band gap to decrease. This situation clearly correlates with band tailing due to the impurities that are involved. The morphological properties have revealed that the shape of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is more uniform than the shape of its undoped counterpart. The study on its magnetic properties has demonstrated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF exhibits paramagnetic behavior. Its paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature was found to be -4.1 K. This result suggests that there is an anti-ferromagnetic interaction between Mn moments in the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF. Incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE and J-V measurements were also carried out for the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF for the first time. The results have indicated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF can be utilized as a sensitizer to improve the performance of solar cells. Another important observation on the photovoltaic properties of Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is that the spectral response range is wider than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF. Our study suggests that the introduction of dopant could serve as an effective means of improving the device performance of solar cells.

  10. Advances in Cost-Efficient Thin-Film Photovoltaics Based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    Michael Powalla; Stefan Paetel; Dimitrios Hariskos; Roland Wuerz; Friedrich Kessler; Peter Lechner; Wiltraud Wischmann; Theresa Magorian Friedlmeier

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the leading thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology based on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) compound semiconductor. This contribution includes a general comparison with the conventional Si-wafer-based PV technology and discusses the basics of the CIGS technology as well as advances in world-record-level conversion efficiency, production, applications, stability, and future developments with respect to a flexible product. Once in large-scale mass production, the CIGS techno...

  11. Standard Test Method for Hot Spot Protection Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure to determine the ability of a photovoltaic (PV) module to endure the long-term effects of periodic “hot spot” heating associated with common fault conditions such as severely cracked or mismatched cells, single-point open circuit failures (for example, interconnect failures), partial (or non-uniform) shadowing or soiling. Such effects typically include solder melting or deterioration of the encapsulation, but in severe cases could progress to combustion of the PV module and surrounding materials. 1.2 There are two ways that cells can cause a hot spot problem; either by having a high resistance so that there is a large resistance in the circuit, or by having a low resistance area (shunt) such that there is a high-current flow in a localized region. This test method selects cells of both types to be stressed. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method....

  12. Automatic Fault Recognition of Photovoltaic Modules Based on Statistical Analysis of Uav Thermography

    Kim, D.; Youn, J.; Kim, C.

    2017-08-01

    As a malfunctioning PV (Photovoltaic) cell has a higher temperature than adjacent normal cells, we can detect it easily with a thermal infrared sensor. However, it will be a time-consuming way to inspect large-scale PV power plants by a hand-held thermal infrared sensor. This paper presents an algorithm for automatically detecting defective PV panels using images captured with a thermal imaging camera from an UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). The proposed algorithm uses statistical analysis of thermal intensity (surface temperature) characteristics of each PV module to verify the mean intensity and standard deviation of each panel as parameters for fault diagnosis. One of the characteristics of thermal infrared imaging is that the larger the distance between sensor and target, the lower the measured temperature of the object. Consequently, a global detection rule using the mean intensity of all panels in the fault detection algorithm is not applicable. Therefore, a local detection rule based on the mean intensity and standard deviation range was developed to detect defective PV modules from individual array automatically. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested on three sample images; this verified a detection accuracy of defective panels of 97 % or higher. In addition, as the proposed algorithm can adjust the range of threshold values for judging malfunction at the array level, the local detection rule is considered better suited for highly sensitive fault detection compared to a global detection rule.

  13. AUTOMATIC FAULT RECOGNITION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF UAV THERMOGRAPHY

    D. Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As a malfunctioning PV (Photovoltaic cell has a higher temperature than adjacent normal cells, we can detect it easily with a thermal infrared sensor. However, it will be a time-consuming way to inspect large-scale PV power plants by a hand-held thermal infrared sensor. This paper presents an algorithm for automatically detecting defective PV panels using images captured with a thermal imaging camera from an UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle. The proposed algorithm uses statistical analysis of thermal intensity (surface temperature characteristics of each PV module to verify the mean intensity and standard deviation of each panel as parameters for fault diagnosis. One of the characteristics of thermal infrared imaging is that the larger the distance between sensor and target, the lower the measured temperature of the object. Consequently, a global detection rule using the mean intensity of all panels in the fault detection algorithm is not applicable. Therefore, a local detection rule based on the mean intensity and standard deviation range was developed to detect defective PV modules from individual array automatically. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested on three sample images; this verified a detection accuracy of defective panels of 97 % or higher. In addition, as the proposed algorithm can adjust the range of threshold values for judging malfunction at the array level, the local detection rule is considered better suited for highly sensitive fault detection compared to a global detection rule.

  14. Photovoltaic device

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell module including a plurality of serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, each including a first electrode, a printed light-harvesting layer and a printed second electrode, wherein at least one of the electrodes is transparent, and wherein the second electrode...... of a first cell is printed such that it forms an electrical contact with the first electrode of an adjacent second cell without forming an electrical contact with the first electrode of the first cell or the light-harvesting layer of the second cell, and a method of making such photovoltaic cell modules....

  15. Effects of spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Vorster, F.J.; van Dyk, E.E. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Such investigations are of importance in characterization of photovoltaic devices. The investigation centres on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 10 min intervals on clear-sky days. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of both modules. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effects of the spectral variation on the performance of the two photovoltaic modules are reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the late afternoon spectra in each case account for the decreased current collection and hence power and efficiency of both modules. (author)

  16. How could the family-scale photovoltaic module help the poor farmer out of poverty and reduce CO2 emission?

    Qiu, Xu; Jin, Ran

    2016-04-01

    China, the world's most populous country, is facing great opportunities and challenges. On the one hand, China's increasing economy is raising hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. On the other hand, there are still 100 million of whose daily income is less than 1 US dollar. In addition, China is the world's largest solar panel producer and also the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Could we find a feasible way to use solar panels to help the poor and meanwhile reduce CO2 emissions? To do this, we reviewed the literature and investigated the related field sites and institutions in China. Results show that the extension of family-scale photovoltaic modules to countryside could help. The 3 kW-module is recommended for widely distribution because its technology is mature and the cost is relatively low (3500 US dollars). Besides their own use to improve their living standard, farmers can sell the excess electricity to the grid at the price of 0.17 UD/kWh. The farmer's annual income could be increased by 460-615 US dollars by selling electricity, and this is equivalent to half of their annual income in many rural regions. The photovoltaic module can be used for 25 years and the payback period is 7 years. In addition to its economic benefit, the photovoltaic module can reduce CO2 emissions by 0.93 kg/kWh. This is equivalent to annual reduction of 3000-4000 kg CO2 per family. Therefore, it is concluded that the family-scale photovoltaic module not only can help the farmers out of poverty but also can reduce CO2 emissions significantly. To promote its sustainable development, it is worthwhile to further investigations its business models as well as the effects of long-term support policies under different social and nature conditions.

