WorldWideScience

Sample records for field unit observations

  1. Field observations and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  2. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: the power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high-luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1 there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small-scale IFU maps.

  3. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  4. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Garcia-Moral, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gomez, G. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Ruiz-Arbol, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scodellaro, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2007-04-21

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths.

  5. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  6. Observing Interstellar and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    Observational results of interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields are reviewed, including the fields in supernova remnants and loops, interstellar filaments and clouds, Hii regions and bubbles, the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the cosmic web. A variety of approaches are used to investigate these fields. The orientations of magnetic fields in interstellar filaments and molecular clouds are traced by polarized thermal dust emission and starlight polarization. The field strengths and directions along the line of sight in dense clouds and cores are measured by Zeeman splitting of emission or absorption lines. The large-scale magnetic fields in the Milky Way have been best probed by Faraday rotation measures of a large number of pulsars and extragalactic radio sources. The coherent Galactic magnetic fields are found to follow the spiral arms and have their direction reversals in arms and interarm regions in the disk. The azimuthal fields in the halo reverse their directions below and above the Galactic plane. The orientations of organized magnetic fields in nearby galaxies have been observed through polarized synchrotron emission. Magnetic fields in the intracluster medium have been indicated by diffuse radio halos, polarized radio relics, and Faraday rotations of embedded radio galaxies and background sources. Sparse evidence for very weak magnetic fields in the cosmic web is the detection of the faint radio bridge between the Coma cluster and A1367. Future observations should aim at the 3D tomography of the large-scale coherent magnetic fields in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies, a better description of intracluster field properties, and firm detections of intergalactic magnetic fields in the cosmic web.

  7. Field demonstrations of radon adsorption units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Four radon gas removal units have been installed in homes in the Northeast U.S. These units utilize dynamic adsorption of the radon gas onto activated charcoal to remove the radon from room air. Two beds of charcoal are used so that one bed removes radon while the second bed is regenerated using outdoor air in a unique process. The beds reverse at the end of a predetermined cycle time, providing continuous removal of radon from the room air. The process and units have undergone extensive development work in the laboratory as well as in homes and a summary of this work is discussed. This work showed that the system performs very effectively over a range of operating conditions similar to those found in a home. The field test data that is presented shows that scale up from the laboratory work was without problem and the units are functioning as expected. This unit provides homeowners and mitigation contractors with another option to solve the radon gas problem in homes, particularly in homes that it is difficult to prevent radon from entering

  8. Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Chulliat, A.; Mandea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of the geomagnetic field have been made for more than 400 years, beginning with individual determinations of the angle between geographic and magnetic North. This was followed by the start of continuous time series of full vector measurements at geomagnetic observatories...... and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments...... for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories....

  9. Discharge from an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit.......To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit....

  10. Multi-satellite observations of magnetic fields in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Bythrow, P.F.; Erlandson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The most common method of detecting electric currents in space has been by virtue of the magnetic perturbations they produce. A satellite can pass through a field-aligned ''Birkeland'' current and measure the in-situ magnetic perturbations. Satellite-borne magnetic field experiments may also be used to observe characteristics of resonant oscillations of the Earth's magnetic field at ULF frequencies. Examples of such measurements with magnetic field experiments on the Viking, AMPTE/CCE, and DMSP-F7 satellites will be presented. The Viking satellite, launched in February, 1986, is Sweden's first satellite and is in a polar orbit with 3.1 R/sub e/ apogee. AMPTE/CCE was launched in August, 1984, with satellites from West Germany and the United Kingdom, for the purpose of creating artificial comets in space. It is in an equatorial orbit with a 8.8 R/sub e/ apogee. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)-F7 satellite was launched in October, 1983 into an 800 km circular sun-synchronous orbit in the 0830-2030 magnetic local time plane. Viking and AMPTE/CCE observed harmonic ULF pulsations when they were near the same flux tube, but separated by about 10 R/sub e/. These unique observations are used to investigate the characteristics and sources of multiple field line resonances of Alfven waves. On another occasion, Viking and DMSP-F7 observed similar magnetic perturbations at widely separated locations. The authors interpret these perturbations as due to a complicated system of large-scale stable Birkeland currents in the morning sector. This multi-satellite data set is in the early stages of exploration, but already confirms the usefulness of coordinated multi-position observations of magnetic fields in space

  11. Balloon-borne radiometer profiler: Field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.J.; Whiteman, C.D.; Anderson, G.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Hubbe, J.M.; Scott, K.A.

    1995-03-01

    This project involves the development of the capability of making routine soundings of broadband radiative fluxes and radiative flux divergences to heights of 1500m AGL. Described in this document are radiometers carried on a stabilized platform in a harness inserted in the tetherline of a tethered balloon meteriological sounding system. Field test results are given

  12. Observations of radiation fog chemistry in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, D.; Hutchings, J.; Herckes, P.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of radiation fog in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States has been the focus of an ongoing field campaign based in Selinsgrove, PA. This field study was established to provide a long term record that can be used to identify the effects of meteorology and air mass source regions on fog composition and to shed light on the role that fog can play in the production of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol mass. In the United States, studies that focus on radiation fog have been relatively rare. For the most part, they have been limited geographically to the Central Valley of California, though individual studies have also been conducted in the Central United States and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sample collection for the current study began during the fall of 2007. Through 2009, samples from 25 radiation fog events have been obtained. A Caltech Heated Rod Cloudwater Collector (CHRCC) having a Dp50 of approximately 8 microns was used to collect one fog sample per event. Samples were typically collected between 2:00 AM and 7:00 AM under conditions of light winds, clear skies, and recent rainfall. Sample volumes ranged from 2.9 ml to 150 ml. Following collection, samples were analyzed for pH and then one of the following: major inorganic ions, dissolved total organic carbon, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), metals, or organic speciation. Through 2009, sample pH varied between 4.28 and 6.86 and averaged 5.03 based on H+ concentration. Ammonium and sulfate were found to be the most abundant ionic species in the fog samples. Sufficient ammonium was detected in nearly every sample to fully neutralize nitrate and sulfate. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium observed in this study were lower than values reported in the literature for most other cloud and fog studies conducted in the US. Due to significant ammonium input, pH in the current study was higher than most other studies. Concentrations of total organic carbon

  13. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center

    2017-06-30

    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  14. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  15. Programmable wide field spectrograph for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Costes, Vincent; Hébert, Philippe-Jean

    2017-11-01

    In Earth Observation, Universe Observation and Planet Exploration, scientific return of the instruments must be optimized in future missions. Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) could be key components in future generation of space instruments. These devices are based on the mature micro-electronics technology and in addition to their compactness, scalability, and specific task customization, they could generate new functions not available with current technologies. French and European space agencies, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have initiated several studies with LAM and TAS for listing the new functions associated with several types of MEMS, and developing new ideas of instruments.

  16. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  17. Cosmological field theory for observational astronomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'Dovich, Y.B.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of the very early Universe that use scalar fields (i.e., the so-called inflationary models of the Universe) have now come into wide use. The inflationary universe approach may perhaps solve some of the most difficult enigmas about the Universe as a whole. The inflationary universe forms a good bridge between the quantum theory of the birth of the Universe (which is still in the initial stages of development) and the standard hot Big Bang theory (which is well established, at least qualitatively). Therefore, an understanding of the basic ideas of inflation is a must for astronomers interested in the broad picture of the science. Astronomers are mathematically oriented enough (via celestial mechanics, electromagnetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, nuclear reactions,etc.) that there is no negative attitude towards formulae in general. What the astronomer lacks is a knowledge of recent developments in particle physics and field theory. The astronomer should not be blamed for this, because these branches of physics are developing in a very peculiar fashion: some subfields of it are progressing comparatively slowly, with experimental verifications at each and every step, while other subfields progress rapidly

  18. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  19. The Sport Education Model: A Track and Field Unit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kason; Krause, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Track and field is a traditional instructional unit often taught in secondary physical education settings due to its history, variety of events, and potential for student interest. This article provides an approach to teaching this unit using the sport education model (SEM) of instruction, which has traditionally been presented as a model for team…

  20. History of surface weather observations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebrich, Christopher A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the history of surface weather observations in the United States is reviewed. Local weather observations were first documented in the 17th Century along the East Coast. For many years, the progression of a weather observation from an initial reading to dissemination remained a slow and laborious process. The number of observers remained small and unorganized until agencies including the Surgeon General, Army, and General Land Office began to request regular observations at satellite locations in the 1800s. The Smithsonian was responsible for first organizing a large "network" of volunteer weather observers across the nation. These observers became the foundation for today's Cooperative Observer network. As applications of weather data continued to grow and users required the data with an ever-decreasing latency, automated weather networks saw rapid growth in the later part of the 20th century. Today, the number of weather observations across the U.S. totals in the tens of thousands due largely to privately-owned weather networks and amateur weather observers who submit observations over the internet.

  1. An observation planning algorithm applied to multi-objective astronomical observations and its simulation in COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic sky surveys are now booming, such as LAMOST already built by China, BIGBOSS project put forward by the U.S. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias) telescope developed by the United States, Mexico and Spain. They all use or will use this approach and each fiber can be moved within a certain area for one astrology target, so observation planning is particularly important for this Sky Surveys. One observation planning algorithm used in multi-objective astronomical observations is developed. It can avoid the collision and interference between the fiber positioning units in the focal plane during the observation in one field of view, and the interested objects can be ovserved in a limited round with the maximize efficiency. Also, the observation simulation can be made for wide field of view through multi-FOV observation. After the observation planning is built ,the simulation is made in COSMOS field using GTC telescope. Interested galaxies, stars and high-redshift LBG galaxies are selected after the removal of the mask area, which may be bright stars. Then 9 FOV simulation is completed and observation efficiency and fiber utilization ratio for every round are given. Otherwise,allocating a certain number of fibers for background sky, giving different weights for different objects and how to move the FOV to improve the overall observation efficiency are discussed.

  2. Observation unit management of acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Jon W; Emerman, Charles L

    2009-01-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a common illness presenting to the emergency department (ED) that is amenable to observation unit (OU) treatment. As the number of baby boomers continues to grow and the incidence of heart failure increases, the financial implications of ADHF treatment will become more prominent. Obtaining institutional support and developing a good working relationship with cardiology colleagues is vital to creating workable ADHF protocols for whichever type of OU an institution decides to use.

  3. Compactly supported linearised observables in single-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fröob, Markus B.; Higuchi, Atsushi [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Hack, Thomas-Paul, E-mail: mbf503@york.ac.uk, E-mail: thomas-paul.hack@itp.uni-leipzig.de, E-mail: atsushi.higuchi@york.ac.uk [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstraße 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the gauge-invariant observables constructed by smearing the graviton and inflaton fields by compactly supported tensors at linear order in general single-field inflation. These observables correspond to gauge-invariant quantities that can be measured locally. In particular, we show that these observables are equivalent to (smeared) local gauge-invariant observables such as the linearised Weyl tensor, which have better infrared properties than the graviton and inflaton fields. Special cases include the equivalence between the compactly supported gauge-invariant graviton observable and the smeared linearised Weyl tensor in Minkowski and de Sitter spaces. Our results indicate that the infrared divergences in the tensor and scalar perturbations in single-field inflation have the same status as in de Sitter space and are both a gauge artefact, in a certain technical sense, at tree level.

  4. Pharmacy collected medication histories in an observation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L Procopio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clear processes to facilitate medication reconciliation in a hospital setting are still undefined. The observation unit allows for a high patient turnover rate, where obtaining accurate medication histories is critical. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of pharmacists and student pharmacists to identify discrepancies in medication histories obtained at triage in observation patients. Methods: Pharmacists and student pharmacists obtained a medication history for each patient placed in observation status. Patients were excluded if they were unable to provide a medication history and family, caregiver, or community pharmacy was also unable to provide the history. A comparison was made between triage and pharmacy collected medication histories to identify discrepancies. Results: A total of 501 medications histories were collected, accounting for 3213 medication records. There were 1176 (37% matched medication records and 1467 discrepancies identified, including 808 (55% omissions, 296 (20.2% wrong frequency, 278 (19% wrong dose, 51 (3.5% discontinued, and 34 (2.3% wrong medication. There was an average of 2.9 discrepancies per patient profile. In all, 76 (15% of the profiles were matched. The median time to obtain a medication history was 4 min (range: 1–48 min. Conclusion: Pharmacy collected medication histories in an observation unit identify discrepancies that can be reconciled by the interdisciplinary team.

  5. Simulations of extragalactic magnetic fields and of their observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.; Gheller, C.; Hackstein, S.; Wittor, D.; Hinz, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of extragalactic magnetic fields is still poorly understood. Based on a dedicated suite of cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical simulations with the ENZO code we have performed a survey of different models that may have caused present-day magnetic fields in galaxies and galaxy clusters. The outcomes of these models differ in cluster outskirts, filaments, sheets and voids and we use these simulations to find observational signatures of magnetogenesis. With these simulations, we predict the signal of extragalactic magnetic fields in radio observations of synchrotron emission from the cosmic web, in Faraday rotation, in the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays, in the polarized signal from fast radio bursts at cosmological distance and in spectra of distant blazars. In general, primordial scenarios in which present-day magnetic fields originate from the amplification of weak (⩽nG ) uniform seed fields result in more homogeneous and relatively easier to observe magnetic fields than astrophysical scenarios, in which present-day fields are the product of feedback processes triggered by stars and active galaxies. In the near future the best evidence for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields will most likely come from a combination of synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation observed at the periphery of large-scale structures.

  6. SYNTHETIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN PROTOSTELLAR CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joyce W. Y.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Offner, Stella S. R.

    2017-01-01

    The role of magnetic fields in the early stages of star formation is not well constrained. In order to discriminate between different star formation models, we analyze 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low-mass cores and explore the correlation between magnetic field orientation and outflow orientation over time. We produce synthetic observations of dust polarization at resolutions comparable to millimeter-wave dust polarization maps observed by the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and compare these with 2D visualizations of projected magnetic field and column density. Cumulative distribution functions of the projected angle between the magnetic field and outflow show different degrees of alignment in simulations with differing mass-to-flux ratios. The distribution function for the less magnetized core agrees with observations finding random alignment between outflow and field orientations, while the more magnetized core exhibits stronger alignment. We find that fractional polarization increases when the system is viewed such that the magnetic field is close to the plane of the sky, and the values of fractional polarization are consistent with observational measurements. The simulation outflow, which reflects the underlying angular momentum of the accreted gas, changes direction significantly over over the first ∼0.1 Myr of evolution. This movement could lead to the observed random alignment between outflows and the magnetic fields in protostellar cores.

  7. Observation-status patients in children's hospitals with and without dedicated observation units in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michelle L; Hall, Matthew; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Fieldston, Evan S; Shanley, Leticia A; Hronek, Carla; Hain, Paul D; Shah, Samir S

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric observation units (OUs) have demonstrated reductions in lengths of stay (LOS) and costs of care. Hospital-level outcomes across all observation-status stays have not been evaluated in relation to the presence of a dedicated OU in the hospital. To compare observation-status stay outcomes in hospitals with and without a dedicated OU. Cross-sectional analysis of hospital administrative data. Observation-status stay outcomes were compared in hospitals with and without a dedicated OU across 4 categories: (1) LOS, (2) standardized costs, (3) conversion to inpatient status, and (4) return care. Observation-status stays in 31 free-standing children's hospitals contributing observation patient data to the Pediatric Health Information System database, 2011. Fifty-one percent of the 136,239 observation-status stays in 2011 occurred in 14 hospitals with a dedicated OU; the remainder were in 17 hospitals without. The percentage of observation-status same-day discharges was higher in hospitals with a dedicated OU compared with hospitals without (23.8 vs 22.1, P hospitals with a dedicated OU (11.06%) compared with hospitals without (9.63%, P hospital-level outcomes. Inclusion of location of care (eg, dedicated OU, inpatient unit, emergency department) in hospital administrative datasets would allow for more meaningful comparisons of models of hospital care. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  8. Inferring Lower Boundary Driving Conditions Using Vector Magnetic Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Leake, James; MacNeice, Peter; Allred, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Low-beta coronal MHD simulations of realistic CME events require the detailed specification of the magnetic fields, velocities, densities, temperatures, etc., in the low corona. Presently, the most accurate estimates of solar vector magnetic fields are made in the high-beta photosphere. Several techniques have been developed that provide accurate estimates of the associated photospheric plasma velocities such as the Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms and the Poloidal/Toroidal Decomposition. Nominally, these velocities are consistent with the evolution of the radial magnetic field. To evolve the tangential magnetic field radial gradients must be specified. In addition to estimating the photospheric vector magnetic and velocity fields, a further challenge involves incorporating these fields into an MHD simulation. The simulation boundary must be driven, consistent with the numerical boundary equations, with the goal of accurately reproducing the observed magnetic fields and estimated velocities at some height within the simulation. Even if this goal is achieved, many unanswered questions remain. How can the photospheric magnetic fields and velocities be propagated to the low corona through the transition region? At what cadence must we observe the photosphere to realistically simulate the corona? How do we model the magnetic fields and plasma velocities in the quiet Sun? How sensitive are the solutions to other unknowns that must be specified, such as the global solar magnetic field, and the photospheric temperature and density?

  9. The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within

  10. Opening of Psychiatric Observation Unit Eases Boarding Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Vivek; Tinloy, Bradford; Ulrich, Andrew; D'Onofrio, Gail; Goldenberg, Matthew; Rothenberg, Craig; Patel, Amitkumar; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a psychiatric observation unit in reducing emergency department (ED) boarding and length of stay (LOS) for patients presenting with primary psychiatric chief complaints. A secondary outcome was to determine the effect of a psychiatric observation unit on inpatient psychiatric bed utilization. This study was a before-and-after analysis conducted in a 1,541-bed tertiary care academic medical center including an adult ED with annual census over 90,000 between February 2013 and July 2014. All adult patients (age > 17 years) requiring evaluation by the acute psychiatry service in the crisis intervention unit (CIU) within the ED were included. Patients who left without being seen, left against medical advice, or were dispositioned to the pediatric hospital, hospice, or court/law enforcement were excluded. In December 2013, a 12-bed locked psychiatric observation unit was opened that included dedicated behavioral health staff and was intended for psychiatric patients requiring up to 48 hours of care. The primary outcomes were ED LOS, CIU LOS, and total LOS. Secondary outcomes included the hold rate defined as the proportion of acute psychiatry patients requiring subsequent observation or inpatient admission and the inpatient psychiatric admission rate. For the primary analysis we constructed ARIMA regression models that account for secular changes in the primary outcomes. We conducted two sensitivity analyses, first replicating the primary analysis after excluding patients with concurrent acute intoxication and second by comparing the 3-month period postintervention to the identical 3-month period of the prior year to account for seasonality. A total of 3,501 patients were included before intervention and 3,798 after intervention. The median ED LOS for the preintervention period was 155 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 19-346 minutes), lower than the median ED LOS for the postintervention period of 35

  11. Observing GRBs with the LOFT Wide Field Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Feroci, M.

    2013-01-01

    (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle, and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide...

  12. Observing earthquakes triggered in the near field by dynamic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that dynamic deformations associated with seismic waves trigger earthquakes in many tectonic environments. Our analysis focuses on seismicity at close range (within the aftershock zone), complementing published studies of long-range triggering. Our results suggest that dynamic triggering is not confined to remote distances or to geothermal and volcanic regions. Long unilaterally propagating ruptures may focus radiated dynamic deformations in the propagation direction. Therefore, we expect seismicity triggered dynamically by a directive rupture to occur asymmetrically, with a majority of triggered earthquakes in the direction of rupture propagation. Bilaterally propagating ruptures also may be directive, and we propose simple criteria for assessing their directivity. We compare the inferred rupture direction and observed seismicity rate change following 15 earthquakes (M 5.7 to M 8.1) that occured in California and Idaho in the United States, the Gulf of Aqaba, Syria, Guatemala, China, New Guinea, Turkey, Japan, Mexico, and Antarctica. Nine of these mainshocks had clearly directive, unilateral ruptures. Of these nine, seven apparently induced an asymmetric increase in seismicity rate that correlates with the rupture direction. The two exceptions include an earthquake preceded by a comparable-magnitude event on a conjugate fault and another for which data limitations prohibited conclusive results. Similar (but weaker) correlations were found for the bilaterally rupturing earthquakes we studied. Although the static stress change also may trigger seismicity, it and the seismicity it triggers are expected to be similarly asymmetric only if the final slip is skewed toward the rupture terminus. For several of the directive earthquakes, we suggest that the seismicity rate change correlates better with the dynamic stress field than the static stress change.

  13. Financial Viability of Emergency Department Observation Unit Billing Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christopher W; Suri, Pawan; Caspers, Christopher G; Granovsky, Michael A; Neal, Keith; Ross, Michael A

    2018-05-16

    Outpatients receive observation services to determine the need for inpatient admission. These services are usually provided without the use of condition-specific protocols and in an unstructured manner, scattered throughout a hospital in areas typically designated for inpatient care. Emergency department observation units (EDOUs) use protocolized care to offer an efficient alternative with shorter lengths of stay, lower costs and higher patient satisfaction. EDOU growth is limited by existing policy barriers that prevent a "two-service" model of separate professional billing for both emergency and observation services. The majority of EDOUs use the "one-service" model, where a single composite professional fee is billed for both emergency and observation services. The financial implications of these models are not well understood. We created a Monte Carlo simulation by building a model that reflects current clinical practice in the United States and uses inputs gathered from the most recently available peer-reviewed literature, national survey and payer data. Using this simulation, we modeled annual staffing costs and payments for professional services under two common models of care in an EDOU. We also modeled cash flows over a continuous range of daily EDOU patient encounters to illustrate the dynamic relationship between costs and revenue over various staffing levels. We estimate the mean (±SD) annual net cash flow to be a net loss of $315,382 ±$89,635 in the one-service model and a net profit of $37,569 ±$359,583 in the two-service model. The two-service model is financially sustainable at daily billable encounters above 20 while in the one-service model, costs exceed revenue regardless of encounter count. Physician cost per hour and daily patient encounters had the most significant impact on model estimates. In the one-service model, EDOU staffing costs exceed payments at all levels of patient encounters, making a hospital subsidy necessary to create a

  14. Cosmic microwave background observables of small field models of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Brustein, Ram

    2010-01-01

    We construct a class of single small field models of inflation that can predict, contrary to popular wisdom, an observable gravitational wave signal in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The spectral index, its running, the tensor to scalar ratio and the number of e-folds can cover all the parameter space currently allowed by cosmological observations. A unique feature of models in this class is their ability to predict a negative spectral index running in accordance with recent cosmic microwave background observations. We discuss the new class of models from an effective field theory perspective and show that if the dimensionless trilinear coupling is small, as required for consistency, then the observed spectral index running implies a high scale of inflation and hence an observable gravitational wave signal. All the models share a distinct prediction of higher power at smaller scales, making them easy targets for detection

  15. Observation of asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles in chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamoto, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kei; Tomita, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally observe asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles along two-dimensional chiral metamaterials. The asymmetric field profiles depending on the chirality and the operation frequency have been reproduced well by the numerical simulation. Around a chiral meta-atom, distribution of a Poynting vector is found to be shifted asymmetrically. These results are explained in terms of an analogy with the side-jump mechanism in the electronic anomalous Hall systems.

  16. A course on quantum field theory and local observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    1997-03-01

    A monograph on Quantum Field Theory and Local Observables is presented, aiming to unify two presently largely disconnected branches of QFT, as follows: the standard (canonical, functional) approach which is mainly perturbative in the sense of an infinitesimal 'deformation' of free fields; nonperturbative constructions of low-dimensional models as the form factor-bootstrap approach (which for the time being is limited to factorable models in d=1+1 spacetime dimensions) and the non-Lagrangian constructions of conformal chiral QFT's

  17. Implications of observing and writing field notes through different lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellesø R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ragnhild Hellesø,1 Line Melby,1 Solveig Hauge21Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: From a philosophy of science perspective, the literature has posited that different research approaches influence field studies. Studies addressing interdisciplinary research have focused on the challenges of organizing and running interdisciplinary teams, cultural differences between and within disciplines, and constraints in conducting interdisciplinary research. Studies exploring and discussing the process and outcome of transferring observations to notes from an interdisciplinary point of view are not identified. The aim of this paper is to explore the characteristics of field notes created by researchers representing different disciplines and experiences.Methods: A case study using a modified dynamic observation method was employed. The analyses were initiated by a researcher who had not been involved in the data collection. The field notes were analyzed using three main steps.Results: The structures of both researchers' field notes were characterized by similarities in their descriptions, but the notes' foci and analytical levels differed.Conclusion: The findings contribute new insights concerning the execution of interdisciplinary observational studies. Our findings demonstrate that entering the field with different lenses produced richer and more varied data, providing a broader platform from which to discuss and interpret a study's findings. From a theoretical point of view, the findings enable a more nuanced discussion and a conceptual elaboration regarding how observational approaches should be pursued in future studies. On a practical level, the findings show that even if the researchers agree on what the overall focus in the observations should be, differences can occur in

  18. Nikola Tesla: the man behind the magnetic field unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguin, Ariel

    2004-03-01

    The magnetic field strength of both the magnet and gradient coils used in MR imaging equipment is measured in Tesla units, which are named for Nikola Tesla. This article presents the life and achievements of this Serbian-American inventor and researcher who discovered the rotating magnetic field, the basis of most alternating-current machinery. Nikola Tesla had 700 patents in the United States and Europe that covered every aspect of science and technology. Tesla's discoveries include the Tesla coil, AC electrical conduction, improved lighting, newer forms of turbine engines, robotics, fluorescent light, wireless transmission of electrical energy, radio, remote control, discovery of cosmic radio waves, and the use of the ionosphere for scientific purposes. He was a genius whose discoveries had a pivotal role in advancing us into the modern era. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Deformation bands in porous carbonate grainstones: Field and laboratory observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilona, A.; Baud, P.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Vinciguerra, S.; Rustichelli, A.; Spiers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent field-based studies documented deformation bands in porous carbonates; these structures accommodate volumetric and/or shear strain by means of pore collapse, grain rotation and/or sliding. Microstructural observations of natural deformation bands in carbonates showed that, at advanced stages

  20. Observations of ionospheric electric fields above atmospheric weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Aggson, T. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Hanson, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the observations of a number of quasi-dc electric field events associated with large-scale atmospheric weather formations. The observations were made by the electric field experiment onboard the San Marco D satellite, operational in an equatorial orbit from May to December 1988. Several theoretical studies suggest that electric fields generated by thunderstorms are present at high altitudes in the ionosphere. In spite of such favorable predictions, weather-related events are not often observed since they are relatively weak. We shall report here on a set of likely E field candidates for atmospheric-ionospheric causality, these being observed over the Indonesian Basin, northern South America, and the west coast of Africa; all known sites of atmospheric activity. As we shall demonstrate, individual events often be traced to specific active weather features. For example, a number of events were associated with spacecraft passages near Hurricane Joan in mid-October 1988. As a statistical set, the events appear to coincide with the most active regions of atmospheric weather.

  1. The interplanetary magnetic field observed by Juno enroute to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Espley, Jared R.; Connerney, John E. P.

    2017-06-01

    The Juno spacecraft was launched on 5 August 2011 and spent nearly 5 years traveling through the inner heliosphere on its way to Jupiter. The Magnetic Field Investigation was powered on shortly after launch and obtained vector measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at sample rates from 1 to 64 samples/second. The evolution of the magnetic field with radial distance from the Sun is compared to similar observations obtained by Voyager 1 and 2 and the Ulysses spacecraft, allowing a comparison of the radial evolution between prior solar cycles and the current depressed one. During the current solar cycle, the strength of the IMF has decreased throughout the inner heliosphere. A comparison of the variance of the normal component of the magnetic field shows that near Earth the variability of the IMF is similar during all three solar cycles but may be less at greater radial distances.

  2. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field Observed by Juno Enroute to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Espley, Jared R.; Connerney, John E. P.

    2017-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft was launched on 5 August 2011 and spent nearly 5 years traveling through the inner heliosphere on its way to Jupiter. The Magnetic Field Investigation was powered on shortly after launch and obtained vector measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at sample rates from 1 to 64 samples/second. The evolution of the magnetic field with radial distance from the Sun is compared to similar observations obtained by Voyager 1 and 2 and the Ulysses spacecraft, allowing a comparison of the radial evolution between prior solar cycles and the current depressed one. During the current solar cycle, the strength of the IMF has decreased throughout the inner heliosphere. A comparison of the variance of the normal component of the magnetic field shows that near Earth the variability of the IMF is similar during all three solar cycles but may be less at greater radial distances.

  3. Magnetic field observation on DE-A and -B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farthing, W.H.; Sugiura, M.; Ledley, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic field observations are conducted on each of the DE-A and -B satellites by a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. In the basic mode the instrumental resolution is +-1.5 nT; in addition, the DE-A magnetometer has two modes of higher resolution: +-0.25 nT and +-20 pT. The sampling rate is 16 vector samples per second in all modes. The experiment objectives include observations of field-aligned currents, magnetospheric equatorial currents, and ULF waves. These observations, taking full advantage of the specifically selected orbits of the two spacecraft and of the unique combination of instruments, are performed to achieve a better understanding of the electrodynamic coupling within the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system and of wave-particle interactions which contribute to the coupling processes. (orig.)

  4. THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD (UDF12): OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V.; Targett, T. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France); Furlanetto, Steven R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128 orbit Cycle 19 Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at extending previous Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%, as well as adding an extremely deep parallel field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F814W filter with a total exposure time of 128 orbits. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at z ∼> 8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at z ∼ 7-8, facilitate the construction of new samples of z ∼ 9-10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to z ∼ 12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky. In this paper we present the observational overview of the project and describe the procedures used in reducing the data as well as the final products that were produced. We present the details of several special procedures that we implemented to correct calibration issues in the data for both the WFC3/IR observations of the main UDF field and our deep 128 orbit ACS/WFC F814W parallel field image, including treatment for persistence, correction for time-variable sky backgrounds, and astrometric alignment to an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds. We release the full, combined mosaics comprising a single, unified set of mosaics of the UDF, providing the deepest near-infrared blank-field view of the universe currently achievable, reaching magnitudes as deep as AB ∼ 30 mag in the near-infrared, and yielding a legacy dataset on this field.

  5. THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD (UDF12): OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V.; Targett, T.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128 orbit Cycle 19 Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at extending previous Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%, as well as adding an extremely deep parallel field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F814W filter with a total exposure time of 128 orbits. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at z ∼> 8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at z ∼ 7-8, facilitate the construction of new samples of z ∼ 9-10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to z ∼ 12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky. In this paper we present the observational overview of the project and describe the procedures used in reducing the data as well as the final products that were produced. We present the details of several special procedures that we implemented to correct calibration issues in the data for both the WFC3/IR observations of the main UDF field and our deep 128 orbit ACS/WFC F814W parallel field image, including treatment for persistence, correction for time-variable sky backgrounds, and astrometric alignment to an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds. We release the full, combined mosaics comprising a single, unified set of mosaics of the UDF, providing the deepest near-infrared blank-field view of the universe currently achievable, reaching magnitudes as deep as AB ∼ 30 mag in the near-infrared, and yielding a legacy dataset on this field

  6. Field effects and ictal synchronization: insights from in homine observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shennan Aibel Weiss

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established in animal models that electrical fields generated during inter-ictal and ictal discharges are strong enough in intensity to influence action potential firing threshold and synchronization. We discuss recently published data from microelectrode array recordings of human neocortical seizures and what they imply about the possible role of field effects in neuronal synchronization. We have identified two distinct seizure territories that cannot be easily distinguished by traditional EEG analysis. The ictal core exhibits synchronized neuronal burst firing, while the surrounding ictal penumbra exhibits asynchronous and relatively sparse neuronal activity. In the ictal core large amplitude rhythmic ictal discharges produce large electric fields that correspond with relatively synchronous neuronal firing. In the penumbra rhythmic ictal discharges are smaller in amplitude, but large enough to influence spike timing, yet neuronal synchrony is not observed. These in homine observations are in accord with decades of animal studies supporting a role of field effects in neuronal synchronization during seizures, yet also highlight how field effects may be negated in the presence of strong synaptic inhibition in the penumbra.

  7. Differential bare field drainage properties from airborne microwave observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, R.; Soars, J.V.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1986-01-01

    Time variations of the surface soil moisture can be monitored using active microwave remote sensing. With the existence of airborne systems, it is now possible to estimate this variable on a regional scale. Data from a helicopter-borne scatterometer show that the surface water content reductions during a 9-day period are quite different from one field to another. A simple model describing the water budget of the soil surface layer due to evaporation and drainage is applied. From this model, a pseudo diffusivity can be calculated for each field using only the remotely sensed data. This new parameter gives a quantitative estimate of the observed drying heterogeneities. (author)

  8. A course on quantum field theory and local observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Frankfurt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1997-03-01

    A monograph on Quantum Field Theory and Local Observables is presented, aiming to unify two presently largely disconnected branches of QFT, as follows: the standard (canonical, functional) approach which is mainly perturbative in the sense of an infinitesimal `deformation` of free fields; nonperturbative constructions of low-dimensional models as the form factor-bootstrap approach (which for the time being is limited to factorable models in d=1+1 spacetime dimensions) and the non-Lagrangian constructions of conformal chiral QFT`s

  9. An explanation for parallel electric field pulses observed over thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Barnum, B. H.

    2009-10-01

    Every electric field instrument flown on sounding rockets over a thunderstorm has detected pulses of electric fields parallel to the Earth's magnetic field associated with every strike. This paper describes the ionospheric signatures found during a flight from Wallops Island, Virginia, on 2 September 1995. The electric field results in a drifting Maxwellian corresponding to energies up to 1 eV. The distribution function relaxes because of elastic and inelastic collisions, resulting in electron heating up to 4000-5000 K and potentially observable red line emissions and enhanced ISR electron temperatures. The field strength scales with the current in cloud-to-ground strikes and falls off as r -1 with distance. Pulses of both polarities are found, although most electric fields are downward, parallel to the magnetic field. The pulse may be the reaction of ambient plasma to a current pulse carried at the whistler packet's highest group velocity. The charge source required to produce the electric field is very likely electrons of a few keV traveling at the packet velocity. We conjecture that the current source is the divergence of the current flowing at mesospheric heights, the phenomenon called an elve. The whistler packet's effective radiated power is as high as 25 mW at ionospheric heights, comparable to some ionospheric heater transmissions. Comparing the Poynting flux at the base of the ionosphere with flux an equal distance away along the ground, some 30 db are lost in the mesosphere. Another 10 db are lost in the transition from free space to the whistler mode.

  10. Field experimental observations of highly graded sediment plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment in the waters off the south-eastern coast of Cyprus was carried out to study near-field formation of sediment plumes from dumping. Different loads of sediment were poured into calm and limpid waters one at the time from just above the sea surface. The associated plumes......-bed positions gives unique insight into the dynamics of the descending plume and near-field dispersion processes, and enables good understanding of flow and sediment transport processes involved from-release-to-deposition of the load in a non-scaled environment. The high resolution images and footages...... are available through the link provided herein. Observations support the development of a detailed multi-fractional sediment plume model....

  11. Epoxy matrix with triaromatic mesogenic unit in dielectric spectroscopy observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarska, Magdalena; Mossety-Leszczak, Beata; Bąk, Grzegorz W.; Kisiel, Maciej; Dłużniewski, Maciej; Okrasa, Lidia

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the dielectric response of a selected liquid crystal epoxy monomer (plain and in curing systems) in a wide range of frequency and temperature. The dielectric spectroscopy, thanks to its sensitivity, is a very good tool for studying phase transitions, reaction progress, or material properties. This sensitivity is important in the case of liquid crystal epoxy resins, where properties of the final network depend on the choice of monomers, curing agents, curing conditions and post-curing treatment, or applying an external electric or magnetic field during the reaction. In most of the obtained cured products, the collected dielectric data show two relaxation processes. The α-process is related to a structural reorientation; it can usually be linked with the glass transition and the mechanical properties of the material. The β-process can be identified as a molecular motion process, probably associated with the carboxyl groups in the mesogen. A transient Maxwell-Wagner relaxation observed in one of the compositions after the initial curing is removed by post-curing treatment at elevated temperatures. Post-curing is therefore necessary for obtaining uniformly cured products in those cases. In the investigated systems, the choice of a curing agent can change the glass transition temperature by at least 70 °C. The obtained results are in a good agreement with an earlier study employing other techniques. Finally, we assess the influence of the direction of mesogen alignment on the dielectric properties of one selected system, where a global order was induced by applying an external magnetic field in the course of curing.

  12. Observer dependence of quantum states in relativistic quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, S.

    1982-01-01

    Quantum states can be understood as either (i) describing quantum systems or (ii) representing observers' knowledge about quantum systems. These different meanings are shown to imply different transformation properties in relativistic field theories. The rules for the reduction of quantum states and the transformation properties of quantum states under Lorentz transformations are derived for case (ii). The results obtained are applied to a quantum system recently presented and analyzed by Aharonov and Albert. It is shown that the present results, combined with Aharonov and Albert's, amount to a proof of Bohr's view that quantum states represent observers' knowledge about quantum systems

  13. Magnetic fields in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aasen, S.E.; Johansson, A.; Cristensen, T.

    1995-06-01

    In this study the magnetic flux density in and around the infant incubators of a neonatal intensive care unit were registered and mapped. The mean 50 Hz magnetic flux densities in an incubator was typically in the region 0.2 - l μT, with maximum values around 1.5μT. The field levels are quite varying dependent on type of incubator, position in the incubator, position of the electronic surveillance and treatment equipment and the position of the 220 V main plugs. 8 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Mechanism of parallel electric fields inferred from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.; Hill, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of satellite data from regions of upward Birkeland (magnetic-field-aligned) current shows that the typical magnetic-field-aligned potential drop in the auroral zone is larger than required to provide direct acceleration of magnetospheric electrons by the field-aligned electric field against the upward magnetic force to produce the observed upward Birkeland current. A model of simple electrostatic acceleration without anomalous resistivity predicts observable relations between parallel current and parallel potential drop and between energy deposition and parallel potential drop. The temperature, density, and species of the unaccelerated charge carriers are the relevant parameters of the model. Simultaneously measurements of electron precipitation and ion drift velocities on the satellites Atmosphere Explorere C and D were used to test these relations. In a steady state the divergence of ionospheric currents must be compensated by Birkeland currents. The model current-voltage relation was applied to predict the densities of the primary charge carriers (i.e., plasma sheet electrons above the acceleration region for upward currents). In cases involving thin arc structures, where the reliable estimation of the divergence of ionospheric current is difficult and the steady-state assumption may not apply, the precipitating energy flux versus voltage relation was used to predict the densities of the unaccelerated plasma sheet electrons. Within the experimental uncertainties, reasonable agreement is found between these predicted densities and those inferred directly from the simultaneous data of the Low-Energy Electron Experiment. These results are interpreted as indicating that anomalous resistivity is not important in determining the magnitude of the field-aligned potential drop in the auroral zone

  15. Observation Impact over the Antarctic During the Concordiasi Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullot, Nathalie; Rabier, Florence; Langland, Rolf; Gelaro, Ron; Cardinali, Carla; Guidard, Vincent; Bauer, Peter; Doerenbecher, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The impact of observations on analysis uncertainty and forecast performance was investigated for Austral Spring 2010 over the Southern polar area for four different systems (NRL, GMAO, ECMWF and Meteo-France), at the time of the Concordiasi field experiment. The largest multi model variance in 500 hPa height analyses is found in the southern sub-Antarctic oceanic region, where there are strong atmospheric dynamics, rapid forecast error growth, and fewer upper air wind observation data to constrain the analyses. In terms of data impact the most important observation components are shown to be AMSU, IASI, AIRS, GPS-RO, radiosonde, surface and atmospheric motion vector observations. For sounding data, radiosondes and dropsondes, one can note a large impact of temperature at low levels and a large impact of wind at high levels. Observing system experiments using the Concordiasi dropsondes show a large impact of the observations over the Antarctic plateau extending to lower latitudes with the forecast range, with a large impact around 50 to 70deg South. These experiments indicate there is a potential benefit of better using radiance data over land and sea-ice and innovative atmospheric motion vectors obtained from a combination of various satellites to fill the current data gaps and improve NWP in this region.

  16. Magnetic field observations on the Akebono (KXOS-D) satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Fujii, R.; Kokubum, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Akebono (EXOS-D) satellite carries triaxial fluxgate and search coil magnetometers with sensors mounted on 5-and 3m masts, respectively. The fluxgate magnetometer has four automatically switchable ranges from ±1024 to ±65536 nT (full scale), and resolutions commensurate with a 16-bit A/D converter in each range (0.031 to 2 nT). The rate of sampling is 32 vectors per second. The triaxial search coil magnetometer has a frequency response up to 800 Hz. Signals in the frequency range higher than 100 Hz are used for VLF plasma wave experiments, while signals less than 100 Hz are used for magnetic field experiments. Both magnetometers have been operating consinuously since the 3- and 5-m masts were extended on March 7 and 8, 1989, respectively. Intense small-scale field-aligned currents embedded in the large-scale field-aligned current system were always observed at 1-2 Re altitudes in all local time regions. The region 0 currents which flow in the poleward region adjacent to the region 1 currents were also frequently observed. The search coil magnetometers measured ion cyclotron waves at 1-2 Re altitudes near the equator. (N.K.)

  17. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) is a high-resolution X-ray spectrometer, providing 2.5 eV spectral resolution, over a 5' (equivalent diameter) field of view, and count rate capabilities up to 1 Crab in the 0.2-12 keV range. Approaching the end of its feasibility study (scheduled around the end of 2017), I will briefly recall the scientific objectives of Athena driving the X-IFU specifications and will describe its current baseline configuration and the expected performances. I will outline the on-going technology developments that will enable the X-IFU. The X-IFU will be developed by an international consortium led by France (IRAP/CNES), the Netherlands (SRON), Italy (IAPS), with ESA member state contributions from Belgium, Finland, Germany, Poland, Spain and Switzerland, and international partner contributions from Japan and the United States. This talk is given on behalf of the X-IFU Consortium.

  18. Geomorphology: Perspectives on observation, history, and the field tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, John D.

    2013-10-01

    Other than a common interest in form and process, current geomorphologists have little in common with those who established the foundations of this science. Educated people who had an interest in Earth processes during the nineteenth century cannot be compared to the scholars who study geomorphology in the twenty-first century. Whereas Earth has undergone natural change from the beginning of time, the human record of observing and recording processes and changes in the surface Is but a recent phenomena. Observation is the only thread, however, that connects all practitioners of geomorphology through time. As people acquired knowledge related to all aspects of life, technological revolutions, such as the Iron Age, Bronze Age, agricultural revolution, the atomic age, and the digital age, shaped human existence and thought. Technology has greatly changed the power of human observation, including inward to the atomic scale and outward into the realm of space.Books and articles describe how to collect and analyze data but few references document the field experience. Each of us, however, has experienced unique circumstances during field work and we learned from various mentors how to observe. The surface of Earth on which we practice the vocation of geomorphology may not be much different from a hundred years ago but many things about how we collect data, analyze it and disseminate the results have changed. How we function in the field, including what we wear, what we eat, how we get there, and where we choose to collect data, clearly reflects the complexity of the human system on Earth and the processes and forms that arouse our interest. Computers, miniaturization of electronics, satellite communications and observation platforms in space provide access to data to aid in our quest to understand Earth surface processes. Once, people lived closer to nature in primitive shelters in contrast with life in urban environments. But as urban life continues to expand and people

  19. Workplace Field Characterisation at Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Bakhanova, E.; Volosky, V.; Shylo, S.; Chernyshov, G.; Dmitrienko, A.; Rozumny, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: When assessment of effective dose is required, radiation field needs to be characterised in terms of energy spectrum and geometry of exposure. Prior to application of pre-calculated (e.g. ICRP 74) or site-specific conversion coefficients, one need to demonstrate compliance with one of standard irradiation geometries and determine appropriate energy (or energy spectrum). Particular conditions of the entombment of Chernobyl Unit 4 (Object 'Shelter') high dose rate fields, complex source-target geometry, presence of heavy shielding structures and, as a result, significant scattered component in radiation field make application of conventional area monitoring instruments like in situ spectrometers complicated if possible at all. Unique techniques and devices were developed for workplace field characterisation at Object 'Shelter'. The set of devices includes passive spectrometric system, which makes use of simultaneous exposing several TLD detectors placed inside spherical attenuators (principle much similar to Bonner sphere neutron spectroscopy). Deconvolution of gamma spectra is performed through solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. Geometry of irradiation at given workplace is determined by TLD detectors placed in the six-vector collimator. This simple device allows determination of anisotropy of radiation field, both horizontal and vertical. Another design incorporates portable gamma spectrometer with 1'x2' NaI detector placed in the specially designed lead-copper collimator with aperture compatible with the one of the described above six-vector passive system. The discussed experimental set-up was extensively tested in various locations within Object 'Shelter'. Results of both energy spectrum and exposure geometry characterisation demonstrated feasibility of the proposed approach. (author)

  20. Vector magnetic field observations with the Haleakala polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Several enhancements were recently made to the Haleakala polarimeter. Linear array detectors provide simultaneous resolution over a 3-A wavelength range, with spectral resolution of 40 mA. Optical fibers are now used to carry the intensity-modulated light from the rotating quarter-wave plate polarimeter to the echelle spectrometer, permitting its removal from the spar to a more stable environment. These changes, together with improved quarter-wave plates, reduced systematic errors to a few parts in 10,000 for routine observations. Examples of Stokes profiles and derived magnetic field maps are presented.

  1. Observation of tilt asymmetries in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Barnes, D.C.; Klingner, P.; Ng, Chung.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, part of the experimental effort on the FRX-C/LSM device has been devoted to understanding why good FRC confinement is observed only in a narrow window of the operating parameter space (fill pressures less than 5 mtorr and bias fields less than 0.8--0.9 kG). The transition from good to bad confinement has been shown for some time to correlate with strong axial shocks, suggesting a formation or stability problem. More recently, FRC magnetic asymmetries have been observed whenever the confinement was poor. To gain further understanding, a 64-coil probe array was built, and data from over 700 discharges were collected during the summer of 1989. We summarize in this paper the results of a preliminary analysis of these data. 5 refs., 4 figs

  2. Field experimental observations of highly graded sediment plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-06-15

    A field experiment in the waters off the south-eastern coast of Cyprus was carried out to study near-field formation of sediment plumes from dumping. Different loads of sediment were poured into calm and limpid waters one at the time from just above the sea surface. The associated plumes, gravitating towards the seafloor, were filmed simultaneously by four divers situated at different depths in the water column, and facing the plume at different angles. The processes were captured using GoPro-Hero-series cameras. The high-quality underwater footage from near-surface, mid-depth and near-bed positions gives unique insight into the dynamics of the descending plume and near-field dispersion processes, and enables good understanding of flow and sediment transport processes involved from-release-to-deposition of the load in a non-scaled environment. The high resolution images and footages are available through the link provided herein. Observations support the development of a detailed multi-fractional sediment plume model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Newly velocity field of Sulawesi Island from GPS observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo, Simons, W. J. F.; Abidin, H. Z.; Sapiie, B.; Triyoso, W.; Andreas, H.

    2017-07-01

    Sulawesi microplate Island is located at famous triple junction area of the Eurasian, India-Australian, and Philippine Sea plates. Under the influence of the northward moving Australian plate and the westward motion of the Philippine plate, the island at Eastern part of Indonesia is collide and with the Eurasian plate and Sunda Block. Those recent microplate tectonic motions can be quantitatively determine by GNSS-GPS measurement. We use combine GNSS-GPS observation types (campaign type and continuous type) from 1997 to 2015 to derive newly velocity field of the area. Several strategies are applied and tested to get the optimum result, and finally we choose regional strategy to reduce error propagation contribution from global multi baseline processing using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.5. Velocity field are analyzed in global reference frame ITRF 2008 and local reference frame by fixing with respect alternatively to Eurasian plate - Sunda block, India-Australian plate and Philippine Sea plates. Newly results show dense distribution of velocity field. This information is useful for tectonic deformation studying in geospatial era.