  17. DC-sputtered MoO{sub x} thin-films as hole transport layer in organic photovoltaic

    Cauduro, Andre L.F.; Ahmadpour, Mehrad; Rubahn, Horst-Guenter; Madsen, Morten, E-mail: cauduro@mci.sdu.dk [NanoSYD, University of Southern Denmark (Denmark); Reis, Roberto dos; Chen, Gong; Schmid, Andreas [National Center for Electron Microscopy, The Molecular Foundry, LBNL, Berkeley, CA (United States); Methivier, Christophe [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR, Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (LRS) (France); Witkowski, Nadine [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP) (France); Fichtner, Paulo F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Molybdenum-oxide (MoO{sub x}) thin-films have attracted a lot of attention in the past years due to their unique ability to act as interfacial layers in novel electronics and energy applications. In the work presented here, large tuning possibilities in the electronic and optoelectronic properties of MoO{sub x} thin-films deposited by reactive sputtering using different oxygen partial pressures and annealing conditions are demonstrated along with the implementation of the films in organic photovoltaic. MoO{sub x} thin-films deposited under low oxygen partial pressure present a high conductivity of around 3.22 S.cm{sup -1}, however, as the oxygen partial pressure increases, the conductivity of the resulting films drops by up to around 10 orders of magnitude as the [O]/[Mo] ratio changes from 2.57 to beyond 3.00. Optical absorption measurements also show drastic changes mostly within the 0.60 eV - 2.50 eV spectral region for the same increase in oxygen concentration in [1]. UPS and XPS studies are conducted for accessing information about the work function and surface composition of the thin-films. The XPS spectra registered on the Mo 3d core level reveal how the oxidation state of Mo is affected by the partial pressure of oxygen during film growth. The work function of the films increase with annealing temperature and oxygen content, and span a tuning range of about 2 eV. To extract the spatially resolved work function values from the sputtered films, we use in addition Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM). Finally, the application of the MoO{sub x} thin-films in organic optoelectronic devices is investigated by employing them as hole transport layers in small molecule photovoltaic, here based on DBP and C70. The work thus demonstrates a viable method for tuning the electronic and optoelectronic properties of MoO{sub x} thin-films, which can be applied in combination with a wide range of materials in e.g. organic photovoltaic. [1] A.L. Fernandes Cauduro

  18. Optimal the tilt angles for photovoltaic modules using PSO method with nonlinear time-varying evolution

    Chang, Ying-Pin

    2010-01-01

    A particle-swarm optimization method with nonlinear time-varying evolution (PSO-NTVE) is employed in determining the tilt angle of photovoltaic (PV) modules in Taiwan. The objective is to maximize the output electrical energy of the modules. In this study, seven Taiwanese cities were selected for analysis. First, the sun's position at any time and location was predicted by the mathematical procedure of Julian dating, and then the solar irradiation was obtained at each site under a clear sky. By combining the temperature effect, the PSO-NTVE method is adopted to calculate the optimal tilt angles for fixed south-facing PV modules. In this method, the parameters are determined by using matrix experiments with an orthogonal array, in which a minimal number of experiments have an effect that approximates the full factorial experiments. Statistical error analysis was performed to compare the results between the four PSO methods and experimental results. Hengchun city in which the minimum total error value of 6.12% the reasons for the weather more stability and less building shade. A comparison of the measurement results in electrical energy between the four PSO methods and the PV modules set a six tilt angles. Obviously four types of PSO methods simulation of electrical energy value from 231.12 kWh/m 2 for Taipei to 233.81 kWh/m 2 for Hengchun greater than the measurement values from 224.71 kWh/m 2 for Taichung to 228.47 kWh/m 2 for Hengchun by PV module which is due to instability caused by climate change. Finally, the results show that the annual optimal angle for the Taipei area is 18.16 o ; for Taichung, 17.3 o ; for Tainan, 16.15 o ; for Kaosiung, 15.79 o ; for Hengchung, 15.17 o ; for Hualian, 17.16 o ; and for Taitung, 15.94 o . It is evident that the authorized Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) recommends that tilt angle of 23.5 o was not an appropriate use of Taiwan's seven cities. PV modules with the installation of the tilt angle should be

  19. Nanostructured films of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for application in photovoltaics; Nanostrukturierte Filme aus anorganisch-organischen Hybridmaterialien fuer die Photovoltaik

    Perlich, Jan

    2009-06-25

    Nanostructured thin films of crystalline TiO{sub 2} for applications in photovoltaics were studied. The fabrication of the thin films is based on a hybrid approach. The anorganic metal oxide prepared via a sol-gel synthesis is structurated by the template properties of the applied organic block-copolymer. Via the film epitaxy by means of centrifugal coating first hybrid films (polymer-nanocomposite films) were fabricated, which were changed by calcination into crystalline TiO{sub 2} films with taylored morphology. The successful development of novel preparation approaches to the adaption to consisting conditions in the application field of photovoltaics contains a route to the fine-tuning of the morphology as well as the fabrication of hierarchical morphologies in different configurations. The structural study of the single nanostructurated TiO{sub 2} films up to the functional multilayer arrangement as photovoltaic demonstration cell was performed with conventionally imaging methods, as for instance scanning force microscopy and electron microscopy as well as the special small-angle X-ray scattering method under rigid incident angle (GISAXS). [German] Es wurden nanostrukturierte duenne Filme aus kristallinem TiO{sub 2} fuer Anwendungen in der Photovoltaik untersucht. Die Herstellung der duennen Filme basiert auf einem Hybridansatz. Das ueber eine Sol-Gel-Synthese bereitgestellte anorganische Metalloxid wird durch die Template-Eigenschaften des eingesetzten organischen Block-Copolymers strukturiert. Ueber die Filmaufbringung mittels Schleuderbeschichtung wurden zunaechst Hybridfilme (Polymer-Nanokompositfilme) hergestellt, die durch Kalzinierung in kristalline TiO{sub 2}-Filme mit massgeschneiderter Morphologie umgewandelt werden. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung von neuartigen Praeparationsansaetzen zur Adaption an bestehende Gegebenheiten im Anwendungsgebiet der Photovoltaik beinhaltet eine Route zur Feineinstellung der Morphologie sowie die Herstellung von

  20. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below$1.00/W

  1. High Throughput Manufacturing of Thin-Film CdTe Photovoltaic Materials; Final Subcontract Report, 16 November 1993-31 December 1998

    Sandwisch, D. W. (Solar Cells, Inc.)

    1999-09-02

    This report describes work performed by Solar Cells, Inc. (SCI), during this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. SCI has developed this technology and is preparing to scale its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. This four-phase PVMaT subcontract supports these efforts. The work was related to product definition, process definition, equipment engineering, and support programs development. In the area of product definition and demonstration, two products were specified and demonstrated-a grid-connected, frameless, high-voltage product that incorporates a pigtail potting design and a remote low-voltage product that may be framed and may incorporate a junction box. SCI produced a 60.3-W thin-film CdTe module with total-area efficiency of 8.4%; SCI also improved module pass rate on the interim qualification test protocol from less than 20% to 100% as a result of work related to the subcontract. In the manufacturing process definition area, the multi-megawatt manufacturing process was defined, several of the key processes were demonstrated, and the process was refined and proven on a 100-kW pilot line that now operates as a 250-kW line. In the area of multi-megawatt manufacturing-line conceptual design review, SCI completed a conceptual layout of the multi-megawatt lines. The layout models the manufacturing line and predicts manufacturing costs. SCI projected an optimized capacity, two-shift/day operation of greater than 25 MW at a manufacturing cost of below $1.00/W.

  2. AgSbSe2 and AgSb(S,Se)2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Garza, J.G.; Shaji, S.; Rodriguez, A.C.; Das Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe 2 ) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited multilayers of antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ), silver selenide (Ag 2 Se), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag). Sb 2 S 3 thin film was prepared from a chemical bath containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 , Ag 2 Se from a solution containing AgNO 3 and Na 2 SeSO 3 and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na 2 SeSO 3 , at room temperature on glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was 350 deg. C in vacuum (10 -3 Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films formed were polycrystalline AgSbSe 2 or AgSb(S,Se) 2 depending on selenium content in the precursor films. Morphology and elemental analysis of these films were done using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-visible absorption spectra of these films. Electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe 2 /Al was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this structure showed V oc = 435 mV and J sc = 0.08 mA/cm 2 under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp. Preparation of a photovoltaic structure using AgSbSe 2 as an absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process is achieved.

  3. AgSbSe{sub 2} and AgSb(S,Se){sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Garza, J.G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, CIIDIT - Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Rodriguez, A.C.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, CIIDIT - Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-10-01

    Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe{sub 2}) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited multilayers of antimony sulphide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}), silver selenide (Ag{sub 2}Se), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag). Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was prepared from a chemical bath containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ag{sub 2}Se from a solution containing AgNO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3}, at room temperature on glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was 350 deg. C in vacuum (10{sup -3} Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films formed were polycrystalline AgSbSe{sub 2} or AgSb(S,Se){sub 2} depending on selenium content in the precursor films. Morphology and elemental analysis of these films were done using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-visible absorption spectra of these films. Electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe{sub 2}/Al was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this structure showed V{sub oc} = 435 mV and J{sub sc} = 0.08 mA/cm{sup 2} under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp. Preparation of a photovoltaic structure using AgSbSe{sub 2} as an absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process is achieved.

  4. Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry for analysis and control of thin film polycrystalline semiconductor deposition in photovoltaics

    Koirala, Prakash; Attygalle, Dinesh; Aryal, Puruswottam; Pradhan, Puja; Chen, Jie [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Marsillac, Sylvain [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Ferlauto, Andre S.; Podraza, Nikolas J.; Collins, Robert W. [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) from the near-infrared to ultraviolet has been applied for analysis of the deposition of polycrystalline thin films that form the basis of two key photovoltaic heterojunction configurations, superstrate SnO{sub 2}/CdS/CdTe and substrate Mo/Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}/CdS. The focus of this work is to develop capabilities for monitoring and controlling the key steps in the fabrication of these device structures. Analysis of RTSE data collected during sputter deposition of CdS on a rough SnO{sub 2} transparent top contact provides the time evolution of the CdS effective thickness, or film volume per unit substrate area. This thickness includes interface, bulk, and surface roughness layer components and affects the CdS/CdTe heterojunction performance and the quantum efficiency of the solar cell in the blue region of the solar spectrum. Similarly, analysis of RTSE data collected during co-evaporation of Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS; x ∼ 0.3) on a rough Mo back contact provides the evolution of a second phase of Cu{sub 2−x}Se within the CIGS layer. During the last stage of CIGS deposition, the In, Ga, and Se co-evaporants convert this Cu{sub 2−x}Se phase to CIGS, and RTSE identifies the endpoint, specifically the time at which complete conversion occurs and single-phase, large-grain CIGS is obtained in this key stage. - Highlights: • Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) study of CdS and CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • RTSE during CdS deposition provides the evolution of the CdS effective thickness. • RTSE for CIGS film enables to measure and control the composition and thickness. • The work leads to the development of optical models for processing steps.