  4. Link between laboratory/field observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1985-10-01

    The various linkages in system performance assessments that integrate disposal program elements must be understood. The linkage between model development and field/laboratory observations is described as the iterative program of site and system characterization for development of an observational-confirmatory data base to develop, improve, and support conceptual models for site and system behavior. The program consists of data gathering and experiments to demonstrate understanding at various spatial and time scales and degrees of complexity. Understanding and accounting for the decreasing characterization certainty that arises with increasing space and time scales is an important aspect of the link between models and observations. The performance allocation process for setting performance goals and confidence levels coupled with a performance assessment approach that provides these performance and confidence estimates will resolve when sufficient characterization has been achieved. At each iteration performance allocation goals are reviewed and revised as necessary. The updated data base and appropriate performance assessment tools and approaches are utilized to identify and design additional tests and data needs necessary to meet current performance allocation goals. 9 refs

  5. The link between laboratory/field observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The various linkages in system performance assessments that integrate disposal program elements must be understood. The linkage between model development and field/laboratory observations is described as the iterative program of site and system characterization for development of an observational-confirmatory data base. This data base is designed to develop, improve, and support conceptual models for site and system behavior. The program consists of data gathering and experiments to demonstrate understanding at various spatial and time scales and degrees of complexity. Understanding and accounting for the decreasing characterization certainty that arises with increasing space and time scales is an important aspect of the link between models and observations. The performance allocation process for setting performance goals and confidence levels, coupled with a performance assessment approach that provides these performance and confidence estimates, will determine when sufficient characterization has been achieved. At each iteration, performance allocation goals are reviewed and revised as necessary. The updated data base and appropriate performance assessment tools and approaches are utilized to identify and design additional tests and data needs necessary to meet current performance allocation goals

  6. Lightning Performance on Overhead Distribution Lines : After Improvement Field Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Zoro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two feeders of 20 kV overhead distribution lines which are located in a high lightning density area are chosen to be observed as a field study due to their good lightning performance after improvement of lightning protection system. These two feeders used the new overhead ground wire and new line arrester equipped with lightning counter on the main lines. The significant reduced of lines outages are reported. Study was carried out to observe these improvements by comparing to the other two feeders line which are not improved and not equipped yet with the ground wire and line arrester. These two feeders located in the nearby area. Two cameras were installed to record the trajectory of the lightning strikes on the improved lines. Lightning peak currents are measured using magnetic tape measurement system installed on the grounding lead of lightning arrester. Lightning overvoltage calculations are carried out by using several scenarios based on observation results and historical lightning data derived from lightning detection network. Lightning overvoltages caused by indirect or direct strikes are analyzed to get the lightning performance of the lines. The best scenario was chosen and performance of the lines were improved significantly by installing overhead ground wire and improvement of lightning arrester installation.

  7. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  8. August 1972 solar-terrestrial events: interplanetary magnetic field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-10-01

    A review is presented of the interplanetary magnetic field observations acquired in early August 1972 when four solar flares erupted in McMath Plage region 1976. Measurements of the interplanetary field were obtained by Earth satellites, HEOS-2 and Explorer 41, and by Pioneers 9 and 10 which, by good fortune, were radially aligned and only 45/sup 0/ east of the Earth-Sun direction. In response to the four flares, four interplanetary shocks were seen at Earth and at Pioneer 9, which was then at a heliocentric distance of 0.78 AU. However, at Pioneer 10, which was 2.2 AU from the Sun, only two forward shocks and one reverse shock were seen. The available magnetic field data acquired in the vicinity of the shocks are presented. Efforts to identify corresponding shocks at the several locations and to deduce their velocities of propagation between 0.8 and 2.2 AU are reviewed. The early studies were based on average velocities between the Sun and Pioneer 9, the Sun and Earth and the Sun and Pioneer 10. A large deceleration of the shocks between the Sun and 0.8 AU as well as between 0.8 and 2.2 AU was inferred. More recently the local velocities of the shocks at Pioneers 9 and 10 have become available. A comparision of these velocities shows little, if any, deceleration between 0.8 and 2.2 AU and implies that most or all of the deceleration actually occurred nearer the Sun. Evidence is also presented that shows a significant departure of the flare-generated shock fronts from spherical symmetry.

  9. Comparison of St. Lawrence blue whale vocalizations with field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchok, Catherine; Bradley, David; Gabrielson, Thomas; Sears, Richard

    2003-04-01

    During four field seasons from 1998-2001, vocalizations were recorded in the presence of St. Lawrence blue whales using a single omni-directional hydrophone. Both long duration infrasonic calls (~18 Hz, 5-20 s) as well as short duration higher frequency calls (85-25 Hz, ~2 s) were detected and compared with field observations. Two trends were noted. First, the long infrasonic call series were concentrated primarily in the deep (300 m) channel. These call series appear to compare well with blue whale vocalizations recorded by others in the deep open ocean. Second, the shorter audible calls were more evenly distributed over bathymetry and seem to be a form of short distance communication with at least one case occurring during an agonistic interaction. A comparison of these calls with biological parameters such as density of whales in the area, percentages of paired versus single whales, and numbers of males versus females will also be discussed. [Project supported by ARL/PSU, NSF, and the American Museum of Natural History.

  10. Condition monitoring of pumps with co-relating field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.; Prasad, V.; Sharma, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The maintenance of 40 MWth research reactor, Cirus has been carried out for over 30 years following the time based maintenance schedule. With the commissioning of indigenously built 100 MWth nuclear research reactor Dhruva in the year 1985, a systematic work on condition monitoring has been commissioned. Apart from process parameters, which are recorded on hourly basis, vibration, noise, temperature, kurtosis etc. are measured for assessment of condition of pumps. The bearings of flywheel assembly of main pumps, Dhruva broke down almost abruptly during the initial years after first commissioning. The regular measurements of vibration level and kurtosis have greatly helped in avoiding breakdown. In a recent case one newly procured herringbone gear box (300 hp, 1475/1760 rpm) for the primary coolant pump was showing high vibration. In further checking using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyser in a time domain plot the gear teeth damage was indicated. The pump was shut down for inspection and when the gear box was dismantled teeth were found broken. An attempt has been made in this paper to discuss a few interesting field experiences with condition monitoring and correlating field observations on pumps. (author). 3 figs

  11. Photometric Observations of 6000 Stars in the Cygnus Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, W.; Caldwell, D.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J.; Ninkov, Z.

    1999-01-01

    A small photometer to detect transits by extrasolar planets has been assembled and is being tested at Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, California. The Vulcan photometer is constructed from a 30 cm focal length, F/2.5 AeroEktar reconnaissance lens and Photometrics PXL16800 CCD camera. A spectral filter is used to confine the pass band from 480 to 763 mn. It simultaneously monitors 6000 stars brighter than 12th magnitude within a single star field in the galactic plane. When the data are folded and phased to discover low amplitude transits, the relative precision of one-hour samples is about 1 part per thousand (10 x l0(exp -3)) for many of the brighter stars. This precision is sufficient to find jovian-size planets orbiting solar-like stars, which have signal amplitudes from 5 to 30 x l0(exp -3) depending on the inflation of the planet and the size of the star. Based on the frequency of giant inner-planets discovered by Doppler-velocity method, one or two planets should be detectable in a rich star field. The goal of the observations is to obtain the sizes of giant extrasolar planets in short-period orbits and to combine these with masses determined from Doppler velocity measurements to determine the densities of these planets. A further goal is to compare the measured planetary diameters with those predicted from theoretical models. From August 10 through September 30 of 1998, a forty nine square degree field in the Cygnus constellation centered at RA and DEC of 19 hr 47 min, +36 deg 55 min was observed. Useful data were obtained on twenty-nine nights. Nearly fifty stars showed some evidence of transits with periods between 0.3 and 8 days. Most had amplitudes too large to be associated with planetary transits. However, several stars showed low amplitude transits. The data for several transits of each of these two stars have been folded and been folded into 30 minute periods. Only Cygl433 shows any evidence of a flattened bottom that is expected when a small object

  12. Anomalous foreshock field-aligned beams observed by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meziane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report occasional observations of two simultaneously distinct ion foreshock components recorded by the Cluster spacecraft upstream of the Earth's bow shock. In most occurrences, the lower-energy population originates as a field-aligned beam (FAB associated with quasi-perpendicular regions, which loses energy as the IMF rotates into oblique geometries. A second beam, with energies in excess of ~10 keV, appears sometimes in association with the onset of ultra-low frequency (ULF waves, and sometimes ahead of the appearance of the latter. Measurements from the mass spectrometer indicate that both beams consist of protons. While the lower-speed beam is well-accounted for by a known reflection mechanism, the non-radial IMF orientations as well as other arguments seem to rule out magnetosheath or magnetospheric sources for the higher energy component. The wave characteristics are typical of the oblique foreshock and we have found that they are in cyclotron-resonance with the low speed beam (FAB. These observations constitute a theoretical challenge since conventional mechanisms described in the literature cannot account for the production of beams at two different energies.

  13. CONSTRAINING THE NFW POTENTIAL WITH OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXY VELOCITY FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Mihos, J. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We model the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) potential to determine if, and under what conditions, the NFW halo appears consistent with the observed velocity fields of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We present mock DensePak Integral Field Unit (IFU) velocity fields and rotation curves of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric potentials that are well matched to the spatial resolution and velocity range of our sample galaxies. We find that the DensePak IFU can accurately reconstruct the velocity field produced by an axisymmetric NFW potential and that a tilted-ring fitting program can successfully recover the corresponding NFW rotation curve. We also find that nonaxisymmetric potentials with fixed axis ratios change only the normalization of the mock velocity fields and rotation curves and not their shape. The shape of the modeled NFW rotation curves does not reproduce the data: these potentials are unable to simultaneously bring the mock data at both small and large radii into agreement with observations. Indeed, to match the slow rise of LSB galaxy rotation curves, a specific viewing angle of the nonaxisymmetric potential is required. For each of the simulated LSB galaxies, the observer's line of sight must be along the minor axis of the potential, an arrangement that is inconsistent with a random distribution of halo orientations on the sky.

  14. Field Observations of Coastal Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the nearshore zone wind, waves, and currents generated from different forcing mechanisms converge in shallow water. This can profoundly affect the physical nature of the ocean surface, which can significantly modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass across the air-sea interface. For decades, the focus of air-sea interaction research has been on the open ocean while the shallow water regime has been relatively under-explored. This bears implications for efforts to understand and model various coastal processes, such as mixing, surface transport, and air-sea gas flux. The results from a recent study conducted at the New River Inlet in North Carolina showed that directly measured air-sea flux parameters, such as the atmospheric drag coefficient, are strong functions of space as well as the ambient conditions (i.e. wind speed and direction). The drag is typically used to parameterize the wind stress magnitude. It is generally assumed that the wind direction is the direction of the atmospheric forcing (i.e. wind stress), however significant wind stress steering off of the azimuthal wind direction was observed and was found to be related to the horizontal surface current shear. The authors have just returned from a field campaign carried out within Monterey Bay in California. Surface observations made from two research vessels were complimented by an array of beach and inland flux stations, high-resolution wind forecasts, and satellite image acquisitions. This is a rich data set and several case studies will be analyzed to highlight the importance of various processes for understanding the air-sea fluxes. Preliminary findings show that interactions between the local wind-sea and the shoaling, incident swell can have a profound effect on the wind stress magnitude. The Monterey Bay coastline contains a variety of topographical features and the importance of land-air-sea interactions will also be investigated.

  15. United States Forest Disturbance Trends Observed Using Landsat Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Goward, Samuel N.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Cohen, Warren B.; Moisen, Gretchen G.; Schleeweis, Karen; Huang, Chengquan

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance events strongly affect the composition, structure, and function of forest ecosystems; however, existing U.S. land management inventories were not designed to monitor disturbance. To begin addressing this gap, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has examined a geographic sample of 50 Landsat satellite image time series to assess trends in forest disturbance across the conterminous United States for 1985-2005. The geographic sample design used a probability-based scheme to encompass major forest types and maximize geographic dispersion. For each sample location disturbance was identified in the Landsat series using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) algorithm. The NAFD analysis indicates that, on average, 2.77 Mha/yr of forests were disturbed annually, representing 1.09%/yr of US forestland. These satellite-based national disturbance rates estimates tend to be lower than those derived from land management inventories, reflecting both methodological and definitional differences. In particular the VCT approach used with a biennial time step has limited sensitivity to low-intensity disturbances. Unlike prior satellite studies, our biennial forest disturbance rates vary by nearly a factor of two between high and low years. High western US disturbance rates were associated with active fire years and insect activity, while variability in the east is more strongly related to harvest rates in managed forests. We note that generating a geographic sample based on representing forest type and variability may be problematic since the spatial pattern of disturbance does not necessarily correlate with forest type. We also find that the prevalence of diffuse, non-stand clearing disturbance in US forests makes the application of a biennial geographic sample problematic. Future satellite-based studies of disturbance at regional and national scales should focus on wall-to-wall analyses with annual time step for improved accuracy.

  16. High resolution geomagnetic field observations at Terra Nova bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available he preliminary results obtained from the analysis in the micropulsation frequency range of high time resolution magnetic field data recorded at the Antarctic Italian geomagnetic observatory at Terra Nova Bay for 11 consecutive days in February 1994 are reported. The spectral index over the whole Pcl-Pc5 frequency range is of the order of 3.5 and its value significantly increases beyond about 50 mHz. Spectral peaks in the Pc3 frequency range are common, especially during the daytime hours, and are probably due to the direct penetration of upstream waves in the cusp region. From the local time distribution of the micro pulsation power, a signifi - cant activity enhancement around the local magnetic noon emerges, in agreement with previous observations. The analysis of the signal polarisation characteristics in the horizontal plane shows a predominant CW polarisation in the Pcl-Pc3 frequency ranges with the major axis of the polarisation ellipse in the first quadrant.

  17. Observational Evidences for Multi-component Magnetic Field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explanation. The field strengths are about ±1.05kG in the background .... The simplest test of the presence of unresolved magnetic fields consists of a com- .... in the area of the strong field component the Doppler half width of the line profiles is.

  18. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  19. Storm time electric field penetration observed at mid-latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C.; Rich, F.J.; Swider, W.

    1991-01-01

    During the height of the February 8-9, 1986, magnetic storm the Millstone Hill radar was in the evening local time sector (1600-2200 MLT). Radar observations indicate that high speed (>1,000 m s -1 ) westward ion flow penetrated deeply below 50 degree invariant latitude (Λ) and persisted for 6 hours between 2100 UT on February 8 and 0300 UT on February 9. The double-peaked ion convection feature was pronounced throughout the period, and the separation in the dual maxima ranged from 4 degree to 10 degree. The latitude positions of the high-latitude ion drift peak and the convection reversal varied in unison. The low-latitude ion drift peak (∼49 degree Λ or L =2.3) did not show significant universal time/magnetic local time (UT/MLT) variation in its latitude location but showed a decrease in magnitude during the initial recovery phase of the storm. Using simultaneous particle (30 eV-30 keV) precipitation data from the DMSP F6 and F7 satellites, the authors find the high-latitude ion drift peak to coincide with the boundary plasma sheet/central plasma sheet transition in the high ionospheric conductivity (>15 mho) region. The low-latitude ion drift peak lay between the equatorward edges of the electron and soft ( + dominated ring current energy density in magnetic latitude. The low-latitude ion drift peak is the low-altitude signature of the electric field shielding effect associated with ring current penetration into the outer layer of the storm time plasmasphere

  20. CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS DERIVED FROM SIMULTANEOUS MICROWAVE AND EUV OBSERVATIONS AND COMPARISON WITH THE POTENTIAL FIELD MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Shun; Nozawa, Satoshi [Department of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Iwai, Kazumasa; Shibasaki, Kiyoto [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou, E-mail: shunmi089@gmail.com [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-02-10

    We estimated the accuracy of coronal magnetic fields derived from radio observations by comparing them to potential field calculations and the differential emission measure measurements using EUV observations. We derived line-of-sight components of the coronal magnetic field from polarization observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung in the NOAA active region 11150, observed around 3:00 UT on 2011 February 3 using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. Because the thermal bremsstrahlung intensity at 17 GHz includes both chromospheric and coronal components, we extracted only the coronal component by measuring the coronal emission measure in EUV observations. In addition, we derived only the radio polarization component of the corona by selecting the region of coronal loops and weak magnetic field strength in the chromosphere along the line of sight. The upper limits of the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields were determined as 100–210 G. We also calculated the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields from the potential field extrapolation using the photospheric magnetic field obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. However, the calculated potential fields were certainly smaller than the observed coronal longitudinal magnetic field. This discrepancy between the potential and the observed magnetic field strengths can be explained consistently by two reasons: (1) the underestimation of the coronal emission measure resulting from the limitation of the temperature range of the EUV observations, and (2) the underestimation of the coronal magnetic field resulting from the potential field assumption.

  1. Improving the organization of the outfitting of gas and oil fields in a unitized design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.L.; Kurepin, B.N.; Sivergin, M.Yu.; Telegin, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    The basic tenets of the organization of outfitting gas and oil fields in a unitized design are examined. An economic and mathematical model for selecting a variant for transporting unitized devices is proposed in which the transport expenditures are minimal.

  2. Modified electron acoustic field and energy applied to observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg [College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Improved electrostatic acoustic field and energy have been debated in vortex trapped hot electrons and fluid of cold electrons with pressure term plasmas. The perturbed higher-order modified-Korteweg-de Vries equation (PhomKdV) has been worked out. The effect of trapping and electron temperatures on the electro-field and energy properties in auroral plasmas has been inspected.

  3. Field Science Ethnography: Methods For Systematic Observation on an Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Haughton-Mars expedition is a multidisciplinary project, exploring an impact crater in an extreme environment to determine how people might live and work on Mars. The expedition seeks to understand and field test Mars facilities, crew roles, operations, and computer tools. I combine an ethnographic approach to establish a baseline understanding of how scientists prefer to live and work when relatively unemcumbered, with a participatory design approach of experimenting with procedures and tools in the context of use. This paper focuses on field methods for systematically recording and analyzing the expedition's activities. Systematic photography and time-lapse video are combined with concept mapping to organize and present information. This hybrid approach is generally applicable to the study of modern field expeditions having a dozen or more multidisciplinary participants, spread over a large terrain during multiple field seasons.

  4. Plasmasphere and ring current electric fields observed by GEOS 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Pedersen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric field double probe data from GEOS 2 have been statistically examined to study the consecutive passage of the afternoon plasmaspheric bulge and the trough at the geostationary orbit. It was found that the average location of the bulge depends on the magnetic activity and was encountered at earlier local times for higher magnetospheric activity. Within the bulge the electric field showed very frequently a typical directional change from dawnward outside to duskward inside the bulge. The magnitude of the magnetic field was frequently much smaller near the outbound crossing of the plasmaspheric bulge than is expected from a long-term average. The E x B/B-squared drift pointed azimuthally eastward prior to the encounter of the bulge and rotated into the sunward direction within the bulge. Following its passage through the dense, cold plasma in the bulge, GEOS 2 encountered a hot and tenuous plasma sheet-type plasma in the trough that occasionally corrupted the electric field measurements. Generally, the electric field in the trough is much smaller than in the bulge. A possible cause of the sunward plasma flow within the bulge is discussed on the basis of these data. 13 references

  5. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  6. The mean magnetic field of the sun - Method of observation and relation to the interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.; Kotov, V.; Severnyi, A. B.; Howard, R.

    1977-01-01

    The mean solar magnetic field as measured in integrated light has been observed since 1968. Since 1970 it has been observed both at Hale Observatories and at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. The observing procedures at both observatories and their implications for mean field measurements are discussed. A comparison of the two sets of daily observations shows that similar results are obtained at both observatories. A comparison of the mean field with the interplanetary magnetic polarity shows that the IMF sector structure has the same pattern as the mean field polarity.

  7. The field-aligned currents observed by JIKIKEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, I.; Toyama, F.; Takahashi, T.; Sakurai, T.; Tonegawa, Y.

    1979-01-01

    New substorm effects on field-aligned current which belongs to a magnetic shell at L asymptotically equals 6 are found in the records from the fluxgate magnetometer on board the scientific satellite, JIKIKEN. The deviation from base line in the magnetometer data seems to be enhanced associating with the substorm onset. (author)

  8. Skills for development of nuclear professional for field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gutierrez, N.; Buedo, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of commanders in the field is a growing need in the nuclear sector. The education, training and monitoring of the leaders involved in monitoring programs, allow have a group of nuclear professionals that offer specific and useful feedback and helps improve plant safety.

  9. Confronting Weather and Climate Models with Observational Data from Soil Moisture Networks over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wu, Jiexia; Norton, Holly E.; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Quiring, Steven M.; Ford, Trenton W.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Ek, Michael B.; Koster, Randal Dean; hide

    2016-01-01

    Four land surface models in uncoupled and coupled configurations are compared to observations of daily soil moisture from 19 networks in the conterminous United States to determine the viability of such comparisons and explore the characteristics of model and observational data. First, observations are analyzed for error characteristics and representation of spatial and temporal variability. Some networks have multiple stations within an area comparable to model grid boxes; for those we find that aggregation of stations before calculation of statistics has little effect on estimates of variance, but soil moisture memory is sensitive to aggregation. Statistics for some networks stand out as unlike those of their neighbors, likely due to differences in instrumentation, calibration and maintenance. Buried sensors appear to have less random error than near-field remote sensing techniques, and heat dissipation sensors show less temporal variability than other types. Model soil moistures are evaluated using three metrics: standard deviation in time, temporal correlation (memory) and spatial correlation (length scale). Models do relatively well in capturing large-scale variability of metrics across climate regimes, but poorly reproduce observed patterns at scales of hundreds of kilometers and smaller. Uncoupled land models do no better than coupled model configurations, nor do reanalyses out perform free-running models. Spatial decorrelation scales are found to be difficult to diagnose. Using data for model validation, calibration or data assimilation from multiple soil moisture networks with different types of sensors and measurement techniques requires great caution. Data from models and observations should be put on the same spatial and temporal scales before comparison.

  10. Lava flow field emplacement studies of Manua Ulu (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, United States) and Venus, using field and remote sensing analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jeffrey Myer

    2002-04-01

    This work examines lava emplacement processes by characterizing surface units using field and remote sensing analyses in order to understand the development of lava flow fields. Specific study areas are the 1969--1974 Mauna Ulu compound flow field, (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA), and five lava flow fields on Venus: Turgmam Fluctus, Zipaltonal Fluctus, the Tuli Mons/Uilata Fluctus flow complex, the Var Mons flow field, and Mylitta Fluctus. Lava surface units have been examined in the field and with visible-, thermal-, and radar-wavelength remote sensing datasets for Mauna Ulu, and with radar data for the Venusian study areas. For the Mauna Ulu flow field, visible characteristics are related to color, glass abundance, and dm- to m-scale surface irregularities, which reflect the lava flow regime, cooling, and modification due to processes such as coalescence and inflation. Thermal characteristics are primarily affected by the abundance of glass and small-scale roughness elements (such as vesicles), and reflect the history of cooling, vesiculation and degassing, and crystallization of the lava. Radar characteristics are primarily affected by unit topography and fracturing, which are related to flow inflation, remobilization, and collapse, and reflect the local supply of lava during and after unit emplacement. Mauna Ulu surface units are correlated with pre-eruption topography, lack a simple relationship to the main feeder lava tubes, and are distributed with respect to their position within compound flow lobes and with distance from the vent. The Venusian lava flow fields appear to have developed through emplacement of numerous, thin, simple and compound flows, presumably over extended periods of time, and show a wider range of radar roughness than is observed at Mauna Ulu. A potential correlation is suggested between flow rheology and surface roughness. Distributary flow morphologies may result from tube-fed flows, and flow inflation is consistent with observed

  11. The Temperature - Magnetic Field Relation in Observed and Simulated Sunspots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotka, Michal; Rezaei, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 12 (2017), 188/1-188/12 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04338S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312495 - SOLARNET Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : sunspots * magnetic fields * comparison Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  12. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, T. P., E-mail: intrator@lanl.gov; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorf, L. [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Sun, X. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  13. Solar Polar Field Observed by SOHO/MDI and Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Using 1-minute cadence time-series full disk magnetograms taken by SOHO/MDI in 2007 March, and the corresponding Hinode/SOT vector magnetograms, I have studied evolutionary characteristics of magnetic elements in Sun's south polar region in solar minimum. It is found that the lifetime of magnetic elements is 17.0 hours on average with an average lifetime of 21.8 hours for elements with positive field, the dominant polarity in the south pole, and 1.6 hours for elements with negative field. The elements with positive field are dominant in the south pole with a percentage of 76% in element number and 90.5% in magnetic flux. The lifetime and magnetic flux of the elements is found to be highly related. This agrees with some previous studies for the elements in low latitude quiet regions. Using an image cross correlation method, I also measure solar rotation rate at high latitude, up to 85° in latitude, which is ω = 2.914-0.342 × sin2φ-0.482×sin4φ μrad/s sidereal. It agrees with previous studies using spectroscopic and image cross correlation methods, and also agrees with the results from some work using the element tracking method in which the sample of tracked elements is large. The consistency of those results from different data and methods strongly suggests that this rate at high latitude is reliable.

  14. Unit root tests for cross-sectionally dependent panels : The influence of observed factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becheri, I.G.; Drost, F.C.; van den Akker, R.

    This paper considers a heterogeneous panel unit root model with cross-sectional dependence generated by a factor structure—the factor common to all units being an observed covariate. The model is shown to be Locally Asymptotically Mixed Normal (LAMN), with the random part of the limiting Fisher

  15. Radiation field mapping in mammography units with TLDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.C.O.; Silva, J.O., E-mail: jonas.silva@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia (Brazil). Instituto de Física; Veneziani, G.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo-SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiações

    2017-07-01

    Mammography is the most common imaging technique for breast cancer detection and its tracking. For dosimetry, is important to know the field intensity variation. In this work, TLD-100 were used to made a field mapping of a mammographic system from a hospital in Goiânia/GO. The maximum radiation intensity was 8 cm far from chest wall. The results obtained could be used in the optimization of the dosimetry in the equipment used in this work. (author)

  16. Psychiatric units in Brazilian general hospitals: a growing philanthropic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botega, Neury José

    2002-06-01

    Some countries, mainly in North America and Europe, have adopted psychiatric wards in the general hospital as an alternative to the classic psychiatric hospital. In Brazil there are 6,169 general hospitals, 1.3% of which with a psychiatric unit. This service strategy is scarcely developed in the country and comprises only 4% of all psychiatric admissions. There was no information on the facilities and functioning of the psychiatric units in general hospitals. To determine the main characteristics of psychiatric units in Brazilian general hospitals and to assess the current trends in the services provided. A mailing survey assessed all 94 Brazilian general hospitals which made psychiatric admissions. A two-page questionnaire was designed to determine the main characteristics of each institution and of the psychiatric unit. Seventy-nine (84%) questionnaires were returned. In contrast to the 1970s and 1980s, in the last decade the installation of psychiatric units has spread to smaller philanthropic institutions that are not linked to medical schools. A fifth of hospitals admit psychiatric patients to medical wards because there is no specialist psychiatric ward. They try to meet all the local emergency demands, usually alcohol-dependent patients who need short term admission. This could signal the beginning of a program through which mental health professionals may become an integral part of general health services. The inauguration of psychiatric wards in philanthropic hospitals, as well as the admission of psychiatric patients in their medical wards, is a phenomenon peculiar to this decade. The installation of psychiatric services in these and other general hospitals would overcome two of major difficulties encountered: prejudice and a lack of financial resources.

  17. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  18. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  19. Observations of vector magnetic fields in flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1994-01-01

    We present vector magnetograph data of 6 active regions, all of which produced major flares. Of the 20 M-class (or above) flares, 7 satisfy the flare conditions prescribed by Hagyard (high shear and strong transverse fields). Strong photospheric shear, however, is not necessarily a condition for a flare. We find an increase in the shear for two flares, a 6-deg shear increase along the neutral line after a X-2 flare and a 13-deg increase after a M-1.9 flare. For other flares, we did not detect substantial shear changes.

  20. Field Observations of Meteotsunami in Kami-koshiki Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T.; Yamashiro, T.; Nishimura, N.

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Meteotsunami; atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band, are known in Japan by the local term "abiki", literally meaning "net-dragging waves" in Japanese. Large abiki occur in bays and harbors along the west coast of Kyushu almost every year during winter and early spring. On 24-25 February, 2009, Urauchi Bay, located on west coast of Kami-Koshiki Island on the southeast coast of Kyushu, was subjected to a destructive meteotsunami. In this event, a maximum sea surface height of 3.1 m was observed at the inner part of the bay. At least 18 boats capsized and eight houses were flooded. This event surpassed the previous record height for an abiki in Japan: 278 cm in Nagasaki Bay, also located west coast of Kyushu, in 1979. Generally, such an elongated inlet with narrow mouth as Urauchi bay provides calm water conditions even when offshore weather is stormy. Therefore, the area is regarded as a suitable place for the farming of large fish with a high market value. Possible damage to the extensive fish cage system as a result of meteotsunami events is of concern, especially because aquaculture is the main industry in the isolated islands. Forecasting of meteotsunami is a serious request from the local people. AIMS The objectives of the present study are to detect a meteotsunami event in Urauchi Bay and to clarify the meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions related to its occurrence. This work attempts to observe the whole process of a meteotsunami event: generation offshore, resonance while it propagates, and finally amplification in the bay. Observations were conducted over a period of 82 days; 12 January to 4 April, 2010, aiming to record large secondary oscillations. A comprehensive measuring system for sea level, current and barometric pressure fluctuations was deployed covering not only inside and near Urauchi Bay but also further offshore in the vicinity of Mejima in the East China Sea. MAIN RESULTS 1) Large

  1. A Field Observation of Rotational Feeding by Neogobius melanostomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted R. Angradi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neogobius melanostomus, the round goby, was recorded by underwater video feeding on crushed dreissenid mussels at a depth of 12 m in Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, a Laurentian Great Lake. In the video, gobies used rotational or twist feeding to tear away particles from crushed mussels. At least 43 examples of this feeding maneuver occur in the video. Up to 120 gobies m−2 were visible at a time in the video. Mean standard length of gobies appearing in the video was 37 mm. Mean standard length of fish exhibiting twist feeding was larger, 48 mm. Mean size of intact mussels in visible clusters was about 10 × 20 mm, a size which exceeds the gape width of the largest gobies observed in the video. Neogobius melanostomus is known to use twisting to wrest small attached mussels from the substrates which can be crushed by their pharyngeal teeth. I surmise that the behavior observed in the video is an opportunistic manifestation of this inherent behavioral adaptation to overcome gap limitation and exploit a temporary windfall of food.

  2. Use of real-time tools to support field operations of NSF's Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.; Stossmeister, G.; Johnson, E.; Martin, C.; Webster, C.; Dixon, M.; Maclean, G.

    2012-12-01

    NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) operates Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities (LAOF) for the scientific community, under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. In order to obtain the highest quality dataset during field campaigns, real-time decision-making critically depends on the availability of timely data and reliable communications between field operations staff and instrument operators. EOL incorporates the latest technologies to monitor the health of instrumentation, facilitate remote operations of instrumentation and keep project participants abreast of changing conditions in the field. As the availability of bandwidth on mobile communication networks and the capabilities of their associated devices (smart phone, tablets, etc.) improved, so has the ability of researchers to respond to rapidly changing conditions and coordinate ever more detailed measurements from multiple remote fixed, portable and airborne platforms. This presentation will describe several new tools that EOL is making available to project investigators and how these tools are being used in a mobile computing environment to support enhanced data collection during field campaigns. LAOF platforms such as radars, aircraft, sondes, balloons and surface stations all rely on displays of real-time data for their operations. Data from sondes are ingested into the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) for assimilation into regional forecasting models that help guide project operations. Since many of EOL's projects occur around the globe and at the same time instrument complexity has increased, automated monitoring of instrumentation platforms and systems has become essential. Tools are being developed to allow remote instrument control of our suite of observing systems where feasible. The Computing, Data and Software (CDS) Facility of EOL develops and supports a Field Catalog used in field campaigns for nearly two decades. Today, the Field Catalog serves as a hub for the

  3. A new united atom force field for adsorption of alkenes in zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Smit, B.; Rey, F.; Valencia, S.; Calero, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new united atom force field was developed that accurately describes the adsorption properties of linear alkenes in zeolites. The force field was specifically designed for use in the inhomogeneous system and therefore a truncated and shifted potential was used. With the determined force field, we

  4. Observations of vector magnetic fields with a magneto-optic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciani, Alessandro; Varsik, John; Zirin, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The use of the magnetooptic filter to observe solar magnetic fields in the potassium line at 7699 A is described. The filter has been used in the Big Bear videomagnetograph since October 23. It gives a high sensitivity and dynamic range for longitudnal magnetic fields and enables measurement of transverse magnetic fields using the sigma component. Examples of the observations are presented.

  5. Field sports and conservation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, T E E; Smith, R J; Harrop, S R; Leader-Williams, N

    2003-05-29

    Many natural habitats exist on privately owned land outside protected areas, but few governments can afford to enforce or subsidize conservation of this biodiversity. Even in some developed countries, conservation subsidy schemes have only achieved limited success. Fortunately, some landowners may be willing to accept management costs in return for other benefits, although this remains controversial when it involves the killing of charismatic species. For example, participants in British field sports, such as fox hunting and game-bird shooting, may voluntarily conserve important habitats that are required by quarry species. Here we report results from a multidisciplinary study that addressed this issue by focusing on three sites across central England. We found that landowners participating in field sports maintained the most established woodland and planted more new woodland and hedgerows than those who did not, despite the equal availability of subsidies. Therefore, voluntary habitat management appears to be important for biodiversity conservation in Britain. Current debates on the future of field sports in Britain, and similar activities globally, may benefit from considering their utility as incentives to conserve additional habitat on private land.

  6. The unit field sanitation team: a square peg in a round hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Timothy; Bridges, Davin

    2009-01-01

    Basic field sanitation and hygiene is a lost art in today's modern Army. Today, more than ever, there is a need for the unit field sanitation team (FST) to serve as advisors to unit commanders in the area of basic field sanitation and hygiene. Soldiers should know how to construct field latrines, construct waste disposal devices, conduct pest management and control activities, disinfect field water supplies, and practice personal hygiene under field conditions. The current unit FST concept is centered on company-sized formations operating in open terrain. This concept does not support current operations, transformed formations, rapidly changing doctrine, and the expeditionary nature of the Army. This article does not present a new concept, but rather a new look at an existing concept and practice based upon the lessons-learned and after-action reports from the Global War on Terrorism to support the Army in transformation during an era of persistent conflict.

  7. Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-03-05

    We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field.

  8. Using an integral-field unit spectrograph to study radical species in cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Pierce, Donna M.; Vaughan, Charles M.; Cochran, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We have observed several comets using an integral-field unit spectrograph (the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Full-coma spectroscopic images were obtained for various radical species (C2, C3, CN, NH2). Various coma enhancements were used to identify and characterize coma morphological features. The azimuthal average profiles and the Haser model were used to determine production rates and possible parent molecules. Here, we present the work completed to date, and we compare our results to other comet taxonomic surveys. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellows program (Award No. DGE-0947419), NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH18G), and the Fund for Astrophysical Research, Inc.

  9. United States Army, Seventh Army Field Order No. 1 (ANVIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-07-29

    sites in the ARGENS’Valley (See Operat Lone Instruc- tions No.1), bobwcon FREJUS and LE L,U~.. fr.o’! ground-observed enen:y Artillery fire. ,(8) Protcct...1� pcroonncl will be cautioned thnt ,ll:-:criccm and British porn - o chute nnd glider troops will be opcr at tng inland fro,:: the ben ch ea , A...defended. At immediate site there is a light 3-gun battery and a 4-gun c/d battery. 915918 map XXXIII-46 586. Radar coast-watcher. Position: Details

  10. Coal Fields and Federal Lands of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    1997-01-01

    The map depicts the relationship of coal and public lands in the conterminous U. S. Multiple GIS layers are being created for the purpose of deriving estimates of how much coal is owned and administered by the Federal government. Federal coal areas have a profound effect on land-management decisions. Regulatory agencies attempt to balance energy development with alternative land-use and environmental concerns. A GIS database of Federal lands used in energy resource assessments is being developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to integrate information on status of public land, and minerals owned by the Federal government with geologic information on coal resources, other spatial data, coal quality characteristics, and coal availability for development. Using national-scale data we estimate that approximately 60 percent of the area underlain by coal-bearing rocks in the conterminous United States are under Federal surface. Coal produced from Federal leases has tripled from about 12 percent of the total U.S. production in 1976 to almost 34 percent in 1995 (Energy Information Administration website ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/coal/cia_95_tables/t13p01.txt). The reason for this increase is demand for low-sulfur coal for use in power plants and the fact that large reserves of this low-sulfur coal are in the western interior U.S., where the Federal government owns the rights to most of the coal reserves. The map was created using Arc/Info 7.0.3 on a UNIX system. The HPGL2 plot file for this map is available from the USGS Energy Resource Surveys Team from http://energy.cr.usgs.gov:8080/energy/coal.html.

  11. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  12. Background noise characteristics of field effect transistors for X-ray detection units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostilo, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Energy equivalent for noise of experimental samples of field-effect transistors for X-ray detection units is investigated. Resolution of 160 eV for lines of 5.9 keV is obtained in detection unit with drain feedback using the Si(Li)-detector of 25 mm 2 by square

  13. "Individualized Science" Field Test Findings and Recommendations, the Hooke Unit. Appendix A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, William E., III

    This informal report contains the findings and recommendations resulting from the field test of the Hooke Unit of the "Individualized Science" program. Data were collected from three schools. Because of an unusual number of weaknesses ranging from formal inconsistencies to manipulative deficiencies, it was concluded that the Hooke Unit is somewhat…

  14. Effect of advanced age and vital signs on admission from an ED observation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Jeffrey M; Hoover, Emily M; Moseley, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine the relationship between advanced age and need for admission from an emergency department (ED) observation unit. The secondary objective was to determine the relationship between initial ED vital signs and admission. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of ED patients placed in an ED-based observation unit. Multivariable penalized maximum likelihood logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of need for hospital admission. Age was examined continuously and at a cutoff of 65 years or more. Vital signs were examined continuously and at commonly accepted cutoffs.We additionally controlled for demographics, comorbid conditions, laboratory values, and observation protocol. Three hundred patients were enrolled, 12% (n = 35) were 65 years or older, and 11% (n = 33) required admission. Admission rates were 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07%-14.9%) in older adults and 12.1% (95% CI, 8.4%-16.6%) in younger adults. In multivariable analysis, age was not associated with admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% CI, 0.05-1.67). Predictors of admission included systolic pressure 180 mm Hg or greater (OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.08-16.30), log Charlson comorbidity score (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.57-5.46), and white blood cell count 14,000/mm(3) or greater (OR, 11.35; 95% CI, 3.42-37.72). Among patients placed in an ED observation unit, age 65 years or more is not associated with need for admission. Older adults can successfully be discharged from these units. Systolic pressure 180 mm Hg or greater was the only predictive vital sign. In determining appropriateness of patients selected for an ED observation unit, advanced age should not be an automatic disqualifying criterion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of advanced age and vital signs on admission from an emergency department observation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Jeffrey M.; Hoover, Emily; Moseley, Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective was to determine the relationship between advanced age and need for admission from an emergency department (ED) observation unit. The secondary objective was to determine the relationship between initial ED vital signs and admission. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of ED patients placed in an ED-based observation unit. Multivariable penalized maximum likelihood logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of need for hospital admission. Age was examined continuously and at a cutoff of ≥65 years. Vital signs were examined continuously and at commonly accepted cutoffs. We additionally controlled for demographics, co-morbid conditions, laboratory values, and observation protocol. Results Three hundred patients were enrolled, 12% (n=35) ≥65 years old and 11% (n=33) requiring admission. Admission rates were 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-14.9%) in older adults and 12.1% (95% CI, 8.4-16.6%) in younger adults. In multivariable analysis, age was not associated with admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% CI 0.05-1.67). Predictors of admission included: systolic pressure ≥180 mmHg (OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.08-16.30), log Charlson co-morbidity score (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.57-5.46), and white blood cell count ≥14,000/mm3 (OR11.35, 95% CI 3.42-37.72). Conclusions Among patients placed in an ED observation unit, age ≥65 years is not associated with need for admission. Older adults can successfully be discharged from these units. Systolic pressure≥180 mmHg was the only predictive vital sign. In determining appropriateness of patients selected for an ED observation unit, advanced age should not be an automatic disqualifying criterion. PMID:22386358

  16. PMAS: The Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer. II. The Wide Integral Field Unit PPak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelz, Andreas; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Roth, Martin M.; Bauer, Svend M.; Becker, Thomas; Paschke, Jens; Popow, Emil; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Laux, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    PPak is a new fiber-based integral field unit (IFU) developed at the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam and implemented as a module into the existing Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) spectrograph. The purpose of PPak is to provide an extended field of view with a large

  17. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, Didier; Lam Trong, Thien; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Barcons, Xavier; Huovelin, Juhani; Kelley, Richard; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Paltani, Stéphane; Rauw, Gregor; RoŻanska, Agata; Wilms, Joern; Barbera, Marco; Bozzo, Enrico; Ceballos, Maria Teresa; Charles, Ivan; Decourchelle, Anne; den Hartog, Roland; Duval, Jean-Marc; Fiore, Fabrizio; Gatti, Flavio; Goldwurm, Andrea; Jackson, Brian; Jonker, Peter; Kilbourne, Caroline; Macculi, Claudio; Mendez, Mariano; Molendi, Silvano; Orleanski, Piotr; Pajot, François; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Porter, Frederick; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Prêle, Damien; Ravera, Laurent; Renotte, Etienne; Schaye, Joop; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Valenziano, Luca; Vink, Jacco; Webb, Natalie; Yamasaki, Noriko; Delcelier-Douchin, Françoise; Le Du, Michel; Mesnager, Jean-Michel; Pradines, Alice; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Dadina, Mauro; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Miller, Jon; Nazé, Yaël; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Sciortino, Salvatore; Torrejon, Jose Miguel; Geoffray, Hervé; Hernandez, Isabelle; Luno, Laure; Peille, Philippe; André, Jérôme; Daniel, Christophe; Etcheverry, Christophe; Gloaguen, Emilie; Hassin, Jérémie; Hervet, Gilles; Maussang, Irwin; Moueza, Jérôme; Paillet, Alexis; Vella, Bruno; Campos Garrido, Gonzalo; Damery, Jean-Charles; Panem, Chantal; Panh, Johan; Bandler, Simon; Biffi, Jean-Marc; Boyce, Kevin; Clénet, Antoine; DiPirro, Michael; Jamotton, Pierre; Lotti, Simone; Schwander, Denis; Smith, Stephen; van Leeuwen, Bert-Joost; van Weers, Henk; Brand, Thorsten; Cobo, Beatriz; Dauser, Thomas; de Plaa, Jelle; Cucchetti, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5" pixels over a field of view of 5 arc minute equivalent diameter and a spectral resolution of 2.5

  18. Variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units collected from a field trial and marketplaces in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, Mohammad Dalower Hossain; Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2018-04-01

    Variability of pesticide residues among food items is very important when assessing the risks and food safety for the consumers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the unit-to-unit residue variability factors for eggplant. In total, 120 samples from a trial field and 142 samples from different marketplaces in Thessaloniki, Greece, were collected to estimate the variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units. They were extracted by the QuEChERS method and the residues were determined by LC-MS/MS. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) obtained for cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues were 2.54 and 2.51, respectively. The mean residue levels of both pesticides were higher in the composite samples than in the individual samples. The average VFs for the marketplace samples was 3.89. The eggplant units exposed to pesticides were higher in residues than the non-exposed units. The variability factors obtained in the marketplace samples were higher than those in the samples collected from the field trial. A default VF value of 3 for field trials is appropriate for use when assessing the acute dietary intake but a VF for the marketplace samples should be reconsidered with a larger data. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    . This product called L2-IBI is generated from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm, and gives information as to whether a Swarm magnetic field observation is affected by EPBs. We validate the performance of the L2-IBI product by using magnetic field and plasma measurements from the CHAMP...... satellite, which provided observations similar to those of the Swarm. The L2-IBI product is of interest not only for ionospheric studies, but also for geomagnetic field modeling; modelers can de-select magnetic data which are affected by EPBs or other unphysical artifacts....

  20. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  1. Ultradeep Near-Infrared ISAAC Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South: Observations, Reduction, Multicolor Catalog, and Photometric Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Rudnick, Gregory; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Rix, Hans-Walter; Moorwood, Alan; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Werf, Paul; Röttgering, Huub; van Starkenburg, Lottie; van der Wel, Arjen; Kuijken, Konrad; Daddi, Emanuele

    2003-03-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) Js-, H-, and Ks-band ISAAC imaging of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) field of the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S). The 2.5‧×2.5‧ high Galactic latitude field was observed with the Very Large Telescope under the best seeing conditions, with integration times amounting to 33.6 hr in Js, 32.3 hr in H, and 35.6 hr in Ks. We reach total AB magnitudes for point sources of 26.8, 26.2, and 26.2, respectively (3 σ), which make it the deepest ground-based NIR observation to date and the deepest Ks-band data in any field. The effective seeing of the co-added images is ~0.45" in Js, ~0.48" in H, and ~0.46" in Ks. Using published WFPC2 optical data, we constructed a Ks-limited multicolor catalog containing 833 sources down to Ktots,AB2.3 (in Johnson magnitudes). Because they are extremely faint in the observed optical, they would be missed by ultraviolet-optical selection techniques, such as the U-dropout method. Based on service mode observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Program 164.O-0612). Also based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. RADIOGRAPHY IN THE FIELD: ASSESSING A LIGHTWEIGHT, HANDHELD, BATTERY-POWERED DENTISTRY UNIT FOR FIELD DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Vielgrader, Hanna; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Walzer, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Radiography units are not used commonly in wildlife medicine field settings, primarily because of their weight and requirement for a power supply. In this study, a portable, battery-powered, and lightweight radiography unit, originally developed for dentistry, was assessed for its potential field applications. Radiographs of various animal species (ranging in weight from 14 g to 1,000 kg) were imaged using varying source image distance (SID) and exposure time. The quality of these images was evaluated for their resolution, image noise, and motion blur. When required, image resolutions were further enhanced using computed radiography postprocessing. Other parameters evaluated were the freehand use of the device, its battery durability, the maximum obtainable image size, and multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Using an SID of 60 cm, radiographs delivered adequate image quality. The quality, however, was found deteriorated in images of larger animals (>50 kg) or thicker tissues (>15 cm). The use of a tripod proved unnecessary in most cases, and its exclusion greatly facilitated equipment handling. Under field conditions, the battery was depleted after a total running time of 1.6 hr or 36 radiographs. The maximum size of a radiographic image reached a diameter of 40 cm, and radiation shielding allowed the multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Taken together, the radiography unit evaluated in this study presented a balanced compromise between portability and radiograph quality for field use. However, the unit image resolution cannot replace those of the fixed standard radiography units commonly used in veterinary medicine.