  5. Technical and Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules and a Fuel Cell

    Szczerbowsk Radosław; Ceran Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of the economic and manufacturing system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, polymer membrane fuel cell and the electrolyzer. The system supplies the customer profile at the assumed wind and solar conditions. Energy analysis was conducted on the basis of the balance equations produced and received electric power. To assess the economic efficiency of investments adopted the following economic indicators: NPV, IRR, MIRR, MNPV, DPP. T...

  6. Modeling the effect of the inclination angle on natural convection from a flat plate: The case of a photovoltaic module

    Perović Bojan D.; Klimenta Jelena Lj.; Tasić Dragan S.; Peuteman Joan L.G.; Klimenta Dardan O.; Anđelković Ljiljana N.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show how the inclination angle affects natural convection from a flat-plate photovoltaic module which is mounted on the ground surface. In order to model this effect, novel correlations for natural convection from isothermal flat plates are developed by using the fundamental dimensionless number. On the basis of the available experimental and numerical results, it is shown that the natural convection correlations correspond well with the existing empirical...

  7. 26+ Year Old Photovoltaic Power Plant: Degradation and Reliability Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon Modules -- South Array

    Olakonu, Kolapo

    As the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in large power plants continues to increase globally, more studies on degradation, reliability, failure modes, and mechanisms of field aged modules are needed to predict module life expectancy based on accelerated lifetime testing of PV modules. In this work, a 26+ year old PV power plant in Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated for performance, reliability, and durability. The PV power plant, called Solar One, is owned and operated by John F. Long's homeowners association. It is a 200 kW dc, standard test conditions (STC) rated power plant comprised of 4000 PV modules or frameless laminates, in 100 panel groups (rated at 175 kW ac). The power plant is made of two center-tapped bipolar arrays, the north array and the south array. Due to a limited time frame to execute this large project, this work was performed by two masters students (Jonathan Belmont and Kolapo Olakonu) and the test results are presented in two masters theses. This thesis presents the results obtained on the south array and the other thesis presents the results obtained on the north array. Each of these two arrays is made of four sub arrays, the east sub arrays (positive and negative polarities) and the west sub arrays (positive and negative polarities), making up eight sub arrays. The evaluation and analyses of the power plant included in this thesis consists of: visual inspection, electrical performance measurements, and infrared thermography. A possible presence of potential induced degradation (PID) due to potential difference between ground and strings was also investigated. Some installation practices were also studied and found to contribute to the power loss observed in this investigation. The power output measured in 2011 for all eight sub arrays at STC is approximately 76 kWdc and represents a power loss of 62% (from 200 kW to 76 kW) over 26+ years. The 2011 measured power output for the four south sub arrays at STC is 39 kWdc and represents a power

  8. Compositional effects in Ag_2ZnSnSe_4 thin films and photovoltaic devices

    Gershon, Talia; Sardashti, Kasra; Lee, Yun Seog; Gunawan, Oki; Singh, Saurabh; Bishop, Douglas; Kummel, Andrew C.; Haight, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Ag_2ZnSnSe_4 (AZTSe) is a relatively new n-type photovoltaic (PV) absorber material which has recently demonstrated a conversion efficiency of ∼5% in a Schottky device architecture. To date, little is known about how the influence of composition on AZTSe material properties and the resulting PV performance. In this study, the Ag/Sn ratio is shown to be critical in the controlling grain growth, non-radiative recombination, and the bulk defect structure of the absorber. Insufficient Ag (relative to Zn and Sn) results in small grains, low photoluminescence intensities, and band gap narrowing, possibly due to an increase in the bulk defect density. Additionally, etching the AZTSe films in KCN prior to junction formation is found to be important for achieving reproducible efficiencies. Surface analysis using Auger Nanoprobe Microscopy analysis reveals that a KCN etch can selectively remove potentially harmful Ag-rich secondary phases, therefore improving the MoO_3/AZTSe junction quality. Moreover, grain boundaries in AZTSe are found to be enriched in Sn and O following KCN; the role this oxide plays in surface passivation and junction formation has yet to be determined.

  9. Nanostructure of self-assembled rod-coil block copolymer films for photovoltaic applications

    Heiser, T.; Adamopoulos, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Giovanella, U.; Ould-Saad, S.; Brochon, C.; Wetering, K. van de; Hadziioannou, G.

    2006-01-01

    The nanostructures of a series of rod-coil block copolymers, designed for photovoltaic applications, are studied by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The copolymers are composed of a semiconducting poly-p-phenylenevinylene rod with (2'-ethyl)-hexyloxy side chains and a functionalized coil block of various length and flexibility. Both, as deposited and annealed block copolymer films were investigated. The results show that highly ordered structures are only obtained if the coil block is characterized by a glass transition temperature which is significantly lower than the melting temperature of the alkyl side chains. For this material a high molecular mobility and strong driving force for crystallization of the rigid block can be achieved simultaneously. For the smallest coil to rod length ratio, we found a lamellar morphology with perpendicularly oriented lamellae with respect to the substrate. Electron diffraction data show the presence of a periodical molecular arrangement with a characteristic distance of 0.94 nm that is attributed to the distance between conjugated chains separated by the layers of alkyl sidechains

  10. Nanostructure of self-assembled rod-coil block copolymer films for photovoltaic applications

    Heiser, T. [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS), CNRS/ULP, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: Thomas.Heiser@iness.c-strasbourg.fr; Adamopoulos, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Polymeres pour les Hautes Technologies (LIPHT), Ecole Europeenne de Chimie Polymeres et Materiaux (ECPM), 25, rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Brinkmann, M. [Institut Charles Sadron (ICS), CNRS, 6, rue Boussingault, F-67083 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Giovanella, U. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Polymeres pour les Hautes Technologies (LIPHT), Ecole Europeenne de Chimie Polymeres et Materiaux (ECPM), 25, rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Ould-Saad, S. [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS), CNRS/ULP, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Brochon, C. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Polymeres pour les Hautes Technologies (LIPHT), Ecole Europeenne de Chimie Polymeres et Materiaux (ECPM), 25, rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Wetering, K. van de [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Polymeres pour les Hautes Technologies (LIPHT), Ecole Europeenne de Chimie Polymeres et Materiaux (ECPM), 25, rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Hadziioannou, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Polymeres pour les Hautes Technologies (LIPHT), Ecole Europeenne de Chimie Polymeres et Materiaux (ECPM), 25, rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-07-26

    The nanostructures of a series of rod-coil block copolymers, designed for photovoltaic applications, are studied by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The copolymers are composed of a semiconducting poly-p-phenylenevinylene rod with (2'-ethyl)-hexyloxy side chains and a functionalized coil block of various length and flexibility. Both, as deposited and annealed block copolymer films were investigated. The results show that highly ordered structures are only obtained if the coil block is characterized by a glass transition temperature which is significantly lower than the melting temperature of the alkyl side chains. For this material a high molecular mobility and strong driving force for crystallization of the rigid block can be achieved simultaneously. For the smallest coil to rod length ratio, we found a lamellar morphology with perpendicularly oriented lamellae with respect to the substrate. Electron diffraction data show the presence of a periodical molecular arrangement with a characteristic distance of 0.94 nm that is attributed to the distance between conjugated chains separated by the layers of alkyl sidechains.

  11. Characterisation of thin films by phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Das, N.C.

    1998-07-01

    A wide variety of thin film coatings, deposited by different techniques and with potential applications in various important areas, have been characterised by the Phase Modulated Spectroscopic Ellipsometer, installed recently in the Spectroscopy Division, B.A.R.C. The Phase Modulated technique provides a faster and more accurate data acquisition process than the conventional ellipsometry. The measured Ellipsometry spectra are fitted with theoretical spectra generated assuming an appropriate model regarding the sample. The fittings have been done objectively by minimising the squared difference (χ 2 ) between the measured and calculated values of the ellipsometric parameters and thus accurate information have been derived regarding the thickness and optical constants (viz, the refractive index and extinction coefficient) of the different layers, the surface roughness and the inhomogeneities present in the layers. Measurements have been done on (i) ion-implanted Si-wafers to investigate the formation of SiC layers, (ii) phenyl- silane coating on glass to investigate the surface modifications achieved for better adsorption of rhodamine dye on glass, (iii) GaN films on quartz to investigate the formation of high quality GaN layers by sputtering of GaAs targets, (iv) Diamond-like-coating (DLC) samples prepared by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) to investigate the optical properties which would ultimately lead to an accurate estimation of the ratio of sp 3 and sp 2 bonded carbon atoms in the films and (v) SS 304 under different surface treatments to investigate the growth of different passive films. (author)

  12. Photovoltaic Programme Edition 2007. Summary Report, Project List, Annual Project Reports 2006 (Abstracts)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This 2007 edition summary report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on the work done within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Program in 2006. The document contains 46 abstracts on work done in the photovoltaics area. The subjects reported on in the thin-film photovoltaics sector include advanced processing and characterisation of thin film silicon solar cells, high-rate deposition of micro-crystalline silicon, a new large-area VHF reactor for high-rate deposition of micro-crystalline silicon, the stability of zinc oxide in encapsulated thin film silicon solar cells, spectral photocurrent measurement, roll-to-roll technology for the production of thin film silicon modules, advanced thin film technologies, ultra thin silicon wafer cutting, bifacial thin industrial multi-crystalline silicon solar cells, flexible CIGS solar cells and mini-modules, large-area CIS-based thin-film solar modules and advanced thin-film technologies. In the area of dye-sensitised modules, the following projects are reported on: Dye-sensitised nano-crystalline solar cells, voltage enhancement of dye solar cells and molecular orientation as well as low band-gap and new hybrid device concepts for the improvement of flexible organic solar cells. Other projects reported on include a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum, photovoltaic textiles, organic photovoltaic devices, photo-electrochemical and photovoltaic conversion and storage of solar energy, PV modules with antireflex glass, improved integration of PV into existing buildings, the seventh program at the LEEE-TISO, the 'PV enlargement' and 'Performance' programs, efficiency and annual electricity production of PV modules, photovoltaics system technology 2005-2006, an update on photovoltaics in view of the 'ecoinvent' v.2.0 tool and environmental information services for solar energy industries. The contributions to four Swiss IEA PVPS tasks and the Swiss interdepartmental platform for

  13. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to develop high-performance solar cells, optimum device designs including an advanced light confinement structure or the like were studied, and a 25% reduction in the total power generation layer thickness and a 7% increase in efficiency in power generation were consistently achieved in an a-Si/a-SiGe solar cell. In the effort to develop low-cost process technologies, as the result of studies involving the optimization of high-speed film fabrication requirements such as hydrogen dilution and a high-speed/high-precision patterning method and the like, an initial conversion efficiency of 11.2% was attained, which was the world high for a 90 cm times 90 cm-large a-Si/a-SiGe solar cell. This being equivalent to a post-stabilization efficiency of 10%, the fiscal 2000 target was achieved. A solar cell module production cost assessment was performed based on the result, and a module cost of 133 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was realized, which again meant the achievement of the fiscal 2000 target. (NEDO)

  14. Fatigue mechanism verified using photovoltaic properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films

    Wu, Ming; Li, Wei; Li, Junning; Wang, Shaolan; Li, Yaqi; Peng, Biaolin; Huang, Haitao; Lou, Xiaojie

    2017-03-01

    The photovoltaic effect and its evolution during electrical fatigue in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films have been investigated. It is found that the photovoltaic effect of the as-grown PZT thin film is highly affected by the asymmetric Schottky barriers, which can be tuned by applying an external electric field. During fatigue processes, both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Jsc) decrease considerably with the increase of the number of electrical cycles. This phenomenon could be ascribed to the degradation of the interfacial layer between the thin film and the electrode induced by highly energetic charge carriers injected from the electrode during bipolar cycling. Our work sheds light on the physical mechanism of both ferroelectric photovoltaics and polarization fatigue in thin-film ferroelectrics.