  3. Extended state observer based fuzzy model predictive control for ultra-supercritical boiler-turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Xiao; Shen, Jiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ESOFMPC is proposed based on the combination of ESO and stable MPC. • The improved ESO can overcome unknown disturbances on any channel of MIMO system. • Nonlinearity and disturbance of boiler-turbine unit can be handled simultaneously. - Abstract: The regulation of ultra-supercritical (USC) boiler-turbine unit in large-scale power plants is vulnerable to various unknown disturbances, meanwhile, the internal nonlinearity makes it a challenging task for wide range load tracking. To overcome these two issues simultaneously, an extended state observer based fuzzy model predictive control is proposed for the USC boiler-turbine unit. Firstly, the fuzzy model of a 1000-MW coal-fired USC boiler-turbine unit is established through the nonlinearity analysis. Then a fuzzy stable model predictive controller is devised on the fuzzy model using output cost function for the purpose of wide range load tracking. An improved linear extended state observer, which can estimate plant behavior variations and unknown disturbances regardless of the direct feedthrough characteristic of the system, is synthesized with the predictive controller to enhance its disturbance rejection property. Closed-loop stability of the overall control system is guaranteed. Simulation results on a 1000-MW USC boiler-turbine unit model demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. LEGAL STATUS OF ADVISORS IN THE FIELD OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrystyna Kmetyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to research the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. In this article an author distinguishes and gives a legal description of the types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. The main provisions of the Rules of Conduct for Patent Attorneys, Ttrade Mark Attorneys and Other Regulated Persons (2015 are considered. Methods: to analyse the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom the method of induction, systematic approach, formal legal methods were used. Results: this research provides an opportunity to broaden the understanding of the institute of advisors in the field of intellectual property right (in particular patent attorneys and trademark attorneys in the UK and thus include this knowledge in domestic research on intellectual property right. Conclusions: the majority of types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom (patent attorneys, chartered patent attorneys, European patent attorneys, registered trademark attorneys and trademark attorneys, European trademark attorneys, etc. is well-educated professionals in all areas of intellectual property and are able to advise on a wide range of technical and commercial issues in this field. The obtained results will have a positive impact on the reform of the institute of representatives in the field of intellectual property in Ukraine in order to ensure its effectiveness and relevance to the challenges of the present.

  5. Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1984-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.

  6. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Desiree D.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  7. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.; Walter, C.; Dunham, J.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: 1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; 2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and 3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution, reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  8. Remote Sensing of the Reconnection Electric Field From In Situ Multipoint Observations of the Separatrix Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Varsani, A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2018-05-01

    A remote sensing technique to infer the local reconnection electric field based on in situ multipoint spacecraft observation at the reconnection separatrix is proposed. In this technique, the increment of the reconnected magnetic flux is estimated by integrating the in-plane magnetic field during the sequential observation of the separatrix boundary by multipoint measurements. We tested this technique by applying it to virtual observations in a two-dimensional fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection without a guide field and confirmed that the estimated reconnection electric field indeed agrees well with the exact value computed at the X-line. We then applied this technique to an event observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission when crossing an energetic plasma sheet boundary layer during an intense substorm. The estimated reconnection electric field for this event is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than a typical value of magnetotail reconnection.

  9. Time use and physical activity in a specialised brain injury rehabilitation unit: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Wong, Siobhan; Sheaves, Emma; Daher, Maysaa; Grady, Andrew; Egan, Cara; Seeto, Carol; Hosking, Talia; Moseley, Anne

    2018-04-18

    To determine what is the use of time and physical activity in people undertaking inpatient rehabilitation in a specialised brain injury unit. To determine participants' level of independence related to the use of time and physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional observation study. Fourteen people [mean (SD) age 40 (15) years] with brain injuries undertaking inpatient rehabilitation. Participants were observed every 12 minutes over 5 days (Monday to Friday from 7:30 am until 7:30 pm) using a behaviour mapping tool. Observation of location, people present, body position and activity engaged in (both therapeutic and nontherapeutic). Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were determined for each participant. Participants spent a large part of their time alone (34%) in sedentary positions (83%) and in their bedrooms (48%) doing non-therapeutic activities (78%). There was a positive relationship between a higher level of independence (higher FIM score) and being observed in active body positions (r=0.60; p=0.03) and participating in physically active therapeutic activities (r=0.53; p=0.05). Similar to stroke units, inpatients in a specialised brain injury unit spend large parts of the day sedentary, alone and doing non-therapeutic activities. Strategies need to be evaluated to address this problem, particularly for people with greater physical dependence.

  10. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.C.; Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 R/sub E/ downstream from earth. The principal observations are (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma

  11. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  12. Innervation zones of fasciculating motor units: observations by a linear electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the innervation zone (IZ) in the biceps brachii muscle in healthy subjects and those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a 20-channel linear electromyogram (EMG) electrode array. Raster plots of individual waveform potentials were studied to estimate the motor unit IZ. While this work mainly focused on fasciculation potentials (FPs), a limited number of motor unit potentials (MUPs) from voluntary activity of 12 healthy and seven ALS subjects were also examined. Abnormal propagation of MUPs and scattered IZs were observed in fasciculating units, compared with voluntarily activated MUPs in healthy and ALS subjects. These findings can be related to muscle fiber reinnervation following motor neuron degeneration in ALS and the different origin sites of FPs compared with voluntary MUPs.

  13. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.

    2011-01-01

    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  14. Development and field tests of a damping controller to mitigate electromechanical oscillations on large diesel generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Fabricio G.; Barreiros, Jose A.L.; Barra, Walter Jr.; Costa, Carlos T. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Instituto de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica, Campus Universitario do Guama, CEP: 66075-900, Belem (Brazil); Ferreira, Andre M.D. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Campus Belem, Departamento de Controle e Processos Industriais, Av. Almirante Barroso, 1155 (Marco), CEP: 66093-020, Belem (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the development and field tests of a digital damping controller designed to mitigate intra-plant electromechanical oscillations via the speed governor system of fast acting units. The controller performance is assessed on an 18-MVA diesel generating unit, at Santana Power Plant (Amapa State, Amazon Region at Northern Brazil). In order to design the damping control law, a set of parametric ARX models representing the plant dynamics at several load conditions, are previously identified from data collected on field tests. The damping controller gains are calculated by using the identified ARX models parameters as inputs to a discrete-time pole-placement design method (pole-shifting) and then embedded on a DSP based microcontroller digital system, for field tests assessment. The digital damping controller modulates the diesel engine inlet valve position according to the observed oscillation on the measured electric power, using a PWM device, which is specially developed to this application. The experimental results shown the good performance of the developed controller on damping efficiently the electromechanical oscillations observed between generating units at Santana Power Plant. (author)

  15. Magnetographic observations of magnetic fields in quiet and active regions of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsap, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of measurement of the solar longitudinal magnetic field carried out on the double magnetograph of the Crimea astrophysical observatory in the FeI 5250 A and 5233 A lines are presented. The registration of magnetic field is performed with the high resolution of 1x1''. It is found that in the most cases the measured magnetic field intensity outside active areas does not exceed 20-25 Hauss. In rare cases magnetic fields with the intensity greater than 500 Hauss are observed. The magnetic field intensity in the flocculas is greater in average than in nondisturbed areas

  16. Ameliorating the emergency department workflow by involving the observation unit: effects on crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primiano Iannone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crowding adversely affects the performance of emergency departments (EDs by worsening efficiency, timeliness of care, clinical outcomes and patients’ satisfaction. We describe in this study our attempt at improving crowding by modifying the roles and workflow of the ED physicians. The observation unit physician was given the additional duty of prioritizing admissions and managing unclear, complex cases, which were previously under the responsibility of front line emergency physicians. We analyzed two corresponding periods, both before the intervention (9897 ED attendances in 2012 and after the intervention (10,297 attendances in 2013. Most of the crowding indices improved significantly, including timeliness of triage, of first medical contact, access to resus area, and overall length of stay in ED. Also, emergency hospital admissions, average specialist consultations and imaging studies per patient decreased significantly. The observation unit workload increased. There was no significant excess of adverse events.

  17. Reconstructing solar magnetic fields from historical observations: Testing the surface flux transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Iiro; Virtanen, Ilpo; Pevtsov, Alexei; Yeates, Anthony; Mursula, Kalevi

    2017-04-01

    We aim to use the surface flux transport model to simulate the long-term evolution of the photospheric magnetic field from historical observations. In this work we study the accuracy of the model and its sensitivity to uncertainties in its main parameters and the input data. We test the model by running simulations with different values of meridional circulation and supergranular diffusion parameters, and study how the flux distribution inside active regions and the initial magnetic field affect the simulation. We compare the results to assess how sensitive the simulation is to uncertainties in meridional circulation speed, supergranular diffusion and input data. We also compare the simulated magnetic field with observations. We find that there is generally good agreement between simulations and observations. While the model is not capable of replicating fine details of the magnetic field, the long-term evolution of the polar field is very similar in simulations and observations. Simulations typically yield a smoother evolution of polar fields than observations, that often include artificial variations due to observational limitations. We also find that the simulated field is fairly insensitive to uncertainties in model parameters or the input data. Due to the decay term included in the model the effects of the uncertainties are rather minor or temporary, lasting typically one solar cycle.

  18. Reconstructing solar magnetic fields from historical observations. II. Testing the surface flux transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, I. O. I.; Virtanen, I. I.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Yeates, A.; Mursula, K.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We aim to use the surface flux transport model to simulate the long-term evolution of the photospheric magnetic field from historical observations. In this work we study the accuracy of the model and its sensitivity to uncertainties in its main parameters and the input data. Methods: We tested the model by running simulations with different values of meridional circulation and supergranular diffusion parameters, and studied how the flux distribution inside active regions and the initial magnetic field affected the simulation. We compared the results to assess how sensitive the simulation is to uncertainties in meridional circulation speed, supergranular diffusion, and input data. We also compared the simulated magnetic field with observations. Results: We find that there is generally good agreement between simulations and observations. Although the model is not capable of replicating fine details of the magnetic field, the long-term evolution of the polar field is very similar in simulations and observations. Simulations typically yield a smoother evolution of polar fields than observations, which often include artificial variations due to observational limitations. We also find that the simulated field is fairly insensitive to uncertainties in model parameters or the input data. Due to the decay term included in the model the effects of the uncertainties are somewhat minor or temporary, lasting typically one solar cycle.

  19. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm 2 beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm 2 field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  20. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm{sup 2} beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm{sup 2} field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  1. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  2. On Materiality and Dimensionality of the Space. Is There Some Unit of the Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents arguments with a view to recognize that space is material and has possibly a fractal dimension in the range of from three to two. It is proposed that along to the unit of substance (atom Some Unit of the field (vortex tubes should be set. It is shown that the formation of the field structures being a kind “ doubles” of atomic ones is possible. The existence of the three-zone electron structure is confirmed. It is indicated that this concept have already resulted in to the successful explanation of phenomena and to finding of their important parameters at different levels of the organization of matter.

  3. High-latitude dayside electric fields and currents during strong northward interplanetary magnetic field: Observations and model simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, C.R.; Friis-Christensen, E.

    1988-01-01

    On July 23, 1983, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field turned strongly northward, becoming about 22 nT for several hours. Using a combined data set of ionospheric convection measurements made by the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar and convection inferred from Greenland magnetometer measurements, we observe the onset of the reconfiguration of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to occur about 3 min following the northward IMF encountering the magnetopause. The large-scale reconfiguration of currents, however, appears to evolve over a period of about 22 min. Using a computer model in which the distribution of field-aligned current in the polar cleft is directly determined by the strength and orientation of the interplanetary electric field, we are able to simulate the time-varying pattern of ionospheric convection, including the onset of high-latitude ''reversed convection'' cells observed to form during the interval of strong northward IMF. These observations and the simulation results indicate that the dayside polar cap electric field observed during strong northward IMF is produced by a direct electrical current coupling with the solar wind. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  4. Phase space properties of charged fields in theories of local observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; D'Antoni, C.

    1994-10-01

    Within the setting of algebraic quantum field theory a relation between phase-space properties of observables and charged fields is established. These properties are expressed in terms of compactness and nuclarity conditions which are the basis for the characterization of theories with physically reasonable causal and thermal features. Relevant concepts and results of phase space analysis in algebraic qunatum field theory are reviewed and the underlying ideas are outlined. (orig.)

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLBA observations of the COSMOS field (Herrera Ruiz+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Ruiz, N.; Middelberg, E.; Deller, A.; Norris, R. P.; Best, P. N.; Brisken, W.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolcic, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Momjian, E.; Bomans, D.; Scoville, N. Z.; Carilli, C.

    2017-07-01

    Wide-field Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations were made of all known radio sources in the COSMOS field at 1.4GHz using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We also collected complementary multiwavelength information from the literature for the VLBA detected sources. (2 data files).

  6. Self-organization of porphyrin units induced by magnetic field during sol-gel polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Frédéric; Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Stern, Christine; Guilard, Roger

    2007-04-21

    The use of a magnetic field as a controlling factor during the hydrolysis-polycondensation of porphyrin precursors substituted by Si(OR)(3) groups, induces a self-organization of porphyrin moieties due to the stacking of these units in the hybrid material and this study also confirms the effect of the magnetic field in the nano- and micrometric organization during the kinetically controlled polycondensation process.

  7. Ulysses Observations of Tripolar Guide-Magnetic Field Perturbations Across Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Peng, B.; Markidis, S.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D. J.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report observations from 15 solar wind reconnection exhausts encountered along the Ulysses orbit beyond 4 AU in 1996-1999 and 2002-2005. The events, which lasted between 17 and 45 min, were found at heliospheric latitudes between -36o and 21o with one event detected as high as 58o. All events shared a common characteristic of a tripolar guide-magnetic field perturbation being detected across the observed exhausts. The signature consists of an enhanced guide field magnitude within the exhaust center and two regions of significantly depressed guide-fields adjacent to the center region. The events displayed magnetic field shear angles as low as 37o with a mean of 89o. This corresponds to a strong external guide field relative to the anti-parallel reconnecting component of the magnetic field with a mean ratio of 1.3 and a maximum ratio of 3.1. A 2-D kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions reveals that tripolar guide fields form at current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as two magnetic islands interact with one another for such strong guide fields. The Ulysses observations are also compared with the results of a 3-D kinetic simulation of multiple flux ropes in a strong guide field.

  8. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  9. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-06-01

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR (Trigger Optimized Repetition) rocket was launched from Esrange on Oct. 24, 1984. Like in the Trigger experiment a large amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock-front. The field was directed towards the centre of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarisation electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarisation field and the much weaker azimuthal induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations. (authors)

  10. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Bottaro, Márcio; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naïve human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according t...

  11. Deflection or Azimuth: Which Direction Should the United States Field Artillery Follow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    FUNDING NUMBERS reflection or Azimuth; Which Direction Should The United States Field Artillery FolIlo W? 6. AUTHOR(S) VIAJ James M. McDonald, USA 7...system that displays distinct advantages in the safety arena is certainly worthy of evaluation and consideration as a possible system to use

  12. Study of luminous spots observed on metallic surfaces subjected to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junquera, T.; Maissa, S.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Bonin, B.; Luong, M.; Safa, H.; Tan, J.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of high gradient superconducting RF cavities for electron accelerators is mainly limited by field emission. Major improvements have been recently obtained using different surface conditioning techniques confirming the involvement of metallic particles in field emission enhancement. Results obtained with an optical apparatus attached to an RF copper cavity equipped with a removable sample which is subjected to high RF fields are presented. Stable light spots are observed on the sample surface and their intensities and optical spectra are measured as a function of the surface electric field. The total emitted current is simultaneously measured by an isolated hollow electrode facing the sample. (K.A.)

  13. Field Evaluation of the Performance of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Packaged rooftop air-conditioning units (RTUs) are used in 44% (2.5 million) of all commercial buildings, serving over 57% (46 billion square feet) of the commercial building floor space in the United States (EIA 2012). The primary energy consumption associated with RTUs is over 2.2 quads annually. Therefore, even a small improvement in efficiency or part-load operation of these units can lead to significant reductions in energy use and carbon emissions. Starting in 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office funded a series of projects related to RTUs. Some projects were intended to improve the operating efficiency of the existing RTUs, while others were focused on improving the operating efficiency of new units. This report documents the field-testing and comparison of the seasonal efficiency of a state-of-art RTU Challenge unit and a standard unit. Section II provides the background for the work. Section III describes the measurement and verification plan for the field tests. Section IV describes the measurement and verification evaluation plan. The results are described in Section V. The lessons learned and recommendations for future work are presented in Section VI. A list of references is provided in Section VII.

  14. Development of compact integral field unit for spaceborne solar spectro-polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Koyama, M.; Sukegawa, T.; Enokida, Y.; Saito, K.; Okura, Y.; Nakayasu, T.; Ozaki, S.; Tsuneta, S.

    2017-11-01

    A 1.5-m class aperture Solar Ultra-violet Visible and IR telescope (SUVIT) and its instruments for the Japanese next space solar mission SOLAR-C [1] are under study to obtain critical physical parameters in the lower solar atmosphere. For the precise magnetic field measurements covering field-of-view of 3 arcmin x3 acmin, a full stokes polarimetry at three magnetic sensitive lines in wavelength range of 525 nm to 1083 nm with a four-slit spectrograph of two dinesional image scanning mechanism is proposed: one is a true slit and the other three are pseudo-slits from integral field unit (IFU). To suit this configuration, besides a fiber bundle IFU, a compact mirror slicer IFU is designed and being developed. Integral field spectroscopy (IFS), which is realized with IFU, is a two dimensional spectroscopy, providing spectra simultaneously for each spatial direction of an extended two-dimensional field. The scientific advantages of the IFS for studies of localized and transient solar surface phenomena are obvious. There are in general three methods [2][3] to realize the IFS depending on image slicing devices such as a micro-lenslet array, an optical fiber bundle and a narrow rectangular image slicer array. So far, there exist many applications of the IFS for ground-based astronomical observations [4]. Regarding solar instrumentations, the IFS of micro-lenslet array was done by Suematsu et al. [5], the IFS of densely packed rectangular fiber bundle with thin clads was realized [6] and being developed for 4-m aperture solar telescope DKIST by Lin [7] and being considered for space solar telescope SOLAR-C by Katsukawa et al. [8], and the IFS with mirror slicer array was presented by Ren et al. [9] and under study for up-coming large-aperture solar telescope in Europe by Calcines et al. [10] From the view point of a high efficiency spectroscopy, a wide wavelength coverage, a precision spectropolarimetry and space application, the image slicer consisting of all reflective

  15. MMS Multipoint Electric Field Observations of Small-Scale Magnetic Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earths magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (p(sib i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  16. Lunar remnant magnetic field mapping from orbital observations of mirrored electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J E [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Tex. (USA). Johnson Space Center; Anderson, K A; Lin, R P; Howe, H C; McGuire, R E [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Space Sciences Lab.

    1975-09-01

    Areas of lunar surface magnetic field are observed to ''mirror'' low energy electrons present in the normal lunar space environment. The ambient electrons provide, in effect, a probe along the ambient magnetic field lines down to the lunar surface for remote sensing of the presence of surface fields. Use of the on-board vector magnetometer measurements of the ambient magnetic field orientation allows accurate projection of such mapping onto the lunar surface. Preliminary maps of the lunar surface magnetic areas underlying the orbit of the ''Particles and Fields Satellite deployed from Apollo 16'' have been generated, obtaining 40% coverage from partial data to demonstrate feasibility of the technique. These maps reveal many previously unreported areas of surface magnetism. The method is sensitive to fields of less than 0.1..gamma.. at the surface. The surface field regions observed are generally due to sources smaller than 10-50km in size, although many individual regions are often so close together as to give much larger regions of effectively continuous mirroring. Absence of consistent mirroring by any global field places an upper limit on the size of any net lunar dipole moment of less than 10/sup 10/..gamma..km/sup 3/. Much additional information regarding the magnetic regions can be obtained by correlated analysis of both the electron return and vector magnetometer measurements at orbital altitude, the two techniques providing each other with directly complimentary measurements at the satellite and along the ambient field lines to the surface.

  17. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  18. Urban field guide: applying social forestry observation techniques to the east coast megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Svendsen; V. Marshall; M.F. Ufer

    2006-01-01

    A changing economy and different lifestyles have altered the meaning of the forest in the northeastern United States, prompting scientists to reconsider the spatial form, stewardship and function of the urban forest. The Authors describe how social observation techniques and the employment of a novel, locally based, participatory hand-held monitoring system could aid...

  19. The new special names of SI units in the field of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, H.O.; Allisy, A.; Liden, K.

    1976-01-01

    The authors write on behalf of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Details are given of two resolutions adopted by the Fifteenth General Conference of Weights and Measures at its meeting in May-June 1975, following proposals put by ICRU to the International Committee of Weights and Measures. The SI unit the joule per kilogram when used for ionizing radiation (absorbed dose, kerma, specific energy imparted, etc.) has been given the name gray with the symbol Gy. l Gy = 100 rad = 1 J/kg. The SI unit the reciprocal second (one per second) for activity has been given the name becquerel, symbol Bq. 1 Bq = 1s -1 approximately 2.703 x 10 -11 Ci. Although ICRU did not then recommend giving a special name to the SI unit of exposure to replace the currently used roentgen, it is now recommended that the special units the rad, the roentgen and the curie be gradually abandoned over a period of not less than about 10 years. The formulation (for selection) of a suitable unit for dose equivalent, which has the same physical dimension as absorbed dose, is a special problem which will be thoroughly discussed by ICRU, since the availability of a proper set of quantitites and units is of paramount importance in the field of radiation protection. (U.K.)

  20. Generalized monitor unit calculation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chihray; Kim, Siyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    The generalized monitor unit (MU) calculation equation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is derived. The assumption of this MU calculation method is that the wedge factor of the EDW at the center of the field is a function of field size, the position of the center of the field in the wedge direction, and the final position of the moving jaw. The wedge factors at the center of the field in both symmetric and asymmetric fields are examined. The difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is within 1.0%. The method developed here is easy to implement. The only datum required in addition to the standard set of conventional physical wedge implementation data is the off-axis output factor for the open field in the reference condition. The off-center point calculation is also examined. For the off-center point calculation, the dose profile in the wedge direction for the largest EDW field is used to obtain the relative off-center ratio in any smaller wedge field. The accuracy of the off-center point calculation decreases when the point of calculation is too close to the field edge

  1. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Nagy, Balazs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods: Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naive human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results: In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion: As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer's edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients. (author)

  2. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottaro, Marcio; Nagy, Balazs Vince; Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador; Rosendo, Danilo Cabral, E-mail: marcio@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Optics and Engineering Informatics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-04-15

    Introduction: To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods: Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naive human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results: In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion: As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer's edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients. (author)

  3. Improving boiler unit performance using an optimum robust minimum-order observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Hamed; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Firooz

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Multivariable model of a boiler unit with uncertainty. → Design of a robust minimum-order observer. → Developing an optimal functional code in MATLAB environment. → Finding optimum region of observer-based controller poles. → Guarantee of robust performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties. - Abstract: To achieve a good performance of the utility boiler, dynamic variables such as drum pressure, steam temperature and water level of drum must be controlled. In this paper, a linear time invariant (LTI) model of a boiler system is considered in which the input variables are feed-water and fuel mass rates. Due to the inaccessibility of some state variables of boiler system, a minimum-order observer is designed based on Luenberger's model to gain an estimate state x-tilde of the true state x. Low cost of design and high accuracy of states estimation are the main advantages of the minimum-order observer; in comparison with previous designed full-order observers. By applying the observer on the closed-loop system, a regulator system is designed. Using an optimal functional code developed in MATLAB environment, desired observer poles are found such that suitable time response specifications of the boiler system are achieved and the gain and phase margin values are adjusted in an acceptable range. However, the real dynamic model may associate with parametric uncertainties. In that case, optimum region of poles of observer-based controller are found such that the robust performance of the boiler system against model uncertainties is guaranteed.

  4. Attainment of students’ conception in magnetic fields by using of direct observation and symbolic language ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy Fatmaryanti, Siska; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Ashadi

    2017-11-01

    This study focuses on description attainment of students’ conception in the magnetic field. The conception was based by using of direct observation and symbolic language ability. The method used is descriptive quantitative research. The subject of study was about 86 students from 3 senior high school at Purworejo. The learning process was done by guided inquiry model. During the learning, students were required to actively investigate the concept of a magnetic field around a straight wire electrical current Data retrieval was performed using an instrument in the form of a multiple choice test reasoned and observation during the learning process. There was four indicator of direct observation ability and four indicators of symbolic language ability to grouping category of students conception. The results of average score showed that students conception about the magnitude more better than the direction of magnetic fields in view of symbolic language. From the observation, we found that students could draw the magnetic fields line not from a text book but their direct observation results. They used various way to get a good accuracy of observation results. Explicit recommendations are presented in the discussion section at the end of this paper.

  5. Gravity field modeling at the sea areas using satellite altimetry observations Case study: Gravity field modeling at the Coastal Fars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomegi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, satellite altimetry observations had made it possible to determine sea surface variations, in the global scale, to high degree of precision. Using satellite altimetry observations, Mean Sea Level (MSL) can be determined, which by Kowing Sea Surface Topography (SST), can be converted into high-resolution marine geoid. In this paper we are proposing a method for computation of the Earth's gravity field at the sea areas, which is different from usual methods. Indeed, our method is based on conversion of geoidal heights into gravity potential values at the reference ellipsoid 2 Ea,b , by using ellipsoidal Brun's formula, and forward application of solution of Fixed-Free Two Boundary Value Problem (FFTBVP), previously proposed by the authors for the geoid computations without application of Stokes formula. Numerical results of application of the proposed method at the test area of CoastalFars (at southern part of Iran) show the success of the method. Considering the low cost and high precision of satellite altimetry observations, the proposed method suggests an efficient substitution to shipborne gravity observations for gravity field molding at the sea areas

  6. OBSERVE-5: Comparison of Etanercept-Treated Psoriasis Patients From Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kim A; Bourcier, Marc; Poulin, Yves; Lynde, Charles W; Gilbert, Martin; Poulin-Costello, Melanie; Billen, Lieven; Isaila, Maya

    2018-02-01

    OBSERVE-5 surveillance registry results evaluating etanercept safety and effectiveness in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis from Canada and the United States have been reported from data collected between May 2006 and December 2012. Although both countries have an identical indicated starting dose, the maintenance dose can differ and thus affect management strategies and outcomes. To compare the long-term safety and effectiveness outcomes of etanercept in the Canadian and US cohorts. Primary end points included exposure-adjusted event incidence rates of serious adverse events and serious infectious events. Secondary end points included exposure-adjusted event incidence rates of events of medical interest and efficacy outcomes. Over 5 years, Canadian patients received a higher maintenance dose of etanercept (50 mg twice/week) more frequently than those from the United States. Safety outcome comparisons revealed that Canadian patients had a significantly lower occurrence of serious adverse events than patients from the United States, with an overall exposure-adjusted event incidence rate per 100 patient-years of 4.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05-6.29) vs 7.76 (95% CI 7.04-8.54), respectively. Serious infectious event rates were not significantly different between the 2 countries. Secondary outcomes of events of medical interest and effectiveness also did not reveal significant differences between the 2 cohorts. After 5 years of etanercept use, safety and effectiveness outcomes were similar between patients from Canada and the United States, with the exception of a significantly lower rate of serious adverse events in the Canadian population.

  7. The Pioneer 9 electric field experiment. III - Radial gradients and storm observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Green, I. M.; Burgess, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Pioneer 9 VLF electric field observations for 20 selected storm periods covering a heliocentric range extending from 0.754 AU to 0.99 AU. Although data from only two low frequency channels are available, the results of the present study tend to confirm the preliminary speculation by Scarf and Siscoe (1971) that the turbulent E-field spectrum in the disturbed solar wind has a significant radial gradient.

  8. Heterogeneous distribution of water in the mantle transition zone beneath United States inferred from seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pavlis, G. L.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's deep mantle is critical for the evolution of the solid Earth and the atmosphere. Mineral physics studies have revealed that Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in the mantle transition zone could store several times the volume of water in the ocean. However, the water content and its distribution in the transition zone remain enigmatic due to lack of direct observations. Here we use seismic data from the full deployment of the Earthscope Transportable Array to produce 3D image of P to S scattering of the mantle transition zone beneath the United States. We compute the image volume from 141,080 pairs of high quality receiver functions defined by the Earthscope Automated Receiver Survey, reprocessed by the generalized iterative deconvolution method and imaged by the plane wave migration method. We find that the transition zone is filled with previously unrecognized small-scale heterogeneities that produce pervasive, negative polarity P to S conversions. Seismic synthetic modeling using a point source simulation method suggests two possible structures for these objects: 1) a set of randomly distributed blobs of slight difference in size, and 2) near vertical diapir structures from small scale convections. Combining with geodynamic simulations, we interpret the observation as compositional heterogeneity from small-scale, low-velocity bodies that are water enriched. Our results indicate there is a heterogeneous distribution of water through the entire mantle transition zone beneath the contiguous United States.

  9. Does neonatal pain management in intensive care units differ between night and day? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Romain; Danan, Claude; Daoud, Patrick; Zupan, Véronique; Renolleau, Sylvain; Zana, Elodie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Lapillonne, Alexandre; de Saint Blanquat, Laure; Granier, Michèle; Durand, Philippe; Castela, Florence; Coursol, Anne; Hubert, Philippe; Cimerman, Patricia; Anand, K J S; Khoshnood, Babak; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2014-02-20

    To determine whether analgesic use for painful procedures performed in neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs during nights and days and during each of the 6 h period of the day. Conducted as part of the prospective observational Epidemiology of Painful Procedures in Neonates study which was designed to collect in real time and around-the-clock bedside data on all painful or stressful procedures. 13 NICUs and paediatric intensive care units in the Paris Region, France. All 430 neonates admitted to the participating units during a 6-week period between September 2005 and January 2006. During the first 14 days of admission, data were collected on all painful procedures and analgesic therapy. The five most frequent procedures representing 38 012 of all 42 413 (90%) painful procedures were analysed. Observational study. We compared the use of specific analgesic for procedures performed during each of the 6 h period of a day: morning (7:00 to 12:59), afternoon, early night and late night and during daytime (morning+afternoon) and night-time (early night+late night). 7724 of 38 012 (20.3%) painful procedures were carried out with a specific analgesic treatment. For morning, afternoon, early night and late night, respectively, the use of analgesic was 25.8%, 18.9%, 18.3% and 18%. The relative reduction of analgesia was 18.3%, pnight-time and 28.8%, pday. Parental presence, nurses on 8 h shifts and written protocols for analgesia were associated with a decrease in this difference. The substantial differences in the use of analgesics around-the-clock may be questioned on quality of care grounds.

  10. Isolated electrostatic structures observed throughout the Cluster orbit: relationship to magnetic field strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated electrostatic structures are observed throughout much of the 4RE by 19.6RE Cluster orbit. These structures are observed in the Wideband plasma wave instrument's waveform data as bipolar pulses (one positive and one negative peak in the electric field amplitude and tripolar pulses (two positive and one negative peak, or vice versa. These structures are observed at all of the boundary layers, in the solar wind and magnetosheath, and along auroral field lines at 4.5-6.5RE. Using the Wideband waveform data from the various Cluster spacecraft we have carried out a survey of the amplitudes and time durations of these structures and how these quantities vary with the local magnetic field strength. Such a survey has not been carried out before, and it reveals certain characteristics of solitary structures in a finite magnetic field, a topic still inadequately addressed by theories. We find that there is a broad range of electric field amplitudes at any specific magnetic field strength, and there is a general trend for the electric field amplitudes to increase as the strength of the magnetic field increases over a range of 5 to 500nT. We provide a possible explanation for this trend that relates to the structures being Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode solitary waves. There is no corresponding dependence of the duration of the structures on the magnetic field strength, although a plot of these two quantities reveals the unexpected result that with the exception of the magnetosheath, all of the time durations for all of the other regions are comparable, whereas the magnetosheath time durations clearly are in a different category of much smaller time duration. We speculate that this implies that the structures are much smaller in size. The distinctly different pulse durations for the magnetosheath pulses indicate the possibility that the pulses are generated by a mechanism which is different from the mechanism operating in other regions.

  11. Coronal magnetic fields inferred from IR wavelength and comparison with EUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectropolarimetry using IR wavelength of 1075 nm has been proved to be a powerful tool for directly mapping solar coronal magnetic fields including transverse component directions and line-of-sight component intensities. Solar tomography, or stereoscopy based on EUV observations, can supply 3-D information for some magnetic field lines in bright EUV loops. In a previous paper \\citep{liu08} the locations of the IR emission sources in the 3-D coordinate system were inferred from the comparison between the polarization data and the potential-field-source-surface (PFSS model, for one of five west limb regions in the corona (Lin et al., 2004. The paper shows that the region with the loop system in the active region over the photospheric area with strong magnetic field intensity is the region with a dominant contribution to the observed Stokes signals. So, the inversion of the measured Stokes parameters could be done assuming that most of the signals come from a relatively thin layer over the area with a large photospheric magnetic field strength. Here, the five limb coronal regions are studied together in order to study the spatial correlation between the bright EUV loop features and the inferred IR emission sources. It is found that, for the coronal regions above the stronger photospheric magnetic fields, the locations of the IR emission sources are closer to or more consistent with the bright EUV loop locations than those above weaker photospheric fields. This result suggests that the structures of the coronal magnetic fields observed at IR and EUV wavelengths may be different when weak magnetic fields present there.

  12. Satellite-borne study of seismic phenomena by low frequency magnetic field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Magnes, Werner; Xuhui, Shen; Wang, Jindong; Pollinger, Andreas; Hagen, Christian; Prattes, Gustav; Eichelberger, Hans-Ulrich; Wolbang, Daniel; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Besser, Bruno P.; Rozhnoi, Alexander A.; Zhang, Tielong

    2015-04-01

    A combined scalar-vector magnetic field experiment will be flown on the upcoming CSES mission (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite). Magnetic field data from DC to 30 Hz will be measured with an accuracy of about 10 pT. A fluxgate instrument will provide the 3 magnetic field components and a new type of an optically pumped magnetometer [see Pollinger, 2010] will measure the magnitude of the ambient magnetic field. The satellite will operate in a Sun synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of about 500 km and with an inclination of 97°. We present a model of magnetic field fluctuations in the upper ionosphere based on previous satellite observations and on a model of the lithospheric-atmospheric-ionospheric coupling. Pollinger et al., CDSM-a new scalar magnetometer, EGU General Assembly 2010

  13. Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites Observations of Parallel Electric Fields Associated with Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Wilder, F. D.; Holmes, J. C.; Stawarz, J. E.; Eriksson, S.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Usanova, M. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Burch, J. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Hesse, M.; Chen, L. J.; Lapenta, G.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Drake, J.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Nakamura, R.; Marklund, G.

    2016-06-01

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of parallel electric fields (E∥ ) associated with magnetic reconnection in the subsolar region of the Earth's magnetopause. E∥ events near the electron diffusion region have amplitudes on the order of 100 mV /m , which are significantly larger than those predicted for an antiparallel reconnection electric field. This Letter addresses specific types of E∥ events, which appear as large-amplitude, near unipolar spikes that are associated with tangled, reconnected magnetic fields. These E∥ events are primarily in or near a current layer near the separatrix and are interpreted to be double layers that may be responsible for secondary reconnection in tangled magnetic fields or flux ropes. These results are telling of the three-dimensional nature of magnetopause reconnection and indicate that magnetopause reconnection may be often patchy and/or drive turbulence along the separatrix that results in flux ropes and/or tangled magnetic fields.

  14. Automated and observer based light field indicator edge evaluation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Bottaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To analyze edge detection and optical contrast calculation of light field-indicators used in X-ray via automated- and observer-based methods, and comparison with current standard approaches, which do not give exact definition for light field edge determination. Methods Automated light sensor array was used to measure the penumbra zone of the edge in the standard X-ray equipment, while trained and naïve human observers were asked to mark the light field edge according to their own determination. Different interpretations of the contrast were then calculated and compared. Results In contrast to automated measurements of edge definition and detection, measurements by human observers showed large inter-observer variation independent of their training with X-ray equipment. Different contrast calculations considering the different edge definitions gave very different contrast values. Conclusion As the main conclusion, we propose a more exact edge definition of the X-ray light field, corresponding well to the average human observer’s edge determination. The new edge definition method with automated systems would reduce human variability in edge determination. Such errors could potentially affect the approval of X-ray equipment, and also increase the radiation dose. The automated measurement based on human observers’ edge definition and the corresponding contrast calculation may lead to a more precise light field calibration, which enables reduced irradiation doses on radiology patients.

  15. Auroral arc classification scheme based on the observed arc-associated electric field pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.

    1983-06-01

    Radar and rocket electric field observations of auroral arcs have earlier been used to identify essentially four different arc types, namely anticorrelation and correlation arcs (with, respectively, decreased and increased arc-assocaited field) and asymmetric and reversal arcs. In this paper rocket double probe and supplementary observations from the literature, obtained under various geophysical conditions, are used to organize the different arc types on a physical rather than morphological basis. This classification is based on the relative influence on the arc electric field pattern from the two current continuity mechanisms, polarisation electric fields and Birkeland currents. In this context the tangential electric field plays an essential role and it is thus important that it can be obtained with both high accuracy and resolution. In situ observations by sounding rockets are shown to be better suited for this specific task than monostatic radar observations. Depending on the dominating mechanism, estimated quantitatively for a number of arc-crossings, the different arc types have been grouped into the following main categories: Polarisation arcs, Birkeland current arcs and combination arcs. Finally the high altitude potential distributions corresponding to some of the different arc types are presented. (author)

  16. The magnetic field of the earth - Performance considerations for space-based observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Taylor, P. T.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Langel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Basic problems inherent in carrying out observations of the earth magnetic field from space are reviewed. It is shown that while useful observations of the core and crustal fields are possible at the peak of the solar cycle, the greatest useful data volume is obtained during solar minimum. During the last three solar cycles, the proportion of data with a planetary disturbance index of less than 2 at solar maximum was in the range 0.4-0.8 in comparison with solar minimum. It is found that current state of the art orbit determination techniques should eliminate orbit error as a problem in gravitational field measurements from space. The spatial resolution obtained for crustal field anomalies during the major satellite observation programs of the last 30 years are compared in a table. The relationship between observing altitude and the spatial resolution of magnetic field structures is discussed. Reference is made to data obtained using the Magsat, the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), and instruments on board the Space Shuttle.

  17. Study of luminous phenomena observed on contaminated metallic surfaces submitted to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.; Junquera, T.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Bonin, B.; Luong, M.; Safa, H.; Tan, J.

    1995-01-01

    The RF field emission from a sample subjected to high RF fields in a copper cavity has been investigated. The study is focused on the luminous emissions occurring on the RF surface simultaneously with the electron emission. The optical apparatus attached to the cavity permits to observe the evolution of the emitters and the direct effects of the surface conditioning. Also, the parameters of the emitted radiation (intensity, glowing duration, spectral distribution) may provide additional informations on the field emission phenomena. Some results concerning samples intentionally contaminated with particles (metallic or dielectric) are presented. (K.A.)

  18. Field trip report: Observations made at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Special report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.

    1993-03-01

    A field trip was made to the Yucca Mountain area on December 5-9, 1992 by Jerry Frazier, Don Livingston, Christine Schluter, Russell Harmon, and Carol Hill. Forty-three separate stops were made and 275 lbs. of rocks were collected during the five days of the field trip. Key localities visited were the Bare Mountains, Yucca Mountain, Calico Hills, Busted Butte, Harper Valley, Red Cliff Gulch, Wahmonie Hills, Crater Flat, and Lathrop Wells Cone. This report only describes field observations made by Carol Hill. Drawings are used rather than photographs because cameras were not permitted on the Nevada Test Site during this trip

  19. Modular model for Mercury's magnetospheric magnetic field confined within the average observed magnetopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Johnson, Catherine L; Philpott, Lydia C; Anderson, Brian J; Al Asad, Manar M; Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L

    2015-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of Mercury's magnetospheric magnetic field is required to understand the sources of the planet's internal field. We present the first model of Mercury's magnetospheric magnetic field confined within a magnetopause shape derived from Magnetometer observations by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft. The field of internal origin is approximated by a dipole of magnitude 190 nT R M 3 , where R M is Mercury's radius, offset northward by 479 km along the spin axis. External field sources include currents flowing on the magnetopause boundary and in the cross-tail current sheet. The cross-tail current is described by a disk-shaped current near the planet and a sheet current at larger (≳ 5  R M ) antisunward distances. The tail currents are constrained by minimizing the root-mean-square (RMS) residual between the model and the magnetic field observed within the magnetosphere. The magnetopause current contributions are derived by shielding the field of each module external to the magnetopause by minimizing the RMS normal component of the magnetic field at the magnetopause. The new model yields improvements over the previously developed paraboloid model in regions that are close to the magnetopause and the nightside magnetic equatorial plane. Magnetic field residuals remain that are distributed systematically over large areas and vary monotonically with magnetic activity. Further advances in empirical descriptions of Mercury's magnetospheric external field will need to account for the dependence of the tail and magnetopause currents on magnetic activity and additional sources within the magnetosphere associated with Birkeland currents and plasma distributions near the dayside magnetopause.

  20. Rocket and satellite observations of electric fields and ion convection in the dayside auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Heelis, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Electric field observations from two high-altitude rocket flights in the polar cusp have been combined with satellite observations of ion drifts to infer details of the electric field and convection pattern of the dayside auroral ionosphere. A region of shear flow reversal can be inferred from the electric field observations on one flight near 15.30 MLT 20 minutes after the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite crossed through the same region. The drift patterns observed by the two spacecrafts were very similar although shifted by 0.5 degrees, a shift which is expected from the observed change in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub)Z component during this time. A region of rotational flow reversal was covered by the other flight shortly after magnetic noon, at the same time the DE-2 satellite travelled along roughly the dawn-dusk meridian. By joining points of equal potential, integrated from the two datasets and assuming the reversal boundary to be an equipotential, the instantaneous convection pattern could be drawn showing crescent-shaped convection contours in the dusk cell and more circular shaped contours in the dawn cell. (author)

  1. Empirical observations offer improved estimates of forest floor carbon content across in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. H.; Domke, G. M.; Walters, B. F.; Smith, J. E.; Woodall, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the United States Forest Service reports official estimates of national forest floor carbon (FFC) stocks and stock change to national and international parties, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), respectively. These estimates of national FFC stocks are derived from plot-level predictions of FFC density. We suspect the models used to predict plot-level FFC density are less than ideal for several reasons: (a) they are based upon local studies that may not reflect FFC dynamics at the national scale, (b) they are relatively insensitive to climate change, and (c) they reduce the natural variability of the data leading to misplaced confidence in the estimates. However, FIA has measured forest floor attributes since 2001 on a systematic 1/16th subset of a nation-wide array of inventory plots (7 800 of 125 000 plots). Here we address the efficacy of replacing plot-level model predictions with empirical observations of FFC density while assessing the impact of imputing FFC density values to the full plot network on national stock estimates. First, using an equivalence testing framework, we found model predictions of FFC density to differ significantly from the observations in all regions and forest types; the mean difference across all plots was 21 percent (1.81 Mg·ha-1). Furthermore, the model predictions were biased towards the lower end of extant FFC density observations, underestimating it while greatly truncating the range relative to the observations. Second, the optimal imputation approach (k-Nearest Neighbor, k-NN) resulted in values that were equivalent to observations of FFC density across a range of simulated missingness and maintained the high variability seen in the observations. We used the k-NN approach to impute FFC density values to the 94 percent of FIA inventory plots without soil measurements. Third, using the imputed

  2. Impact of a standardized nurse observation protocol including MEWS after Intensive Care Unit discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, K; Das, T; Hellemans, K; Verbrugghe, W; Jorens, P G; Verpooten, G A; Van Bogaert, P

    2013-02-01

    Analysis of in-hospital mortality after serious adverse events (SAE's) in our hospital showed the need for more frequent observation in medical and surgical wards. We hypothesized that the incidence of SAE's could be decreased by introducing a standard nurse observation protocol. To investigate the effect of a standard nurse observation protocol implementing the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) and a color graphic observation chart. Pre- and post-intervention study by analysis of patients records for a 5-day period after Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge to 14 medical and surgical wards before (n=530) and after (n=509) the intervention. For the total study population the mean Patient Observation Frequency Per Nursing Shift (POFPNS) during the 5-day period after ICU discharge increased from .9993 (95% C.I. .9637-1.0350) in the pre-intervention period to 1.0732 (95% C.I. 1.0362-1.1101) (p=.005) in the post-intervention period. There was an increased risk of a SAE in patients with MEWS 4 or higher in the present nursing shift (HR 8.25; 95% C.I. 2.88-23.62) and the previous nursing shift (HR 12.83;95% C.I. 4.45-36.99). There was an absolute risk reduction for SAE's within 120h after ICU discharge of 2.2% (95% C.I. -0.4-4.67%) from 5.7% to 3.5%. The intervention had a positive impact on the observation frequency. MEWS had a predictive value for SAE's in patients after ICU discharge. The drop in SAE's was substantial but did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sediment sorting along tidal sand waves: A comparison between field observations and theoretical predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oyen, Tomas; Blondeaux, Paolo; Van den Eynde, Dries

    2013-07-01

    A site-by-site comparison between field observations and theoretical predictions of sediment sorting patterns along tidal sand waves is performed for ten locations in the North Sea. At each site, the observed grain size distribution along the bottom topography and the geometry of the bed forms is described in detail and the procedure used to obtain the model parameters is summarized. The model appears to accurately describe the wavelength of the observed sand waves for the majority of the locations; still providing a reliable estimate for the other sites. In addition, it is found that for seven out of the ten locations, the qualitative sorting process provided by the model agrees with the observed grain size distribution. A discussion of the site-by-site comparison is provided which, taking into account uncertainties in the field data, indicates that the model grasps the major part of the key processes controlling the phenomenon.

  4. Field Tests of Wind Turbine Unit with Tandem Wind Rotors and Double Rotational Armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Ahmed Mohamed; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    This paper discusses the field tests of the wind turbine unit, in which the front and the rear wind rotors drive the inner and the outer armatures of the synchronous generator. The wind rotors were designed conveniently by the traditional procedure for the single wind rotor, where the diameters of the front and the rear wind rotors are 2 m and 1.33 m. The tests were done on a pick-up type truck driven straightly at constant speed. The rotational torque of the unit is directly proportional to the induced electric current irrespective of the rotational speeds of the wind rotors, while the induced voltage is proportional to the relative rotational speed. The performance of the unit is significantly affected not only by the wind velocity, but also by the blade setting angles of both wind rotors and the applied load especially at lower wind velocity.

  5. On the height scale of magnetic fields above sunspots derived from RATAN-600 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, Sh.B.; Gelfreikh, G.B.; Fuerstenberg, F.; Hildebrandt, J.; Krueger, A.

    1983-01-01

    Model calculations of the S-component are compared with observations of the RATAN-600 telescope at five discrete microwave frequencies referring to active region McMath No. 15974 on May 1, 1979. The spectral variations of source diameter, flux density, and degree of polarization are used to derive the height scale of the magnetic field in accordance with a magnetic dipole distribution under the assumption of advanced temperature and electron density distributions according to most recent EUV observations. (orig.)

  6. Impacts of distinct observations during the 2009 Prince William Sound field experiment: A data assimilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Chao, Y.; Farrara, J.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    A set of data assimilation experiments, known as Observing System Experiments (OSEs), are performed to assess the relative impacts of different types of observations acquired during the 2009 Prince William Sound Field Experiment. The observations assimilated consist primarily of three types: High Frequency (HF) radar surface velocities, vertical profiles of temperature/salinity (T/S) measured by ships, moorings, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and gliders, and satellite sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The impact of all the observations, HF radar surface velocities, and T/S profiles is assessed. Without data assimilation, a frequently occurring cyclonic eddy in the central Sound is overly persistent and intense. The assimilation of the HF radar velocities effectively reduces these biases and improves the representation of the velocities as well as the T/S fields in the Sound. The assimilation of the T/S profiles improves the large scale representation of the temperature/salinity and also the velocity field in the central Sound. The combination of the HF radar surface velocities and sparse T/S profiles results in an observing system capable of representing the circulation in the Sound reliably and thus producing analyses and forecasts with useful skill. It is suggested that a potentially promising observing network could be based on satellite SSHs and SSTs along with sparse T/S profiles, and future satellite SSHs with wide swath coverage and higher resolution may offer excellent data that will be of great use for predicting the circulation in the Sound.

  7. Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J. W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity.

  8. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramar, M.; Lin, H.; Tomczyk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments

  9. Can Hall drag be observed in Coulomb coupled quantum wells in a magnetic field?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    We study the transresistivity rho(21) (or equivalently, the drag rate) of two Coulomb-coupled quantum wells in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, using semi-classical transport theory. Elementary arguments seem to preclude any possibility of observation of ''Hall drag'' (i.e., a non...

  10. Observer Role and Field Study Knowledge--An Essay Review of Usable Knowledge and SAFARI I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A synthesis is presented of the work of Lindblom and Cohen, MacDonald and Walker, and the current authors. The synthesis considers issues in the usefulness of social science theory and research, and how observer roles in qualitative field studies yield multiple kinds of usable knowledge to a variety of audiences. (Author/BW)

  11. Post-Newtonian (and higher order) observational constraints on gravitation field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordtvedt, K.

    1982-01-01

    The empirically confirmed premise that gravity is a metric theory is accepted. The general class of all Lagrangian-based metric field theories of gravity is considered. A collection of observational tests of gravitational phenomena which points to a specific metric theory of gravity and rules out alternatives is created

  12. Observations of the longitudinal magnetic field in the transition region and photosphere of a sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, W., Jr.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; West, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacraft has observed for the first time the longitudinal component of the magnetic field by means of the Zeeman effect in the transition region above a sunspot. The data presented here were obtained on three days in one sunspot, have spatial resolutions of 10 arcsec and 3 arcsec, and yield maximum field strengths greater than 1000 G above the umbrae in the spot. The method of analysis, including a line-width calibration feature used during some of the observations, is described in some detail in an appendix; the line width is required for the determination of the longitudinal magnetic field from the observed circular polarization. The transition region data for one day are compared with photospheric magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Vertical gradients of the magnetic field are compared from the two sets of data; the maximum gradients of 0.41 to 0.62 G/km occur above the umbra and agree with or are smaller than values observed previously in the photosphere and low chromosphere.

  13. Experimental observation of the inductive electric field and related plasma nonuniformity in high frequency capacitive discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S. K.; Chang, H. Y.

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate plasma nonuniformity in high frequency capacitive discharges, Langmuir probe and B-dot probe measurements were carried out in the radial direction in a cylindrical capacitive discharge driven at 90 MHz with argon pressures of 50 and 400 mTorr. Through the measurements, a significant inductive electric field (i.e., time-varying magnetic field) was observed at the radial edge, and it was found that the inductive electric field creates strong plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation. The plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation is physically similar to the E-H mode transition typically observed in inductive discharges. This result agrees well with the theories of electromagnetic effects in large area and/or high frequency capacitive discharges

  14. Observations of Pc5 micropulsation-related electric field oscillations in the equatorial ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Reddy

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available A 54.95-MHz coherent backscatter radar, an ionosonde and the magnetometer located at Trivandrum in India (8.5°N, 77°E, 0.5°N dip angle recorded large-amplitude ionospheric fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations associated with a Pc5 micropulsation event, which occurred during an intense magnetic storm on 24 March 1991 (Ap=161. Simultaneous 100-nT-level fluctuations are also observed in the H-component at Brorfelde, Denmark (55.6°N gm and at Narsarsuaq, Greenland (70.6°N gm. Our study of the above observations shows that the E-W electric field fluctuations in the E- and F-regions and the magnetic field fluctuations at Thumba are dominated by a near-sinusoidal oscillation of 10 min during 1730-1900 IST (1200-1330 UT, the amplitude of the electric field oscillation in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ is 0.1-0.25 mV m-1 and it increases with height, while it is about 1.0 mV m-1 in the F-region, the ground-level H-component oscillation can be accounted for by the ionospheric current oscillation generated by the observed electric field oscillation in the EEJ and the H-component oscillations at Trivandrum and Brorfelde are in phase with each other. The observations are interpreted in terms of a compressional cavity mode resonance in the inner magnetosphere and the associated ionospheric electric field penetrating from high latitudes to the magnetic equator.

  15. Spatial Variations of Poloidal and Toroidal Mode Field Line Resonances Observed by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Kepko, L.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Field line resonances (FLRs) are magnetosphere's responses to solar wind forcing and internal instabilities generated by solar wind-magnetospheric interactions. They are standing waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines oscillating in either poloidal or toroidal modes. The two types of waves have their unique frequency characteristics. The eigenfrequency of FLRs is determined by the length of the field line and the plasma density, and thus gradually changes with L. For toroidal mode oscillations with magnetic field perturbations in the azimuthal direction, ideal MHD predicts that each field line oscillates independently with its own eigenfrequency. For poloidal mode waves with field lines oscillating radially, their frequency cannot change with L easily as L shells need to oscillate in sync to avoid efficient damping due to phase mixing. Observations, mainly during quiet times, indeed show that poloidal mode waves often exhibit nearly constant frequency across L shells. Our recent observations, on the other hand, reveal a clear L-dependent frequency trend for a long lasting storm-time poloidal wave event, indicating the wave can maintain its power with changing frequencies for an extended period [Le et al., 2017]. The spatial variation of the frequency shows discrete spatial structures. The frequency remains constant within each discrete structure that spans about 1 REalong L, and changes discretely. We present a follow-up study to investigate spatial variations of wave frequencies using the Wigner-Ville distribution. We examine both poloidal and toroidal waves under different geomagnetic conditions using multipoint observations from MMS, and compare their frequency and occurrence characteristics for insights into their generation mechanisms. Reference: Le, G., et al. (2017), Global observations of magnetospheric high-m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 3456-3464, doi:10.1002/2017GL073048.

  16. Observations of Pc5 micropulsation-related electric field oscillations in equatorial ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. A.; Ravindran, Sudha; Viswanathan, K. S.; Murthy, B. V. Krishna; Rao, D. R. K.; Araki, T.

    1994-01-01

    A 54.95-MHz coherent backscatter radar, an ionosonde and the magnetometer located at Trivandrum in India (8.5 deg N, 77 deg E, 0.5 deg N dip angle) recorded large-amplitude ionospheric fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations associated with a Pc5 micropulsation event, which occurred during an intense magnetic storm on 24 March 1991 (A(sub p) = 161). Simultaneous 100-n T-level fluctuations are also observed in the H-component at Brorfelde, Denmark (55.6 deg N gm) and at Narsarsuaq, Greenland (70.6 deg N gm). Our study of the above observations shows that the E-W electric field fluctuations in the E- and F-regions and the magnetic field fluctuations at Thumba are dominated by a near-sinusoidal oscillation of 10 min during 1730-1900 IST (1200-1330 UT), the amplitude of the electric field oscillation in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is 0.1-0.25 mV/m and it increases with height, while it is about 1.0 mV/m in the F-region, the ground-level H-component oscillation can be accounted for by the ionospheric current oscillation generated by the observed electric field oscillation in the EEJ and the H-component oscillations at Trivandrum and Brofelde are in phase with each other. The observations are interpreted in terms of a compressional cavity mode resonance in the inner magnetosphere and the assoicated ionospheric electric field penetrating from high latitudes to the magnetic equator.

  17. Observations of Pc5 micropulsation-related electric field oscillations in the equatorial ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Reddy

    Full Text Available A 54.95-MHz coherent backscatter radar, an ionosonde and the magnetometer located at Trivandrum in India (8.5°N, 77°E, 0.5°N dip angle recorded large-amplitude ionospheric fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations associated with a Pc5 micropulsation event, which occurred during an intense magnetic storm on 24 March 1991 (Ap=161. Simultaneous 100-nT-level fluctuations are also observed in the H-component at Brorfelde, Denmark (55.6°N gm and at Narsarsuaq, Greenland (70.6°N gm. Our study of the above observations shows that the E-W electric field fluctuations in the E- and F-regions and the magnetic field fluctuations at Thumba are dominated by a near-sinusoidal oscillation of 10 min during 1730-1900 IST (1200-1330 UT, the amplitude of the electric field oscillation in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ is 0.1-0.25 mV m-1 and it increases with height, while it is about 1.0 mV m-1 in the F-region, the ground-level H-component oscillation can be accounted for by the ionospheric current oscillation generated by the observed electric field oscillation in the EEJ and the H-component oscillations at Trivandrum and Brorfelde are in phase with each other. The observations are interpreted in terms of a compressional cavity mode resonance in the inner magnetosphere and the associated ionospheric electric field penetrating from high latitudes to the magnetic equator.

  18. Application of Mensuration Technology to Improve the Accuracy of Field Artillery Firing Unit Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    8 U.S. Army Field Artillery Operations ............................................................................ 8 Geodesy ...Experts in this field of study have a full working knowledge of geodesy and the theory that allows mensuration to surpass the level of accuracy achieved...desired. (2) Fire that is intended to achieve the desired result on target.”6 Geodesy : “that branch of applied mathematics which determines by observation

  19. Meteorology: Observing, Understanding, and Predicting Weather. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary; Dickinson, Rosemary

    This book consists of two complete units on meteorology. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary approach. Suggestions for…

  20. 3-D modelling the electric field due to ocean tidal flow and comparison with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Junge, A.; Utada, H.

    2006-01-01

    The tidal motion of the ocean water through the ambient magnetic field, generates secondary electric field. This motionally induced electric field can be detected in the sea or inland and has a potential for electrical soundings of the Earth. A first goal of the paper is to gain an understanding...... that in some coastal regions the amplitudes of the electric field can reach 100 mV/km and 10 mV/km for M2 and O1 tides respectively. The changes of lithosphere resistance produce detectable changes in the tidal electric signals. We show that our predictions are in a good agreement with observations....... of the global distribution of the electric signal due to tidal ocean flow. We simulate the electric signals for two tidal constituents - lunar semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) tides. We assume a realistic Earth's conductivity model with a surface thin shell and 1-D mantle underneath. Simulations demonstrate...

  1. Mean field dynamics of networks of delay-coupled noisy excitable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franović, Igor, E-mail: franovic@ipb.ac.rs [Scientific Computing Laboratory, Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Todorović, Kristina; Burić, Nikola [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, Belgrade (Serbia); Vasović, Nebojša [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, PO Box 162, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-06-08

    We use the mean-field approach to analyze the collective dynamics in macroscopic networks of stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo units with delayed couplings. The conditions for validity of the two main approximations behind the model, called the Gaussian approximation and the Quasi-independence approximation, are examined. It is shown that the dynamics of the mean-field model may indicate in a self-consistent fashion the parameter domains where the Quasi-independence approximation fails. Apart from a network of globally coupled units, we also consider the paradigmatic setup of two interacting assemblies to demonstrate how our framework may be extended to hierarchical and modular networks. In both cases, the mean-field model can be used to qualitatively analyze the stability of the system, as well as the scenarios for the onset and the suppression of the collective mode. In quantitative terms, the mean-field model is capable of predicting the average oscillation frequency corresponding to the global variables of the exact system.

  2. Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Acuna, M.H.; Ness, N.F.

    1984-05-01

    Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model

  3. Observation of large low-field magnetoresistance in spinel cobaltite: A new half-metal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2015-12-10

    Low-field magnetoresistance is an effective and energy-saving way to use half-metallic materials in magnetic reading heads and magnetic random access memory. Common spin-polarized materials with low field magnetoresistance effect are perovskite-type manganese, cobalt, and molybdenum oxides. In this study, we report a new type of spinel cobaltite materials, self-assembled nanocrystalline NiCo2O4, which shows large low field magnetoresistance as large as –19.1% at 0.5 T and –50% at 9 T (2 K). The large low field magnetoresistance is attributed to the fast magnetization rotation of the core nanocrystals. The surface spin-glass is responsible for the observed weak saturation of magnetoresistance under high fields. Our calculation demonstrates that the half-metallicity of NiCo2O4 comes from the hopping eg electrons within the tetrahedral Co-atoms and the octahedral Ni-atoms. The discovery of large low-field magnetoresistance in simple spinel oxide NiCo2O4, a non-perovskite oxide, leads to an extended family of low-field magnetoresistance materials. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Observation of large low-field magnetoresistance in spinel cobaltite: A new half-metal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; Xia, Chuan; Zheng, Dongxing; Wang, Ping; Jin, Chao; Bai, Haili

    2015-01-01

    Low-field magnetoresistance is an effective and energy-saving way to use half-metallic materials in magnetic reading heads and magnetic random access memory. Common spin-polarized materials with low field magnetoresistance effect are perovskite-type manganese, cobalt, and molybdenum oxides. In this study, we report a new type of spinel cobaltite materials, self-assembled nanocrystalline NiCo2O4, which shows large low field magnetoresistance as large as –19.1% at 0.5 T and –50% at 9 T (2 K). The large low field magnetoresistance is attributed to the fast magnetization rotation of the core nanocrystals. The surface spin-glass is responsible for the observed weak saturation of magnetoresistance under high fields. Our calculation demonstrates that the half-metallicity of NiCo2O4 comes from the hopping eg electrons within the tetrahedral Co-atoms and the octahedral Ni-atoms. The discovery of large low-field magnetoresistance in simple spinel oxide NiCo2O4, a non-perovskite oxide, leads to an extended family of low-field magnetoresistance materials. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Magnetic-field fluctuations from 0 to 26 Hz observed from a polar-orbiting satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The polar orbit of the Viking satellite provides a unique opportunity to obtain observations of magnetic fluctuations at mid-altitudes on the dayside of the magnetosphere and in the polar-cusp region. One type of magnetic-field fluctuation, observed in the dayside magnetosphere, was Pc 1 waves. Pc 1 waves are in the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron mode and are generated by anisotropies in energetic ion distributions. The waves are thought to be generated near the equator and to propagate large distances along magnetic-field lines. Most observations of Pc 1 waves have been obtained near the equator using geosynchronous satellites and on the surface of the earth. The Viking observations provide an opportunity to observe Pc 1 waves at mid-latitudes above the ionosphere and to determine the spectral structure and polarization of the waves. ULF/ELF broadband noise represents a second type of magnetic fluctuation acquired by Viking. This type of magnetic fluctuation was observed at high latitudes near the polar cusp and may be useful in the identification of polar-cusp boundaries. Thirdly, electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves have also been observed in the polar-cusp region. These waves occur only during an unusually high level of magnetic activity and appear to be generated locally

  6. Squeezed bispectrum in the δ N formalism: local observer effect in field space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Yuichiro [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Vennin, Vincent, E-mail: yuichiro.tada@ipmu.jp, E-mail: vincent.vennin@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    The prospects of future galaxy surveys for non-Gaussianity measurements call for the development of robust techniques for computing the bispectrum of primordial cosmological perturbations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the calculation of the squeezed bispectrum in multiple-field inflation. With use of the δ N formalism, our framework sheds new light on the recently pointed out difference between the squeezed bispectrum for global observers and that for local observers, while allowing one to calculate both. For local observers in particular, the squeezed bispectrum is found to vanish in single-field inflation. Furthermore, our framework allows one to go beyond the near-equilateral ('small hierarchy') limit, and to automatically include intrinsic non-Gaussianities that do not need to be calculated separately. The explicit computational programme of our method is given and illustrated with a few examples.

  7. Constraints on Particles and Fields from Full Stokes Observations of AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Homan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined polarization imaging of radio jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN in circular and linear polarization, also known as full Stokes imaging, has the potential to constrain both the magnetic field structure and particle properties of jets. Although only a small fraction of the emission when detected, typically less than a few tenths of a percent but up to as much as a couple of percent in the strongest resolved sources, circular polarization directly probes the magnetic field and particles within the jet itself and is not expected to be modified by external screens. A key to using full Stokes observations to constrain jet properties is obtaining a better understanding of the emission of circular polarization, including its variability and spectrum. We discuss what we have learned so far from parsec scale monitoring observations in the MOJAVE program and from multi-frequency observations of selected AGN.

  8. Test plan for the field evaluation and demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Thompson, D.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes test details of a full demonstration of the Contamination Control Unit (CCU). The CCU is a mobile trailer capable of employing the use of soil fixatives, dust suppression agents, misting, and vacuum systems. These systems can perform a large number of contamination control functions to support the Office of Waste Technology Development (OTD) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) projects, transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations, and emergency response for hazardous and radioactive materials incidents. The demonstration will include both performance testing at the North Holmes Laboratory Facility (NHLF) and field testing in conjunction with the Remote Excavation System Demonstration at the Cold Test Pit. The NHLF will test operational parameters using water only, and the field demonstration at the Cold Test Pit involves full scale operation of vacuum, fixant, misting, and dust suppression systems. Test objectives, detailed experimental procedures, and data quality objectives necessary to perform the field demonstration are included in this test plan

  9. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses

  10. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  11. Unusual lightning electric field waveforms observed in Kathmandu, Nepal, and Uppsala, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pitri Bhakta; Sharma, Shriram; Baral, Kedarnath; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2017-11-01

    Unusual lightning events have been observed in Uppsala, Sweden, and Kathmandu, Nepal, using essentially the same electric field measuring system developed at Uppsala University. They occurred in the storms that also generated ;normal; lightning events. The unusual events recorded in Uppsala occurred on one thunderstorm day. Similar events were observed in Kathmandu on multiple thunderstorm days. The unusual events were analyzed in this study assuming them to be positive ground flashes (+CGs), although we cannot rule out the possibility that some or most of them were actually cloud discharges (ICs). The unusual events were each characterized by a relatively slow, negative (atmospheric electricity sign convention) electric field waveform preceded by a pronounced opposite-polarity pulse whose duration was some tens of microseconds. To the best of our knowledge, such unusual events have not been reported in the literature. The average amplitudes of the opposite-polarity pulses with respect to those of the following main waveform were found to be about 33% in Uppsala (N = 31) and about 38% in Kathmandu (N = 327). The average durations of the main waveform and the preceding opposite-polarity pulse in Uppsala were 8.24 ms and 57.1 μs, respectively, and their counterparts in Kathmandu were 421 μs and 39.7 μs. Electric field waveforms characteristic of negative ground flashes (-CGs) were also observed, and none of them exhibited an opposite-polarity pulse prior to the main waveform. Possible origins of the unusual field waveforms are discussed.

  12. Observations of field-aligned energetic electron and ion distributions near the magnetopause at geosynchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korth, A.; Kremser, G.; Daly, P.W.; Amata, E.

    1982-01-01

    On August 28, 1978, the dayside magnetopause crossed the geosynchronous satellite GEOS 2 several times during a geomagnetically disturbed period, and clear signatures of the interconnection of field lines through the magnetopause were observed. The MPAE particle spectrometer provided high time resolution observations of the distribution of energetic electrons (E>22 keV) and ions (E>27 keV). Magnetometer data were used to determine the location of GEOS 2 relative to the magnetopause. The pitch angle distributions of ions and electrons were found to be strongly asymmetric with respect to 90 0 , and the asymmetries have been interpreted in terms of field-aligned particle streaming. Evidence is provided for the first time for electron streaming inside the magnetopause which continues for many bounce periods. It is concluded that magnetospheric field lines opened, at least for brief time intervals, as a consequence of interconnection with magnetosheath field lines. Comparisons of electron spectra provide evidence that the streaming electrons observed in the magnetosheath originate in the magnetosphere

  13. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  14. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  15. Observation of plasma rotation driven by static nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields in a tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, A M; Burrell, K H; DeBoo, J C; deGrassie, J S; Jackson, G L; Lanctot, M; Reimerdes, H; Schaffer, M J; Solomon, W M; Strait, E J

    2008-11-07

    We present the first evidence for the existence of a neoclassical toroidal rotation driven in a direction counter to the plasma current by nonaxisymmetric, nonresonant magnetic fields. At high beta and with large injected neutral beam momentum, the nonresonant field torque slows down the plasma toward the neoclassical "offset" rotation rate. With small injected neutral beam momentum, the toroidal rotation is accelerated toward the offset rotation, with resulting improvement in the global energy confinement time. The observed magnitude, direction, and radial profile of the offset rotation are consistent with neoclassical theory predictions.

  16. Effects of the Observed Meridional Flow Variations since 1996 on the Sun's Polar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The cause of the low and extended minimum in solar activity between Sunspot Cycles 23 and 24 was the small size of Sunspot Cycle 24 itself - small cycles start late and leave behind low minima. Cycle 24 is small because the polar fields produced during Cycle 23 were substantially weaker than those produced during the previous cycles and those (weak) polar fields are the seeds for the activity of the following cycle. The polar fields are produced by the latitudinal transport of magnetic flux that emerged in low-latitude active regions. The polar fields thus depend upon the details of both the flux emergence and the flux transport. We have measured the flux transport flows (differential rotation, meridional flow, and supergranules) since 1996 and find systematic and substantial variation in the meridional flow alone. Here we present experiments using a Surface Flux Transport Model in which magnetic field data from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI are assimilated into the model only at latitudes between 45-degrees north and south of the equator (this assures that the details of the active region flux emergence are well represented). This flux is then transported in both longitude and latitude by the observed flows. In one experiment the meridional flow is given by the time averaged (and north-south symmetric) meridional flow profile. In the second experiment the time-varying and north-south asymmetric meridional flow is used. Differences between the observed polar fields and those produced in these two experiments allow us to ascertain the effects of these meridional flow variations on the Sun s polar fields.

  17. An in situ hand calibration method using a pseudo-observation scheme for low-end inertial measurement units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang

    2012-01-01

    MEMS chips have become ideal candidates for various applications since they are small sized, light weight, have low power consumption and are extremely low cost and reliable. However, the performance of MEMS sensors, especially their biases and scale factors, is highly dependent on environmental conditions such as temperature. Thus a quick and convenient calibration is needed to be conducted by users in field without any external equipment or any expert knowledge of calibration. A novel and efficient in situ hand calibration method is presented to meet these demands in this paper. The algorithm of the proposed calibration method makes use of the navigation algorithm of the loosely-coupled GPS/INS integrated systems, but replaces the GPS observations with a kind of pseudo-observations, which can be stated as follows: if an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was rotating approximately around its measurement center, the range of its position and its linear velocity both would be within a limited scope. Using a Kalman filtering algorithm, the biases and scale factors of both accelerometer triad and gyroscope triad can be calibrated together within a short period (about 30 s), requiring only motions by hands. Real test results show that the proposed method is suitable for most consumer grade MEMS IMUs due to its zero cost, easy operation and sufficient accuracy. (paper)

  18. The role of the United Nations in the field of verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    By resolution 43/81 B of 7 December 1988, the General Assembly requested the Secretary General to undertake, with the assistance of a group of qualified governmental experts, an in-depth study of the role of the United Nations in the field of verification. In August 1990, the Secretary-General transmitted to the General Assembly the unanimously approved report of the experts. The report is structured in six chapters and contains a bibliographic appendix on technical aspects of verification. The Introduction provides a brief historical background on the development of the question of verification in the United Nations context, culminating with the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 43/81 B, which requested the study. Chapters II and III address the definition and functions of verification and the various approaches, methods, procedures and techniques used in the process of verification. Chapters IV and V examine the existing activities of the United Nations in the field of verification, possibilities for improvements in those activities as well as possible additional activities, while addressing the organizational, technical, legal, operational and financial implications of each of the possibilities discussed. Chapter VI presents the conclusions and recommendations of the Group

  19. Possible signature of the magnetic fields related to quasi-periodic oscillations observed in microquasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kološ, Martin; Tursunov, Arman; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2017-12-01

    The study of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux observed in the stellar-mass black hole binaries can provide a powerful tool for testing of the phenomena occurring in the strong gravity regime. Magnetized versions of the standard geodesic models of QPOs can explain the observationally fixed data from the three microquasars. We perform a successful fitting of the HF QPOs observed for three microquasars, GRS 1915+105, XTE 1550-564 and GRO 1655-40, containing black holes, for magnetized versions of both epicyclic resonance and relativistic precession models and discuss the corresponding constraints of parameters of the model, which are the mass and spin of the black hole and the parameter related to the external magnetic field. The estimated magnetic field intensity strongly depends on the type of objects giving the observed HF QPOs. It can be as small as 10^{-5} G if electron oscillatory motion is relevant, but it can be by many orders higher for protons or ions (0.02-1 G), or even higher for charged dust or such exotic objects as lighting balls, etc. On the other hand, if we know by any means the magnetic field intensity, our model implies strong limit on the character of the oscillating matter, namely its specific charge.

  20. Possible signature of the magnetic fields related to quasi-periodic oscillations observed in microquasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolos, Martin; Tursunov, Arman; Stuchlik, Zdenek [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-12-15

    The study of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of X-ray flux observed in the stellar-mass black hole binaries can provide a powerful tool for testing of the phenomena occurring in the strong gravity regime. Magnetized versions of the standard geodesic models of QPOs can explain the observationally fixed data from the three microquasars. We perform a successful fitting of the HF QPOs observed for three microquasars, GRS 1915+105, XTE 1550-564 and GRO 1655-40, containing black holes, for magnetized versions of both epicyclic resonance and relativistic precession models and discuss the corresponding constraints of parameters of the model, which are the mass and spin of the black hole and the parameter related to the external magnetic field. The estimated magnetic field intensity strongly depends on the type of objects giving the observed HF QPOs. It can be as small as 10{sup -5} G if electron oscillatory motion is relevant, but it can be by many orders higher for protons or ions (0.02-1 G), or even higher for charged dust or such exotic objects as lighting balls, etc. On the other hand, if we know by any means the magnetic field intensity, our model implies strong limit on the character of the oscillating matter, namely its specific charge. (orig.)

  1. Coordinated observation of field line resonance in the mid-tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Standing Alfvén waves of 1.1 mHz (~15 min in period were observed by the Cluster satellites in the mid-tail during 06:00-07:00 UT on 8 August 2003. Pulsations with the same frequency were also observed at several ground stations near Cluster's footpoint. The standing wave properties were determined from the electric and magnetic field measurements of Cluster. Data from the ground magnetometers indicated a latitudinal amplitude and phase structure consistent with the driven field line resonance (FLR at 1.1 mHz. Simultaneously, quasi-periodic oscillations at different frequencies were observed in the post-midnight/early morning sector by GOES 12 (l0≈8.7, Polar (l0≈11-14 and Geotail (l0≈9.8. The 8 August 2003 event yields rare and interesting datasets. It provides, for the first time, coordinated in situ and ground-based observations of a very low frequency FLR in the mid-tail on stretched field lines.

  2. Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0) with automatic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tae-Geun; Byeon, Seoyeon; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Lee, Sang-Yun; Hwang, Sungyong; Choi, Changsu; Gibson, Coyne Andrew; Kuehne, John W.; Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2018-01-01

    We introduce Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0), with an automatic observing system. It is developed for monitoring the variabilities of many sources at a time, e.g. young stellar objects and active galactic nuclei. It can also find the locations of transient sources such as a supernova or gamma-ray bursts. In 2017 February, we installed the wide-field 10-inch telescope (Takahashi CCA-250) as a piggyback system on the 30-inch telescope at the McDonald Observatory in Texas, US. The 10-inch telescope has a 2.35 × 2.35 deg field-of-view with a 4k × 4k CCD Camera (FLI ML16803). To improve the observational efficiency of the system, we developed a new automatic observing software, KAOS30 (KHU Automatic Observing Software for McDonald 30-inch telescope), which was developed by Visual C++ on the basis of a windows operating system. The software consists of four control packages: the Telescope Control Package (TCP), the Data Acquisition Package (DAP), the Auto Focus Package (AFP), and the Script Mode Package (SMP). Since it also supports the instruments that are using the ASCOM driver, the additional hardware installations become quite simplified. We commissioned KAOS30 in 2017 August and are in the process of testing. Based on the WIT0 experiences, we will extend KAOS30 to control multiple telescopes in future projects.

  3. Isolated electrostatic structures observed throughout the Cluster orbit: relationship to magnetic field strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated electrostatic structures are observed throughout much of the 4RE by 19.6RE Cluster orbit. These structures are observed in the Wideband plasma wave instrument's waveform data as bipolar pulses (one positive and one negative peak in the electric field amplitude and tripolar pulses (two positive and one negative peak, or vice versa. These structures are observed at all of the boundary layers, in the solar wind and magnetosheath, and along auroral field lines at 4.5-6.5RE. Using the Wideband waveform data from the various Cluster spacecraft we have carried out a survey of the amplitudes and time durations of these structures and how these quantities vary with the local magnetic field strength. Such a survey has not been carried out before, and it reveals certain characteristics of solitary structures in a finite magnetic field, a topic still inadequately addressed by theories. We find that there is a broad range of electric field amplitudes at any specific magnetic field strength, and there is a general trend for the electric field amplitudes to increase as the strength of the magnetic field increases over a range of 5 to 500nT. We provide a possible explanation for this trend that relates to the structures being Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode solitary waves. There is no corresponding dependence of the duration of the structures on the magnetic field strength, although a plot of these two quantities reveals the unexpected result that with the exception of the magnetosheath, all of the time durations for all of the other regions are comparable, whereas the magnetosheath time durations clearly are in a different category of much smaller time duration. We speculate that this implies that the structures are much smaller in size. The distinctly different pulse durations for the magnetosheath pulses indicate the possibility that the pulses are generated by a mechanism which is different

  4. Multi-point observations of large-amplitude electric fields during substorms obtained by THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Hori, T.; Takada, T.; Miyashita, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Large-amplitude electric fields over 100 mV/m have been observed around the equatorial magnetosphere. These electric fields may contribute to energy transport and particle acceleration in the magnetosphere [e.g., Wygant et al., 2000, 2002], and seem to be related to fast plasma flows with a size of a few Re [Nakamura et al., 2001]. In order to understand their macroscopic characteristics and the effects to magnetic activities, it is important to observe both fields and particles simultaneously at multiple locations within several Re. Five THEMIS probes can frequently provide such chances. In this paper, we show the several events with large-amplitude electric fields during substorms obtained by THEMIS. One of the events is found in 05:50-06:00 UT on 11 March 2008, when TH-D (Xsm=-10.7 Re, Ysm=4.8 Re) and TH-E (Xsm=-10.3 Re, Ysm=5.6 Re) observed intense electric fields. At 05:54 UT, THEMIS GBO-s clearly showed the auroral onset signature. The great intensification was near the SNKQ station, and this structure moved westward with the speed of ~6 km/s. It corresponds to ~200 km/s, as mapped to the TH-D/E location. The footprints of TH-A (Xsm=-6.8 Re, Ysm=-0.4 Re), D, and E were close to the site of the aurora. The location of TH-D was beside that of TH-E, and TH-A was located earthward and eastward from the former two. The enhanced electric fields observed by TH-D and E were associated with magnetic dipolarization and earthward high-speed plasma flow. They were also associated with the depletion of electron density estimated by the spacecraft potential. These features are consistent with the model of plasma bubbles [e.g., Pontius and Wolf, 1990]. The Y components of plasma flows were 200-300 km/s, roughly consistent with the westward auroral motion as mapped to the equatorial magnetosphere. Also, we found that Poynting flux of low frequency was efficient to illuminate the auroral emissions. This fact suggests that electromagnetic energy is transported to the

  5. Treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in a pediatric observation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Roni D; Sandweiss, David R; Corneli, Howard M

    2014-05-01

    To report the success rate of observation unit (OU) treatment of pediatric skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and to see if we could identify variables at the time of initial evaluation that predicted successful OU treatment. A retrospective review of children less than 18 years of age admitted for SSTI treatment to our OU from the emergency department between January 2003 and June 2009. On records review, 853 patients matched eligibility criteria; median age was 5.2 years (interquartile range = 2.5-9 years). Of the 853 patients, 597 (70.0%) met the primary outcome criteria of successful OU discharge within 26 hours. Secondary analysis revealed that 82% of the patients achieved successful discharge from the OU within 48 hours. Although some laboratory variables demonstrated statistical association with success, none achieved a combination of high sensitivity and specificity to predict OU failure. OU success rates varied by location. Dental and face infections and those of the extremities or multiple sites demonstrated OU success rates higher than 65%, while infection of the groin, buttocks, trunk, or neck had success rates between 24% (neck) and 60% (groin). In multivariate analysis, only 3 variables remained significant. Unfavorable location was most strongly associated with OU failure, followed by C-reactive protein > 4 and then by erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 20. Our findings suggest that successful OU treatment is possible in a large group of patients needing hospitalization for SSTIs. Consideration of infection location may assist the emergency department clinician in determining the most appropriate unit for admission.

  6. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated

  7. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km 2 (0.59 mi 2 ) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  8. BIGRE: A LOW CROSS-TALK INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT TAILORED FOR EXTRASOLAR PLANETS IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antichi, Jacopo; Mouillet, David; Puget, Pascal; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Dohlen, Kjetil; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Mesa, Dino; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Boccaletti, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets through high-contrast imaging since it allows us to obtain simultaneously a large number of monochromatic images. These can be used to calibrate and then to reduce the impact of speckles, once their chromatic dependence is taken into account. The main concern in designing integral field spectrographs for high-contrast imaging is the impact of the diffraction effects and the noncommon path aberrations together with an efficient use of the detector pixels. We focus our attention on integral field spectrographs based on lenslet arrays, discussing the main features of these designs: the conditions of appropriate spatial and spectral sampling of the resulting spectrograph's slit functions and their related cross-talk terms when the system works at the diffraction limit. We present a new scheme for the integral field unit based on a dual-lenslet device (BIGRE), that solves some of the problems related to the classical Traitement Integral des Galaxies par l'Etude de leurs Rays (TIGER) design when used for such applications. We show that BIGRE provides much lower cross-talk signals than TIGER, allowing a more efficient use of the detector pixels and a considerable saving of the overall cost of a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph.

  9. Competition Between Fusarium pseudograminearum and Cochliobolus sativus Observed in Field and Greenhouse Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troth, Erin E Gunnink; Johnston, Jeffrey A; Dyer, Alan T

    2018-02-01

    Among root pathogens, one of the most documented antagonisms is the suppression of Cochliobolus sativus by Fusarium (roseum) species. Unfortunately, previous studies involved single isolates of each pathogen and thus, provided no indication of the spectrum of responses that occur across the respective species. To investigate the variability in interactions between Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium pseudograminearum, field and greenhouse trials were conducted that included monitoring of spring wheat plant health and monitoring of pathogen populations via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The interactions between two isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum were explored in three geographically distinct wheat fields. To complement field trials and to limit potentially confounding environmental variables that are often associated with field studies, greenhouse trials were performed that investigated the interactions among and between three isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum. Across field locations, C. sativus isolate Cs2344 consistently and significantly reduced Fusarium populations by an average of 20.1%. Similarly, F. pseudograminearum isolate Fp2228 consistently and significantly reduced C. sativus field populations by an average of 30.9%. No interaction was detected in the field between pathogen species with regards to disease or crop losses. Greenhouse results confirmed a powerful (>99%), broadly effective suppression of Fusarium populations by isolate Cs2344. Among greenhouse trials, additional isolate-isolate interactions were observed affecting Fusarium populations. Due to lower C. sativus population sizes in greenhouse trials, significant Fusarium suppression of C. sativus was only detected in one isolate-isolate interaction. This study is the first to demonstrate suppression of Fusarium spp. by C. sativus in field and greenhouse settings. These findings also reveal a complex competitive

  10. 1969 - 2010: Multicolor Photometric Observations of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A. G. Davis

    2010-05-01

    From 1969 to 2010 I have been involved in a photometric study of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch stars. I started by making Stromgren four-color observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory and then Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. I had taken spectral plates of all my selected areas on which I marked all the A-type stars. These stars were then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c1 indices, caused by their greater (u-b) colors. Later four new filters were added ( U V B S ). With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona) on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope.We plan follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  11. 1969 to 2010: Multicolor Photometric Observations of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A. G. D.

    2011-04-01

    From 1969 to 2010 I have been involved in a photometric study of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars and published several papers on this topic in BOTT from 1967 thru 1972. I started by making Strömgren four-color observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory and then at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. I had taken spectral plates of all my selected areas on which I marked all the A-type stars. These stars were then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c indices, caused by their greater (u-b) colors. Later four new filters were added (U, V, B, S). With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona) on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We are making follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  12. E-ELT M5 field stabilisation unit scale 1 demonstrator design and performances evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalta, J. M.; Barriga, J.; Ariño, J.; Mercader, J.; San Andrés, M.; Serra, J.; Kjelberg, I.; Hubin, N.; Jochum, L.; Vernet, E.; Dimmler, M.; Müller, M.

    2010-07-01

    The M5 Field stabilization Unit (M5FU) for European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a fast correcting optical system that shall provide tip-tilt corrections for the telescope dynamic pointing errors and the effect of atmospheric tiptilt and wind disturbances. A M5FU scale 1 demonstrator (M5FU1D) is being built to assess the feasibility of the key elements (actuators, sensors, mirror, mirror interfaces) and the real-time control algorithm. The strict constraints (e.g. tip-tilt control frequency range 100Hz, 3m ellipse mirror size, mirror first Eigen frequency 300Hz, maximum tip/tilt range +/- 30 arcsec, maximum tiptilt error < 40 marcsec) have been a big challenge for developing the M5FU Conceptual Design and its scale 1 demonstrator. The paper summarises the proposed design for the final unit and demonstrator and the measured performances compared to the applicable specifications.

  13. Phase microscopy using light-field reconstruction method for cell observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-08-01

    The refractive index (RI) distribution can serve as a natural label for undyed cell imaging. However, the majority of images obtained through quantitative phase microscopy is integrated along the illumination angle and cannot reflect additional information about the refractive map on a certain plane. Herein, a light-field reconstruction method to image the RI map within a depth of 0.2 μm is proposed. It records quantitative phase-delay images using a four-step phase shifting method in different directions and then reconstructs a similar scattered light field for the refractive sample on the focus plane. It can image the RI of samples, transparent cell samples in particular, in a manner similar to the observation of scattering characteristics. The light-field reconstruction method is therefore a powerful tool for use in cytobiology studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cluster magnetic field observations of the bowshock: Orientation, motion and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Horbury

    Full Text Available Four spacecraft Cluster magnetic field observations of the low quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bowshock are presented for the first time. Multiple quasi-perpendicular crossings on 25 December 2000 are analysed. By combining data from the four spacecraft, bowshock orientations and velocities can be calculated. It is shown that, even while in rapid motion, the bowshock normal direction remains remarkably constant, and that coplanarity estimates are accurate to, typically, around 20°. Magnetic field magnitude profiles are shown to be very well correlated between spacecraft although downstream waves with fluctuations perpendicular to the local field, while statistically similar at all four spacecraft, are poorly correlated on separation scales of several hundred km. Examples are shown of a number of bowshock phenomena, including non-standing fluctuations in the shock foot and the shock interacting with changing solar wind conditions.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (planetary bow shocks Space plasma physics (shock waves; waves and instabilities

  15. Cluster magnetic field observations of the bowshock: Orientation, motion and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Horbury

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Four spacecraft Cluster magnetic field observations of the low quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bowshock are presented for the first time. Multiple quasi-perpendicular crossings on 25 December 2000 are analysed. By combining data from the four spacecraft, bowshock orientations and velocities can be calculated. It is shown that, even while in rapid motion, the bowshock normal direction remains remarkably constant, and that coplanarity estimates are accurate to, typically, around 20°. Magnetic field magnitude profiles are shown to be very well correlated between spacecraft although downstream waves with fluctuations perpendicular to the local field, while statistically similar at all four spacecraft, are poorly correlated on separation scales of several hundred km. Examples are shown of a number of bowshock phenomena, including non-standing fluctuations in the shock foot and the shock interacting with changing solar wind conditions.Key words. Interplanetary physics (planetary bow shocks Space plasma physics (shock waves; waves and instabilities

  16. Systematic observation of tunneling field-ionization in highly excited Rb Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Tada, M.; Kominato, K.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S.; Haseyama, T.; Ogawa, I.; Funahashi, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed field ionization of high-n (90≤n≤150) manifold states in Rb Rydberg atoms has been investigated in high slew-rate regime. Two peaks in the field ionization spectra were systematically observed for the investigated n region, where the field values at the lower peak do not almost depend on the excitation energy in the manifold, while those at the higher peak increase with increasing excitation energy. The fraction of the higher peak component to the total ionization signals increases with increasing n, exceeding 80% at n=147. Characteristic behavior of the peak component and the comparison with theoretical predictions indicate that the higher peak component is due to the tunneling process. The obtained results show that the tunneling process plays increasingly the dominant role at such highly excited nonhydrogenic Rydberg atoms

  17. Land subsidence caused by the East Mesa geothermal field, California, observed using SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, D.; Holzer, T.; Vadon, H.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric combination of pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the ERS-1 satellite maps the deformation field associated with the activity of the East Mesa geothermal plant, located in southern California. SAR interferometry is applied to this flat area without the need of a digital terrain model. Several combinations are used to ascertain the nature of the phenomenon. Short term interferograms reveal surface phase changes on agricultural fields similar to what had been observed previously with SEASAT radar data. Long term (2 years) interferograms allow the study of land subsidence and improve prior knowledge of the displacement field, and agree with existing, sparse levelling data. This example illustrates the power of the interferometric technique for deriving accurate industrial intelligence as well as its potential for legal action, in cases involving environmental damages. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Field Observation of Soil Displacements Resulting Due Unsupported Excavation and Its Effects on Proposed Adjacent Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Nasir Al-Jorany

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil movement resulting due unsupported excavation nearby axially loaded piles imposes significant structural troubles on geotechnical engineers especially for piles that are not designed to account for loss of lateral confinement. In this study the field excavation works of 7.0 m deep open tunnel was continuously followed up by the authors. The work is related to the project of developing the Army canal in the east of Baghdad city in Iraq. A number of selected points around the field excavation are installed on the ground surface at different horizontal distance. The elevation and coordinates of points are recorded during 23 days with excavation progress period. The field excavation process was numerically simulated by using the finite element package PLAXIS 3D foundation. The obtained analysis results regarding the displacements of the selected points are compared with the field observation for verification purpose. Moreover, finite element analysis of axially loaded piles that are presumed to be existed at the locations of the observation points is carried out to study the effect of excavation on full scale piles behaviors. The field observation monitored an upward movement and positive lateral ground movement for shallow excavation depth. Later on and as the excavation process went deeper, a downward movement and negative lateral ground movement are noticed. The analyses results are in general well agreed with the monitored values of soil displacements at the selected points. It is found also that there are obvious effects of the nearby excavation on the presumed piles in terms of displacements and bending moments.

  19. Experimental observation of bifurcation nature of radial electric field in CHS heliotron/torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Akihide; Iguchi, Harukazu; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Minami, Takashi; Tanaka, Kenji; Okamura, Shoichi; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Masami

    1999-01-01

    Several interesting phenomena, such as the formation of a particular potential profile with a protuberance around the core and oscillatory stationary states termed electric pulsation, have been discovered using a heavy ion beam probe in the electron cyclotron heated plasmas of the CHS. This paper presents experimental observations which indicate that bifurcation of the radial electric field is responsible for such phenomena; existence of an ECH power threshold to obtain the profile with a protuberance, and its striking sensitivity to density. In particular, Flip-flop behavior of the potential near the power threshold clearly demonstrates bifurcation characteristics. Bifurcation of radial electric field in neoclassical theory is presented, and its qualitative expectation is discussed in the bifurcation phenomena. The neoclassical transition time scale between two bifurcative sates is compared with the experimental observations during the electric pulsation. It is confirmed that the neoclassical transition time is not contradictory with the experimental one. (author)

  20. Three-reflections telescope proposal as flat-field anastigmat for wide field observations at Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M.; Lemaître, G.; Viotti, R.; La Padula, C.; Comte, G.; Blanc, M.; Boer, M.

    It is now evident that the exceptional seeing at Dome C will allow, in the next years, to pursue astronomical programs with conditions better than at any other observatory in the world, and very close to space experiments. Considering a new type of wide-field telescope, particular astronomical programs could be well optimized for observations at Dome C such as surveys for the discovery and follow up of near-Earth asteroids, search for extra-solar planets using transit or micro-lensing events, and stellar luminosity variations. We propose to build a 1.5 2m class three-reflections telescope, with 1 1.5degree FOV, four times shorter than an equivalent Schmidt telescope, and providing a flat field without requiring a triplet- or quadruplet-lens corrector since its design is anastigmatic. We present the preliminary optical tests of such designs: MINITRUST1 and 2 are two 45cm identical prototypes based in France and Italy, and manufactured using active optics techniques.

  1. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The standard gives the terms and definitions of concepts, dose quantities and units. The radiation field condition 'secondary electron equilibrium', which forms part of the definition of standard ion dose, is given more precisely. The term 'free in air' is used in its original meaning, i.e. characterization of measuring conditions excluding avoidable stray radiation, which deviates from DIN 6814, part 3/06.72. Dosemeters for measurement of standard ion dose of air kerma are calibrated 'free in air', but this calibration condition is not part of the quantity definition. The quantities standard ion dose or air kerma therefore can also be measured in any other material. The qunatitative relationships between standard ion dose and the quantities 'exposure' and air kerma, as given in the ICRU publication 33 'Quantities and Units' (1980), are explained. The standard introduces the SI units Gray (for energy dose), Sievert (for dose equivalent), and Becquerel (for the activity of a radioactive substance). As the change to the SI units conceals the approximated equality of the numerical values of the standrd ion dose of photon radiation in roentgen, of the energy dose for soft tissue in rad, and of the dose equivalent in rem, new definitions are given in accordance with ICRU 33 for the quantities specified dose rate, dose rate constant, and area exposure product. These definitions use the terms 'energy dose' and 'kerma'. The dose concepts applied in the field of radiation protection, especially ambient dose and individual dose, are defined as dose equivalents in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The relevant sections present information on the conversion of standard ion dose values to the corresponding values of kerma, energy dose, or dose equivalent. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Latitudinal structure of Pc 5 waves in space: Magnetic and electric field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, H.J.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The occurrence frequency and spatial structure of Pc 5 magnetic pulsations in the dawnside of the plasma trough have been studied using data from the Ogo 5 satellite. The wave magnetic fields were obtained from the University of California, Los Angeles, flux-gate magnetometer measurements, and one component of the wave electric field was inferred from oscillations of the ion flux measured by the Lockheed light ion mass spectrometer. During portions of seven of the 19 passes comprising the survey, Pc 5 oscillations were observed in the ion flux but not in the magnetic field, and in each case the satellite was within 10 0 of the geomagnetic equator. Above 10 0 latitude, transverse magnetic and electric oscillations were both observed. The results are consistent with the model of a standing Alfven wave along a resonant field line with the geomagnetic equator as a node of the magnetic perturbation, that is, and odd mode. The wave periods are generally consistent with the fundamental resonant period. In this study, Pc 5 oscillations were identified 3 or 4 times more frequently (per orbit) than in previous spacecraft studies which relied only on magnetic data

  3. Corona magnetic field over sunspots estimated by m-wave observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Masahiro

    1974-01-01

    The shape of the magnetic field in corona was estimated from the observation of the type I storm occurred in the last decade of August, 1971. It was found from the observation with a 160 MHz interferometer at Mt. Nobeyama that at most three storm sources, which are called radio wave source, were produced. The radio wave sources were fixed above sunspots. The height of the radio wave sources was estimated to be 0.45 R from the photosphere. The sunspots under the radio wave sources can be classified to four sub-groups. Weakening of the magnetic field on the photosphere was found from the reduction of the area of some sub-group. The relation between the activity of type I storm and the intensity of the magnetic field of sunspots is qualitatively suggested. It is considered that the radio wave sources and the sunspots were connected by common magnetic force lines. The probable magnetic field in corona was presumed and is shown in a figure. An interesting point is that the direction of magnetic force lines inclined by about 30 0 outward to the vertical line to the photosphere surface. (Kato, T.)

  4. Field lin topology in the dayside cusp region inferred from low altitude particle observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeraas, F.