  15. Singlet-Fission-Sensitized Hybrid Thin-Films For Next-Generation Photovoltaics

    2016-04-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This grant enabled the acquisition of equipment for the fabrication of organic and nanocrystal based photovoltaic (PV... Photovoltaics . The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 singlet fission, nanocrystal, triplet, hybrid, photovoltaic REPORT

  16. Photovoltaic power generation system with photovoltaic cells as bypass diodes

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat

    2017-11-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel is described herein. The solar panel includes a photovoltaic sub-module, which includes a group of microsystem enabled photovoltaic cells. The group includes a first string of photovoltaic cells, a second string of photovoltaic cells, and a differing photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cells in the first string are electrically connected in series, and photovoltaic cells in the second string are electrically connected in series. Further, the first string of photovoltaic cells, the second string of photovoltaic cells, and the differing photovoltaic cell are electrically connected in parallel. Moreover, the differing photovoltaic cell is used as a bypass diode for the first string of photovoltaic cells and the second string of photovoltaic cells.

  17. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  18. Standard Specification for Steel Blades Used with the Photovoltaic Module Surface Cut Test

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This specification specifies the recommended physical characteristics of the steel blades required for the surface cut test described in ANSI/UL 1703 (Section 24) and IEC 61730-2 (Paragraph 10.3). 1.2 ANSI/UL 1703 and IEC 61730-2 are standards for photovoltaic module safety testing. 1.3 This standard provides additional fabrication details for the surface cut test blades that are not provided in ANSI/UL 1703 or IEC 61730-2. Surface cut test blades that have out-of-tolerance corner radii or burrs are known to cause erroneous test results, either passes or failures. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. A Differential Evolution Based MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Modules under Partial Shading Conditions

    Kok Soon Tey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially shaded photovoltaic (PV modules have multiple peaks in the power-voltage (P-V characteristic curve and conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm, such as perturbation and observation (P&O, which is unable to track the global maximum power point (GMPP accurately due to its localized search space. Therefore, this paper proposes a differential evolution (DE based optimization algorithm to provide the globalized search space to track the GMPP. The direction of mutation in the DE algorithm is modified to ensure that the mutation always converges to the best solution among all the particles in the generation. This helps to provide the rapid convergence of the algorithm. Simulation of the proposed PV system is carried out in PSIM and the results are compared to P&O algorithm. In the hardware implementation, a high step-up DC-DC converter is employed to verify the proposed algorithm experimentally on partial shading conditions, load variation, and solar intensity variation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to converge to the GMPP within 1.2 seconds with higher efficiency than P&O.

  20. A pulse-width modulated, high reliability charge controller for small photovoltaic systems

    Gerken, K. [Morningstar Corp., Olney, MD (United States); Welsh, D. [Morningstar Corp., Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of a development effort to design, test and begin production of a new class of small photovoltaic (PV) charge controllers. Sandia National Laboratories provided technical support, test data and financial support through a Balance-of-System Development contract. One of the objectives of the development was to increase user confidence in small PV systems by improving the reliability and operating life of the system controllers. Another equally important objective was to improve the economics of small PV systems by extending the battery lifetimes. Using new technology and advanced manufacturing techniques, these objectives were accomplished. Because small stand-alone PV systems account for over one third of all PV modules shipped, the positive impact of improving the reliability and economics of PV systems in this market segment will be felt throughout the industry. The results of verification testing of the new product are also included in this report. The initial design goals and specifications were very aggressive, but the extensive testing demonstrates that all the goals were achieved. Production of the product started in May at a rate of 2,000 units per month. Over 40 Morningstar distributors (5 US and 35 overseas) have taken delivery in the first 2 months of shipments. Initial customer reactions to the new controller have been very favorable.

  1. Grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2018-06-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  2. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV panel performance

    Amelia A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  3. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC) module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV) panel performance

    Amelia, A. R.; Jusoh, MA; Shamira Idris, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC) and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  4. Buried homojunction in CdS/Sb2Se3 thin film photovoltaics generated by interfacial diffusion

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Yang; Luo, Jiajun; Li, Dengbing; Liu, Xinsheng; Chen, Chao; Song, Huaibing; Ma, Jingyuan; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Yang, Bo; Tang, Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) emerges as a very promising non-toxic absorber material for thin film photovoltaics, and most of the devices, either in the superstrate or substrate configuration, employed CdS as the buffer layer. Due to the peculiar one-dimensional crystal structure of Sb2Se3, severe interfacial diffusion would be expected. In this letter, the interfacial diffusion in CdS/Sb2Se3 photovoltaics was carefully characterized from a combined material and device physics characterization. The results indicated that a buried homojunction located deep inside the Sb2Se3 absorber layer due to Cd diffusion, instead of the apparent CdS/Sb2Se3 heterojunction, dictated charge separation and device performance in Sb2Se3 thin film solar cells. Cd diffusion converted p-type Sb2Se3 into n-type by introducing a donor level with an activation energy of 0.22 eV. Our studies deepen the understanding of Sb2Se3 photovoltaics and shed light on their further performance optimization.