    1977-12-01

    Dayside low altitude satellite observations of the pitch angle and energy distribution of electrons and protons in the energy range 1 keV to 100 keV during quiet geomagnetic conditions reveal that at times there is a clear latitudinal separation between the precipitating low energy (keV) electrons and protons, with the protons precipitating poleward of the electrons. The high energy (100keV) proton precipitation overlaps both the low energy electron and proton precipitation. These observations are consistent with a model where magnetosheath particles stream in along the cusp field lines and are at the same time convected poleward by an electric field. Electrons with energies of a few keV move fast and give the ''ionospheric footprint'' of the distant cusp. The protons are partly convected poleward of the cusp and into the polar cap. Here the mirroring protons populate the plasma mantle. Equatorward of the cusp the pitch angle distribution of both electrons and protons with energies above a few keV have a pancake shaped distribution indicating closed geomagnetic field lines. The 1 keV electrons penetrate into this region of closed field line structure maintaining an isotropic pitch angle distribution. The intensity is, however, reduced with respect to what it was in the cusp region. It is suggested that these electrons, the lowest measured on the satellite, are associated with the entry layer.(Auth.)

  5. Observation of Eye Pattern on Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Disk with Write-Strategy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Kikukawa, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji

    2004-07-01

    Pit-edge recording at a density of 150 nm pits and spaces is carried out on a super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) disk with a platinum oxide layer. Pits are recorded and read using a 635-nm-wavelength laser and an objective lens with a 0.6 numerical aperture. We arrange laser pulses to correctly record the pits on the disk by a write-strategy technique. The laser-pulse figure includes a unit time of 0.25 T and intensities of Pw1, Pw2 and Pw3. After recording pits of various lengths, the observation of an eye pattern is achieved despite a pit smaller than the resolution limit. Furthermore, the eye pattern maintains its shape even though other pits fill the adjacent tracks at a track density of 600 nm. The disk can be used as a pit-edge recording system through a write-strategy technique.

  6. On the motion of electrons in the slow electric field fluctuations observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of calculations of the motion of electrons in slow, large-amplitude fluctuations of the electric field, which have been observed by means of the Swedish satellite Viking. The E component seen by the ionospheric electrons, entering the acceleration region from below, is assumed to vary along the path of the electrons along the magnetic field lines in the way that Viking recorded along its more or less horizontal path through, or above, the acceleration region. Although this is a simplified model, it is expected to illustrate the effect of the E parallel fluctuations on the cold electrons, which enter the acceleration region more realistically than in the earlier, highly simplified model used by hultqvist (1988). The results of the calculations show that temporal variations of E parallel of the kind observed by Viking easily can bring the electrons to the top of an acceleration region, which extends 1,000-10,000 km along the magnetic field lines, with energies in the range 100 eV to several keV, as have been observed

  7. CONSTRAINING THE SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH USING SPLIT-BAND TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore—560034 (India); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: kishore@iiap.res.in [Code 671, Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We report on low-frequency radio (85–35 MHz) spectral observations of four different type II radio bursts, which exhibited fundamental-harmonic emission and split-band structure. Each of the bursts was found to be closely associated with a whitelight coronal mass ejection (CME) close to the Sun. We estimated the coronal magnetic field strength from the split-band characteristics of the bursts, by assuming a model for the coronal electron density distribution. The choice of the model was constrained, based on the following criteria: (1) when the radio burst is observed simultaneously in the upper and lower bands of the fundamental component, the location of the plasma level corresponding to the frequency of the burst in the lower band should be consistent with the deprojected location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated CME; (2) the drift speed of the type II bursts derived from such a model should agree closely with the deprojected speed of the LE of the corresponding CMEs. With the above conditions, we find that: (1) the estimated field strengths are unique to each type II burst, and (2) the radial variation of the field strength in the different events indicate a pattern. It is steepest for the case where the heliocentric distance range over which the associated burst is observed is closest to the Sun, and vice versa.

  8. Dynamics of tachyon fields and inflation - comparison of analytical and numerical results with observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role tachyon fields may play in evolution of early universe is discussed in this paper. We consider the evolution of a flat and homogeneous universe governed by a tachyon scalar field with the DBI-type action and calculate the slow-roll parameters of inflation, scalar spectral index (n, and tensor-scalar ratio (r for the given potentials. We pay special attention to the inverse power potential, first of all to V (x ~ x−4, and compare the available results obtained by analytical and numerical methods with those obtained by observation. It is shown that the computed values of the observational parameters and the observed ones are in a good agreement for the high values of the constant X0. The possibility that influence of the radion field can extend a range of the acceptable values of the constant X0 to the string theory motivated sector of its values is briefly considered. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021, br. 174020 i br. 43011

  9. Analysis of radiation field distribution in Yonggwang unit 3 with MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Ha, Wi Ho; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2004-01-01

    Radiation field analysis is performed at the inside of the containment building of nuclear power plant(NPP) using the well-known MCNP code. The target NPP in this study is Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 8. In this work, whole transport calculations were done using MCNPX 2.4.0 due to the functional benefits, such as Mesh Tally, that the code provides. The neutron spectra released from the operating reactor core were firstly evaluated as a radiation source term, and then dose distributions in the work areas of the NPP were calculated

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities by the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLozier, M.F.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Field Office of the United States Department of Energy is projecting one of the largest decommissioning efforts in the nation during the next ten to twenty years. The nuclear facilities are varied with respect to the types of contaminants and types of structures and equipment involved. The facilities planned for decommissioning include 26 ORNL facilities (e.g., OGR, HRE, MSRE), 70 facilities at Oak Ridge K25 site, and the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge. Innovative technologies are required to decommission the facilities and dispose of the waste generated. (R.P.)

  11. Interaction of the solar wind with the planet Mars: Phobos 2 magnetic field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Lichtenegger, H.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetometers on board the Phobos 2 spacecraft provided the opportunity to study the magnetic environment around Mars, including regions which have never been explored before, such as at low altitudes (down to 850 km above the surface of Mars) and in the tail. The data revealed a bow shock, characterized by a distinct jump in the magnetic field strength and a boundary denoted ''planetopause'', where the level of turbulence of the magnetic field changes. Inside the planetopause the field remains quiet. Some of the main characteristics of the bow shock and the magnetosheath can be reproduced by computer simulations within the framework of a gas-dynamic model using the observed planetopause as an obstacle for the incoming solar wind. In many spacecraft orbits around Mars, reversals of the B x -component were found which are typical for tail crossings. A first analysis of the tail data from the circular orbits at a distance of 2.8 Mars radii showed several cases where the reversal of the tail lobes was controlled by the IMF. This supports the idea of an induced character of the solar wind interaction with Mars outside a distance of about 2.8 Mars radii. However, there are certain features in the magnetic field data which could be interpreted as traces of a weak Martian intrinsic field. (author)

  12. United States Naval Academy Polar Science Program's Visual Arctic Observing Buoys; The IceGoat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J. E.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Rigor, I.; Valentic, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Academy Oceanography Department currently has a curriculum based Polar Science Program (USNA PSP). Within the PSP there is an Arctic Buoy Program (ABP) student research component that will include the design, build, testing and deployment of Arctic Buoys. Establishing an active, field-research program in Polar Science will greatly enhance Midshipman education and research, as well as introduce future Naval Officers to the Arctic environment. The Oceanography Department has engaged the USNA Ocean Engineering, Systems Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, and Computer Science Departments and developed a USNA Visual Arctic Observing Buoy, IceGoat1, which was designed, built, and deployed by midshipmen. The experience gained through Polar field studies and data derived from these buoys will be used to enhance course materials and laboratories and will also be used directly in Midshipman independent research projects. The USNA PSP successfully deployed IceGoat1 during the BROMEX 2012 field campaign out of Barrow, AK in March 2012. This buoy reports near real-time observation of Air Temperature, Sea Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Position and Images from 2 mounted webcams. The importance of this unique type of buoy being inserted into the U.S. Interagency Arctic Buoy Program and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (USIABP/IABP) array is cross validating satellite observations of sea ice cover in the Arctic with the buoys webcams. We also propose to develop multiple sensor packages for the IceGoat to include a more robust weather suite, and a passive acoustic hydrophone. Remote cameras on buoys have provided crucial qualitative information that complements the quantitative measurements of geophysical parameters. For example, the mechanical anemometers on the IABP Polar Arctic Weather Station at the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) have at times reported zero winds speeds, and inspection of the images from the NPEO cameras have showed

  13. Low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region: Venus Express observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guicking

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate wave properties of low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region based on the measurements made on board the Venus Express spacecraft. The orbit geometry is very suitable to investigate the fluctuations in Venus' low-altitude magnetosheath and mid-magnetotail and provides an opportunity for a comparative study of low-frequency waves at Venus and Mars. The spatial distributions of the wave properties, in particular in the dayside and nightside magnetosheath as well as in the tail and mantle region, are similar to observations at Mars. As both planets do not have a global magnetic field, the interaction process of the solar wind with both planets is similar and leads to similar instabilities and wave structures. We focus on the spatial distribution of the wave intensity of the fluctuating magnetic field and detect an enhancement of the intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and a strong decrease towards the terminator. For a detailed investigation of the intensity distribution we adopt an analytical streamline model to describe the plasma flow around Venus. This allows displaying the evolution of the intensity along different streamlines. It is assumed that the waves are generated in the vicinity of the bow shock and are convected downstream with the turbulent magnetosheath flow. However, neither the different Mach numbers upstream and downstream of the bow shock, nor the variation of the cross sectional area and the flow velocity along the streamlines play probably an important role in order to explain the observed concentration of wave intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and the decay towards the nightside magnetosheath. But, the concept of freely evolving or decaying turbulence is in good qualitative agreement with the observations, as we observe a power law decay of the intensity along the streamlines. The observations support the assumption of wave convection through the magnetosheath, but

  14. Changes in dental plaque following hospitalisation in a critical care unit: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Mishal; Ready, Derren; Brealey, David; Ryu, Jung; Bercades, Georgia; Nagle, Janette; Borja-Boluda, Susana; Agudo, Elisa; Petrie, Aviva; Suvan, Jean; Donos, Nikos; Singer, Mervyn; Needleman, Ian

    2013-09-04

    Previous research has suggested that deterioration in oral health can occur following hospitalisation. The impact of such deterioration could increase the risk of oral disease, reduce quality of life and increase the potential for healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) such as healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP). However, the strength of the evidence is limited by, amongst other factors, the few observational studies published that assess oral health longitudinally. In view of the microbiological component of oral diseases and HCAIs, the objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological changes in dental plaque following hospitalisation in a Critical Care Unit (CCU): (1) total number of cultivable bacteria and (2) presence and changes in specific HAP pathogens. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal observational study in the CCU of University College Hospital, London. Study participants were recruited within 24 hours of admission. Dental plaque samples were collected from up to six sites per patient. The primary outcome was microbiological change from baseline to seven days with additional analysis for participants still present at day 14. 50 patients were recruited with 36 available for review at one week, with early discharge accounting for much of the loss to follow-up. The median total viable count of the plaque microbiota at baseline was 4.40 × 105 cfu/ml and increased at week one to 3.44 × 106 cfu/ml. The total viable microbe counts increased by a median of 2.26 × 106 cfu/ml from baseline to week one (95% CI: 3.19 × 106, 1.24 × 107) and this was statistically significant (P bacterial count of dental plaque increases during hospitalisation in CCU. This finding, together with the colonisation of dental plaque by HAP bacteria strengthens the evidence for a deterioration in oral health in CCU and a risk factor for negative health and quality of life outcomes.

  15. Predictors of stress among parents in pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Mohd; Mittal, Kundan; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Kashyap, Haripal; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-11-01

    To determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors leading to stress among parents whose children are admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A prospective observational study was conducted in PICU of a tertiary care hospital of north India. Parents of children admitted to PICU for at least 48 h duration were eligible for participation. At the end of 48 h, parental stress was assessed using parental stress scale (PSS:PICU) questionnaire which was administered to the parents. Baseline demographic and clinical parameters of children admitted to PICU were recorded. The parental stress was compared with demographic and clinical characteristics of children using appropriate statistical methods. A total of 49 parents were finally eligible for participation. Mean (SD) parental stress scores was highest in domains of procedures [1.52 (0.66)] and behavior and emotional [1.32 (0.42)] subscales. Mean (SD) total parental stress score among intubated children [1.31 (0.25)] was significantly more than among non intubated children [0.97 (0.26)] (p parental stress score were comparable in terms of gender (p = 0.15) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.32). On subscale analysis, it was found that professional communication is a significant stressor in age groups 0-12 mo [0.61(0.41)] (p = 0.02). It was observed that parents of intubated children were significantly stressed by the physical appearance of their children (p parental role (p = 0.002). Total parental stress score had a positive correlation with PRISM score (r = 0.308). Indian parents are stressed maximally with environment of PICU. Factor leading to parental stress was intubation status of the child and was not affected by gender or socio demographic profile of the parents.

  16. Model Data Interoperability for the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard P.

    2010-05-01

    Model data interoperability for the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) was initiated with a focused one year project. The problem was that there were many regional and national providers of oceanographic model data; each had unique file conventions, distribution techniques and analysis tools that made it difficult to compare model results and observational data. To solve this problem, a distributed system was built utilizing a customized middleware layer and a common data model. This allowed each model data provider to keep their existing model and data files unchanged, yet deliver model data via web services in a common form. With standards-based applications that used these web services, end users then had a common way to access data from any of the models. These applications included: (1) a 2D mapping and animation using a web browser application, (2) an advanced 3D visualization and animation using a desktop application, and (3) a toolkit for a common scientific analysis environment. Due to the flexibility and low impact of the approach on providers, rapid progress was made. The system was implemented in all eleven US IOOS regions and at the NOAA National Coastal Data Development Center, allowing common delivery of regional and national oceanographic model forecast and archived results that cover all US waters. The system, based heavily on software technology from the NSF-sponsored Unidata Program Center, is applicable to any structured gridded data, not just oceanographic model data. There is a clear pathway to expand the system to include unstructured grid (e.g. triangular grid) data.

  17. Asthma changes at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit after 10 years: Observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Al-Eyadhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the change in the management, and outcome of children with acute severe asthma (ASA admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU at tertiary institute, as compared to previously published report in 2003. Methods : This is a retrospective observational study. All consecutive pediatric ASA patients who were admitted to PICU during the study period were included. The data were extracted from PICU database and medical records. The Cohort in this study (2013 Cohort was compared with the Cohort of ASA, which was published in 2003 from the same institution (2003 Cohort. Results: In comparison to previous 2003 Cohort, current Cohort (2013 revealed higher mean age (5.5 vs. 3.6 years; P ≤ 0.001, higher rate of PICU admission (20.3% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ 0.007, less patients who received maintenance inhaled steroids (43.3% vs. 62.4%; P ≤ 0.03, less patients with pH <7.3 (17.9% vs. 42.9%; P ≤ 0.001. There were more patients in 2013 Cohort who received: Inhaled Ipratropium bromide (97% vs. 68%; P ≤ 0.001, intravenous magnesium sulfate (68.2% vs. none, intravenous salbutamol (13.6% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ 0.015, and noninvasive ventilation (NIV (35.8% vs. none while no patients were treated with theophylline (none vs. 62.5%. The median length of stay (LOS was 2 days while mean LOS was half a day longer in the 2013 Cohort. None of our patients required intubation, and there was no mortality. Conclusion: We observed slight shift toward older age, considerably increased the rate of PICU admission, increased utilization of Ipratropium bromide, magnesium sulfate, and NIV as important modalities of treatment.

  18. Assessment of Observational Uncertainty in Extreme Precipitation Events over the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinskey, E. A.; Loikith, P. C.; Waliser, D. E.; Goodman, A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events are associated with numerous societal and environmental impacts. Furthermore, anthropogenic climate change is projected to alter precipitation intensity across portions of the Continental United States (CONUS). Therefore, a spatial understanding and intuitive means of monitoring extreme precipitation over time is critical. Towards this end, we apply an event-based indicator, developed as a part of NASA's support of the ongoing efforts of the US National Climate Assessment, which assigns categories to extreme precipitation events based on 3-day storm totals as a basis for dataset intercomparison. To assess observational uncertainty across a wide range of historical precipitation measurement approaches, we intercompare in situ station data from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), satellite-derived precipitation data from NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), gridded in situ station data from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), global reanalysis from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis version 2 (MERRA 2), and regional reanalysis with gauge data assimilation from NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). Results suggest considerable variability across the five-dataset suite in the frequency, spatial extent, and magnitude of extreme precipitation events. Consistent with expectations, higher resolution datasets were found to resemble station data best and capture a greater frequency of high-end extreme events relative to lower spatial resolution datasets. The degree of dataset agreement varies regionally, however all datasets successfully capture the seasonal cycle of precipitation extremes across the CONUS. These intercomparison results provide additional insight about observational uncertainty and the ability of a range of precipitation measurement and analysis products to capture extreme precipitation event climatology. While the event category threshold is fixed

  19. UV--Visible observations with HST in the JWST North Ecliptic Pole Time-Domain Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Royle, Patricia; Hathi, Nimish; Jones, Victoria; Cohen, Seth; Ashcraft, Teresa; Willmer, Christopher; Conselice, Christopher; White, Cameron; Frye, Brenda; HST-GO-15278 team; and the Webb Medium Deep Fields IDS GTO team.

    2018-01-01

    We report the first results from a UV–Visible HST imaging survey of the JWST North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) Time-Domain Field (TDF). Using CVZ and near-CVZ opportunities we observed the first two out of nine tiles with WFC3/UVIS in F275W and with ACS/WFC in F435W and F606W. Over the course of the next 13 months, this survey is designed to provide near-contiguous 3-filter coverage of the central r ≤ 5‧ of this new community field for time-domain science with JWST. The JWST NEP TDF is located within JWST's northern Continuous Viewing Zone, will span ~14‧ in diameter (~10‧ with NIRISS coverage), is devoid of sources bright enough to saturate the NIRCam detectors, has low Galactic foreground extinction, and will be roughly circular in shape (initially sampled during Cycle 1 at 4 distinct orientations with JWST/NIRCam — the JWST “windmill”). NIRISS slitless grism spectroscopy will be taken in parallel, overlapping an alternate NIRCam orientation. This is the only region in the sky where JWST can observe a clean extragalactic deep survey field of this size at arbitrary cadence or at arbitrary orientation. This will crucially enable a wide range of new and exciting time-domain science, including high redshift transient searches and monitoring (e.g., SNe), variability studies from Active Galactic Nuclei to brown dwarf atmospheres, as well as proper motions of extreme scattered Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects, and of nearby Galactic brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, and ultracool white dwarfs. Ancillary data across the electromagnetic spectrum will exist for this field when JWST science operations commence in the second half of 2019. This includes deep (mAB ~ 26 mag) wide-field (~23‧×25‧) Ugriz photometry of this field and its surroundings from LBT/LBC and Subaru/HSC, JHK from MMT/MMIRS, VLA 3 GHz and VLBA 4.5 GHz radio observations, and Chandra/ACIS X-ray images. Proposals for (sub)mm observations and spectroscopy to mAB ~ 24 mag are pending.

  20. Prospective Observational Evaluation of Sedation and Pain Management Guideline Adherence Across New Jersey Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Alison; Cardinale, Maria; Andrews, Liza B; Kaplan, Justin B; Adams, Christopher; Opsha, Yekaterina; Brandt, Kimberly A; Dixit, Deepali; Nerenberg, Steven F; Saleh, Julie A

    2018-01-01

    The practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium (PAD) from the Society of Critical Care Medicine shifted from primarily focusing on the treatment of anxiety in 2002 to the treatment of pain in 2013. This prospective, observational, multicenter study aimed to assess the degree of practice adherence to the PAD guidelines for ventilated patients in New Jersey intensive care units (ICUs). Pharmacist investigators at 8 centers designated 4 days at least 10 days apart to evaluate all patients on mechanical ventilation. The primary outcomes included adherence to 4 guideline recommendations: treatment of pain before sedation, use of nonnarcotic analgesic medications, use of nonbenzodiazepine sedative medications, and use of goal-directed sedation. Of 138 patients evaluated, 50% had a primary medical diagnosis (as opposed to surgical, cardiac, or neurological diagnosis), and the median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 7. Pain was treated prior to administration of sedatives in 55.4% of subjects, with fentanyl being the primary analgesic used. In addition, 19% received no analgesia, and 11.5% received nonopioid analgesia. Sedative agents were administered to 87 subjects (48 nonbenzodiazepine and 39 benzodiazepine). Of those receiving benzodiazepines, 22 received intermittent bolus regimens and 16 received continuous infusions, of which 5 were for another indication besides sedation. Validated scales measuring the degree of sedation were completed at least once in 56 (81.6%) patients receiving sedatives. Current sedation practices suggest that integration of evidence-based PAD guidelines across New Jersey adult ICUs is inconsistent despite pharmacist involvement.

  1. Candidemia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective, Observational Survey and Analysis of Literature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Caggiano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of an Italian university hospital during a 9-year period as a means of quantifying the burden of infection and identifying emerging trends. Clinical data were searched for in the microbiological laboratory database. For comparative purposes, we performed a review of NICU candidemia. Forty-one candidemia cases were reviewed (overall incidence, 3.0 per 100 admissions. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto (58.5% and C. albicans (34.1% were the most common species recovered. A variable drift through years was observed; in 2015, 75% of the cases were caused by non-albicans species. The duration of NICU hospitalization of patients with non-albicans was significantly longer than in those with C. albicans (median days, 10 versus 12. Patients with non-albicans species were more likely to have parenteral nutrition than those with C. albicans (96.3% versus 71.4%. Candida albicans was the dominant species in Europe and America (median, 55% and 60%; resp.; non-albicans species predominate in Asia (75%. Significant geographic variation is evident among cases of candidemia in different parts of the world, recognizing the importance of epidemiological data to facilitate the treatment.

  2. Galaxy formation in the reionization epoch as hinted by Wide Field Camera 3 observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haojing; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Ryan, Russell E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a large sample of candidate galaxies at z ∼ 7-10, selected in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the new observations of the Wide Field Camera 3 that was recently installed on the Hubble Space Telescope. Our sample is composed of 20 z 850 -dropouts (four new discoveries), 15 Y 105 -dropouts (nine new discoveries) and 20 J 125 -dropouts (all new discoveries). The surface densities of the z 850 -dropouts are close to what was predicted by earlier studies, however, those of the Y 105 - and J 125 -dropouts are quite unexpected. While no Y 105 - or J 125 -dropouts have been found at AB ≤ 28.0 mag, their surface densities seem to increase sharply at fainter levels. While some of these candidates seem to be close to foreground galaxies and thus could possibly be gravitationally lensed, the overall surface densities after excluding such cases are still much higher than what would be expected if the luminosity function does not evolve from z ∼ 7 to 10. Motivated by such steep increases, we tentatively propose a set of Schechter function parameters to describe the luminosity functions at z ∼ 8 and 10. As compared to their counterpart at z ∼ 7, here L * decreases by a factor of ∼ 6.5 and φ * increases by a factor of 17-90. Although such parameters are not yet demanded by the existing observations, they are allowed and seem to agree with the data better than other alternatives. If these luminosity functions are still valid beyond our current detection limit, this would imply a sudden emergence of a large number of low-luminosity galaxies when looking back in time to z ∼ 10, which, while seemingly exotic, would naturally fit in the picture of the cosmic hydrogen reionization. These early galaxies could easily account for the ionizing photon budget required by the reionization, and they would imply that the global star formation rate density might start from a very high value at z ∼ 10, rapidly reach the minimum at z ∼ 7, and start to rise again

  3. Observations of the role of science in the United States medical cannabis state policies: Lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Jelica; Goddard, Perilou; Ryder, David

    2017-04-01

    Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U.S.; researchers from the same five states conducting funded research in the alcohol and other drugs field; and members of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Six major themes emerged in relation to the factors influencing policy: scientific evidence plays a limited role in the development of policy; the available research is limited and mixed; there is a need for clearer communication and active dissemination of evidence to policy makers; researchers need to consider what research is likely to impact on policy; scientific evidence is not a major factor in policy development; and there is a need to consider evidence within a political context. Researchers need to be aware of the political context in which medical cannabis laws are or are not enacted and consider ways in which research findings can achieve a higher profile within this context. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Observer variability when evaluating patient movement from electronic portal images of pelvic radiotherapy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraint Lewis, D.; Ryan, Karen R.; Smith, Cyril W.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: A study has been performed to evaluate inter-observer variability when assessing pelvic patient movement using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Materials and methods: Four patient image sets were used with 3-6 portal images per set. The observer group consisted of nine radiographers with 3-18 months clinical EPID experience. The observers outlined bony landmarks on a digital simulator image and used matching software to evaluate field placement errors (FPEs) on each portal image relative to the reference simulator image. Data were evaluated statistically, using a two-component analysis of variance technique, to quantify both the inter-observer variability in evaluating FPEs and inter-fraction variability in patient position relative to the residuals of the analysis. Intra-observer variability was also estimated using four of the observers carrying out three sets of repeat readings. Results: Eight sets of variance data were analysed, based on FPEs in two orthogonal directions for each of the four patient image sets studied. Initial analysis showed that both inter-observer variation and inter-fraction-patient position variation were statistically significant (P<0.05) in seven of the eight cases evaluated. The averaged root-mean-square (RMS) deviation of the observers from the group mean was 1.1 mm, with a maximum deviation of 5.0 mm recorded for an individual observer. After additional training and re-testing of two of the observers who recorded the largest deviations from the group mean, a subsequent analysis showed the inter-observer variability for the group to be significant in only three of the eight cases, with averaged RMS deviation reduced to 0.5 mm, with a maximum deviation of 2.7 mm. The intra-observer variability was 0.5 mm, averaged over the four observers tested. Conclusions: We have developed a quantitative approach to evaluate inter-observer variability in terms of its statistical significance compared to inter

  5. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  6. A Photometric Observing Program at the VATT: Setting Up a Calibration Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis Philip, A. G.; Boyle, R. P.; Janusz, R.

    2009-05-01

    Philip and Boyle have been making Strömgren and then Strömvil photometric observations of open and globular clusters at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope located on Mt. Graham in Arizona. Our aim is to obtain CCD photometric indices good to 0.01 magnitude. Indices of this quality can later be analyzed to yield estimates of temperature, luminosity and metallicity. But we have found that the CCD chip does not yield photometry of this quality without further corrections. Our most observed cluster is the open cluster, M 67. This cluster is also very well observed in the literature. We took the best published values and created a set of "standard" stars for our field. Taking our CCD results we could calculate deltas, as a function of position on the chip, which we then applied to all the CCD frames that we obtained. With this procedure we were able to obtain the precision of 0.01 magnitudes in all the fields that we observed. When we started we were able to use the "A" two-inch square Strömgren four-color set from KPNO. Later the Vatican Observatory bought a set of 3.48 inch square Strömgren filters, The Vatican Observatory had a set of circular Vilnius filters There was also an X filter. These eight filters made our Strömvil set.

  7. Theory and observations of upward field-aligned currents at the magnetopause boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Simon; Johnson, Jay R

    2015-11-16

    The dependence of the upward field-aligned current density ( J ‖ ) at the dayside magnetopause boundary layer is well described by a simple analytic model based on a velocity shear generator. A previous observational survey confirmed that the scaling properties predicted by the analytical model are applicable between 11 and 17 MLT. We utilize the analytic model to predict field-aligned currents using solar wind and ionospheric parameters and compare with direct observations. The calculated and observed parallel currents are in excellent agreement, suggesting that the model may be useful to infer boundary layer structures. However, near noon, where velocity shear is small, the kinetic pressure gradients and thermal currents, which are not included in the model, could make a small but significant contribution to J ‖ . Excluding data from noon, our least squares fit returns log( J ‖,max_cal ) = (0.96 ± 0.04) log( J ‖_obs ) + (0.03 ± 0.01) where J ‖,max_cal = calculated J ‖,max and J ‖_obs = observed J ‖ .

  8. Estimation of Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency Using Satellite and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Quick, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of terrestrial plant communities bring about intimate relations between water, energy, and carbon exchange between land surface and atmosphere. Total evaporation, which is the sum of transpiration, soil evaporation and evaporation of intercepted water, couples water and energy balance equations. The rate of transpiration, which is the major fraction of total evaporation over most of the terrestrial land surface, is linked to the rate of carbon accumulation because functioning of stomata is optimized by both of these processes. Thus, quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the transpiration efficiency (which is defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon accumulation and transpiration), and water use efficiency (defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon accumulation and total evaporation), and evaluation of modeling results against observations, are of significant importance in developing a better understanding of land surface processes. An approach has been developed for quantifying spatial and temporal variations of transpiration, and water-use efficiency based on biophysical process-based models, satellite and field observations. Calculations have been done using concurrent meteorological data derived from satellite observations and four dimensional data assimilation for four consecutive years (1987-1990) over an agricultural area in the Northern Great Plains of the US, and compared with field observations within and outside the study area. The paper provides substantive new information about interannual variation, particularly the effect of drought, on the efficiency values at a regional scale.

  9. Observed chlorine concentrations during Jack Rabbit I and Lyme Bay field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph; Huq, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    As part of planning for a series of field experiments where large quantities (up to 20 tons) of pressurized liquefied chlorine will be released, observations from previous chlorine field experiments are analyzed to estimate the ranges of chlorine concentrations expected at various downwind distances. In five field experiment days during the summer 2010 Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field trials, up to two tons of chlorine were released and concentrations were observed at distances, x, from 25 to 500 m. In the 1927 Lyme Bay (LB) experiments, there were four days of trials, where 3-10 tons of chlorine were released in about 15 min from the back of a ship. Concentrations were sampled at LB from four ships sailing across the cloud path at downwind distances in the range from about 350 to 3000 m. Thus, the distances from which JR I concentrations were available slightly overlapped the LB distances. One-minute arc-maximum chlorine concentrations, C (g/m3), were analyzed from four JR I trials and two LB trials. Normalized concentrations (Cu/Q) were plotted versus x (m), where u (m/s) is measured wind speed at heights of 2-10 m and Q (g/s) is continuous mass release rate. It is found that the JR I and LB Cu/Q observations smoothly merge with each other and fall along a line with approximate slope of -2 at distances beyond about 200 m (i.e., Cu/Q is proportional to x-2). At x < 200 m, where dense gas effects are more important, the slope is less (about -1.5). Most of the data points are within a factor of two of the "best-fit" line.

  10. Mars gravity field error analysis from simulated radio tracking of Mars Observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Lerch, F.J.; Chan, J.C.; Chinn, D.S.; Iz, H.B.; Mallama, A.; Patel, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Mars Observer (MO) Mission, in a near-polar orbit at 360-410 km altitude for nearly a 2-year observing period, will greatly improve our understanding of the geophysics of Mars, including its gravity field. To assess the expected improvement of the gravity field, the authors have conducted an error analysis based upon the mission plan for the Mars Observer radio tracking data from the Deep Space Network. Their results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a high-resolution model (spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 50 corresponding to a 200-km horizontal resolution) for the gravitational field of the planet. This model, in combination with topography from MO altimetry, should provide for an improved determination of the broad scale density structure and stress state of the Martian crust and upper mantle. The mathematical model for the error analysis is based on the representation of doppler tracking data as a function of the Martian gravity field in spherical harmonics, solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, angular momentum desaturation residual acceleration (AMDRA) effects, tracking station biases, and the MO orbit parameters. Two approaches are employed. In the first case, the error covariance matrix of the gravity model is estimated including the effects from all the nongravitational parameters (noise-only case). In the second case, the gravity recovery error is computed as above but includes unmodelled systematic effects from atmospheric drag, AMDRA, and solar radiation pressure (biased case). The error spectrum of gravity shows an order of magnitude of improvement over current knowledge based on doppler data precision from a single station of 0.3 mm s -1 noise for 1-min integration intervals during three 60-day periods

  11. Drift velocities of 150-km Field-Aligned Irregularities observed by the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Otsuka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 130 and 170 km altitude in the daytime ionosphere, the so-called 150-km field-aligned irregularities (FAIs have been observed since the 1960s at equatorial regions with several very high frequency (VHF radars. We report statistical results of 150-km FAI drift velocities on a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, acquired by analyzing the Doppler velocities of 150-km FAIs observed with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR at Kototabang, Indonesia during the period from Aug. 2007 to Oct. 2009. We found that the southward/upward perpendicular drift velocity of the 150-km FAIs tends to decrease in the afternoon and that this feature is consistent with that of F-region plasma drift velocities over the magnetic equator. The zonal component of the 150-km FAI drift velocity is westward and decreases with time, whereas the F-region plasma drift velocity observed with the incoherent scatter radar at Jicamarca, Peru, which is westward, reaches a maximum at about noon. The southward/upward and zonal drift velocities of the 150-km FAIs are smaller than that of the F-region plasma drift velocity by approximately 3 m/s and 25 m/s, respectively, on average. The large difference between the 150-km FAI and F-region plasma drift velocities may not arise from a difference in the magnetic latitudes at which their electric fields are generated. Electric fields generated at the altitude at which the 150-km FAIs occur may not be negligible.

  12. Theoretical interpretation of the observed interplanetary magnetic field radial variation in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Thomas, B. T.; Nerney, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the azimuthal component of the IMF are evaluated through the use of an MHD model which shows the effect of magnetic flux tubes opening in the outer solar system. It is demonstrated that the inferred meridional transport of magnetic flux is consistent with predictions by the MHD model. The computed azimuthal and radial magnetic flux deficits are almost identical to the observations. It is suggested that the simplest interpretation of the observations is that meridional flows are created by a direct body force on the plasma. This is consistent with the analytic model of Nerney and Suess (1975), in which such flux deficits in the IMF arise naturally from the meridional gradient in the spiralling field.

  13. Using MERRA Gridded Innovation for Quantifying Uncertainties in Analysis Fields and Diagnosing Observing System Inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Redder, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    MERRA is a NASA reanalysis for the satellite era using a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 5 (GEOS-5). The Project focuses on historical analyses of the hydrological cycle on a broad range of weather and climate time scales and places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The characterization of uncertainty in reanalysis fields is a commonly requested feature by users of such data. While intercomparison with reference data sets is common practice for ascertaining the realism of the datasets, such studies typically are restricted to long term climatological statistics and seldom provide state dependent measures of the uncertainties involved. In principle, variational data assimilation algorithms have the ability of producing error estimates for the analysis variables (typically surface pressure, winds, temperature, moisture and ozone) consistent with the assumed background and observation error statistics. However, these "perceived error estimates" are expensive to obtain and are limited by the somewhat simplistic errors assumed in the algorithm. The observation minus forecast residuals (innovations) by-product of any assimilation system constitutes a powerful tool for estimating the systematic and random errors in the analysis fields. Unfortunately, such data is usually not readily available with reanalysis products, often requiring the tedious decoding of large datasets and not so-user friendly file formats. With MERRA we have introduced a gridded version of the observations/innovations used in the assimilation process, using the same grid and data formats as the regular datasets. Such dataset empowers the user with the ability of conveniently performing observing system related analysis and error estimates. The scope of this dataset will be briefly described. We will present a systematic analysis of MERRA innovation time series for the conventional observing system, including maximum

  14. Observations of photospheric magnetic fields and shear flows in flaring active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Frank, Z.; Title, A.; Topka, K.

    1988-01-01

    Horizontal flows in the photosphere and subsurface convection zone move the footpoints of coronal magnetic field lines. Magnetic energy to power flares can be stored in the corona if the flows drive the fields far from the potential configuration. Videodisk movies were shown with 0.5 to 1 arcsecond resolution of the following simultaneous observations: green continuum, longitudinal magnetogram, Fe I 5576 A line center (mid-photosphere), H alpha wings, and H alpha line center. The movies show a 90 x 90 arcsecond field of view of an active region at S29, W11. When viewed at speeds of a few thousand times real-time, the photospheric movies clearly show the active region fields being distorted by a remarkable combination of systematic flows and small eruptions of new flux. Magnetic bipoles are emerging over a large area, and the polarities are systematically flowing apart. The horizontal flows were mapped in detail from the continuum movies, and these may be used to predict the future evolution of the region. The horizontal flows are not discernable in H alpha. The H alpha movies strongly suggest reconnection processes in the fibrils joining opposite polarities. When viewed in combination with the magnetic movies, the cause for this evolution is apparent: opposite polarity fields collide and partially cancel, and the fibrils reconnect above the surface. This type of reconnection, driven by subphotospheric flows, complicates the chromospheric and coronal fields, causing visible braiding and twisting of the fibrils. Some of the transient emission events in the fibrils and adjacent plage may also be related

  15. Technetium-99 behavior in the terrestrial environment. Field observations and radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining data on 99 Tc in the rice paddy field environment is important because Tc is a redox sensitive element. The behavior of Tc is expected to be different under upland field and rice paddy field conditions since the redox conditions in the soil environment differ. However, most of the data on the nuclide behavior in soil were obtained under upland field conditions. To understand the global fallout 99 Tc distributions in soil samples collected in Japan, a simple and rapid separation method was developed in order to determine low-levels of 99 Tc in soil samples by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Also, radiotracer experiments using soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were carried out to clarify the Tc behavior under paddy field conditions. The results of determination of global fallout 99 Tc in Japanese soils indicated that the radionuclide had been accumulating in rice paddy fields. The mechanisms can be explained by the immobilization of Tc in soil under anaerobic conditions. From the radiotracer experiments, it was clear that under waterlogged conditions, the highly mobile TcO 4 - in soil was readily changed to other immobilized forms, such as TcO 2 , TcS 2 and organically bound forms. To this immobilization, the microbial activity seemed to have an important role in Tc sorption reactions. When the soil, which was once kept in anaerobic conditions, was air-dried again and kept in aerobic conditions, the chemical forms of immobilized Tc did not change remarkably. Interestingly, the similar Tc behavior was observed in a real wet forest near the Chernobyl Reactor. (author)

  16. Technical Note: Field-observed angles of repose for stored grain in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulk grain angle of repose (AoR) is a key parameter for inventorying grain, predicting flow characteristics, and designing bins and grain handling systems. The AoR is defined for two cases, piling (dynamic) or emptying (static), and usually varies with grain type. The objective of this study was to ...

  17. Observation of magnetic field perturbations during sawtooth activity in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltwisch, H.; Koslowski, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sawtooth activity is a prominent example of a global plasma instability which is observed in virtually all tokamak devices. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical investigations, the phenomenon is still barely understood. As far as experimental effort is concerned, much attention has been paid to soft X-ray emission from the plasma and to its analysis in terms of two-dimensional contour plots, because it is thought to reflect the shape and temporal behaviour of magnetic flux surfaces during a sawtooth cycle. Recently, more direct methods of detecting sawtooth-related changes in the magnetic field structure have become available and have added new facets to the general picture. In this picture, some observations made on the Juelich tokamak TEXTOR by means of a Faraday rotation diagnostic technique will be reported. First, in correlation with the sawtooth collapse a localized periodic perturbation of the magnetic field with principal mode numbers m = 1 and n = 0 has been detected which, in the presence of an m = n = 1 island, may give rise to magnetic field line stochastization and thereby contribute significantly to a rapid expulsion of electronic energy from the plasma core region. Second, the so-called precursor oscillations prior to a sawtooth crash have been investigated and estimates have been obtained for the growth rate and width of a magnetic island forming immediately before the collapse. (Author)

  18. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-06-21

    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  19. STAR FORMATION IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: OBSERVATIONS CONFRONT SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, Maaike; Franx, Marijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Labbe, Ivo; Toft, Sune; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the star formation history of the universe using FIREWORKS, a multiwavelength survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. We study the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) with redshift in different mass bins from z = 0 to z ∼ 3. We find that the sSFR increases with redshift for all masses. The logarithmic increase of the sSFR with redshift is nearly independent of mass, but this cannot yet be verified at the lowest-mass bins at z>0.8, due to incompleteness. We convert the sSFRs to a dimensionless growth rate to facilitate a comparison with a semianalytic galaxy formation model that was implemented on the Millennium Simulation. The model predicts that the growth rates and sSFRs increase similarly with redshift for all masses, consistent with the observations. However, we find that for all masses, the inferred observed growth rates increase more rapidly with redshift than the model predictions. We discuss several possible causes for this discrepancy, ranging from field-to-field variance, conversions to SFR, and shape of the initial mass function. We find that none of these can solve the discrepancy completely. We conclude that the models need to be adapted to produce the steep increase in growth rate between redshift z = 0 and z = 1.

  20. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  1. An observational study of patient care outcomes sensitive to handover quality in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillibridge, Nichole; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Redley, Bernice

    2017-12-01

    To identify patient care outcome indicators sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover between the anaesthetist and the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit nurse. The relationship between interprofessional clinical handover when patients are transferred from the operating theatre to the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes of subsequent patient care delivery is not well understood. Naturalistic, exploratory descriptive design using observation. Observations of 31 patient journeys through Post-Anaesthetic Care Units across three public and private hospitals. Characteristics of interprofessional handover on arrival in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, the trajectory of patient care activities in Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes were observed. Of the 821 care activities observed across 31 "patient journeys" in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, observations (assessments and vital signs) (52.5 %), communication (15.8 %) and pain management (assessment of pain and analgesic administration) (10.3%) were most common. Examination of patterns in handover communications and subsequent trajectories of patient care activities revealed three patient trajectory typologies and two patient outcome indicators expected to be sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover communication in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit: pain on discharge from the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and timely response to clinical deterioration. An additional process indicator, seeking missing information, was also identified. Patient's pain on discharge from Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, escalation of care in response to early signs of deterioration and the need for nurses to seek out missing information to deliver care are indicators expected to be sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover communication in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit. Future research should test these indicators. Patient outcomes sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover on patient

  2. Quantifying Fire Impact on Alaskan Tundra from Satellite Observations and Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, T. V.; Chen, D.; He, J.; Jenkins, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance agent in Alaskan tundra. The frequency and extent of fire events obtained from paleo, management, and satellite records may yet underestimate the scope of tundra fire impact. Field measurements, collected within the NASA's ABoVE campaign, revealed unexpectedly shallow organic soils ( 15 cm) across all sampled sites of the Noatak valley with no significant difference between recently burned and unburned sites. In typical small and medium-sized tundra burns vegetation recovers rapidly and scars are not discernable in 30 m optical satellite imagery by the end of the first post-fire season. However, field observations indicate that vegetation and subsurface characteristics within fire scars of different ages vary across the landscape. In this study we develop linkages between fire-induced changes to tundra and satellite-based observations from optical, thermal, and microwave imagers to enable extrapolation of in-situ observations to cover the full extent of Alaskan tundra. Our results show that recent ( 30 years) fire history can be reconstructed from optical observations (R2 0.65, pfire history can be determined for 4 years post fire primarily due to increased soil moisture at burned sites. Field measurements suggest that the relatively quick SAR signal dissipation results from more even distribution of surface moisture through the soil column with increases in Active Layer Thickness (ALT). Similar to previous long-term field studies we find an increase in shrub fraction and shrub height within burns over time at the landscape scale; however, the strength and significance of the relationship between shrub fraction and time since fire is governed by burn severity with more severe burns predictably (p post-fire shrub cover. Although reasonably well-correlated to each other when adjusted for topography (R2 0.35, p < 0.001), neither ALT nor soil temperature can be directly linked to optical or thermal brightness observations with acceptable

  3. Sub-solar Magnetopause Observation and Simulation of a Tripolar Guide-Magnetic Field Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Cassak, P.; Retino, A.; Mozer, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Polar satellite recorded two reconnection exhausts within 6 min on 1 April 2001 at a rather symmetric sub-solar magnetopause that displayed different out-of-plane signatures for similar solar wind conditions. The first case was reported by Mozer et al. [2002] and displayed a bipolar guide field supporting a quadrupole Hall field consistent with a single X-line. The second case, however, shows the first known example of a tripolar guide-field perturbation at Earth's magnetopause reminiscent of the types of solar wind exhausts that Eriksson et al. [2014; 2015] have reported to be in agreement with multiple X-lines. A dedicated particle-in-cell simulation is performed for the prevailing conditions across the magnetopause. We propose an explanation in terms of asymmetric Hall magnetic fields due to a presence of a magnetic island between two X-lines, and discuss how higher resolution MMS observations can be used to further study this problem at the magnetopause.

  4. The Gravity Field, Orientation, and Ephemeris of Mercury from MESSENGER Observations After Three Years in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan M.; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Gregory; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed three years of radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury and determined the gravity field, planetary orientation, and ephemeris of the innermost planet. With improvements in spatial coverage, force modeling, and data weighting, we refined an earlier global gravity field both in quality and resolution, and we present here a spherical harmonic solution to degree and order 50. In this field, termed HgM005, uncertainties in low-degree coefficients are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to the earlier global field, and we obtained a preliminary value of the tidal Love number k(sub 2) of 0.451+/-0.014. We also estimated Mercury's pole position, and we obtained an obliquity value of 2.06 +/- 0.16 arcmin, in good agreement with analysis of Earth-based radar observations. From our updated rotation period (58.646146 +/- 0.000011 days) and Mercury ephemeris, we verified experimentally the planet's 3: 2 spin-orbit resonance to greater accuracy than previously possible. We present a detailed analysis of the HgM005 covariance matrix, and we describe some near-circular frozen orbits around Mercury that could be advantageous for future exploration.

  5. Assimilating concentration observations for transport and dispersion modeling in a meandering wind field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sue Ellen; Beyer-Lout, Anke; Long, Kerrie J.; Young, George S.

    Assimilating concentration data into an atmospheric transport and dispersion model can provide information to improve downwind concentration forecasts. The forecast model is typically a one-way coupled set of equations: the meteorological equations impact the concentration, but the concentration does not generally affect the meteorological field. Thus, indirect methods of using concentration data to influence the meteorological variables are required. The problem studied here involves a simple wind field forcing Gaussian dispersion. Two methods of assimilating concentration data to infer the wind direction are demonstrated. The first method is Lagrangian in nature and treats the puff as an entity using feature extraction coupled with nudging. The second method is an Eulerian field approach akin to traditional variational approaches, but minimizes the error by using a genetic algorithm (GA) to directly optimize the match between observations and predictions. Both methods show success at inferring the wind field. The GA-variational method, however, is more accurate but requires more computational time. Dynamic assimilation of a continuous release modeled by a Gaussian plume is also demonstrated using the genetic algorithm approach.

  6. Subsolar magnetopause observation and kinetic simulation of a tripolar guide magnetic field perturbation consistent with a magnetic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Cassak, P. A.; Retinò, A.; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-04-01

    The Polar satellite recorded two reconnection exhausts within 6 min on 1 April 2001 across a subsolar magnetopause that displayed a symmetric plasma density, but different out-of-plane magnetic field signatures for similar solar wind conditions. The first magnetopause crossing displayed a bipolar guide field variation in a weak external guide field consistent with a symmetric Hall field from a single X line. The subsequent crossing represents the first observation of a tripolar guide field perturbation at Earth's magnetopause in a strong guide field. This perturbation consists of a significant guide field enhancement between two narrow guide field depressions. A particle-in-cell simulation for the prevailing conditions across this second event resulted in a magnetic island between two simulated X lines across which a tripolar guide field developed consistent with the observation. The simulated island supports a scenario whereby Polar encountered the asymmetric quadrupole Hall magnetic fields between two X lines for symmetric conditions across the magnetopause.

  7. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-06-23

    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  8. Radar observations of artificial E-region field-aligned irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nossa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Artificial E region field aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs were generated using HAARP in four different experimental modes and observed with a coherent scatter radar imager located 450 km to the southwest where it could detect field-aligned backscatter. The experiments were conducted in July of 2008, during the Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science Summer School (PARS, during quiet conditions in the daytime when the E layer was dense and absorption was modest. The echoes observed during zenith and magnetic zenith heating experiments were deflected from their nominally anticipated horizontal positions toward the midpoint position. The occurrence of hysteresis when heating with amplitude modulated pulses implied the development of the resonance instability, although the threshold for the onset of instability appeared to be higher than what has been predicted theoretically. Heating experiments involving pump frequencies slightly above and below the second electron gyroharmonic frequency produced no significant differences in the observed echoes. Finally, heating with a pump frequency slightly above the E region critical frequency appears to have produced FAIs at two distinct altitudes where the upper-hybrid resonance condition could be satisfied.