  5. A detailed thermal-electrical model of three photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid air collectors and photovoltaic (PV) module: Comparative study under Algiers climatic conditions

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Kurucz, Ildikó; Bahria, Sofiane; Hamidat, Abderrahmane; Chaouch, Wafa Braham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal and electrical model for PV and PV/T systems has been presented. • The developed numerical model was validated successfully with previously published experimental results. • A comparative study between four solar devices (PV and PV/T systems) was carried out. • The experimental weather conditions of Algiers site are used in the numerical model. • The glazed double-pass photovoltaic/thermal air collector shows the best overall energy efficiency. - Abstract: The thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector is a genuine cogeneration technology; it can produce electricity and heat simultaneously. In this paper, a comparative study is presented between four solar device configurations: photovoltaic module (PV-I), conventional hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-II), glazed hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-III) and glazed double-pass hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-IV). A numerical model is developed and validated through experimental results indicated in the previous literature. The numerical model takes the heat balance equations and different thermal and electrical parameters into account for each configuration included in this study, the energy performances are evaluated with a sample weather data of Algiers site. The numerical results show that the daily average of overall energy efficiency reaches: 29.63%, 51.02%, 69.47% and 74% for the first (PV-I), the second (PV/T-II), the third (PV/T-III) and the fourth (PV/T-IV) configurations respectively. These values are obtained with an air flow of 0.023 kg/s and introducing a sample of experimental weather data collected in Algiers site for a sunny day in summer.

  6. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  7. Design, modeling and performance analysis of dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal hybrid module in the cold environment

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay; Avasthi, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal modeling of novel dual channel semitransparent PVT hybrid module. • Exergy and carbon credit analysis has been performed. • Annual performance has been evaluated for Srinagar (India). • There are improvements in results for case-I as compared to case-II. - Abstract: In this work, thermal modeling and performance analysis of the dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (DCSPVT) module has been carried out. For extracting heat associated with the lower and upper surface of the solar cell, two channels have been proposed; (i) one is above the solar cell called upper channel and (ii) second is below the solar cell called lower channel. Firstly, thermal modeling of DCSPVT module has been developed. After that, performance analysis of the above system has been carried out for Srinagar, Indian climatic condition. Performance in terms of electrical gain (EG), thermal gain (TG), overall exergy gain (OEG), overall thermal gain (OTG), electrical efficiency (EE) and overall exergy efficiency (OEE) of the DCSPVT module (case-I) have been compared with single channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (SCSPVT) hybrid module (case-II). The average improvement in EG, TG, OEG, OTG of the case-I have been observed by 71.51%, 34.57%, 5.78% and 35.41% respectively as compared to case-II.

  8. Polarization imprint effects on the photovoltaic effect in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    Tan, Zhengwei; Tian, Junjiang; Fan, Zhen; Lu, Zengxing; Zhang, Luyong; Zheng, Dongfeng; Wang, Yadong; Chen, Deyang; Qin, Minghui; Zeng, Min; Lu, Xubing; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2018-04-01

    The polarization imprint along with the photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied in Pt/Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3/SrRuO3 ferroelectric capacitors. It is shown that the positive DC poling induces the imprint with a downward direction whereas the negative DC poling suppresses the imprint (i.e., rejuvenation). In the polarization up state, the imprinted capacitor exhibits degraded PV properties compared with the rejuvenated one. This may be because the imprint reduces the number of upward domains, thus lowering the driving force for the PV effect. In the polarization down state, however, the rejuvenated capacitor enters the imprinted state spontaneously. This rejuvenation-to-imprint transition can be further aggravated by applying positive voltages and ultraviolet illumination. It is proposed that the domain pinning/depinning, which are associated with the oxygen vacancies and trapped electrons modulated by polarization, voltage, and illumination, may be responsible for the polarization imprint and rejuvenation. Our study therefore sheds light on the correlation between the polarization imprint and the PV effect in the ferroelectrics and also provides some viable suggestions to address the imprint-induced degradation of PV performance.

  9. Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect

    He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning-wang@uestc.edu.cn; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-12-07

    Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film was obtained by annealing TiO{sub 2} film at 350 °C for 2 h with hydrogen, and TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film and pristine TiO{sub 2} film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO{sub 2} surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO{sub 2} to generate more photocurrent.

  10. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta....... The present invention further relates to an associated method for mounting/demounting photovoltaic modules....

  11. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  12. Health, safety and environmental risks from the operation of CdTe and CIS thin-film modules

    Steinberger, Hartmut

    1998-01-01

    This paper identifies the materials embedded in on a type of CIS (Copper indium diselenide) and four different types of CdTe (cadmium telluride) thin-film modules. It refers to the results of our outdoor leaching experiments on photovoltaic (PV) samples broken into small fragments. Estimations for modules accidents on the roof or in the garden of a residential house, e.g. leaching of hazardous materials into water or soil, are given. The outcomes of our estimations show some module materials released into water or oil during leaching accidents. In a worst-case scenario for CdTe modules the leached cadmium concentration in the collected water is estimated to be no higher than the German drinking water limit concentration. For the CIS module scenario the estimated leached element concentrations are about one to two orders of magnitude below the German drinking water limit concentration. For broken CIS and CdTe modules on the ground no critical increase of the natural element concentration is observed after leaching into the soil for 1 year. (Author)

  13. Environmental costs of photovoltaics

    Hill, R.; Baumann, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are almost entirely benign in operation, and potential environmental hazards occur at the production and disposal stages. There are well established methods of monitoring and controlling potential hazards caused by the semiconductor materials used in PV modules such as silicon, copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride. The main environmental hazards of photovoltaics are connected to the production processes. These processes require an input of energy, and this energy is derived from the standard fuel mix of the nation in which production takes place. The production of PV systems therefore has associated with it, emissions of greenhouse and acidic gases. However, as the new thin film PV technologies come into production, and the scale of production increases, the energy input to PV systems will decrease considerably, with consequent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, to levels below that of other electricity generating technologies. (Author)

  14. Enhancing performance of a linear dielectric based concentrating photovoltaic system using a reflective film along the edge

    Baig, Hasan; Sarmah, Nabin; Chemisana, Daniel; Rosell, Joan; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we model and analyse the performance of a dielectric based linear concentrating photovoltaic system using ray tracing and finite element methods. The results obtained are compared with the experiments. The system under study is a linear asymmetric CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) designed to operate under extreme incident angles of 0° and 55° and have a geometrical concentration ratio of 2.8×. Initial experiments showed a maximum PR (power ratio) of 2.2 compared to a non concentrating counterpart. An improvement to this has been proposed and verified by adding a reflective film along the edges of the concentrator to capture the escaping rays and minimise optical losses. The addition of the reflective film changes the incoming distribution on the solar cell. Results show an increase of 16% in the average power output while using this reflective film. On including the thermal effects it was found that the overall benefit changes to about 6% while using a reflective film. Additionally, the effects of the non-uniformity of the incoming radiation are also analysed and reported for both the cases. It is found that adding the reflective film drops the maximum power at the output by only 0.5% due to the effect of non-uniformity. - Highlights: • Optical, thermal and electrical analysis of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Improvement in performance by use of reflective film along the edge. • Experimental validation of results. • Effects of non-uniform illumination on the performance of the CPV system. • Impact of temperature profile on the overall performance

  15. Photon and carrier management design for nonplanar thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaics

    Atwater, Harry A.; Callahan, Dennis; Bukowsky, Colton

    2017-11-21

    Photovoltaic structures are disclosed. The structures can comprise randomly or periodically structured layers, a dielectric layer to reduce back diffusion of charge carriers, and a metallic layer to reflect photons back towards the absorbing semiconductor layers. This design can increase efficiency of photovoltaic structures. The structures can be fabricated by nanoimprint.

  16. Nanostructured ZnO thin films by chemical bath deposition in basic aqueous ammonia solutions for photovoltaic applications

    Chu, J.B.; Huang, S.M.; Zhang, D.W.; Bian, Z.Q.; Li, X.D.; Sun, Z. [East China Normal University, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Yin, X.J. [Singapore Polytechnic, Advanced Materials Technology Center, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents further insights and observations of the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of ZnS thin films using an aqueous medium involving Zn-salt, ammonium sulfate, aqueous ammonia, and thiourea. Results on physical and chemical properties of the grown layers as a function of ammonia concentration are reported. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Rapid growth of nanostructured ZnO films on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) glass substrates was developed. ZnO films crystallized in a wurtzite hexagonal structure and with a very small quantity of Zn(OH){sub 2} and ZnS phases were obtained for the ammonia concentration ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 M. Flower-like and columnar nanostructured ZnO films were deposited in two ammonia concentration ranges, respectively: one between 0.75 and 1.0 M and the other between 1.4 and 2.0 M. ZnS films were formed with a high ammonia concentration of 3.0 M. The formation mechanisms of ZnO, Zn(OH){sub 2}, and ZnS phases were discussed in the CBD process. The developed technique can be used to directly and rapidly grow nanostructured ZnO film photoanodes. Annealed ZnO nanoflower and columnar nanoparticle films on FTO substrates were used as electrodes to fabricate the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on ZnO-nanoflower film showed an energy conversion efficiency of 0.84%, which is higher compared to that (0.45%) of the cell being constructed using a photoanode of columnar nanoparticle ZnO film. The results have demonstrated the potential applications of CBD nanostructured ZnO films for photovoltaic cells. (orig.)

  17. Photovoltaic barometer

    2014-01-01

    The global solar photovoltaic market enjoyed a strong revival in 2013. Preliminary estimates put it in excess of 37 GWp, compared to 30 GWp in 2012 and 2011. The solar photovoltaic sector led the annual installed capacity ratings for renewable energies, taking worldwide capacity up to 137 GWp by the end of the year which means a 35% year-on-year increase. At global level the high growth markets - China, Japan and America - contrast sharply with the contracting European Union market. The strong recovery of the global photovoltaic market is due to the drop in module prices which in some zones has dropped below the conventional electricity price. In the E.U, in 2013 the photovoltaic electricity reached 80.2 TWh while the capacity connected during this year was 9922.2 MWp. Concerning the capacity connected in 2013 the 2 main contributors in Europe are Germany (3310.0 MWc) and Italy (1462.0 MWc). These 2 countries represent also 68% of the cumulated and connected capacity in Europe. All along the article various charts and tables give the figures of the photovoltaic capacity per inhabitant for each E.U country in 2013, the electricity production from photovoltaic power for each E.U country, and the main photovoltaic module manufacturers in 2013 worldwide reporting production and turnover

  18. The amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors

    Abrarov, S.M.; Karimov, Kh.S.; Akhmedov, Kh.M.

    2001-01-01

    Present article is devoted to amplitude modulation of laser diode emission with antireflection piezo films on mirrors. The modulator based on laser diode and the emission amplitude modulation of which is performed by electric field impact on antireflection piezo films applied on mirrors was studied.

  19. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    Kim, Hyomin; Kwon, Yiseul; Choe, Youngson

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration.

  20. Grating-coupled surface plasmon enhanced short-circuit current in organic thin-film photovoltaic cells.

    Baba, Akira; Aoki, Nobutaka; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced organic thin-film photovoltaic cells and their improved photocurrent properties. The cell consists of a grating substrate/silver/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS structure. Blu-ray disk recordable substrates are used as the diffraction grating substrates on which silver films are deposited by vacuum evaporation. P3HT:PCBM films are spin-coated on silver/grating substrates. Low conductivity PEDOT:PSS/PDADMAC layer-by-layer ultrathin films deposited on P3HT:PCBM films act as the hole transport layer, whereas high conductivity PEDOT:PSS films deposited by spin-coating act as the anode. SPR excitations are observed in the fabricated cells upon irradiation with white light. Up to a 2-fold increase in the short-circuit photocurrent is observed when the surface plasmon (SP) is excited on the silver gratings as compared to that without SP excitation. The finite-difference time-domain simulation indicates that the electric field in the P3HT:PCBM layer can be increased using the grating-coupled SP technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society