  9. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MAGNETIC-FIELD RADIO PULSAR J1718-3718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W. W.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ng, C.-Y.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Pavlov, G. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Gaensler, B. M.; Woods, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    High-magnetic-field pulsars represent an important class of objects for studying the relationship between magnetars and radio pulsars. Here we report on four Chandra observations of the high-magnetic-field pulsar J1718-3718 (B = 7.4 x 10 13 G) taken in 2009 as well as a reanalysis of 2002 Chandra observations of the region. We also report an improved radio position for this pulsar based on ATCA observations. We detect X-ray pulsations at the pulsar's period in the 2009 data, with a pulsed fraction of 52% ± 13% in the 0.8-2.0 keV band. We find that the X-ray pulse is aligned with the radio pulse. The data from 2002 and 2009 show consistent spectra and fluxes: a merged overall spectrum is well fit by a blackbody of temperature 186 +19 -18 eV, slightly higher than predicted by standard cooling models; however, the best-fit neutron star atmosphere model is consistent with standard cooling. We find the bolometric luminosity L ∞ bb = 4 +5 -2 x 10 32 erg s -1 ∼0.3 E-dot for a distance of 4.5 kpc. We compile measurements of the temperatures of all X-ray-detected high-B pulsars as well as those of low-B radio pulsars and find evidence for the former being hotter on average than the latter.

  10. Cluster magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath: four-point measurements of mirror structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster spacecraft have returned the first simultaneous four-point measurements of the magnetosheath. We present an analysis of data recorded on 10 November 2000, when the four spacecrafts observed an interval of strong mirrorlike activity. Correlation analysis between spacecraft pairs is used to examine the scale size of the mirror structures in three dimensions. Two examples are presented which suggest that the scale size of mirror structures is ~ 1500–3000 km along the flow direction, and shortest along the magnetopause normal (< 600 km, which, in this case, is approximately perpendicular to both the mean magnetic field and the magnetosheath flow vector. Variations on scales of ~ 750–1000 km are found along the maximum variance direction. The level of correlation in this direction, however, and the time lag observed, are found to be variable. These first results suggest that variations occur on scales of the order of the spacecraft separation ( ~ 1000 km in at least two directions, but analysis of further examples and a statistical survey of structures observed with different magnetic field orientations and tetrahedral configurations will enable us to describe more fully the size and orientation of mirror structures.Key words. Magnetosphenic physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  11. Cluster magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath: four-point measurements of mirror structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    Full Text Available The Cluster spacecraft have returned the first simultaneous four-point measurements of the magnetosheath. We present an analysis of data recorded on 10 November 2000, when the four spacecrafts observed an interval of strong mirrorlike activity. Correlation analysis between spacecraft pairs is used to examine the scale size of the mirror structures in three dimensions. Two examples are presented which suggest that the scale size of mirror structures is ~ 1500–3000 km along the flow direction, and shortest along the magnetopause normal (< 600 km, which, in this case, is approximately perpendicular to both the mean magnetic field and the magnetosheath flow vector. Variations on scales of ~ 750–1000 km are found along the maximum variance direction. The level of correlation in this direction, however, and the time lag observed, are found to be variable. These first results suggest that variations occur on scales of the order of the spacecraft separation ( ~ 1000 km in at least two directions, but analysis of further examples and a statistical survey of structures observed with different magnetic field orientations and tetrahedral configurations will enable us to describe more fully the size and orientation of mirror structures.

    Key words. Magnetosphenic physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  12. Astronomical Orientation Method Based on Lunar Observations Utilizing Super Wide Field of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PU Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,astronomical orientation is achieved by observing the moon utilizing camera with super wide field of view,and formulae are deduced in detail.An experiment based on real observations verified the stability of the method.In this experiment,after 15 minutes' tracking shoots,the internal precision could be superior to ±7.5" and the external precision could approximately reach ±20".This camera-based method for astronomical orientation can change the traditional mode (aiming by human eye based on theodolite,thus lowering the requirements for operator's skill to some extent.Furthermore,camera with super wide field of view can realize the function of continuous tracking shoots on the moon without complicated servo control devices.Considering the similar existence of gravity on the moon and the earth's phase change when observed from the moon,once the technology of self-leveling is developed,this method can be extended to orientation for lunar rover by shooting the earth.

  13. Inferring spatial clouds statistics from limited field-of-view, zenith observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Many of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) measurements produce a time series of zenith observations, but spatial averages are often the desired data product. One possible approach to deriving spatial averages from temporal averages is to invoke Taylor`s hypothesis where and when it is valid. Taylor`s hypothesis states that when the turbulence is small compared with the mean flow, the covariance in time is related to the covariance in space by the speed of the mean flow. For clouds fields, Taylor`s hypothesis would apply when the {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} turbulence is small compared with advective flow (mean wind). The objective of this study is to determine under what conditions Taylor`s hypothesis holds or does not hold true for broken cloud fields.

  14. Thermal field emission observation of single-crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Harada, K.; Shimizu, R.

    1990-01-01

    TFE (thermal field emission) properties of LaB 6 left-angle 100 right-angle and left-angle 310 right-angle single crystals were investigated by emission pattern observation. It was found that field evaporation with the tip temperature held at ∼1500 degree C is very useful to get a clean pattern of fourfold symmetry. Each of four bright spots in the clean pattern was presumed to correspond to left-angle 310 right-angle emission. It is proposed, as the most appropriate operating condition, to use the left-angle 310 right-angle LaB 6 tip at a temperature ∼1000 degree C in vacuum of 10 -9 Torr region, promising a new TF emitter of high brightness and stability for practical use

  15. Observation, modeling, and temperature dependence of doubly peaked electric fields in irradiated silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, M.; Allkofer, Y.; Bortoletto, D.; Cremaldi, L.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dorokhov, A.; Hoermann, C.; Kim, D.; Konecki, M.; Kotlinski, D.; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Son, S.; Speer, T.

    2006-01-01

    We show that doubly peaked electric fields are necessary to describe grazing-angle charge collection measurements of irradiated silicon pixel sensors. A model of irradiated silicon based upon two defect levels with opposite charge states and the trapping of charge carriers can be tuned to produce a good description of the measured charge collection profiles in the fluence range from 0.5x10^{14} Neq/cm^2 to 5.9x10^{14} Neq/cm^2. The model correctly predicts the variation in the profiles as the temperature is changed from -10C to -25C. The measured charge collection profiles are inconsistent with the linearly-varying electric fields predicted by the usual description based upon a uniform effective doping density. This observation calls into question the practice of using effective doping densities to characterize irradiated silicon.

  16. Understanding the Internal Magnetic Field Configurations of ICMEs Using More than 20 Years of Wind Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Raymond, J. C.; Linton, M. G.; Al-haddad, N.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Hidalgo, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic topology, structure, and geometry of the magnetic obstacles embedded within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are not yet fully and consistently described by in situ models and reconstruction techniques. The main goal of this work is to better understand the status of the internal magnetic field of ICMEs and to explore in situ signatures to identify clues to develop a more accurate and reliable in situ analytical models. We take advantage of more than 20 years of Wind observations of transients at 1 AU to compile a comprehensive database of ICMEs through three solar cycles, from 1995 to 2015. The catalog is publicly available at wind.gsfc.nasa.gov and is fully described in this article. We identify and collect the properties of 337 ICMEs, of which 298 show organized magnetic field signatures. To allow for departures from idealized magnetic configurations, we introduce the term "magnetic obstacle" (MO) to signify the possibility of more complex configurations. To quantify the asymmetry of the magnetic field strength profile within these events, we introduce the distortion parameter (DiP) and calculate the expansion velocity within the magnetic obstacle. Circular-cylindrical geometry is assumed when the magnetic field strength displays a symmetric profile. We perform a statistical study of these two parameters and find that only 35% of the events show symmetric magnetic profiles and a low enough expansion velocity to be compatible with the assumption of an idealized cylindrical static flux rope, and that 41% of the events do not show the expected relationship between expansion and magnetic field compression in the front, with the maximum magnetic field closer to the first encounter of the spacecraft with the magnetic obstacle; 18% show contractions ( i.e. apparent negative expansion velocity), and 30% show magnetic field compression in the back. We derive an empirical relation between DiP and expansion velocity that is the first step toward

  17. POST-OUTBURST RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD PULSAR PSR J1119-6127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Walid A.; Pearlman, Aaron B.; Dobreva, Tatyana; Kocz, Jonathon; Prince, Thomas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Horiuchi, Shinji [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, P.O. Box 1035, Tuggeranong, ACT 2901 (Australia); Lippuner, Jonas [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out high-frequency radio observations of the high magnetic field pulsar PSR J1119-6127 following its recent X-ray outburst. While initial observations showed no evidence of significant radio emission, subsequent observations detected pulsed emission across a large frequency band. In this Letter, we report on the initial disappearance of the pulsed emission and its prompt reactivation and dramatic evolution over several months of observation. The periodic pulse profile at S -band (2.3 GHz) after reactivation exhibits a multi-component emission structure, while the simultaneous X -band (8.4 GHz) profile shows a single emission peak. Single pulses were also detected at S -band near the main emission peaks. We present measurements of the spectral index across a wide frequency bandwidth, which captures the underlying changes in the radio emission profile of the neutron star. The high-frequency radio detection, unusual emission profile, and observed variability suggest similarities with magnetars, which may independently link the high-energy outbursts to magnetar-like behavior.

  18. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Lim, Jeremy; Donati, Jean-Francois; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; MartIn, Eduardo L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic field topology plays an important role in the understanding of stellar magnetic activity. While it is widely accepted that the dynamo action present in low-mass partially convective stars (e.g., the Sun) results in predominantly toroidal magnetic flux, the field topology in fully convective stars (masses below ∼0.35 M sun ) is still under debate. We report here our mapping of the magnetic field topology of the M4 dwarf G 164-31 (or Gl 490B), which is expected to be fully convective, based on time series data collected from 20 hr of observations spread over three successive nights with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter. Our tomographic imaging technique applied to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarized profiles reveals an axisymmetric large-scale poloidal magnetic field on the M4 dwarf. We then apply a synthetic spectrum fitting technique for measuring the average magnetic flux on the star. The flux measured in G 164-31 is |Bf| = 3.2 ± 0.4 kG, which is significantly greater than the average value of 0.68 kG determined from the imaging technique. The difference indicates that a significant fraction of the stellar magnetic energy is stored in small-scale structures at the surface of G 164-31. Our Hα emission light curve shows evidence for rotational modulation suggesting the presence of localized structure in the chromosphere of this M dwarf. The radius of the M4 dwarf derived from the rotational period and the projected equatorial velocity is at least 30% larger than that predicted from theoretical models. We argue that this discrepancy is likely primarily due to the young nature of G 164-31 rather than primarily due to magnetic field effects, indicating that age is an important factor which should be considered in the interpretation of this observational result. We also report here our polarimetric observations of five other M dwarfs with spectral types from M0 to M4.5, three of them showing strong Zeeman signatures.

  19. Plasma and field observations of a compressional Pc 5 wave event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Sckopke, N.; LaBelle, J.; Klecker, B.; Luehr, H.; Glassmeier, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    On October 24, 1984, the AMPTE/IRM satellite, on its inbound orbit in the 1,300 LT sector, observed a strong compressional Pc 5 event lasting for about an hour. The use of data from the full complement of detectors aboard the spacecraft allowed for detailed measurements of field and particle oscillations, with the latter covering energies from a few electron volts up to tens of keV (electrons) or even 1 MeV (protons). Both energetic proton and electron fluxes were anticorrelated with the compressional magnetic field oscillations, indicating that the event belongs to the class of in-phase events. But the energetic proton data also exhibited a new feature: Flux minima and maxima at low energies were observed somewhat later than those at higher energies. The magnetic and plasma pressure oscillations satisfy the pressure balance equation for the drift mirror mode much better than that for drift compressional Alfven waves. However, the classical criterion for the onset of the mirror instability is not satisfied. The low-energy particles showed clear signatures of gradient convection due to the wave electric field with the protons additionally undergoing gyration acceleration. The period of the pulsation decreased while the satellite was moving inward, in agreement with the individual L shell resonance model. But in contrast to earlier observations the periods of the compressional and transverse oscillations differed significantly (by ∼ 25%). The authors interpret this as Doppler shift due to spacecraft motion since in the present event the transverse oscillations did not have the purely radial (poloidal) polarization common to other published cases

  20. Geospatial field applications within United States Department of Agriculture, Veterinary Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzMaurice, Priscilla L; Freier, Jerome E; Geter, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists, veterinary medical officers and animal health technicians within Veterinary Services (VS) are actively utilising global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain positional data on livestock and poultry operations throughout the United States. Geospatial data, if acquired for monitoring and surveillance purposes, are stored within the VS Generic Database (GDB). If the information is collected in response to an animal disease outbreak, the data are entered into the Emergency Management Response System (EMRS). The Spatial Epidemiology group within the Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) has established minimum data accuracy standards for geodata acquisition. To ensure that field-collected geographic coordinates meet these minimum standards, field personnel are trained in proper data collection procedures. Positional accuracy is validated with digital atlases, aerial photographs, Web-based parcel maps, or address geocoding. Several geospatial methods and technologies are under investigation for future use within VS. These include the direct transfer of coordinates from GPS receivers to computers, GPS-enabled digital cameras, tablet PCs, and GPS receivers preloaded with custom ArcGIS maps - all with the objective of reducing transcription and data entry errors and improving the ease of data collection in the field.

  1. The Focal Plane Assembly for the Athena X-Ray Integral Field Unit Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. D.; Van Weers, H.; van der Kuur, J.; den Hartog, R.; Akamatsu, H.; Argan, A.; Bandler, S. R.; Barbera, M.; Barret, D.; Bruijn, M. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes a preliminary design concept for the focal plane assembly of the X-ray Integral Field Unit on the Athena spacecraft, an imaging microcalorimeter that will enable high spectral resolution imaging and point-source spectroscopy. The instrument's sensor array will be a 3840-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array, with a frequency domain multiplexed SQUID readout system allowing this large-format sensor array to be operated within the thermal constraints of the instrument's cryogenic system. A second TES detector will be operated in close proximity to the sensor array to detect cosmic rays and secondary particles passing through the sensor array for off-line coincidence detection to identify and reject events caused by the in-orbit high-energy particle background. The detectors, operating at 55 mK, or less, will be thermally isolated from the instrument cryostat's 2 K stage, while shielding and filtering within the FPA will allow the instrument's sensitive sensor array to be operated in the expected environment during both on-ground testing and in-flight operation, including stray light from the cryostat environment, low-energy photons entering through the X-ray aperture, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency electric fields.

  2. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Didier; Trong, Thein Lam; Den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Barcons, Xavier; Huovelin, Juhani; Kelley, Richard; Mas-Hesse, J. Miquel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Paltani, Stephane; hide

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5 pixels over a field of view of 5 arc minute equivalent diameter and a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV up to 7 keV. In this paper, we first review the core scientific objectives of Athena, driving the main performance parameters of the X-IFU, namely the spectral resolution, the field of view, the effective area, the count rate capabilities, the instrumental background. We also illustrate the breakthrough potential of the X-IFU for some observatory science goals. Then we brie y describe the X-IFU design as defined at the time of the mission consolidation review concluded in May 2016, and report on its predicted performance. Finally, we discuss some options to improve the instrument performance while not increasing its complexity and resource demands (e.g. count rate capability, spectral resolution). (2016) .

  3. The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Laurent; Barret, Didier; Willem den Herder, Jan; Piro, Luigi; Cledassou, Rodolphe; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Peille, Philippe; Pajot, Francois; Arnaud, Monique; Pigot, Claude; hide

    2014-01-01

    Athena is designed to implement the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme selected by the European Space Agency for the second large mission of its Cosmic Vision program. The Athena science payload consists of a large aperture high angular resolution X-ray optics (2 m2 at 1 keV) and twelve meters away, two interchangeable focal plane instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) and the Wide Field Imager. The X-IFU is a cryogenic X-ray spectrometer, based on a large array of Transition Edge Sensors (TES), oering 2.5 eV spectral resolution, with approximately 5" pixels, over a field of view of 5' in diameter. In this paper, we present the X-IFU detector and readout electronics principles, some elements of the current design for the focal plane assembly and the cooling chain. We describe the current performance estimates, in terms of spectral resolution, effective area, particle background rejection and count rate capability. Finally, we emphasize on the technology developments necessary to meet the demanding requirements of the X-IFU, both for the sensor, readout electronics and cooling chain.

  4. Observed periodicities and the spectrum of field variations in Holocene magnetic records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panovska, S.; Finlay, Chris; Hirt, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    , globally observed, periods. Rather we find a continuous broadband spectrum, with a slope corresponding to a power law with exponent of -2.3 ± 0.6 for the period range between 300 and 4000 yr. This is consistent with the hypothesis that chaotic convection in the outer core drives the majority of secular......In order to understand mechanisms that maintain and drive the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, a characterization of its behavior on time scales of centuries to millennia is required. We have conducted a search for periodicities in Holocene sediment magnetic records, by applying three...

  5. A serendipitous observation of the gamma-ray burst GRB 921013b field with EUVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1999-01-01

    hours after the burst is 1.8 x10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) after correction for absorption by the Galactic interstellar medium. Even if we exclude an intrinsic absorption, this is well below the detection limit of the EUVE measurement. Although it is widely accepted that gamma-ray bursts are at cosmological......We report a serendipitous extreme ultraviolet observation by EUVE of the field containing GRB 921013b, similar to 11 hours after its occurrence. This burst was detected on 1992 October 13 by the WATCH and PHEBUS on Granat, and by the GRB experiment on Ulysses. The lack of any transient (or...

  6. Disordered electrical potential observed on the surface of SiO2 by electric field microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa, N; Yan Zang; Ballestar, A; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Bern, F; Esquinazi, P

    2010-01-01

    The electrical potential on the surface of ∼300 nm thick SiO 2 grown on single-crystalline Si substrates has been characterized at ambient conditions using electric field microscopy. Our results show an inhomogeneous potential distribution with fluctuations up to ∼0.4 V within regions of 1 μm. The potential fluctuations observed at the surface of these usual dielectric holders of graphene sheets should induce strong variations in the graphene charge densities and provide a simple explanation for some of the anomalous behaviors of the transport properties of graphene.

  7. Observations of imposed ordered structures in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward, E-mail: etjr@auburn.edu; Lynch, Brian; Konopka, Uwe [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Merlino, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, Marlene [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, rf glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2 T, where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. In this experiment, plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper, electrically floating electrode supports a semi-transparent, titanium mesh. We report on the formation of an ordered dusty plasma, where the dust particles form a spatial structure that is aligned to the mesh. We discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to the formation of the “dust grid” and point out potential implications and applications of these observations.

  8. FDTD simulated observation of a gold nanorod by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Keiji; Maruoka, Teruto; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tamura, Yuichi; Imura, Kohei; Saiki, Toshiharu; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of a gold nanorod were investigated by Imura et. al. using an apertured-type scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The observed transmission image showed an oscillating pattern along the long axis of the nanorod. We obtain the image using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Our model includes a nanorod on a glass substrate, a SNOM, and current as a light source. We develop a simple method for including the Drude-Lorentz dispersion relation of Vial et. al. for gold in the FDTD. The oscillating pattern is explained by the total current in the nanorod, tip of the SNOM, and light source. (author)

  9. Observations of the atmospheric boundary layer height over Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Investigating boundary layer climatology in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa

    2014-05-01

    Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.

  10. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  11. Estimating Field Scale Crop Evapotranspiration using Landsat and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A.; Jin, Y.; Snyder, R. L.; Daniele, Z.; Gao, F.

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation accounts for 80% of human freshwater consumption, and most of it return to the atmosphere through Evapotranspiration (ET). Given the challenges of already-stressed water resources and ground water regulation in California, a cost-effective, timely, and consistent spatial estimate of crop ET, from the farm to watershed level, is becoming increasingly important. The Priestley-Taylor (PT) approach, calibrated with field data and driven by satellite observations, shows great promise for accurate ET estimates across diverse ecosystems. We here aim to improve the robustness of the PT approach in agricultural lands, to enable growers and farm managers to tailor irrigation management based on in-field spatial variability and in-season variation. We optimized the PT coefficients for each crop type with available ET measurements from eddy covariance towers and/or surface renewal stations at six crop fields (Alfalfa, Almond, Citrus, Corn, Pistachio and Rice) in California. Good agreement was found between satellite-based estimates and field measurements of net radiation, with a RMSE of less than 36 W m-2. The crop type specific optimization performed well, with a RMSE of 30 W m-2 and a correlation of 0.81 for predicted daily latent heat flux. The calibrated algorithm was used to estimate ET at 30 m resolution over the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region for 2015 water year. It captures well the seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of ET in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. A continuous monitoring of the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of canopy and consumptive water use at a field scale, will help the growers to be well prepared and informed to adaptively manage water, canopy, and grove density to maximize the yield with the least amount of water.

  12. Shortwave surface radiation network for observing small-scale cloud inhomogeneity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Madhavan, Bomidi; Kalisch, John; Macke, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    As part of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high-density network of 99 silicon photodiode pyranometers was set up around Jülich (10 km × 12 km area) from April to July 2013 to capture the small-scale variability of cloud-induced radiation fields at the surface. In this paper, we provide the details of this unique setup of the pyranometer network, data processing, quality control, and uncertainty assessment under variable conditions. Some exemplary days with clear, broken cloudy, and overcast skies were explored to assess the spatiotemporal observations from the network along with other collocated radiation and sky imager measurements available during the HOPE period.

  13. Reconnection at the earth's magnetopause - Magnetic field observations and flux transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of plasma acceleration by magnetic-field-line reconnection at the earth magnetopause and the high-resolution three-dimensional plasma measurements obtained with the ISEE satellites are compared and illustrated with diagrams, graphs, drawings, and histograms. The history of reconnection theory and the results of early satellite observations are summarized; the thickness of the magnetopause current layer is discussed; problems in analyzing the polarization of current-layer rotation are considered; and the flux-transfer events responsible for periods of patchy reconnection are characterized in detail. The need for further observations and refinements of the theory to explain the initiation of reconnection and identify the mechanism determining whether it is patchy or steady-state is indicated.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Two groups have recently used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2) to acquire new high-resolution images of the planet Neptune. Members of the WFPC-2 Science Team, lead by John Trauger, acquired the first series of images on 27 through 29 June 1994. These were the highest resolution images of Neptune taken since the Voyager-2 flyby in August of 1989. A more comprehensive program is currently being conducted by Heidi Hammel and Wes Lockwood. These two sets of observations are providing a wealth of new information about the structure, composition, and meteorology of this distant planet's atmosphere.Neptune is currently the most distant planet from the sun, with an orbital radius of 4.5 billion kilometers (2.8 billion miles, or 30 Astronomical Units). Even though its diameter is about four times that of the Earth (49,420 vs. 12,742 km), ground-based telescopes reveal a tiny blue disk that subtends less than 1/1200 of a degree (2.3 arc-seconds). Neptune has therefore been a particularly challenging object to study from the ground because its disk is badly blurred by the Earth's atmosphere. In spite of this, ground-based astronomers had learned a great deal about this planet since its position was first predicted by John C. Adams and Urbain Leverrier in 1845. For example, they had determined that Neptune was composed primarily of hydrogen and helium gas, and that its blue color caused by the presence of trace amounts of the gas methane, which absorbs red light. They had also detected bright cloud features whose brightness changed with time, and tracked these clouds to infer a rotation period between 17 and 22 hours.When the Voyager-2 spacecraft flew past the Neptune in 1989, its instruments revealed a surprising array of meteorological phenomena, including strong winds, bright, high-altitude clouds, and two large dark spots attributed to long-lived giant storm systems. These bright clouds and dark spots were tracked as they moved

  15. 76 FR 14375 - United States Integrated Ocean Observing System Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration United States Integrated... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of and Membership... support a variety of societal benefits. These benefits include supporting national defense; marine...

  16. Irradiation of malignant lymphonuos with irregularly shaped fields (Yesterday gammatron-3, today theratron 780C cobalt unit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Rasonyi, J.; Pecsenye, B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors compare the technique of shaping irregular (Mantle) field irradiation using Gammatron-3 and Theratron 780C Co-60 units. Patients can be treated from both directions on the treating coach without changing their position as the collimator of Theratron 780C unit makes it possible. Earlier patients could be treated with large field irradiation in prone and supine position on the ground with the old Gammatron-3 unit. The authors prefer using individually casted shielding blocks to manufactured ones. These blocks make personal treatment possible. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. 30 MHz radar observations of artificial E region field-aligned plasma irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial E region field aligned irregularities (FAIs have been observed during heating experiments at the HAARP facility using a new 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager deployed near Homer, Alaska. Irregularities were observed during brief experiments on three quiet days in July and August, 2007, when the daytime E region critical frequency was close to 3 MHz. Irregularities were consistently generated and detected during experiments with O-mode HF pumping on zenith with a 1-min on, 1-min off CW modulation. The scattering cross sections, rise, and fall times of the echoes were observed as well as their spectral properties. Results were found to be mainly in agreement with observations from other mid- and high-latitude sites with some discrepancies. Radar images of the irregularity-filled volume on one case exhibited clear variations in backscatter power and Doppler shift across the volume. The images furthermore show the emergence of a small irregularity-filled region to the south southwest of the main region in the approximate direction of magnetic zenith.

  18. Observer visitation frequency and success of mourning dove nests: A field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Coon, R.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hensler, G.L.; Hines, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of nesting success generally require visits by the investigator to the nests under study. Such visits may themselves influence nesting success, however, and this possibility has been discussed and investigated by a number of workers with a variety of bird species. Livezey (1980) reviewed the relevant literature for duck nests and noted that most studies failed to demonstrate differences in nesting success between visited nests and those not visited. Livezey (1980) found in his own work that nest abandonment may have occurred as a result of disturbance by observers but that nest predation was not related to time spent by observers at nests or number of observers approaching nests. Various components of nesting and breeding success in seabirds are thought to be adversely affected by human disturbance and nest visitation (Gillett et al. 1975, Robert and Ralph 1975, Ollason and Dunnet 1980). Upland, ground-nesting species have also been studied (e.g. Stoddard 1931, Evans and Wolfe 1967, Henry 1969, Roseberry and Klimstra 1970, Klimstra and Roseberry 1975), and, although conclusions have varied, a number of these workers found no effect of observers on nest-predation rates.

  19. Observations Of Polarized Dust Emission In Protostars: How To Reconstruct Magnetic Field Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Anaëlle; Galametz, M.; Girart; Guillet; Hennebelle, P.; Houde; Rao; Valdivia, V.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-10-01

    I will present our ALMA Cycle 2 polarized dust continuum data towards the Class 0 protostar B335 where the absence of detected rotational motions in the inner envelope might suggest an efficient magnetic braking at work to inhibit the formation of a large disk. The Band 6 data we obtained shows an intriguing polarized vectors topology, which could either suggest (i) at least two different grain alignment mechanisms at work in B335 to produce the observed polarization pattern, or (ii) an interferometric bias leading to filtering of the polarized signal that is different from the filtering of Stokes I. I will discuss both options, proposing multi-wavelength and multi observatory (ALMA Band3 data in Cycle 5, NIKA2Pol camera on the IRAM-30m) strategies to lift the degeneracy when using polarization observations as a proxy of magnetic fields in dense astrophysical environments. This observational effort in the framework of the MagneticYSOs project, is also supported by our development of an end-to-end chain of ALMA synthetic observations of the polarization from non-ideal MHD simulations of protostellar collapse (see complementary contributions by V. Valdivia and M. Galametz).

  20. Herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations show Philadelphia area plants are responding to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchen, Zoe A; Primack, Richard B; Anisko, Tomasz; Lyons, Robert E

    2012-04-01

    The global climate is changing rapidly and is expected to continue changing in coming decades. Studying changes in plant flowering times during a historical period of warming temperatures gives us a way to examine the impacts of climate change and allows us to predict further changes in coming decades. The Greater Philadelphia region has a long and rich history of botanical study and documentation, with abundant herbarium specimens, field observations, and botanical photographs from the mid-1800s onward. These extensive records also provide an opportunity to validate methodologies employed by other climate change researchers at a different biogeographical area and with a different group of species. Data for 2539 flowering records from 1840 to 2010 were assessed to examine changes in flowering response over time and in relation to monthly minimum temperatures of 28 Piedmont species native to the Greater Philadelphia region. Regression analysis of the date of flowering with year or with temperature showed that, on average, the Greater Philadelphia species studied are flowering 16 d earlier over the 170-yr period and 2.7 d earlier per 1°C rise in monthly minimum temperature. Of the species studied, woody plants with short flowering duration are the best indicators of a warming climate. For monthly minimum temperatures, temperatures 1 or 2 mo prior to flowering are most significantly correlated with flowering time. Studies combining herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations are an effective method for detecting the effects of climate change on flowering times.

  1. Evaluation of team lifting on work demands, workload and workers' evaluation: an observational field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in work demands, energetic workload and workers' discomfort and physical effort in two regularly observable workdays in ironwork; one where loads up to 50kg were handled with two persons manually (T50) and one where loads up to 100kg were handled manually with four persons (T100). Differences between these typical workdays were assessed with an observational within-subject field study of 10 ironworkers. No significant differences were found for work demands, energetic workload or discomfort between T50 and T100 workdays. During team lifts, load mass exceeded 25kg per person in 57% (T50 workday) and 68% (T100 workday) of the lifts. Seven ironworkers rated team lifting with two persons as less physically demanding compared with lifting with four persons. When loads heavier than 25kg are lifted manually with a team, regulations of the maximum mass weight are frequently violated. Loads heavier than 25kg are frequently lifted during concrete reinforcement work and should be lifted by a team of persons. However, the field study showed that loads above 25kg are most of the time not lifted with the appropriate number of workers. Therefore, loads heavier than 25kg should be lifted mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. LAMOST OBSERVATIONS IN THE KEPLER FIELD. I. DATABASE OF LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cat, P. De; Ren, A. B.; Yang, X. H. [Royal observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussel (Belgium); Fu, J. N. [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Avenue Xinjiekouwai, Beijing 100875 (China); Shi, J. R.; Luo, A. L.; Yang, M.; Wang, J. L.; Zhang, H. T.; Shi, H. M.; Zhang, W. [Key Lab for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Dong, Subo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Road 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing, 100871 (China); Catanzaro, G.; Frasca, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Corbally, C. J. [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Gray, R. O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States); Żakowicz, J. Molenda- [Astronomical Institute of the University of Wrocław, ul. Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wrocław (Poland); Uytterhoeven, K. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Briquet, M. [Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19C, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Bruntt, H., E-mail: Peter.DeCat@oma.be [Stellar Astrophysics Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); and others

    2015-09-15

    The nearly continuous light curves with micromagnitude precision provided by the space mission Kepler are revolutionizing our view of pulsating stars. They have revealed a vast sea of low-amplitude pulsation modes that were undetectable from Earth. The long time base of Kepler light curves allows for the accurate determination of the frequencies and amplitudes of pulsation modes needed for in-depth asteroseismic modeling. However, for an asteroseismic study to be successful, the first estimates of stellar parameters need to be known and they cannot be derived from the Kepler photometry itself. The Kepler Input Catalog provides values for the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity, but not always with sufficient accuracy. Moreover, information on the chemical composition and rotation rate is lacking. We are collecting low-resolution spectra for objects in the Kepler field of view with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (lamost, Xinglong observatory, China). All of the requested fields have now been observed at least once. In this paper, we describe those observations and provide a useful database for the whole astronomical community.

  3. Study on the role of the United Nations in the field of verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution 43/81 B. The Group of Governmental Experts, while taking fully into account the mandate of the resolution, that is, to prepare a study that addresses the role of the United Nations in the field of verification of arms limitation and disarmament, has also taken into consideration approaches, methods, procedures and techniques relating to other arrangements in the area of international peace and security which might otherwise be useful to the process of verification of arms limitation and disarmament agreements. A selected bibliography on technical aspects of verification is given. However, materials published in languages other than English are not adequately reflected. Refs

  4. Field observations of the electrostatic charges of blowing snow in Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2011-12-01

    An electrostatic charge of blowing snow may be a contributing factor in the formation of a snow drift and a snow cornice, and changing of the trajectory of own motion. However, detailed electrification characteristics of blowing snow are not known as there are few reports of charge measurements. We carried out field observations of the electrostatic charges of blowing snow in Tobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan in the mid winter of 2011. An anemovane and a thermohygrometer were used for the meteorological observation. Charge-to-mass ratios of blowing snow were obtained by a Faraday-cage, an electrometer and an electric balance. In this observation period, the air temperature during the blowing snow event was -6.5 to -0.5 degree Celsius. The measured charges in this observation were consistent with the previous studies in sign, which is negative, but they were smaller than the previous one. In most cases, the measured values increased with the temperature decrease, which corresponds with previous studies. However, some results contradicted the tendency, and the maximum value was obtained on the day of the highest air temperature of -0.5 degree Celsius. This discrepancy may be explained from the difference of the snow surface condition on observation day. The day when the maximum value was obtained, the snow surface was covered with old snow, and hard. On the other hand, in many other cases, the snow surface was covered with the fresh snow, and soft. Blowing snow particles on the hard surface can travel longer distance than on the soft one. Therefore, it can be surmised that the hard surface makes the blowing snow particles accumulate a lot of negative charges due to a large number of collisions to the surface. This can be supported by the results of the wind tunnel experiments by Omiya and Sato (2011). By this field observation, it was newly suggested that the electrostatic charge of blowing snow are influenced greatly by the difference of the snow surface condition. REFERENCE

  5. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. This report is unique in that it is based on Hanford-specific agreements discussed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992), the Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE-RL 1994a), the Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a), and the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE-RL 1991), and must be viewed in this context. The HPPS emphasizes initiating and completing waste site cleanup through interim actions. The strategy includes paths for interim decision-making and a final remedy-selection process for the operable unit. A LFI report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM

  6. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced

  7. NICOLAU: compact unit for photometric characterization of automotive lighting from near-field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Santiago; Arranz, Maria J.; Arasa, Josep; Cattoen, Michel; Bosch, Thierry

    2005-02-01

    The present works depicts a measurement technique intended to enhance the characterization procedures of the photometric emissions of automotive headlamps, with potential applications to any light source emission, either automotive or non-automotive. A CCD array with a precisely characterized optical system is used for sampling the luminance field of the headlamp just a few centimetres in front of it, by combining deflectometric techniques (yielding the direction of the light beams) and photometric techniques (yielding the energy travelling in each direction). The CCD array scans the measurement plane using a self-developed mechanical unit and electronics, and then image-processing techniques are used for obtaining the photometric behaviour of the headlamp in any given plane, in particular in the plane and positions required by current normative, but also on the road, on traffic signs, etc. An overview of the construction of the system, of the considered principle of measurement, and of the main calibrations performed on the unit is presented. First results concerning relative measurements are presented compared both to reference data from a photometric tunnel and from a plane placed 5m away from the source. Preliminary results for the absolute photometric calibration of the system are also presented for different illumination beams of different headlamps (driving and passing beam).

  8. Compliance with smoke-free legislation and smoking behaviour: observational field study from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Rakesh; Mahajan, Vini

    2017-08-10

    Indian smoke-free legislation requires prohibition of smoking at public places and owners of public places to display 'no smoking' signages. The study aims to assess the compliance of public places with smoke-free legislation and determine the factors associated with active smoking in public places. This was a cross-sectional analytic observational quantitative survey conducted by a team of trained field investigators using a structured observational checklist across 6875 public places in Punjab state of India. The study was carried out over a period of 3 years. A total of 6875 public places across 22 districts of Punjab were observed. The overall compliance to smoke-free law in Punjab was 83.8%. The highest overall compliance was observed in healthcare facilities (89.6%) and least in transit stations (78.8%). Less active smoking was observed in public places where display of 'no smoking' signage compliant with smoke-free law of India was present (adjusted OR 0.6). Further, there was a positive association between active smoking and places where the owner of public places smoked (OR 5.2, CI 2.5 to 11.1). More than 80% of the public places in a jurisdiction in north India were compliant with the smoke-free legislation of India. 'No smoking' signages displayed as per legislation have an effect on curbing smoking behaviours at public places. It is recommended that policymakers should focus more on implementing the smoke-free law at transit sites and structured training sessions should be organised for owners of workplaces. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Characterization of shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields in the northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Shi, Hua; Meyer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and consistent estimates of shrubland ecosystem components are crucial to a better understanding of ecosystem conditions in arid and semiarid lands. An innovative approach was developed by integrating multiple sources of information to quantify shrubland components as continuous field products within the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). The approach consists of several procedures including field sample collections, high-resolution mapping of shrubland components using WorldView-2 imagery and regression tree models, Landsat 8 radiometric balancing and phenological mosaicking, medium resolution estimates of shrubland components following different climate zones using Landsat 8 phenological mosaics and regression tree models, and product validation. Fractional covers of nine shrubland components were estimated: annual herbaceous, bare ground, big sagebrush, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush, shrub, sagebrush height, and shrub height. Our study area included the footprint of six Landsat 8 scenes in the northwestern United States. Results show that most components have relatively significant correlations with validation data, have small normalized root mean square errors, and correspond well with expected ecological gradients. While some uncertainties remain with height estimates, the model formulated in this study provides a cross-validated, unbiased, and cost effective approach to quantify shrubland components at a regional scale and advances knowledge of horizontal and vertical variability of these components.

  10. Accessing the inaccessible: making (successful) field observations at tidewater glacier termini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienholz, C.; Amundson, J. M.; Jackson, R. H.; Motyka, R. J.; Nash, J. D.; Sutherland, D.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers terminating in ocean water (tidewater glaciers) show complex dynamic behavior driven predominantly by processes at the ice-ocean interface (sedimentation, erosion, iceberg calving, submarine melting). A quantitative understanding of these processes is required, for example, to better assess tidewater glaciers' fate in our rapidly warming environment. Lacking observations close to glacier termini, due to unpredictable risks from calving, hamper this understanding. In an effort to remedy this lack of knowledge, we initiated a large field-based effort at LeConte Glacier, southeast Alaska, in 2016. LeConte Glacier is a regional analog for many tidewater glaciers, but better accessible and observable and thus an ideal target for our multi-disciplinary effort. Our ongoing campaigns comprise measurements from novel autonomous vessels (temperature, salinity and current) in the immediate proximity of the glacier terminus and additional surveys (including multibeam bathymetry) from boats and moorings in the proglacial fjord. These measurements are complemented by iceberg and glacier velocity measurements from time lapse cameras and a portable radar interferometer situated above LeConte Bay. GPS-based velocity observations and melt measurements are conducted on the glacier. These measurements provide necessary input for process-based understanding and numerical modeling of the glacier and fjord systems. In the presentation, we discuss promising initial results and lessons learned from the campaign.

  11. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  12. Direct observation of electronic and nuclear ground state splitting in external magnetic field by inelastic neutron scattering on oxidized ferrocene and ferrocene containing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Frick, Bernhard; Elbert, Johannes; Gallei, Markus; Stühn, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The quantum mechanical splitting of states by interaction of a magnetic moment with an external magnetic field is well known, e.g., as Zeeman effect in optical transitions, and is also often seen in magnetic neutron scattering. We report excitations observed in inelastic neutron spectroscopy on the redox-responsive polymer poly(vinylferrocene). They are interpreted as splitting of the electronic ground state in the organometallic ferrocene units attached to the polymer chain where a magnetic moment is created by oxidation. In a second experiment using high resolution neutron backscattering spectroscopy we observe the hyperfine splitting, i.e., interaction of nuclear magnetic moments with external magnetic fields leading to sub-μeV excitations observable in incoherent neutron spin-flip scattering on hydrogen and vanadium nuclei.

  13. Observational Evidence of Shallow Origins for the Magnetic Fields of Solar Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. Martin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Observational evidence for the origin of active region magnetic fields has been sought from published information on extended solar cycles, statistical distributions of active regions and ephemeral regions, helioseismology results, positional relationships to supergranules, and fine-scale magnetic structure of active regions and their sunspots during their growth. Statistical distributions of areas of ephemeral and active regions blend together to reveal a single power law. The shape of the size distribution in latitude of all active regions is independent of time during the solar cycle, yielding further evidence that active regions of all sizes belong to the same population. Elementary bipoles, identified also by other names, appear to be the building blocks of active regions; sunspots form from elementary bipoles and are therefore deduced to develop from the photosphere downward, consistent with helioseismic detection of downflows to 3–4 Mm below sunspots as well as long-observed downflows from chromospheric/coronal arch filaments into sunspots from their earliest appearance. Time-distance helioseismology has been effective in revealing flows related to sunspots to depths of 20 Mm. Ring diagram analysis shows a statistically significant preference for upflows to precede major active region emergence and downflows after flux emergence but both are often observed together or not detected. From deep-focus helioseismic techniques for seeking magnetic flux below the photosphere prior major active regions, there is evidence of acoustic travel-time perturbation signatures rising in the limited range of depths of 42–75 Mm but these have not been verified or found at more shallow depths by helioseismic holographic techniques. The development of active regions from clusters of elementary bipoles appears to be the same irrespective of how much flux an active region eventually develops. This property would be consistent with the magnetic fields of

  14. 49 CFR 1103.11 - Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the United States to be observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the... PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward the Board § 1103.11 Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the United States to be observed. These canons further the purpose...

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  16. Field line distribution of density at L=4.8 inferred from observations by CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For two events observed by the CLUSTER spacecraft, the field line distribution of mass density ρ was inferred from Alfvén wave harmonic frequencies and compared to the electron density ne from plasma wave data and the oxygen density nO+ from the ion composition experiment. In one case, the average ion mass M≈ρ/ne was about 5 amu (28 October 2002, while in the other it was about 3 amu (10 September 2002. Both events occurred when the CLUSTER 1 (C1 spacecraft was in the plasmatrough. Nevertheless, the electron density ne was significantly lower for the first event (ne=8 cm−3 than for the second event (ne=22 cm−3, and this seems to be the main difference leading to a different value of M. For the first event (28 October 2002, we were able to measure the Alfvén wave frequencies for eight harmonics with unprecedented precision, so that the error in the inferred mass density is probably dominated by factors other than the uncertainty in frequency (e.g., magnetic field model and theoretical wave equation. This field line distribution (at L=4.8 was very flat for magnetic latitude |MLAT|≲20° but very steeply increasing with respect to |MLAT| for |MLAT|≳40°. The total variation in ρ was about four orders of magnitude, with values at large |MLAT| roughly consistent with ionospheric values. For the second event (10 September 2002, there was a small local maximum in mass density near the magnetic equator. The inferred mass density decreases to a minimum 23% lower than the equatorial value at |MLAT|=15.5°, and then steeply increases as one moves along the field line toward the ionosphere. For this event we were also able to examine the spatial dependence of the electron density using measurements of ne from all four CLUSTER spacecraft. Our analysis indicates that the density varies with L at L~5 roughly like L−4, and that ne is also locally peaked at the magnetic equator, but with a smaller peak. The value of ne reaches a density minimum

  17. Asymmetry of the Ion Diffusion Region Hall Electric and Magnetic Fields during Guide Field Reconnection: Observations and Comparison with Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Shay, M. A.; Phan, T. D.; Oieroset, M.

    2010-01-01

    In situ measurements of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail are presented showing that even a moderate guide field (20% of the reconnecting field) considerably distorts ion diffusion region structure. The Hall magnetic and electric fields are asymmetric and shunted away from the current sheet; an appropriately scaled particle-in-cell simulation is found to be in excellent agreement with the data. The results show the importance of correctly accounting for the effects of the magnetic shear when attempting to identify and study magnetic reconnection diffusion regions in nature.

  18. Favorable bed utilization and readmission rates for emergency department observation unit heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, Justin; Wheatley, Matthew; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Osborne, Anwar; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Hung, Olivia; Butler, Javed; Ross, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare readmission rates and hospital bed-days between acute decompensated heart failure (AHF) patients admitted or discharged following accelerated treatment protocol (ATP)-driven care in an emergency department observation unit (OU). This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at two urban university-affiliated hospitals. A total of 358 selected AHF patients received treatment on an ATP in the OU between October 1, 2007, and June 30, 2011. The comparison of interest was admission or discharge following OU treatment. The outcome of interest was readmission within 30 and 90 days of hospital discharge following care in the OU. We also examined resource use (inpatient, inpatient plus outpatient-days) between the admitted and discharged groups. Time to readmission analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Discharged and admitted patients were similar with respect to age, race, sex, ED length of stay (LOS), and OU LOS. Patients admitted from the OU had a higher median B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; 1,063 pg/mL [interquartile range {IQR} = 552 to 2,067 pg/mL] vs. 708 pg/mL [IQR = 254 to 1,683 pg/mL]; p = 0.002) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 19 mg/dL [IQR = 14 to 26 mg/dL] vs. 17 mg/dL [IQR = 13 to 23 mg/dL]) than those discharged (p = 0.04) and a lower median ejection fraction (EF; 22.5% [15% to 43%] vs. 35% [IQR 20% to 55%]; p = 0.002). In models controlling for age, race, sex, clinical site, BNP, BUN, creatinine, and EF, the 30-day readmission rate (13.8% in the study population as a whole) was not significantly different between the patients discharged or admitted following OU care (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47 to 2.10). The readmission rates were also not significantly different at 90 days (HR = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.77). Within 30 days of discharge from the OU, patients spent a median of 1.7 days (IQR = 0.0 to 5.1 days) as inpatients, compared to 3.5 days (IQR = 2.3 to 5.8 days

  19. Stress analysis of three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement with field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe

    2018-01-01

    Longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method for extracting thick (> 5 m) to ultra-thick coal seams in recent years. However, low-level recovery ratio of coal resources and top-coal loss above the supports at both ends of working face are long-term problems. Geological factors, such as large dip angle, soft rock, mining depth further complicate the problems. This paper proposes addressing this issue by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress environment surrounding head entry in the replacing working face based on the stress distribution characteristics at the triangular coal-pillar side in gob and the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, filed observation was conducted. Finally, an economic evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for extracting thick to ultra-thick seams was conducted.

  20. Optimization study of direct morphology observation by cold field emission SEM without gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Fu, Cheng; Xue, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    Gold coating is a general operation that is generally applied on non-conductive or low conductive materials, during which the morphology of the materials can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, fatal deficiencies in the materials can result in irreversible distortion and damage. The present study directly characterized different low conductive materials such as hydroxyapatite, modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fiber, and zinc oxide nanopillar by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) without a gold coating. According to the characteristics of the low conductive materials, various test conditions, such as different working signal modes, accelerating voltages, electron beam spots, and working distances, were characterized to determine the best morphological observations of each sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Kumar, Suresh; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Xu, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early Universe a la nucleosynthesis

  2. Identification of the different magnetic field contributions during a geomagnetic storm in magnetospheric and ground observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alberti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD to investigate the time variation of the magnetospheric and ground-based observations of the Earth's magnetic field during both quiet and disturbed periods. We found two timescale variations in magnetospheric data which are associated with different magnetospheric current systems and the characteristic diurnal orbital variation, respectively. On the ground we identified three timescale variations related to the solar-wind–magnetosphere high-frequency interactions, the ionospheric processes, and the internal dynamics of the magnetosphere. This approach is able to identify the different physical processes involved in solar-wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling. In addition, the large-timescale contribution can be used as a local index for the identification of the intensity of a geomagnetic storm on the ground.

  3. In situ observation of magnetic vortex manipulation by external fields in amorphous CeFeB ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Shulan; Zhang, Ming; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Licong; Xiong, Jiefu; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tongyun; Hu, Fengxia; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we show the real-space observation of the magnetic domain configuration in amorphous Ce 14 Fe 80 B 6 ribbon using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Cross-tie domain walls composed of magnetic vortices (Vs) and antivortices (AVs) are observed. The evolution of Vs/AVs manipulated by temperature, in-plane magnetic field, and electrical current is clearly demonstrated. Magnetic V nucleation and annihilation in pair are observed because of the stimulus of external fields.

  4. MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH FLUCTUATIONS IN THE HELIOSHEATH: VOYAGER 1 OBSERVATIONS DURING 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ''microscale fluctuations'' of the magnetic field strength B on a scale of several hours observed by Voyager1 (V1) in the heliosheath during 2009. The microscale fluctuations of B range from coherent to stochastic structures. The amplitude of microscale fluctuations of B during 1 day is measured by the standard deviation (SD) of 48 s averages of B. The distribution of the daily values of SD is lognormal. SD(t) from day of year (DOY) 1 to 331, 2009, is very intermittent. SD(t) has a 1/f or 'pink noise' spectrum on scales from 1 to 100 days, and it has a broad multifractal spectrum f(α) with 0.57 ≤ α ≤ 1.39. The time series of increments SD(t + τ) – SD(t) has a pink noise spectrum with α' = 0.88 ± 0.14 on scales from 1 to 100 days. The increments have a Tsallis (q-Gaussian) distribution on scales from 1 to 165 days, with an average q = 1.75 ± 0.12. The skewness S and kurtosis K have Gaussian and lognormal distributions, respectively. The largest spikes in K(t) and S(t) are often associated with a change in B across a data gap and with identifiable physical structures. The 'turbulence' observed by V1 during 2009 was weakly compressible on average but still very intermittent, highly variable, and highly compressible at times. The turbulence observed just behind the termination shock by Voyager 2 was twice as strong. These observations place strong constraints on any model of 'turbulence' in the heliosheath.

  5. Radar observations of field-aligned plasma irregularities in the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Sporadic E Experiment over Kyushu 2 (SEEK-2 campaign, field-aligned irregularities (FAIs associated with midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers were observed with two backscatter radars, the Lower Thermosphere Profiler Radar (LTPR and the Frequency Agile Radar (FAR, which were located 40 km apart in Tanegashima, Japan. We conducted observations of FAI echoes from 31 July to 24 August 2002, and the radar data were used to determine launch timing of two sounding rockets on 3 August 2002. Our comparison of echoes obtained by the LTPR and the FAR revealed that echoes often appeared at the FAR about 10min earlier than they did at the LTPR and were well correlated. This indicates that echoing regions drift with a southward velocity component that maintains the spatial shape. Interferometry observations that were conducted with the LTPR from 3 to 8 August 2002, revealed that the quasi-periodic (QP striations in the Range-Time-Intensity (RTI plots were due to the apparent motion of echoing regions across the radar beam including both main and side lobes. In most cases, the echo moved to the east-southeast at an almost constant altitude of 100–110 km, which was along the locus of perpendicularity of the radar line-of-sight to the geomagnetic field line. We found that the QP pattern on the RTI plot reflects the horizontal structure and motion of the (Es layer, and that echoing regions seemed to be in one-dimensionally elongated shapes or in chains of patches. Neutral wind velocities from 75 to 105 km altitude were simultaneously derived with meteor echoes from the LTPR. This is the first time-continuous simultaneous observation FAIs and neutral wind with interferometry measurements. Assuming that the echoing regions were drifting with an ambient neutral wind, we found that the echoing region was aligned east-northeast-west-southwest in eight out of ten QP echo events during the SEEK-2 campaign. A range rate was

  6. Geological implications of radium and helium in oil-field brines: observations, inferences and speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1993-01-01

    The 1600 yr half-life of radium restricts the time and thus the distance over which radium can migrate in sediments. The dominant source of unsupported radium in sandstone reservoir brines must then be close by and is likely in shales adjacent to the oil-field reservoirs. The chemical similarity of calcium and radium can be used to argue for a local shale-source contribution to the calcium in reservoir sands -suggesting the probability of calcite cementation early in the sedimentary sequence. Helium production by radium decay increases with time. Concentrations of helium found in reservoir oil field brines are then used to suggest that: (a) such reservoirs are dominantly closed systems over geological times; (b) neither methane nor helium in the reservoirs have migrated any significant distance; and (c) the mechanism responsible for the observed helium in the brine is a continuous on-going process operative today. Diagenetic studies should then deal with both sands and shales interdependently, the two are not separable. Shales control the transport mechanisms of migration so that the primary migration of hydrocarbons, the result of kerogen catagenesis in shales, should occur sufficiently early in the sedimentary sequence in order to avoid exclusion from the reservoir by calcite cementation in association with radium transport. (author)

  7. Observation of wind field over heterogeneous terrain by the French-German airborne Doppler lidar WIND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, A.; Werner, C.; Delville, P.; Reitebuch, O.; Drobinski, P.; Cousin, F.

    2003-04-01

    In summer 2001, the French-German airborne Doppler lidar WIND participated to field campaign ESCOMPTE. ESCOMPTE was carried out in the region of Marseille along the Mediterranean coast of France. It was dedicated to the observation of heavy pollution events in this industrialized, densely populated region of nearly 4 million inhabitants. The aim was to gather a data base as comprehensive as possible on several pollution events and use them to check the ability of several regional forecast models to predict such events. The specific mission devoted to WIND was the characterization at mesoscale of the wind field and the topography of the planetary boundary layer. Both are complex around Marseille due the heterogeneity of the surface with a transition sea/land to the south, the fore-Alps to the North, the Rhône valley to the North-West etc... Seven, 3-hr flights were carried out and gave excellent results. In 2002, first comparisons were made with mesoscale models. They will be shown during the presentation. They are good examples of the usefulness of airborne Doppler lidar for validating and improving atmospheric model simulations.

  8. Multi-spacecraft observations of small-scale fluctuations in density and fields in plasmaspheric plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this event study, small-scale fluctuations in plasmaspheric plumes with time scales of ~10 s to minutes in the spacecraft frame are examined. In one event, plasmaspheric plumes are observed by Cluster, while IMAGE measured density enhancement at a similar location. Fluctuations in density exist in plumes as detected by Cluster and are accompanied by fluctuations in magnetic fields and electric fields. Magnetic fluctuations are transverse and along the direction of the plumes. The E/B ratio is smaller than the Alfvén velocity. Another similar event is briefly presented. We then consider physical properties of the fluctuations. Alfvén mode modulated by the feedback instability is one possibility, although non-local generation is likely. It is hard to show that the fluctuations represent a fast mode. Interchange motion is possible due to the consistency between measurements and expectations. The energy source could be a pressure or density gradient in plasmaspheric plumes. When more events are accumulated so that statistical analysis becomes feasible, this type of study will be useful to understand the time evolution of plumes.

  9. Weak-field limit of Kaluza-Klein models with spherically symmetric static scalar field. Observational constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuk, Alexander [The International Center of Future Science of the Jilin University, Changchun City (China); Odessa National University, Astronomical Observatory, Odessa (Ukraine); Chopovsky, Alexey; Fakhr, Seyed Hossein [Odessa National University, Astronomical Observatory, Odessa (Ukraine); Shulga, Valerii [The International Center of Future Science of the Jilin University, Changchun City (China); Institut of Radio Astronomy of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine); Wei, Han [The International Center of Future Science of the Jilin University, Changchun City (China)

    2017-11-15

    In a multidimensional Kaluza-Klein model with Ricci-flat internal space, we study the gravitational field in the weak-field limit. This field is created by two coupled sources. First, this is a point-like massive body which has a dust-like equation of state in the external space and an arbitrary parameter Ω of equation of state in the internal space. The second source is a static spherically symmetric massive scalar field centered at the origin where the point-like massive body is. The found perturbed metric coefficients are used to calculate the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter γ. We define under which conditions γ can be very close to unity in accordance with the relativistic gravitational tests in the solar system. This can take place for both massive or massless scalar fields. For example, to have γ ∼ 1 in the solar system, the mass of scalar field should be μ >or similar 5.05 x 10{sup -49} g ∝ 2.83 x 10{sup -16} eV. In all cases, we arrive at the same conclusion that to be in agreement with the relativistic gravitational tests, the gravitating mass should have tension: Ω = -1/2. (orig.)

  10. Effect of low-frequency ambient magnetic fields on the control unit and RF head of a commercial SQUID magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The control unit and RF head of the SHE model 330XRFSQUID system are shown to be sensitive to ambient ac magnetic fields below 1 HZ, which cause the appearance of false signals corresponding to a magnetometer signal of 0.000001 phi(0) per gauss of field applied. The control unit shows a sensitivity that is linear with frequency, suggesting that the signal is generated by Faraday induction. In contrast, the RF head response is independent of frequency and shows a strong second-harmonic coversion. This response may be due to the magnetic field sensitivity of the ferrite core inductor in the tuned amplifier of the RF head. These signals induced by ambient fields are a potential source of error in Stanford's Relativity Gyroscope experiment, which uses SQUID's on board a rolling satellite as part of the gyroscope readout system. The extent of the magnetic field sensitivity in these components necessitates the use of additional magnetic shielding aboard the satellite.

  11. SDSS-IV MaNGA: identification of active galactic nuclei in optical integral field unit surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Drory, Niv; Andrews, Brett H.; Merloni, Andrea; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate 2727 galaxies observed by MaNGA as of 2016 June to develop spatially resolved techniques for identifying signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We identify 303 AGN candidates. The additional spatial dimension imposes challenges in identifying AGNs due to contamination from diffuse ionized gas, extraplanar gas and photoionization by hot stars. We show that the combination of spatially resolved line diagnostic diagrams and additional cuts on H α surface brightness and H α equivalent width can distinguish between AGN-like signatures and high-metallicity galaxies with low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions-like spectra. Low-mass galaxies with high specific star formation rates are particularly difficult to diagnose and routinely show diagnostic line ratios outside of the standard star formation locus. We develop a new diagnostic - the distance from the standard diagnostic line in the line-ratio space - to evaluate the significance of the deviation from the star formation locus. We find 173 galaxies that would not have been selected as AGN candidates based on single-fibre spectral measurements but exhibit photoionization signatures suggestive of AGN activity in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO resolved observations, underscoring the power of large integral field unit surveys. A complete census of these new AGN candidates is necessary to understand their nature and probe the complex co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their hosts.

  12. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory To Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Laurel (Editor); Mustard, John (Editor); McAfee, John (Editor); Hapke, Bruce (Editor); Ramsey, Michael (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The continuity and timely implementation of the Mars exploration strategy relies heavily on the ability of the planetary community to interpret infrared spectral data. However, the increasing mission rate, data volume, and data variety, combined with the small number of spectroscopists within the planetary community, will require a coordinated community effort for effective and timely interpretation of the newly acquired and planned data sets. Relevant spectroscopic instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Pancam, 2003 Mini-TES, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA, 2003 Mars Express PFS, and 2005 CFUSM. In light of that, leaders of the Mars spectral community met June 4-6 to address the question: What terrestrial theoretical, laboratory, and field studies are most needed to best support timely interpretations of current and planned visible infrared spectrometer data sets, in light of the Mars Program goals? A primary goal of the spectral community is to provide a reservoir of information to enhance and expand the exploration of Mars. Spectroscopy has a long history of providing the fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system, from atmospheric constituents to surface mineralogy, from earth-based to spacecraft-based observations. However, such spectroscopic compositional discoveries, especially surface mineralogies, have usually come after long periods of detailed integration of remote observations, laboratory analyses, and field measurements. Spectroscopic information of surfaces is particularly complex and often is confounded by interference of broad, overlapping absorption features as well as confusing issues of mixtures, coatings, and grain size effects. Thus some spectroscopic compositional discoveries have come only after many years of research. However, we are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions carrying sophisticated spectrometers launching about every 2 years. It is critical that each mission provide answers to relevant questions

  13. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  14. Field observations of the developing legal recreational cannabis economy in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric L; Roussell, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    Washington State legalized the sale of recreational cannabis in 2012. This paper describes the unfolding of the market regulatory regime in an eastern portion of the state, including field descriptions to illustrate the setting. We made observations and conducted interviews of the local supply chain comprising a producer/processor, analytic facility, and retail establishments as well as querying the state director of the regulatory board. Interviews and observations of facilities suggest an overwhelming concern for black market diversion drives state regulatory efforts. The ongoing dialogue between market actors and the state has resulted in a more equitable distribution of profits at different stages in the process. State safety regulations have thus far been shifted to independent laboratories. Banks and insurance companies have slowly begun making inroads into the industry, despite federal prohibition. The law was conceived as a social justice remedy, but the bulk of the legal and regulatory activity surrounds cannabis marketplace management. This has been characterized by concerns for black market diversion, producer/processor profits, and a hands-off approach to safety regulation. Minor cannabis violations as a pathway to criminal justice system involvement have been reduced substantially but disproportionate enforcement upon racial/ethnic minorities continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methane emission through ebullition from an estuarine mudflat: 2. Field observations and modeling of occurrence probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Slater, Lee

    2017-08-01

    Ebullition can transport methane (CH4) at a much faster rate than other pathways, albeit over limited time and area, in wetland soils and sediments. However, field observations present large uncertainties in ebullition occurrences and statistic models are needed to describe the function relationship between probability of ebullition occurrence and water level changes. A flow-through chamber was designed and installed in a mudflat of an estuarine temperate marsh. Episodic increases in CH4 concentration signaling ebullition events were observed during ebbing tides (15 events over 456 ebbing tides) and occasionally during flooding tides (4 events over 455 flooding tides). Ebullition occurrence functions were defined using logistic regression as the relative initial and end water levels, as well as tidal amplitudes were found to be the key functional variables related to ebullition events. Ebullition of methane was restricted by a surface frozen layer during winter; melting of this layer during spring thaw caused increases in CH4 concentration, with ebullition fluxes similar to those associated with large fluctuations in water level around spring tides. Our findings suggest that initial and end relative water levels, in addition to tidal amplitude, partly regulate ebullition events in tidal wetlands, modulated by the lunar cycle, storage of gas bubbles at different depths and seasonal changes in the surface frozen layer. Maximum tidal strength over a few days, rather than hourly water level, may be more closely associated with the possibility of ebullition occurrence as it represents a trade-off time scale in between hourly and lunar periods.

  16. Refeeding syndrome influences outcome of anorexia nervosa patients in intensive care unit: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Vignaud, Marie; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Ruivard, Marc; Villemeyre-Plane, Michele; Futier, Emmanuel; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Annane, Djillali

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Data on the epidemiology and management of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality of AN in French ICUs. Methods We randomly selected 30 ICUs throughout France. Thereafter, we retrospectively analyzed all patients with AN admitted to any of these 30 ICUs between May 2006 and May 2008. We considered demographic data, diagnosis at admission and complications occurr...

  17. Utilization of Observation Units for the Care of Poisoned Patients: Trends from the Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Bryan S; Ouellette, Lindsey M; VandenBerg, Melissa; Riley, Brad D; Wax, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Many poisoned patients may only require a period of observation after their exposure. There are limited data describing the use of observation units for managing poisoned adult and pediatric patients. We performed a retrospective review of all patients reported to the ToxIC Case Registry between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013. Eligible patients included those who received a bedside consultation by a medical toxicologist and whose care was provided in an observation unit, or those who were admitted under the care of a medical toxicologist in an observation unit. A total of 15,562 poisonings were reported to the registry during the study period, of which 340 (2.2 %) involved patients who were cared for in an observation unit. Of these patients, 22.1 % were 18 years of age or younger, and the remaining 77.9 % were greater than 18 years of age. The most common reason for exposure was the intentional ingestion of a pharmaceutical agent in both adult (30.2 %) and pediatric patients (36.0 %). Alcohols (ethanol) (24.9 %), opioids (20.0 %), and sedative-hypnotics (17.7 %) were the most common agent classes involved in adult patient exposures. The most common agent classes involved in pediatric exposures were antidepressants (12.0 %), anticonvulsants (10.7 %), and envenomations (10.7 %). In adult patients, the most common signs and symptoms involved the nervous system (52.0 %), a toxidrome (17.0 %), or a major vital sign abnormality (14.7 %). In pediatric patients, the most common signs and symptoms involved the nervous system (53.3 %), a toxidrome (21.3 %), or a major vital sign abnormality (17.3 %). The results of this study demonstrate that a wide variety of poisoned patients have been cared for in an observation unit in consultation with a board-certified medical toxicologist. Patterns for the reasons for exposure, agents responsible for the exposure, and toxicological treatments will continue to evolve. Further study is needed to identify

  18. Kepler Observations and Asteroseismology of θ Cyg, the Brightest StarObservable in the Kepler Field of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzik, Joyce A.; Houdek, G.; Chaplin, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    -March 2011). We present analyses of the solar-like oscillations first discovered in the Q6 data [1, 2]. We use observational constraints from the literature and recent ground-based observations including angular diameters from optical interferometry in conjunction with the frequency data to derive stellar...... properties (e.g., mass, age, metallicity, extent of convection zones). We also discuss the prospects for detecting longer period gravity-mode pulsations as seen in gamma Doradus variable stars of spectral type A-F, given these constraints. With an effective temperature near 6500 K and near ‘solar’ element....... The calculated envelope convection zone depth depends on the element abundance mixtures adopted for the stellar models [2]. Asteroseismic studies of θ Cyg therefore have potential to shed light on the solar abundance problem [3, 4], as well as to put constraints on the presence and detectability of g...

  19. Comparison of Ground- and Space-based Radar Observations with Disdrometer Measurements During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. D.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.

    2015-12-01

    Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) was a large field campaign that studied nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), convective initiation, bores, and low-level jets across the central plains in the United States. MCSs are responsible for over half of the warm-season precipitation across the central U.S. plains. The rainfall from deep convection of these systems over land have been observed to be underestimated by satellite radar rainfall-retrieval algorithms by as much as 40 percent. These algorithms have a strong dependence on the generally unmeasured rain drop-size distribution (DSD). During the campaign, our group measured rainfall DSDs, precipitation fall velocities, and total precipitation in the convective and stratiform regions of MCSs using Ott Parsivel optical laser disdrometers. The disdrometers were co-located with mobile pod units that measured temperature, wind, and relative humidity for quality control purposes. Data from the operational NEXRAD radar in LaCrosse, Wisconsin and space-based radar measurements from a Global Precipitation Measurement satellite overpass on July 13, 2015 were used for the analysis. The focus of this study is to compare DSD measurements from the disdrometers to radars in an effort to reduce errors in existing rainfall-retrieval algorithms. The error analysis consists of substituting measured DSDs into existing quantitative precipitation estimation techniques (e.g. Z-R relationships and dual-polarization rain estimates) and comparing these estimates to ground measurements of total precipitation. The results from this study will improve climatological estimates of total precipitation in continental convection that are used in hydrological studies, climate models, and other applications.

  20. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  1. Constraining the Speed of Sound inside Neutron Stars with Chiral Effective Field Theory Interactions and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, I.; Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Reddy, S.

    2018-06-01

    The dense matter equation of state (EOS) determines neutron star (NS) structure but can be calculated reliably only up to one to two times the nuclear saturation density, using accurate many-body methods that employ nuclear interactions from chiral effective field theory constrained by scattering data. In this work, we use physically motivated ansatzes for the speed of sound c S at high density to extend microscopic calculations of neutron-rich matter to the highest densities encountered in stable NS cores. We show how existing and expected astrophysical constraints on NS masses and radii from X-ray observations can constrain the speed of sound in the NS core. We confirm earlier expectations that c S is likely to violate the conformal limit of {c}S2≤slant {c}2/3, possibly reaching values closer to the speed of light c at a few times the nuclear saturation density, independent of the nuclear Hamiltonian. If QCD obeys the conformal limit, we conclude that the rapid increase of c S required to accommodate a 2 M ⊙ NS suggests a form of strongly interacting matter where a description in terms of nucleons will be unwieldy, even between one and two times the nuclear saturation density. For typical NSs with masses in the range of 1.2–1.4 M ⊙, we find radii between 10 and 14 km, and the smallest possible radius of a 1.4 M ⊙ NS consistent with constraints from nuclear physics and observations is 8.4 km. We also discuss how future observations could constrain the EOS and guide theoretical developments in nuclear physics.

  2. SpecOp: Optimal Extraction Software for Integral Field Unit Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Adam; Ciardullo, Robin; Eracleous, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope’s new low resolution integral field spectrographs, LRS2-B and LRS2-R, each cover a 12”x6” area on the sky with 280 fibers and generate spectra with resolutions between R=1100 and R=1900. To extract 1-D spectra from the instrument’s 3D data cubes, a program is needed that is flexible enough to work for a wide variety of targets, including continuum point sources, emission line sources, and compact sources embedded in complex backgrounds. We therefore introduce SpecOp, a user-friendly python program for optimally extracting spectra from integral-field unit spectrographs. As input, SpecOp takes a sky-subtracted data cube consisting of images at each wavelength increment set by the instrument’s spectral resolution, and an error file for each count measurement. All of these files are generated by the current LRS2 reduction pipeline. The program then collapses the cube in the image plane using the optimal extraction algorithm detailed by Keith Horne (1986). The various user-selected options include the fraction of the total signal enclosed in a contour-defined region, the wavelength range to analyze, and the precision of the spatial profile calculation. SpecOp can output the weighted counts and errors at each wavelength in various table formats using python’s astropy package. We outline the algorithm used for extraction and explain how the software can be used to easily obtain high-quality 1-D spectra. We demonstrate the utility of the program by applying it to spectra of a variety of quasars and AGNs. In some of these targets, we extract the spectrum of a nuclear point source that is superposed on a spatially extended galaxy.

  3. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  4. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. An LFI report is required when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM. Seven sites were intrusively investigated: 1322-N, 116-N-2, 119-N, 120-N-2, 120-N-1, South Settling Pond, and the 166-N Tank Farm (UN-100-N-17) unplanned release at the 166-N Tank Farm. Vadose zone sediments from these sites were sampled and analyzed. Radiological contamination is the primary concern as confirmed through this study

  5. Limited field investigation report for the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-FR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. An LFI is required when existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model and perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRM. The final decision to conduct an IRM will rely on many factors including risk, ARAR, future land use, point of compliance, time of compliance, a bias-for-action, and the threat to human health and the environment

  6. Development of micro-mirror slicer integral field unit for space-borne solar spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Kosuke; Koyama, Masatsugu; Enokida, Yukiya; Okura, Yukinobu; Nakayasu, Tomoyasu; Sukegawa, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We present an innovative optical design for image slicer integral field unit (IFU) and a manufacturing method that overcomes optical limitations of metallic mirrors. Our IFU consists of a micro-mirror slicer of 45 arrayed, highly narrow, flat metallic mirrors and a pseudo-pupil-mirror array of off-axis conic aspheres forming three pseudo slits of re-arranged slicer images. A prototype IFU demonstrates that the final optical quality is sufficiently high for a visible light spectrograph. Each slicer micro-mirror is 1.58 mm long and 30 μm wide with surface roughness ≤1 nm rms, and edge sharpness ≤ 0.1 μm, etc. This IFU is small size and can be implemented in a multi-slit spectrograph without any moving mechanism and fore optics, in which one slit is real and the others are pseudo slits from the IFU. The IFU mirrors were deposited by a space-qualified, protected silver coating for high reflectivity in visible and near IR wavelength regions. These properties are well suitable for space-borne spectrograph such as the future Japanese solar space mission SOLAR-C. We present the optical design, performance of prototype IFU, and space qualification tests of the silver coating.

  7. Smokefree signage at children's playgrounds: Field observations and comparison with Google Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Although there is global growth in outdoor smokefree areas, little is known about the associated smokefree signage. We aimed to study smokefree signage at playgrounds and to compare field observations with images from Google Street View (GSV). We randomly selected playgrounds in 21 contiguous local government areas in the lower North Island of New Zealand, all of which had smokefree playground policies. Field data were collected on smokefree signage along with dog control signage to allow for comparisons. The sensitivity and specificity of using GSV for data collection were calculated. Out of the 63 playgrounds studied, only 44% (95% CI: 33%-57%) had any smokefree signage within 10 m of the playground equipment. The mean number of such signs was 0.8 per playground (range: 0 to 6). Sign size varied greatly from 42 cm 2 up to 2880 cm 2 ; but was typically fairly small (median = 600 cm 2 ; ie, as per a 20 × 30 cm rectangle). Qualitatively the dog signs appeared to use clearer images and were less wordy than the smokefree signs. Most playground equipment (82%), could be seen on GSV, but for these settings the sensitivity for identifying smokefree signs was poor at 16%. Yet specificity was reasonable at 96%. The presence and quality of smokefree signage was poor in this sample of children's playgrounds in this developed country setting. There appears to be value in comparing smokefree signage with other types of signage (eg, dog control signage). Google Street View was not a sensitive tool for studying such signage.

  8. MESSENGER Magnetic Field Observations of Upstream Ultra-Low Frequency Waves at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Boardsen, S.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Anderosn, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury's foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury's foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the I-Hz waves in the Earth's foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth's foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at near 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at near 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  9. Field-aligned currents observed by CHAMP during the intense 2003 geomagnetic storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the characteristics of field-aligned currents (FACs in both hemispheres during the extreme storms in October and November 2003. High-resolution CHAMP magnetic data reflect the dynamics of FACs during these geomagnetic storms, which are different from normal periods. The peak intensity and most equatorward location of FACs in response to the storm phases are examined separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding large-scale FAC peak densities are, on average, enhanced by about a factor of 5 compared to the quiet-time FACs' strengths. And the FAC densities on the dayside are, on average, 2.5 times larger in the Southern (summer than in the Northern (winter Hemisphere, while the observed intensities on the nightside are comparable between the two hemispheres. Solar wind dynamic pressure is correlated with the FACs strength on the dayside. However, the latitudinal variations of the FACs are compared with the variations in Dst and the interplanetary magnetic field component Bz, in order to determine how these parameters control the large-scale FACs' configuration in the polar region. We have determined that (1 the equatorward shift of FACs on the dayside is directly controlled by the southward IMF Bz and there is a saturation of the latitudinal displacement for large value of negative Bz. In the winter hemisphere this saturation occurs at higher latitudes than in the summer hemisphere. (2 The equatorward expansion of the nightside FACs is delayed with respect to the solar wind input. The poleward recovery of FACs on the nightside is slower than on the dayside. The latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. (3 The latitudinal width of the FAC region on the nightside spreads over a wide range of about 25° in latitude.

  10. Improving boiler unit performance using an optimum robust minimum-order observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Hamed; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Firooz [Energy and Control Centre of Excellence, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    To achieve a good performance of the utility boiler, dynamic variables such as drum pressure, steam temperature and water level of drum must be controlled. In this paper, a linear time invariant (LTI) model of a boiler system is considered in which the input variables are feed-water and fuel mass rates. Due to the inaccessibility of some state variables of boiler system, a minimum-order observer is designed based on Luenberger's model to gain an estimate state x of the true state x. Low cost of design and high accuracy of states estimation are the main advantages of the minimum-order observer; in comparison with previous designed full-order observers. By applying the observer on the closed-loop system, a regulator system is designed. Using an optimal functional code developed in MATLAB environment, desired observer poles are found such that suitable time response specifications of the boiler system are achieved and the gain and phase margin values are adjusted in an acceptable range. However, the real dynamic model may associate with parametric uncertainties. In that case, optimum region of poles of observer-based controller are found such that the robust performance of the boiler system against model uncertainties is guaranteed. (author)

  11. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  12. Surgical Procedures of the Elbow: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Observational Study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Elbow surgery is shared by several subspecialties. We were curious about the most common elbow surgeries and their corresponding diagnoses in the United States.   Methods:  We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS data gathered in 2006-databases that together provide an estimate of all inpatient and ambulatory surgical care in the US.  Results:  An estimated 150,000 elbow surgeries were performed in the US in 2006, 75% in an outpatient setting. The most frequent diagnosis treated operative was enthesopathy (e.g. lateral epicondylitis and it was treated with several different procedures. More than three quarters of all elbow surgeries treated enthesopathy, cubital tunnel syndrome, or fracture (radial head in particular. Arthroscopy and arthroplasty accounted for less than 10% of all elbow surgeries.  Conclusions:  Elbow surgery in the United States primarily addresses enthesopathies such as tennis elbow, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trauma. It is notable that some of the most common elbow surgeries (those that address enthesopathy and radial head fracture are some of the most variably utilized and debated.

  13. A Global Database of Field-observed Leaf Area Index in Woody Plant Species, 1932-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides global leaf area index (LAI) values for woody species. The data are a compilation of field-observed data from 1,216 locations obtained from...

  14. A Global Database of Field-observed Leaf Area Index in Woody Plant Species, 1932-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides global leaf area index (LAI) values for woody species. The data are a compilation of field-observed data from 1,216 locations...

  15. Observation of local fields in ZnO using the 111Cd probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Imagawa, E.; Ohkubo, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The authors prepared the ZnO sample ( 111m Cd-CZO) that contains totally 0.5 at.% of Cd including 111m Cd, and the ZnO sample ( 111m Cd-ICZO) made by doping with 0.5 at.% of In to 111m Cd-CZO, and measured γ-ray perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. They compared these measurement results with the PAC spectra that were observed in the sample ( 111 In-IZO) made by doping with 0.5 at.% of stable In isotope in addition to ( 111 In→) 111 Cd probe, and examined the two characteristics of 111 In-IZO. As for 111 In-IZO, large electric field gradient and late effect due to remarkable EC decay was observed compared with the sample ( 111 In-UZO), where several ppt level of ( 111 In→) 111 Cd probe was solely doped into ZnO. This fact suggests that In atoms and 111 In atoms flocculate locally. When this flocculating condition is made of many In atom groups, several occupation positions of 111 In can be considered, and they cannot form the single frequency component as obtained in the PAC spectra. Therefore, the results of this experiment can be understood that In atoms themselves form the pairs in the nearest position while replacing the lattice positions of Zn. In is generally stable under the condition of three valence, but it can take one valence depending on compounds. Therefore, it can be considered that if In 3+ and In + mixture in this ratio replace Zn 2+ sites, this pairs can exist from the viewpoint of charge balance. (A.O.)

  16. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) HDF, and one with an I-814(AB)=19.9 star, while a further 11 are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...... and one star), Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals....

  17. Time-resolved observation of discrete and continuous MHD dynamo in the reversed-field pinch edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, H.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    We report the first experimental verification of the MHD dynamo in the RFP. A burst of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo electric field is observed during the sawtooth crash, followed by an increase in the local parallel current in the MST RFP edge. By measuring each term, the parallel MHD mean-field Ohm's law is observed to hold within experimental error bars both between and during sawtooth crashes

  18. Characterization of buoyant fluorescent particles for field observations of water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Aureli, Matteo; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of off-the-shelf buoyant fluorescent microspheres as particle tracers in turbid water flows is investigated. Microspheres' fluorescence intensity is experimentally measured and detected in placid aqueous suspensions of increasing concentrations of clay to simulate typical conditions occurring in natural drainage networks. Experiments are conducted in a broad range of clay concentrations and particle immersion depths by using photoconductive cells and image-based sensing technologies. Results obtained with both methodologies exhibit comparable trends and show that the considered particles are fairly detectable in critically turbid water flows. Further information on performance and integration of the studied microspheres in low-cost measurement instrumentation for field observations is obtained through experiments conducted in a custom built miniature water channel. This experimental characterization provides a first assessment of the feasibility of commercially available buoyant fluorescent beads in the analysis of high turbidity surface water flows. The proposed technology may serve as a minimally invasive sensing system for hazardous events, such as pollutant diffusion in natural streams and flash flooding due to extreme rainfall.

  19. Characterization of Buoyant Fluorescent Particles for Field Observations of Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Tauro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the feasibility of off-the-shelf buoyant fluorescent microspheres as particle tracers in turbid water flows is investigated. Microspheres’ fluorescence intensity is experimentally measured and detected in placid aqueous suspensions of increasing concentrations of clay to simulate typical conditions occurring in natural drainage networks. Experiments are conducted in a broad range of clay concentrations and particle immersion depths by using photoconductive cells and image-based sensing technologies. Results obtained with both methodologies exhibit comparable trends and show that the considered particles are fairly detectable in critically turbid water flows. Further information on performance and integration of the studied microspheres in low-cost measurement instrumentation for field observations is obtained through experiments conducted in a custom built miniature water channel. This experimental characterization provides a first assessment of the feasibility of commercially available buoyant fluorescent beads in the analysis of high turbidity surface water flows. The proposed technology may serve as a minimally invasive sensing system for hazardous events, such as pollutant diffusion in natural streams and flash flooding due to extreme rainfall.

  20. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  1. High magnetic field observation of the resonance donor states of S in InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porowski, S.; Konczewicz, L.; Kowalski, J.

    1981-01-01

    Electrical transport measurements in InSb heavily doped with sulfur (n approximately 5x10 18 cm -3 ) are performed. At T = 4.2 K the Hall coefficient and transverse magnetoresistivity are measured as a function of pressure up to 2100 MPa and magnetic field up to 18 T. At the highest pressure, a decrease of the frequency and a decrease of the damping of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are observed. These effects are explained as a result of the transfer of electrons from the conduction band to the resonance states of sulfur. At atmospheric pressure these states are 0.55 eV above the bottom of conduction band. In the lower pressure range, the experimental dependence of the effective Dingle temperature T*sub(D) = Tsub(D) + Tsub(i) can be explained by the model in which the scattering by ionized impurities and short-range potentials are taken into account. At the highest pressures a change of inhomogeneity of carrier concentration due to the transfer of electrons to the resonance states has to be considered. (author)

  2. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  3. Direct Observation of High-Temperature Superconductivity in One-Unit-Cell FeSe Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Hao; Zhang Jin-Song; Li Fang-Sen; Guo Ming-Hua; Ding Hao; Tang Chen-Jia; Wang Qing-Yan; He Ke; Ji Shuai-Hua; Chen Xi; Sun Yi; Zhao Yan-Fei; Xing Ying; Wang Hui-Chao; Zhang Hui-Min; Peng Jun-Ping; Li Zhi; Wang Meng; Fujita Takeshi; Hirata Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We prepared one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick FeSe films on insulating SrTiO 3 substrates with non-superconducting FeTe protection layers by molecular beam epitaxy for ex situ studies. By direct transport and magnetic measurements, we provide definitive evidence for high temperature superconductivity in the 1-UC FeSe films with an onset T C above 40 K and an extremely large critical current density J C ∼1.7×10 6 A/cm 2 at 2 K, which are much higher than T C ∼8 K and J C ∼10 4 A/cm 2 for bulk FeSe, respectively. Our work may pave the way to enhancing and tailoring superconductivity by interface engineering. (express letter)

  4. Probing Twisted Magnetic Field Using Microwave Observations in an M Class Solar Flare on 11 February, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharykin, I. N.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Myshyakov, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of magnetic-field topology investigations using microwave polarimetric observations. We study a solar flare of GOES M1.7 class that occurred on 11 February, 2014. This flare revealed a clear signature of spatial inversion of the radio-emission polarization sign. We show that the observed polarization pattern can be explained by nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission from the twisted magnetic structure. Using observations of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Radio Solar Telescope Network, and Solar Dynamics Observatory, we have determined the parameters of nonthermal electrons and thermal plasma and identified the magnetic structure where the flare energy release occurred. To reconstruct the coronal magnetic field, we use nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) and potential magnetic-field approaches. Radio emission of nonthermal electrons is simulated by the GX Simulator code using the extrapolated magnetic field and the parameters of nonthermal electrons and thermal plasma inferred from the observations; the model radio maps and spectra are compared with observations. We have found that the potential-magnetic-field approach fails to explain the observed circular polarization pattern; on the other hand, the Stokes-V map is successfully explained by assuming nonthermal electrons to be distributed along the twisted magnetic structure determined by the NLFFF extrapolation approach. Thus, we show that the radio-polarization maps can be used for diagnosing the topology of the flare magnetic structures where nonthermal electrons are injected.

  5. Astrovirus-induced "white chicks" condition - field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajewicz-Krukowska, Joanna; Pać, Krzysztof; Lisowska, Anna; Pikuła, Anna; Minta, Zenon; Króliczewska, Bożena; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently indicated as the factor of the "white chicks" condition associated not only with increased embryo/chick mortality but also with weakness and white plumage of hatched chicks. In February 2014, organ samples (livers and kidneys) from dead-in-shell embryos, as well as 1-day-old whitish and normal chicks, were delivered from one hatchery in Poland for disease diagnosis. The samples originated from the same 30-week-old breeder flock in which the only observed abnormal signs were 4-5% decrease in the number of hatched chickens and the presence (about 1%) of weaker chicks with characteristic whitish plumage among normal ones. CAstV was detected in submitted samples and was then isolated in 10-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. We also reproduced an infection model for the "white chicks" condition in SPF layer chickens using the isolated PL/G059/2014 strain as the infectious agent. Results of experimental reproduction of the "white chicks" condition were somewhat more serious than field observation. The administration of the CAstV material into the yolk sac of 8-day-old SPF chicken eggs caused delay and prolongation of hatching, as well as death of embryos/chicks, and also a change of plumage pigmentation. Only two chicks of a total of 10 inoculated SPF eggs survived and were observed for 2 months. A gradual elimination of the CAstV genome was noted in this period. Moreover, a few contact-naive SPF chicks, which had been placed in the same cage, were infected with CAstV. Molecular characterization of detected CAstV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the full ORF2 region encoding the capsid precursor protein gene. Phylogenetic studies showed that the PL/G059/2014 isolate clustered in the subgroup Aiii of CAstV. In the light of the new classification rules, the Polish PL/G059/2014 CAstV isolate could be assigned to a new species of the Avastrovirus genus.

  6. Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C.; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson,; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E

    2016-01-01

    Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.

  7. Building Capacity for Earth Observations in Support of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, B.; Prados, A. I.; Hook, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) looks to build a future where the international community uses Earth observations to make better, informed decisions. This includes application in international agreements such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and the Convention on Biological Diversity. To do this, decision makers first need to build the necessary skills. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training program (ARSET) seeks to build capacity through remote sensing training. In-person and online trainings raise awareness, enable data access, and demonstrate applications of Earth observations. Starting in 2017, ARSET began offering training focused on applying Earth data to the UN SDGs. These trainings offer insight into applications of satellite data in support of implementing, monitoring, and evaluating the SDGs. This presentation will provide an overview of the use of NASA satellite data to track progress towards increased food security, disaster risk reduction, and conservation of natural resources for societal benefit. It will also include a discussion on capacity building best practices and lessons learned for using Earth observations to meet SDG targets, based on feedback from engaging over 800 participants from 89 nations and 580 organizations in ARSET SDG trainings.

  8. Cluster observations of continuous reconnection at the magnetopause under steady interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Phan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available On 26 January 2001, the Cluster spacecraft detected high-speed plasma jets at multiple crossings of the high-latitude duskside magnetopause (MP and boundary layer (BL over a period of more than 2h. The 4 spacecraft combined spent more than half of this time in the MP/BL and jets were observed whenever a spacecraft was in the MP. These observations were made under steady southward and dawnward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions. The magnetic shear across the local MP was ~100° and β~1 in the adjacent magnetosheath. The jet velocity is in remarkable agreement with reconnection prediction throughout the entire interval, except for one crossing that had no ion measurements inside the current layer. The flow speed measured in the deHoffmann Teller frame is 90% of the Alfvén speed on average for the 10 complete MP current layer crossings that are resolved by the ion measurements. These findings strongly suggest that reconnection was continuously active for more than two hours. The jets were directed persistently in the same northward and anti-sunward direction, implying that the X-line was always below the spacecraft. This feature is inconsistent with patchy and random reconnection or convecting multiple X-lines. The majority of MP/BL crossings in this two-hour interval were partial crossings, implying that they are caused by bulges sliding along the MP, not by inward-outward motion of a uniformly thin MP/BL. The presence of the bulges suggests that, although reconnection is continuously active under steady IMF conditions, its rate may be modulated. The present investigation also reveals that (1 the predicted ion D-shaped distributions are absent in all reconnection jets on this day, (2 the electric field fluctuations are larger in the reconnecting MP than in the magnetosheath proper, but their amplitudes never exceed 20mV/m, (3 the ion-electron differential motion is ~20km/s for the observed MP current density of ~50nA/m2 (∇× B, thus

  9. SparsePak: A Formatted Fiber Field Unit for the WIYN Telescope Bench Spectrograph. I. Design, Construction, and Calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.; Harker, Justin; Ramsey, Larry W.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a formatted fiber field unit, SparsePak, and characterize its optical and astrometric performance. This array is optimized for spectroscopy of low surface brightness extended sources in the visible and near-infrared. SparsePak contains 82, 4.7" fibers

  10. Displacement field in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) subsidence area: Observation and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Camacho, A. G.; Luzon, F.; Prieto, J. F.; Escayo, J.; Rodríguez-Velasco, G.; Tiampo, K. F.; Palano, M.; Velasco, J.; Abajo, T.; Perez, E.; Gomez, I.; Herrero, T.; Bru, G.; Aguirre, J.; Mateos, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Lorca area, Alto Guadalentín Basin, located in southern Spain, is affected by the highest subsidence rates measured in Europe (about 10 cm/yr) produced by a long-term aquifer exploitation (González and Fernández, 2011). This subsidence has been studied using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) using images from different satellites (ERS and ENVISAT radar data spanning the 1992 - 2007 period; ALOS PALSAR data for the period 2007-2010; and COSMO-SkyMed data for the period 2011-2012). González et al. (2012) found a relationship between the crust unloading produced by the groundwater overexploitation and the stress change on the regional active tectonic faults in relation with the May 2008 Lorca earthquake. The InSAR results have been compared with measurements acquired by two permanent GNSS stations located in the study area, and with geological and hydrogeological data collected and analyzed in order to assess aquifer system compressibility and groundwater level changes in the past 50 years. All the previous studies of the area were based on satellite radar interferometry using just ascending or descending acquisitions, without any combination among them, to obtain vertical and horizontal (E-W) components. However, it is important to obtain the 3D motion field in order to perform a correct interpretation of the observations, as well as to carry out an advanced numerical model of the aquifer evolution, to be consider for sustainable management plans of groundwater resources and hazard assessments. To solve this problem, we defined a GNSS network, and various surveys have been carried out, from November 2015, showing the regional 3D displacement field associated to the exploitation of the aquifer. GNSS and InSAR results has been compared, obtaining a good agreement. We present the results obtained from both techniques, the comparison between them, and interpretation results using different inversion techniques. REFERENCESGonzález, P.J., Fernández, J., 2011

  11. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  12. Linking field observations, Landsat and MODIS data to estimate agricultural change in European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K. M.; Ioffe, G.

    2011-12-01

    and photographs. Russian farmers employ a variety of crop-rotation schemes. In the Russian grain belt, the farmers used to be on a seven-year rotation, which typically included only one year of fallow and a variety of grain crops in the remaining six years. Through field interviews and satellite observations we learned that the crop rotation schedules are changing from a seven year crop cycle focused on grain production to a three year crop cycle focused on the production of sunflower which is currently most profitable. In addition, a switch is underway from the dominant growth of spring wheat to stronger reliance on winter wheat which has better growth potential in the area. The number of cropped years, or the complementary number of fallow years, gives an indication of the type of crop cycle that is applied. In addition, drier areas are predicted to reveal more fallow years due to decisions by farm administrators. We will discuss how the ongoing changes represent adaptations to changing climatological and social circumstances.

  13. Reservoir Changes Derived from Seismic Observations at The Geysers Geothermal Field, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, R.; Jarpre, S.

    2012-04-01

    Induced seismicity associated with the exploitation of geothermal fields is used as a tool to characterize and delineate changes associated with injection and production of fluids from the reservoir. At the same time public concern of felt seismicity has led to objections against the operation of geothermal reservoirs in close proximity to population centers. Production at the EGS sites in Basel (Switzerland) was stopped after renewed seismicity caused concern and objection from the public in the city. Operations in other geothermal reservoirs had to be scaled back or interrupted due to an unexpected increase in seismicity (Soultz-sous-forêt, France, Berlín, El Salvador). As a consequence of these concerns and in order to optimize the use of induced seismicity for reservoir engineering purposes, it becomes imperative to understand the relationship between seismic events and stress changes in the reservoir. We will address seismicity trends at The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir, CA USA, to understand the role of historical seismicity associated with past injection of water and/or production of steam. Our analysis makes use of a comprehensive database of earthquakes and associated phase arrivals from 2004 to 2011. A high-precision sub-set of the earthquake data was selected to analyze temporal changes in seismic velocities and Vp/Vs-ratio throughout the whole reservoir. We find relatively low Vp/Vs values in 2004 suggestive of a vapor dominated reservoir. With passing time, however, the observed temporal increase in Vp/Vs, coupled with a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities suggests the presence of fluid-filled fractured rock. Considering the start of a continuous water injection project in 2004, it can be concluded that the fluid saturation of the reservoir has successfully recovered. Preliminary results of 3-D velocity inversions of seismic data appear to corroborate earlier findings that the lowest Vp/Vs estimates are observed in the center of the reservoir

  14. Changes in Earth's core-generated magnetic field, as observed by Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    By far the largest part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by motions taking place within our planet's liquid metal outer core. Variations of this core-generated field thus provide us with a unique means of probing the dynamics taking place in the deepest reaches of the Earth....... In this contribution, we will present the core-generated magnetic field, and its recent time changes, as seen by ESA's Earth explorer mission Swarm. We will present a new time-dependent geomagnetic field model, called CHAOS-6, derived from satellite data collected by the Swarm constellation, as well as data from...... the previous missions CHAMP and Oersted together with ground observatory data. Advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of the Swarm mission by ingesting field differences along track and across track between the lower pair of Swarm satellites. Evaluating the global field model at the outer boundary...

  15. Chandra and JVLA Observations of HST Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Pearce, Connor J. J.; David, L.; Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Ogrean, G. A.; Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.; Bulbul, E.; Clarke, T. E.; Churazov, E.; Dawson, W. A.; Donahue, M.; Goulding, A.; Mason, B.; Merten, J.; Mroczkowski, T.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between thermal and non-thermal components in merger galaxy clusters, we present deep JVLA and Chandra observations of the HST Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The Chandra image shows a complex merger event, with at least four components belonging to different merging subclusters. Northwest of the cluster, ∼0.7 Mpc from the center, there is a ram-pressure-stripped core that appears to have traversed the densest parts of the cluster after entering the intracluster medium (ICM) from the direction of a galaxy filament to the southeast. We detect a density discontinuity north-northeast of this core, which we speculate is associated with a cold front. Our radio images reveal new details for the complex radio relic and radio halo in this cluster. In addition, we discover several new filamentary radio sources with sizes of 100–300 kpc. A few of these seem to be connected to the main radio relic, while others are either embedded within the radio halo or projected onto it. A narrow-angled-tailed (NAT) radio galaxy, a cluster member, is located at the center of the radio relic. The steep spectrum tails of this active galactic nucleus lead into the large radio relic where the radio spectrum flattens again. This morphological connection between the NAT radio galaxy and relic provides evidence for re-acceleration (revival) of fossil electrons. The presence of hot ≳20 keV ICM gas detected by Chandra near the relic location provides additional support for this re-acceleration scenario.

  16. Chandra and JVLA Observations of HST Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Jones, C.; Forman, W. R.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Pearce, Connor J. J.; David, L.; Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ogrean, G. A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Bulbul, E. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Clarke, T. E. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Churazov, E. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Goulding, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mason, B. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Merten, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mroczkowski, T., E-mail: rvanweeren@cfa.harvard.edu [ESO—European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between thermal and non-thermal components in merger galaxy clusters, we present deep JVLA and Chandra observations of the HST Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The Chandra image shows a complex merger event, with at least four components belonging to different merging subclusters. Northwest of the cluster, ∼0.7 Mpc from the center, there is a ram-pressure-stripped core that appears to have traversed the densest parts of the cluster after entering the intracluster medium (ICM) from the direction of a galaxy filament to the southeast. We detect a density discontinuity north-northeast of this core, which we speculate is associated with a cold front. Our radio images reveal new details for the complex radio relic and radio halo in this cluster. In addition, we discover several new filamentary radio sources with sizes of 100–300 kpc. A few of these seem to be connected to the main radio relic, while others are either embedded within the radio halo or projected onto it. A narrow-angled-tailed (NAT) radio galaxy, a cluster member, is located at the center of the radio relic. The steep spectrum tails of this active galactic nucleus lead into the large radio relic where the radio spectrum flattens again. This morphological connection between the NAT radio galaxy and relic provides evidence for re-acceleration (revival) of fossil electrons. The presence of hot ≳20 keV ICM gas detected by Chandra near the relic location provides additional support for this re-acceleration scenario.

  17. Refeeding syndrome influences outcome of anorexia nervosa patients in intensive care unit: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaud, Marie; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Ruivard, Marc; Villemeyre-Plane, Michele; Futier, Emmanuel; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Annane, Djillali

    2010-01-01

    Data on the epidemiology and management of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality of AN in French ICUs. We randomly selected 30 ICUs throughout France. Thereafter, we retrospectively analyzed all patients with AN admitted to any of these 30 ICUs between May 2006 and May 2008. We considered demographic data, diagnosis at admission and complications occurring during the stay, focusing on refeeding syndrome and management of refeeding. Eleven of the 30 ICUs participated in the retrospective study, featuring 68 patients, including 62 women. Average body mass index at the admission was 12 ± 3 kg/m2. Twenty one were mechanically ventilated, mainly for neurological reasons. The reported average calorie intake was 22.3 ± 13 kcal/kg/24 h. Major diagnoses at admission were metabolic problems, refeeding survey and voluntary drug intoxication and infection. The most common complications were metabolic, hematological, hepatic, and infectious events, of which 10% occurred during refeeding. Seven patients developed refeeding syndrome. At day one, the average calorie intake was higher for patients who developed refeeding syndrome (23.2 ± 5 Kcal/kg/j; n = 7) versus patients without refeeding syndrome (14.1 ± 3 Kcal/kg/j; n = 61) P = 0.02. Seven patients died, two from acute respiratory distress syndrome and five from multiorgan-failure associated with major hydroelectrolytic problems. The frequency of AN in ICU patients is very low and the crude mortality in this group is about 10%. Prevention and early-detection of refeeding syndrome is the key point.

  18. Recent changes in flood damage in the United States from observations and ACME model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, G.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Despite efforts to mitigate flood hazards in flood-prone areas, survey- and report-based flood databases show that flood damage has increased and emerged as one of the most costly disaster in the United States since the 1990s. Understanding the mechanism driving the changes in flood damage is therefore critical for reducing flood risk. In this study, we first conduct a comprehensive analysis of the changing characteristics of flood damage at local, state and country level. Results show a significant increasing trend in the number of flood hazards, causing economic losses of up to $7 billion per year. The ratio of flood events that caused tangible economical cost to the total flood events has exhibited a non-significant increasing trend before 2007 followed by a significant decrease, indicating a changing vulnerability to floods. Analysis also reveals distinct spatial and temporal patterns in the threshold intensity of flood hazards with tangible economical cost. To understand the mechanism behind the increasing flood damage, we develop a flood damage economic model coupled with the integrated hydrological modeling system of ACME that features a river routing model with an inundation parameterization and a water use and regulation model. The model is evaluated over the country against historical records. Several numerical experiments are then designed to explore the mechanisms behind the recent changes in flood damage from the perspective of flood hazard, exposure and vulnerability, which constitute flood damage. The role of human activities such as reservoir operations and water use in modifying regional floods are also explored using the new tool, with the goal of improving understanding and modeling of vulnerability to flood hazards.

  19. Towards an improved determination of Earth’s lithospheric field from satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris

    Perhaps one of the biggest difficulties in modelling the Earth’s lithospheric magnetic field is the separation of contributions from sources of internal and external origin. In particular, the determination of smaller-scale lithospheric magnetic field features is problematic because the lithosphe......Perhaps one of the biggest difficulties in modelling the Earth’s lithospheric magnetic field is the separation of contributions from sources of internal and external origin. In particular, the determination of smaller-scale lithospheric magnetic field features is problematic because...

  20. [Preliminary study on detox in outpatient care units with 18 alcoholic patients in Directly Observed Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloréns Martínez, Ramón; Calatayud Francés, María; Morales Gallús, Esperanza; Añó Cervera, Consol; Adriá Caballero, Librada

    2008-01-01

    Directly Observed Treatment (TOD-DOT) has been tested in different conditions. The objective of this work is to check whether a UCA-CAB (Centre for Addictive Behaviour) can achieve detox and reduce the risk of early relapse (up to 12 weeks) in alcoholic patients. All patients had an established organic addiction and serious withdrawal syndrome, and had undergone multiple previous treatments. Furthermore, they had not managed to abstain for a 3-month consecutive period over the previous 2 years. The aim of the Directly Observed Treatment was to attain detox and reduce relapse by following a multi-method approach: medical, psychological and personal care, based on a brief daily consultation and pharmacological supervision. The results were as follows: Of the 18 patients included in the study, after 12 weeks, 13 (72 %) were still abstinent and 4 (22 %) had relapsed. Thus, 17 (94 %) were still following the treatment, with just one drop-out. We analysed the profiles of the patients abstaining, of those who relapsed (4) and of the one who dropped out. The average CIWA-Ar was 27.05 (21-36). Any value over 20 is considered to indicate serious withdrawal syndrome, though there were no negative events leading to hospitalization. Level of adherence to the treatment (94 %) meant that the most seriously affected patients and those with fewest financial resources could benefit, not only from any auxiliary social schemes, but also from basic health services, permitting them to improve the quality of their everyday life.

  1. Observations on Faults and Associated Permeability Structures in Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance B.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Haugstad, Dawn N.; Huckins-Gang, Heather E.; Townsend, Margaret J.

    2009-03-30

    Observational data on Nevada Test Site (NTS) faults were gathered from a variety of sources, including surface and tunnel exposures, core samples, geophysical logs, and down-hole cameras. These data show that NTS fault characteristics and fault zone permeability structures are similar to those of faults studied in other regions. Faults at the NTS form complex and heterogeneous fault zones with flow properties that vary in both space and time. Flow property variability within fault zones can be broken down into four major components that allow for the development of a simplified, first approximation model of NTS fault zones. This conceptual model can be used as a general guide during development and evaluation of groundwater flow and contaminate transport models at the NTS.

  2. United States Newspaper Program. List of Intended Audience Terms for 655 Genre Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison.

    The United States Newspaper Program (USNP) is a national, cooperative effort to locate, catalog, and preserve on microfilm newspapers published in the United States and its territories since the seventeenth century. This list of intended-audience terms was initially developed by the USNP staff at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, but soon…

  3. Null Arguments in Transitional Trilingual Grammars: Field Observations from Misionero German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michael T.; Lipski, John

    2016-01-01

    In this field note we discuss findings from pilot research on a variety of heritage German spoken in the Northeastern Province of Misiones of Argentina. Based on sociolinguistic field interviews with 25 consultants possessing varying degrees of proficiency in the language, we show that this variant of heritage German does in fact occasionally…

  4. Measuring Coronal Magnetic Fields with Remote Sensing Observations of Shock Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemporad, Alessandro; Susino, Roberto; Frassati, Federica; Fineschi, Silvano, E-mail: bemporad@oato.inaf.it [INAF, Turin Astrophysical Observatory, Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2016-05-27

    Our limited knowledge of the magnetic fields structuring in the solar corona represents today the main hurdle in our understanding of its structure and dynamic. Over the last decades significant efforts have been dedicated to measure these fields, by approaching the problem on many different sides and in particular: (i) by improving our theoretical understanding of the modification (via Zeeman and Hanle effects) induced by these fields on the polarization of coronal emission lines, (ii) by developing new instrumentation to measure directly with spectro-polarimeters these modifications, (iii) by improving the reliability of the extrapolated coronal fields starting from photospheric measurements, (iv) by developing new techniques to analyse existing remote sensing data and infer properties of these fields, or by combining all these different approaches (e.g., Chifu et al.,).

  5. Solar magnetic field - 1976 through 1985: an atlas of photospheric magnetic field observations and computed coronal magnetic fields from the John M. Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford, 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeksema, J.T.; Scherrer, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daily magnetogram observations of the large-scale photospheric magnetic field have been made at the John M. Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford since May of 1976. These measurements provide a homogeneous record of the changing solar field through most of Solar Cycle 21. Using the photospheric data, the configuration of the coronal and heliospheric fields can be calculated using a Potential Field -- Source Surface model. This provides a 3-dimensional picture of the heliospheric field-evolution during the solar cycle. In this report the authors present the complete set of synoptic charts of the measured photospheric magnetic field, the computed field at the source surface, and the coefficients of the multipole expansion of the coronal field. The general underlying structure of the solar and heliospheric fields, which determine the environment for solar - terrestrial relations and provide the context within which solar-activity-related events occur, can be approximated from these data

  6. Infectious bronchitis in Brazilian chickens: current data and observations of field service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EN Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV was detected for the first time in Brazil by Hipólito in 1957 in chickens sold life in the municipal market of Belo Horizonte, MG, when commercial poultry production was just starting in that country. The Massachusetts (Mass serotype was identified. However, the clinical disease was only observed in 1975, when poultry production was intensely growing. The extensive outbreak produced the classical condition in layers and breeders, affecting egg production and quality, whereas broilers presented respiratory and "nephritis-nephrosis" signs. The disease rapidly spread to all poultry-producing regions in the country, and in 1979, both the imports and the manufacturing of live vaccines against IB strains Mass, H120 and H52, were licensed. In 1980, inactivated vaccines were introduced. Molecular techniques, particularly PCR, started to bed in the identification of IBV. A retrospective analysis showed that, up to 1989, the main IBV strain circulating in Brazil was Mass. However, other studies shows the presence of a wide diversity of IBV strains in Brazil since the first strains were isolated, even before vaccination was introduced. Most researchers agree that the incidence of IBV different from Mass has increased, including of exclusively Brazilian genotypes, different from those described in other countries. Indeed, during the last few years, the number of genotypical variants has been much higher than that of the classical Mass serotype. Clinically, in addition of the classic presentations, atypical forms such as testicular atrophy and stones in the epidydimis associated to low fertility have been described. Serological techniques started to be used in vaccination monitoring and as a diagnostic tool. Serological response standards were developed, and have shown to be very useful to determine the expected profile in vaccination programs and when clinical disease is suspected. However, the immuno-enzymatic test

  7. Global analysis of cloud field coverage and radiative properties, using morphological methods and MODIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Bar-Or

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently recognized continuous transition zone between detectable clouds and cloud-free atmosphere ("the twilight zone" is affected by undetectable clouds and humidified aerosol. In this study, we suggest to distinguish cloud fields (including the detectable clouds and the surrounding twilight zone from cloud-free areas, which are not affected by clouds. For this classification, a robust and simple-to-implement cloud field masking algorithm which uses only the spatial distribution of clouds, is presented in detail. A global analysis, estimating Earth's cloud field coverage (50° S–50° N for 28 July 2008, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, finds that while the declared cloud fraction is 51%, the global cloud field coverage reaches 88%. The results reveal the low likelihood for finding a cloud-free pixel and suggest that this likelihood may decrease as the pixel size becomes larger. A global latitudinal analysis of cloud fields finds that unlike oceans, which are more uniformly covered by cloud fields, land areas located under the subsidence zones of the Hadley cell (the desert belts, contain proper areas for investigating cloud-free atmosphere as there is 40–80% probability to detect clear sky over them. Usually these golden-pixels, with higher likelihood to be free of clouds, are over deserts. Independent global statistical analysis, using MODIS aerosol and cloud products, reveals a sharp exponential decay of the global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD as a function of the distance from the nearest detectable cloud, both above ocean and land. Similar statistical analysis finds an exponential growth of mean aerosol fine-mode fraction (FMF over oceans when the distance from the nearest cloud increases. A 30 km scale break clearly appears in several analyses here, suggesting this is a typical natural scale of cloud fields. This work shows different microphysical and optical properties of cloud fields

  8. DACCIWA Cloud-Aerosol Observations in West Africa Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J Christine [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Blanchard, Yann [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Hill, Peter [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, Laurie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Interactions between aerosols and clouds, and their effects on radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations, are one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. With reducing uncertainties in predictions of weather, climate, and climate impacts in mind, the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, funded by the European Commission, set out to improve our understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions in southern West Africa. This region is ideal for studying cloud-aerosol interactions because of its rich mix of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and diverse clouds, and because of the strong dependence on the regional and global climate of the sensitive West African monsoon. The overview of DACCIWA is described in Knippertz et al. 2015. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team includes not only several European and African universities, but also Met Centres in the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. One of the crucial research activities in DACCIWA is the major field campaign in southern West Africa from June to July 2016, comprising a benchmark data set for assessing detailed processes on natural and anthropogenic emissions; atmospheric composition; air pollution and its impacts on human and ecosystem health; boundary layer processes; couplings between aerosols, clouds, and rainfall; weather systems; radiation; and the monsoon circulation. Details and highlights of the campaign can be found in Flamant et al. 2017. To provide aerosol/cloud microphysical and optical properties that are essential for model evaluations and for the linkage between ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility loaned two sun photometers to the DACCWIA team for the campaign from June 8 to July 29, 2016. The first sun photometer was deployed at Kumasi, Ghana (6.67962°N, 1.56019°W) by the University of Leeds

  9. [Application of new technologies in the design, manufacture and use of technology deployment of field medical units and establishments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, S V; Sidorov, V A; Korniushko, I G; Medvedev, V R; Matveev, A G

    2011-11-01

    Presented data is about attendance means of deployment of field medical units and pieces of army-level medical services and disaster medicine Defense Ministry did not ensure compliance with requirements to create optimal conditions for highly effective work of the medical staff, placing the wounded, the use of modern aids and appliances. The prospects of creation of mobile unit for high-availability modular pre-fabricated on the basis of tent structures, pneumoconstructions and removable habitable bodies, containers, tents, pneumocovers till 2020 are analyzed. Livelihood systems provide armor protection against fragments, bullets, flames, damaging factors of chemical and biological weapons.

  10. The sub-auroral electric field as observed by DMSP and the new SuperDARN mid-latitude radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Sotirelis, T.; Hairston, M. R.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we present analyses of the sub-auroral electric field environment as observed from both space and ground. We discuss the dependency of the configuration and strength of the sub-auroral electric field on IMF and geomagnetic activity, longitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle variability. Primarily, e use ~20 years of electric field measurement dataset derived from the suite of DMSP ion drift meters. A major component of our analysis is correctly specifying the aurora boundary, as the behavior and magnitude of these fields will be drastically different away from the high-conductance auroral oval. As such, we use the coincident particle flux measurements from the DMSP SSJ4 monitors. We also present the solar minimum observations of the sub-auroral flow newly available from the mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops and Blackstone in Virginia. Preliminary comparisons between these flows and the DMSP climatology are discussed.

  11. Observations of plasma tearing instabilities and associated axial translation in field-reversed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Cochrane, J.C.; Lipson, J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-02-01

    Tearing and reconnection processes during the formation and quiescent periods of a field-reversed configuration are studied with an axial array of compensated diamagnetic loops. Several representative plasma shots are documented

  12. Electric fields and currents observed by S3-2 in the vicinity of discrete arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The high time resolution of the electric and magnetic field detectors on the polar orbiting satellite S3-2 made it possible to examine the details of auroral events down to discrete-arc scales. Depending on the instantaneous look direction of an electron detector, information about field-aligned accelerations above the satellite could also be obtained. Case studies of four arc events, three in the auroral oval and one in the polar cap, have been completed. Field-aligned currents associated with arcs in the auroral oval appeared as matched pairs of oppositely directed current sheets. Magnetic deflections, almost exclusively in the east-west direction departed from and returned to baselines established by the large-scale Region 1/Region 2 currents. The upward currents had intensities of up to 145 microamperes/sq m and were carried by electrons that were accelerated through field aligned potential drops. The relationship between the field-aligned current density and potential drop is not inconsistent with predictions of a laminar flow model. The most intense return (downward) currents were in the 10 to 15 microamperes/sq m range. At satellite altitudes near 1000 km, these currents approximate the critical limit for current driven, ion cyclotron instabilities. The arc in the polar cap was sun-aligned and was found in a region of intense convective shear, with the electric field pointing toward the center of the arc. The field-aligned currents consisted of three sheets two with currents flowing into and one out of the ionosphere. The upward current was carried by polar-rain electrons that had undergone a field-aligned acceleration of approximately 1 kV. 19 references

  13. TAURUS observations of the emission-line velocity field of Centaurus A (NGC 5128)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.; Atherton, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Using TAURUS - an Imaging Fabry Perot system in conjunction with the IPCS on the AAT, the authors have studied the velocity field of the Hα emission line at a spatial resolution of 1.7'' over the dark lane structure of Centaurus A. The derived velocity field is quite symmetrical and strongly suggests that the emission line material is orbiting the elliptical component, as a warped disc. (orig.)

  14. Microscopic observation of magnetic bacteria in the magnetic field of a rotating permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Pieter; Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Petersen, Nikolai

    2015-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are ubiquitous and can be found in both freshwater and marine environments. Due to intracellular chains of magnetic single domain particles, they behave like swimming compass needles. In external magnetic fields like the Earth's magnetic field, a torque is acting on the chain. This will cause the bacterium to be rotated and aligned with the external field. The swimming direction of magnetotactic bacteria can be controlled with external magnetic fields, which makes it convenient to study them under a light microscope. Usually, a special set of coils arranged around a light microscope is used to control the swimming magnetotactic bacteria. Here, we present a simple mechanical system with a permanent magnet, which produces a rotating magnetic field of nearly constant amplitude in the focal plane of a light microscope. The device is placed beside the light microscope and easily adaptable to almost any microscope and thus convenient for field experiments. To describe the trajectories qualitatively, a theoretical model of the trajectories is presented. This device can be used to control the swimming direction of magnetotactic bacteria and also for studying their magnetic and hydrodynamic properties.

  15. Molecular Changes Observed In Aqueous Humour Of Eye Following Exposure To Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALI, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The response of proteins to different forms of stress is considered a topic of major interest, especially with the proliferation of electromagnetic devices which have detrimental effects on human health. In the present study, the effect of electric field on proteins of eye aqueous humour was studied. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to electric field of intensities 1, 3 and 5 kV/m at 50 Hz for two months. After recovery period of 45 days, the late effect of electric field was also studied after exposure to the dose 5 kV/m. The change in the molecular structure of aqueous humour proteins was detected through the use of gel permeation chromatography, estimation of total protein content and electrophoretic mobility. The results indicated that there was increase in the molecular weight of the aqueous humour proteins for the exposed rats, decrease in total protein content reached to 42% at exposure to 5 kV/m and change in electrophoretic mobility. Moreover, the late effect following the recovery period showed that the processes of damage to the aqueous humour were still propagating which indicate that exposure to electric field can cause progressive changes to the eye even after release of electric field. In conclusion, exposure to electromagnetic field with low frequency could induce health hazards.

  16. Balancing the dual responsibilities of business unit controllers: field and survey evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Matejka, M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine how business unit (BU) controllers balance their dual roles of providing information for both local decision-making (local responsibility) and corporate control (functional responsibility). The existing literature suggests that organizations can improve the quality of financial reporting

  17. Polarization Properties and Magnetic Field Structures in the High-mass Star-forming Region W51 Observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Su, Yu-Nung; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2018-03-01

    We present the first ALMA dust polarization observations toward the high-mass star-forming regions W51 e2, e8, and W51 North in Band 6 (230 GHz) with a resolution of about 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 26 (∼5 mpc). Polarized emission in all three sources is clearly detected and resolved. Measured relative polarization levels are between 0.1% and 10%. While the absolute polarization shows complicated structures, the relative polarization displays the typical anticorrelation with Stokes I, although with a large scatter. Inferred magnetic (B) field morphologies are organized and connected. Detailed substructures are resolved, revealing new features such as comet-shaped B-field morphologies in satellite cores, symmetrically converging B-field zones, and possibly streamlined morphologies. The local B-field dispersion shows some anticorrelation with the relative polarization. Moreover, the lowest polarization percentages together with largest dispersions coincide with B-field convergence zones. We put forward \\sin ω , where ω is the measurable angle between a local B-field orientation and local gravity, as a measure of how effectively the B field can oppose gravity. Maps of \\sin ω for all three sources show organized structures that suggest a locally varying role of the B field, with some regions where gravity can largely act unaffectedly, possibly in a network of narrow magnetic channels, and other regions where the B field can work maximally against gravity.

  18. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Siqi Han; Dmitry Tumin; Zhenchao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and ...

  19. Observation of field-induced long-range order in disordered Sr14Cu24O41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsugi, S.; Matsumoto, S.; Kitaoka, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Uehara, M.; Nagata, T.; Akimitsu, J.

    2004-01-01

    Field-induced magnetic order in a structural disordered single-crystal Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 (Sr 14 -B) has been observed in the Cu-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements for the ladder sites below 20 K under the magnetic field H∼11 T. For the Zhang Rice (ZR) sites in the chains, the spectrum splits below 20 K due to an appearance of the internal field, whereas that of less disordered Sr 14 -A does not. This gives an evidence of three-dimensional (3D) long-range (LR) ordering in Sr 14 -B below T N ∼20 K under H∼11 T

  20. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  1. Time lapse seismic observations and effects of reservoir compressibility at Teal South oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nayyer

    One of the original ocean-bottom time-lapse seismic studies was performed at the Teal South oil field in the Gulf of Mexico during the late 1990's. This work reexamines some aspects of previous work using modern analysis techniques to provide improved quantitative interpretations. Using three-dimensional volume visualization of legacy data and the two phases of post-production time-lapse data, I provide additional insight into the fluid migration pathways and the pressure communication between different reservoirs, separated by faults. This work supports a conclusion from previous studies that production from one reservoir caused regional pressure decline that in turn resulted in liberation of gas from multiple surrounding unproduced reservoirs. I also provide an explanation for unusual time-lapse changes in amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) data related to the compaction of the producing reservoir which, in turn, changed an isotropic medium to an anisotropic medium. In the first part of this work, I examine regional changes in seismic response due to the production of oil and gas from one reservoir. The previous studies primarily used two post-production ocean-bottom surveys (Phase I and Phase II), and not the legacy streamer data, due to the unavailability of legacy prestack data and very different acquisition parameters. In order to incorporate the legacy data in the present study, all three post-stack data sets were cross-equalized and examined using instantaneous amplitude and energy volumes. This approach appears quite effective and helps to suppress changes unrelated to production while emphasizing those large-amplitude changes that are related to production in this noisy (by current standards) suite of data. I examine the multiple data sets first by using the instantaneous amplitude and energy attributes, and then also examine specific apparent time-lapse changes through direct comparisons of seismic traces. In so doing, I identify time-delays that, when

  2. Magnetic Helicity Estimations in Models and Observations of the Solar Magnetic Field. III. Twist Number Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. [School of Astronomy and Space Science and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Pariat, E.; Moraitis, K. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-92190 Meudon (France); Valori, G. [University College London, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Anfinogentov, S. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS 664033, Irkutsk, P.O. box 291, Lermontov Street, 126a (Russian Federation); Chen, F. [Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Georgoulis, M. K. [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Athens, 4 Soranou Efesiou Street, 11527 Athens (Greece); Liu, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Thalmann, J. K. [Institute of Physics, Univeristy of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Yang, S., E-mail: guoyang@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-05-01

    We study the writhe, twist, and magnetic helicity of different magnetic flux ropes, based on models of the solar coronal magnetic field structure. These include an analytical force-free Titov–Démoulin equilibrium solution, non-force-free magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and nonlinear force-free magnetic field models. The geometrical boundary of the magnetic flux rope is determined by the quasi-separatrix layer and the bottom surface, and the axis curve of the flux rope is determined by its overall orientation. The twist is computed by the Berger–Prior formula, which is suitable for arbitrary geometry and both force-free and non-force-free models. The magnetic helicity is estimated by the twist multiplied by the square of the axial magnetic flux. We compare the obtained values with those derived by a finite volume helicity estimation method. We find that the magnetic helicity obtained with the twist method agrees with the helicity carried by the purely current-carrying part of the field within uncertainties for most test cases. It is also found that the current-carrying part of the model field is relatively significant at the very location of the magnetic flux rope. This qualitatively explains the agreement between the magnetic helicity computed by the twist method and the helicity contributed purely by the current-carrying magnetic field.

  3. Development of field simulator to test and qualify the gyrotron local control unit for ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ronak; Mandge, Deepak; Rathod, Vipal; Parmar, Rajvi; Dilip, E. Sharan; Yadav, Amit; Sharma, Anjali; Rao, S.L.

    2017-01-01

    High power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system are operated at required output parameter by using various auxiliary power supplies, High voltage power supplies, auxiliary services and a dedicated Local Control Unit (LCU). These sub-systems must be operated in synchronous and safe way to control the gyrotron output parameters. The LCU performs remote, synchronous and safe operation of the all the gyrotron sub-systems. Broadly the LCU functions are operational control, data acquisition, protection and safety of the gyrotron system. At ITER-India gyrotron Test Facility (IIGTF) a local control unit (LCU) is being developed to operate the complete gyrotron system. This paper presents the design, development and various features of the field simulator. It also discuss LCU functionality test cases and results obtained using field simulator

  4. An ozone episode in the Pearl River Delta: Field observation and model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F.; Guo, H.; Wang, T. J.; Cheng, H. R.; Wang, X. M.; Simpson, I. J.; Ding, A. J.; Saunders, S. M.; Lam, S. H. M.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-11-01

    In the fall of 2007 concurrent air sampling field measurements were conducted for the first time in Guangzhou (at Wan Qing Sha (WQS)) and Hong Kong (at Tung Chung (TC)), two cities in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China that are only 62 km apart. This region is known to suffer from poor air quality, especially during the autumn and winter months, when the prevailing meteorological conditions bring an outflow of continental air to the region. An interesting multiday O3 pollution event (daily maximum O3 > 122 ppbv) was captured during 9-17 November at WQS, while only one O3 episode day (10 November) was observed at TC during this time. The mean O3 mixing ratios at TC and WQS during the episode were 38 ± 3 (mean ± 95% confidence interval) and 51 ± 7 ppbv, respectively, with a mean difference of 13 ppbv and a maximum hourly difference of 150 ppbv. We further divided this event into two periods: 9-11 November as Period 1 and 12-17 November as Period 2. The mixing ratios of O3 and its precursors (NOx and CO) showed significant differences between the two periods at TC. By contrast, no obvious difference was found at WQS, indicating that different air masses arrived at TC for the two periods, as opposed to similar air masses at WQS for both periods. The analysis of VOC ratios and their relationship with O3 revealed strong O3 production at WQS during Period 2, in contrast to relatively weak photochemical O3 formation at TC. The weather conditions implied regional transport of O3 pollution during Period 1 at both sites. Furthermore, a comprehensive air quality model system (Weather Research and Forecasting-Community Multiscale Air Quality model (WRF-CMAQ)) was used to simulate this O3 pollution event. The model system generally reproduced the variations of weather conditions, simulated well the continuous high O3 episode event at WQS, and captured fairly well the elevated O3 mixing ratios in Period 1 and low O3 levels in Period 2 at TC. The modeled

  5. Simulations and field tests of a reactor coolant pump emergency start-up by means of remote gas units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omahen, P.; Gubina, F.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the reactor coolant pump start-up in case of emergency by means of remote gas power plant units was analyzed. In this paper a simulation model is developed which enabled a detailed simulation of the transient process occurring at the start-up. The start-up of the RCP motor set was simulated in case of available one and two gas units. The field tests were performed and the measured variable values complied well with the simulation results. Two gas units have been determined as a safe start-up scheme of the RCP motor set considering for safety reasons accepted busbars and motor protection settings. A derived model for deep rotor bars was experimentally confirmed as effective means for the RCP motor set start-up transient simulation. Start-up procedures have been designed and adopted to the safety procedures of the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

  6. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pinton, Jean-Francois; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier, E-mail: kian.rahbarnia@ipp.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CNRS and Universite de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France)

    2012-11-10

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  7. Observation and analysis of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. N.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a limited study of the physical nature of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field based on 19 day's data from the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. The period was chosen to include a high-velocity solar wind stream and low-velocity wind. Abrupt events were accepted for study if the sum of the energy density in the magnetic field and velocity changes was above a specified minimum. A statistical analysis of the events in the high-velocity solar wind stream shows that Alfvenic changes predominate. This conclusion is independent of whether steady state requirements are imposed on conditions before and after the event. Alfvenic changes do not dominate in the lower-speed wind. This study extends the plasma field evidence for outwardly propagating Alfvenic changes to time scales as small as 1 min (scale lengths on the order of 20,000 km).

  8. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B.; Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  9. Magnetic field dependence observed by 27 Al NMR of species contained in alumina colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado Junior, Edisson; Menezes, Sonia M.C.; San Gil, Rosane

    1995-01-01

    The behaviour of some aluminium species front a magnetic field have been investigated by 27 Al NMR analysis, this method was used for characterization of an octahedric aluminium specie from sols prepared by bohemite acid peptization. X-ray diffraction data have identified the mineral structure. The results have been shown and discussed, and NMR spectra were also presented and studied. Concluding this work, the nature of a colloidal specie of alumina was clarified through the dependence research of magnetic field by 27 Al NMR

  10. Subsurface oil release field experiment - observations and modelling of subsurface plume behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.; Brandvik, P.J.; Reed, M.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at sea, in which oil was released from 107 metres depth, in order to study plume behaviour. The objective of the underwater release was to simulate a pipeline leakage without gas and high pressure and to study the behaviour of the rising plume. A numerical model for the underwater plume behaviour was used for comparison with field data. The expected path of the plume, the time expected for the plume to reach the sea surface and the width of the plume was modelled. Field data and the numerical model were in good agreement. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  11. Numerical analyses of magnetic field and force in toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage using unit coils (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamaru, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Amemiya, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than other systems of electric energy storage because of its larger amounts of stored energy and its higher efficiency. There are two types of SMES. One is the solenoid type and the other is the toroidal type. Some models of solenoid-type SMES are designed in the U.S. and in Japan. But the large scale SMES causes a high magnetic field in the living environment, and causes the erroneous operation of electronic equipment. The authors studied some suitable designs of magnetic shielding for the solenoidal-type SMES to reduce the magnetic field in the living environment. The toiroidal type SMES is studied in this article. The magnetic leakage flux of the toiroidal-type SMES is generally lower than that of the solenoid-type SMES. The toroidal-type SMES is constructed of unit coils, which are convenient for construction. The magnetic leakage flux occurs between unit coils. The electromagnetic force of the coils is very strong. Therefore analyses of the leakage flux and electromagnetic force are important to the design of SMES. The authors studied the number, radius, and length of unit coils. The storage energy is 5 G Wh. The numerical analyses of magnetic fields in the toroidal type SMES are obtained by analytical solutions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Observed Correlation between Aerosol and Cloud Base Height for Low Clouds at Baltimore and New York, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sium Gebremariam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between aerosol particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μ m (PM2.5 and cloud base height (CBH of low clouds (CBH lower than 1.5 km a.g.l. at Baltimore and New York, United States, for an 8 year period (2007–2014 was investigated using information from the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS observations and collocated U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA observations. The lifting condensation level (LCL heights were calculated and compared with the CBH. The monthly average observations show that PM2.5 decreases from 2007 to 2014 while there is no significant trend found for CBH and LCL. The variability of the LCL height agrees well with CBH but LCL height is systematically lower than CBH (~180 m lower. There was a significant negative correlation found between CBH–LCL and PM2.5. All of the cloud cases were separated into polluted and clean conditions based on the distribution of PM2.5 values. The distributions of CBH–LCL in the two groups show more cloud cases with smaller CBH–LCL in polluted conditions than in clean conditions.

  13. Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christer; Poulsen, Mikael Dahlerup; Peronne, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    We show experimentally that field-free alignment of iodobenzene molecules, induced by a single, intense, linearly polarized 1.4-ps-long laser pulse, can be strongly enhanced by dividing the pulse into two optimally synchronized pulses of the same duration. For a given total energy of the two...

  14. Exchange magnetic field torques in YIG/Pt bilayers observed by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlietstra, N.; Shan, J.; Castel, V.; Ben Youssef, J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; van Wees, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The effective field torque of an yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) film on the spin accumulation in an attached platinum (Pt) film is measured by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). As a result, the magnetization direction of a ferromagnetic insulating layer can be measured electrically. Experimental

  15. Phenocams bridge the gap between field and satellite observations in an arid grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near surface (i.e., camera) and satellite remote sensing metrics have become widely used indicators of plant growing seasons. While robust linkages have been established between field metrics and ecosystem exchange in many land cover types, assessment of how well remotely-derived season start and en...

  16. Solute movement observation in the field soils by means of radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichner, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radioactive tracer method is discussed as applied to transfer velocity measurements of solutions in unsaturated soils, its applicability and the criteria for the choice of the tracer. The method is based on measurement of the radioactive tracer velocity in the field and on laboratory determination of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the tracer and the solute in the same field soil. From these results and from the soil characteristics (porosity, bulk density) the solute transfer velocity in the field soil can be calculated. The results are presented of 131 I - velocity measurements in the loamy soil in the region of water source Cunovo near Bratislava, which equals 9.29x10 -9 m/s, and in the downstream slope of the earth dam Rozgrund near Banska Stiavnica where the velocity of 131 I - near the dam foot was found to be 2.03 - 2.86 times greater than near the top. Results are also presented of 131 I - , [ 60 Co-EDTA] - and 60 Co 2+ velocity measurements in clay-loam soil at the experimental field of the Research Institute of Irrigation in Most near Bratislava. The results are applicable to evaluation of surface damage to embankments and earth dams, to determination of the conservation zone around water sources, and the establishment of the level of ground water pollution from different sources (waste disposal, agriculture, etc.)

  17. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  18. Field Observations of Surf Zone-Inner Shelf Exchange on a Rip-Channeled Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.A.; MacMahan, J.H.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Thornton, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-shore exchange between the surf zone and the inner shelf is investigated using Lagrangian and Eulerian field measurements of rip current flows on a rip-channeled beach in Sand City, California. Surface drifters released on the inner shelf during weak wind conditions moved seaward due to rip

  19. Catchment response to lava damming: integrating field observation, geochronology and landscape evolution modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gorp, Wouter; Schoorl, Jeroen M.; Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Reimann, Tony; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Maddy, Darrel; Demir, Tuncer; Veldkamp, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Combining field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling can be useful to investigate the relative role of different drivers on catchment response. The Geren Catchment (~45 km2) in western Turkey is suitable for such a study, as it has been influenced by uplift, climate change and lava

  20. Some properties of the representation of the quasilocal observables in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testard, D.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1977-09-01

    For a finite non zero temperature state in Statistical Mechanics it is proved that the factor obtained in the corresponding representation of the quasilocal algebra has the property of Araki. The same result also holds for the 'wedge-algebras' of a hermitian scalar Wightman field

  1. Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durkam, C.; Shvets, I.V.; Lodder, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that it is possible to image magnetic domains with a resolution of better than 60 nm with the Kerr effect in a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope. Images taken of tracks of thermomagnetically prewritten bits in a Co/Pt multilayer structure magnetized out-of

  2. The magnetic field configuration of a solar prominence inferred from spectropolarimetric observations in the He i 10 830 Å triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Determining the magnetic field vector in quiescent solar prominences is possible by interpreting the Hanle and Zeeman effects in spectral lines. However, observational measurements are scarce and lack high spatial resolution. Aims: We determine the magnetic field vector configuration along a quiescent solar prominence by interpreting spectropolarimetric measurements in the He i 1083.0 nm triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter installed at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide. Methods: The He i 1083.0 nm triplet Stokes profiles were analyzed with an inversion code that takes the physics responsible for the polarization signals in this triplet into account. The results are put into a solar context with the help of extreme ultraviolet observations taken with the Solar Dynamic Observatory and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory satellites. Results: For the most probable magnetic field vector configuration, the analysis depicts a mean field strength of 7 gauss. We do not find local variations in the field strength except that the field is, on average, lower in the prominence body than in the prominence feet, where the field strength reaches ~25 gauss. The averaged magnetic field inclination with respect to the local vertical is ~77°. The acute angle of the magnetic field vector with the prominence main axis is 24° for the sinistral chirality case and 58° for the dextral chirality. These inferences are in rough agreement with previous results obtained from the analysis of data acquired with lower spatial resolutions. A movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Frame-dragging effect in the field of non rotating body due to unit gravimagnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriglazov, Alexei A.; Ramírez, Walberto Guzmán

    2018-04-01

    Nonminimal spin-gravity interaction through unit gravimagnetic moment leads to modified Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon equations with improved behavior in the ultrarelativistic limit. We present exact Hamiltonian of the resulting theory and compute an effective 1/c2-Hamiltonian and leading post-Newtonian corrections to the trajectory and spin. Gravimagnetic moment causes the same precession of spin S as a fictitious rotation of the central body with angular momentum J = M/m S. So the modified equations imply a number of qualitatively new effects, that could be used to test experimentally, whether a rotating body in general relativity has null or unit gravimagnetic moment.

  4. Direct observation of single-charge-detection capability of nanowire field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfi, J; Savelyev, I G; Blumin, M; Nair, S V; Ruda, H E

    2010-10-01

    A single localized charge can quench the luminescence of a semiconductor nanowire, but relatively little is known about the effect of single charges on the conductance of the nanowire. In one-dimensional nanostructures embedded in a material with a low dielectric permittivity, the Coulomb interaction and excitonic binding energy are much larger than the corresponding values when embedded in a material with the same dielectric permittivity. The stronger Coulomb interaction is also predicted to limit the carrier mobility in nanowires. Here, we experimentally isolate and study the effect of individual localized electrons on carrier transport in InAs nanowire field-effect transistors, and extract the equivalent charge sensitivity. In the low carrier density regime, the electrostatic potential produced by one electron can create an insulating weak link in an otherwise conducting nanowire field-effect transistor, modulating its conductance by as much as 4,200% at 31 K. The equivalent charge sensitivity, 4 × 10(-5) e Hz(-1/2) at 25 K and 6 × 10(-5) e Hz(-1/2) at 198 K, is orders of magnitude better than conventional field-effect transistors and nanoelectromechanical systems, and is just a factor of 20-30 away from the record sensitivity for state-of-the-art single-electron transistors operating below 4 K (ref. 8). This work demonstrates the feasibility of nanowire-based single-electron memories and illustrates a physical process of potential relevance for high performance chemical sensors. The charge-state-detection capability we demonstrate also makes the nanowire field-effect transistor a promising host system for impurities (which may be introduced intentionally or unintentionally) with potentially long spin lifetimes, because such transistors offer more sensitive spin-to-charge conversion readout than schemes based on conventional field-effect transistors.

  5. Field reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars, based on Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and MRO HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, K.W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhfer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity

  6. Using ACE Observations of Interplanetary Particles and Magnetic Fields as Possible Contributors to Variations Observed at Van Allen Probes during Major events in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from ACE EPAM including energy spectra of protons, helium, and oxygen will be prepared for coordinated use in estimating the direct and indirect access of energetic particles to inner and outer geomagnetic trapping zones. Complete temporal coverage from ACE at 12 seconds, 5 minutes, 17 minutes, hourly and daily cadences will be used to catalog interplanetary events arriving at Earth including interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries, interplanetary shocks, and interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs. The first 6 months of 2013 have included both highly disturbed times, March 17 and May 22, and extended quiet periods of little or no variations. Among the specific questions that ACE and Van Allen Probes coordinated observations may aid in resolving are: 1. How much, if any, direct capture of interplanetary energetic particles occurs and what conditions account for it? 2. How much influence do interplanetary field and particle variations have on energization and/or loss of geomagnetically trapped populations? The poster will also present important links and describe methods and important details of access to numerically expressed ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations that can be flexibly and easily accessed via the internet for student and senior researcher use.

  7. Multi-point ground-based ULF magnetic field observations in Europe during seismic active periods in 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prattes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of ground-based Ultra Low Frequency (ULF magnetic field measurements observed from June to August 2004 during the Bovec earthquake on 12 July 2004. Further we give information about the seismic activity in the local observatory region for an extended time span 2004 and 2005. ULF magnetic field data are provided by the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA where the experience and heritage from the CHInese MAGnetometer (CHIMAG fluxgate magnetometer comes to application. The intensities of the horizontal H and vertical Z magnetic field and the polarization ratio R of the vertical and horizontal magnetic field intensity are analyzed taking into consideration three SEGMA observatories located at different close distances and directions from the earthquake epicenter. We observed a significant increase of high polarization ratios during strong seismic activity at the observatory nearest to the Bovec earthquake epicenter. Apart from indirect ionospheric effects electromagnetic noise could be emitted in the lithosphere due to tectonic effects in the earthquake focus region causing anomalies of the vertical magnetic field intensity. Assuming that the measured vertical magnetic field intensities are of lithospheric origin, we roughly estimate the amplitude of electromagnetic noise in the Earths crust considering an average electrical conductivity of <σ>=10−3 S/m and a certain distance of the observatory to the earthquake epicenter.

  8. Near-field observation of spatial phase shifts associated with Goos-Hänschen and surface plasmon resonance effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    We report the near-field observation of the phase shifts associated with total internal reflection on a glass-air interface and surface plasmon resonance on a glass-gold-air system. The phase of the evanescent waves on glass and gold surfaces, as a function of incident angle, is measured using a

  9. How Students and Field Geologists Reason in Integrating Spatial Observations from Outcrops to Visualize a 3-D Geological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Agrawal, Shruti; Liben, Lynn S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologists and undergraduate students observed eight artificial "rock outcrops" in a realistically scaled field area, and then tried to envision a geological structure that might plausibly be formed by the layered rocks in the set of outcrops. Students were videotaped as they selected which of fourteen 3-D models they thought best…

  10. The First Wide-field X-ray Imaging Telescope for Observations of Charge Exchange

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Soft x-ray emission from the interaction of solar wind with the earth's exosphere provides a very significant foreground to all soft x-ray observations. It is...

  11. A comparison between highly resolved S-component observations and model calculations using force-free magnetic field extrapolations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seehafer, N.; Hildebrandt, J.; Krueger, A.; Akhmedov, Sh.; Gel'frejkh, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive model calculations of solar radio emission features were presented for the complex of solar active regions Hale No 16862, 16863, and 16864 on May 27, 1980 using force-free extrapolated magnetic fields with constant α and a treatment of radiative transfer of S-component emission. The photospheric magnetic field data were taken from magnetographic measurements whereas the required height distribution of temperature and electron density have been adopted from semi-empirical sunspot models based on recent X-, EUV-, optical, and radio observations. In contrast to the simpler magnetic field structure used in other studies, the complex source structure of the S-component emission is clearly represented by other characteristics. The results of the calculations are compared with the observations of the WRST (6 cm) and RATAN-600 (3.2 cm). (author)

  12. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units. Part II: Intensive care benefit for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprung, Charles L; Artigas, Antonio; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    on mortality and intensive care unit benefit, specifically for elderly patients. DESIGN:: Prospective, observational study of triage decisions from September 2003 until March 2005. SETTING:: Eleven intensive care units in seven European countries. PATIENTS:: All patients >18 yrs with an explicit request......RATIONALE:: Life and death triage decisions are made daily by intensive care unit physicians. Admission to an intensive care unit is denied when intensive care unit resources are constrained, especially for the elderly. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the effect of intensive care unit triage decisions...... care unit rejections than younger patients and have a higher mortality when admitted, the mortality benefit appears greater for the elderly. Physicians should consider changing their intensive care unit triage practices for the elderly....

  13. Classic (Nonquantic) Algorithm for Observations and Measurements Based on Statistical Strategies of Particles Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Savastru, D.; Dontu, Simona; Savastru, Roxana; Sterian, Andreea Rodica

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge about surroundings can be achieved by observations and measurements but both are influenced by errors (noise). Therefore one of the first tasks is to try to eliminate the noise by constructing instruments with high accuracy. But any real observed and measured system is characterized by natural limits due to the deterministic nature of the measured information. The present work is dedicated to the identification of these limits. We have analyzed some algorithms for selection and ...

  14. Dosimetry of normal and wedge fields for a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, U.B.; Kelkar, N.Y.

    1980-01-01

    A simple analytical method for computation of dose distributions for normal and wedge fields is described and the use of the method in planning radiation treatment is outlined. Formulas has been given to compute: (1) depth dose along central axis of cobalt-60 beam, (2) dose to off-axis points, and (3) dose distribution for a wedge field. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental values. With the help of these formulae, the dose at any point can be easily and accurately calculated and radiotherapy can be planned for tumours of very odd shape and sizes. The limitation of the method is that the formulae have been derived for 50% field definition. For cobalt-60 machine having any other field definition, appropriate correction factors have to be applied. (M.G.B.)

  15. Persistence and failure of mean-field approximations adapted to a class of systems of delay-coupled excitable units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina; Vasović, Nebojša; Burić, Nikola

    2014-02-01

    We consider the approximations behind the typical mean-field model derived for a class of systems made up of type II excitable units influenced by noise and coupling delays. The formulation of the two approximations, referred to as the Gaussian and the quasi-independence approximation, as well as the fashion in which their validity is verified, are adapted to reflect the essential properties of the underlying system. It is demonstrated that the failure of the mean-field model associated with the breakdown of the quasi-independence approximation can be predicted by the noise-induced bistability in the dynamics of the mean-field system. As for the Gaussian approximation, its violation is related to the increase of noise intensity, but the actual condition for failure can be cast in qualitative, rather than quantitative terms. We also discuss how the fulfillment of the mean-field approximations affects the statistics of the first return times for the local and global variables, further exploring the link between the fulfillment of the quasi-independence approximation and certain forms of synchronization between the individual units.

  16. Outsourced inovation in SMES: a field study of R&D units in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Albors Garrigós, José; Zabaleta Etxebarria, Noemi; Hervás Oliver, Jose Luis; Ganzarain Epelde, Jaione

    2011-01-01

    IJTM aims to provide a refereed and authoritative source of information in the field of managing with technology, and the management of engineering, science and technology. It seeks to establish channels of communication between government departments, technology executives in industry, commerce and related business, and academic experts in the field. SME innovation strategy and motivation has become one of the most challenging subjects of innovation policy. New innovation models propos...

  17. Bayesian framework for prediction of future number of failures from a single group of units in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers prediction of unknown number of failures in a future inspection of a group of in-service units based on number of failures observed from an earlier inspection. We develop a flexible Bayesian model and calculate Bayesian estimator for this unknown number and other quantities of interest. The paper also includes an illustration of our method in an example about heat exchanger. A main advantage of our approach is in its nonparametric nature. By nonparametric here we simply mean that no assumption is required about the failure time distribution of a unit

  18. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort. Results: Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. Conclusions: The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. Contribution: The paper shows how stratification by field of study creates gendered demographic outcomes for college graduates. It also demonstrates that women's decisions regarding marriage and parenthood do not uniformly respond to the economic prospect of their work.

  19. Small-scale field-aligned currents observed by the AKEBONO (EXOS-D) satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Oya, H.; Kokubun, S.; Tohyama, F.; Mukai, T.; Fujii, R.

    1991-01-01

    The EXOS-D fluxgate magnetometer data obtained at 3,000-10,000 km altitude have shown that small-scale field-aligned currents always exist in large-scale region 1, region 2, cusp and polar cap current systems. Assuming that these small-scale field-aligned currents have current sheet structure, the width of current sheet is estimated to be 5-20 km at ionospheric altitude. By comparing the magnetometer data with charged particle and high frequency plasma wave data simultaneously obtained from EXOS-D, it is found that small-scale currents have one-to-one correspondence with localized electron precipitation events characterized by flux enhancement over a wide energy range from 10 eV to several keV and broadband electrostatic bursts occasionally extending above local plasma frequencies or electron cyclotron frequencies

  20. LAMOST OBSERVATIONS IN THE KEPLER FIELD: SPECTRAL CLASSIFICATION WITH THE MKCLASS CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R. O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States); Corbally, C. J. [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Cat, P. De [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussel (Belgium); Fu, J. N.; Ren, A. B. [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Avenue Xinjiekouwai, Beijing 100875 (China); Shi, J. R.; Luo, A. L.; Zhang, H. T.; Wu, Y.; Cao, Z.; Li, G. [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Y.; Hou, Y.; Wang, Y. [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The LAMOST-Kepler project was designed to obtain high-quality, low-resolution spectra of many of the stars in the Kepler field with the Large Sky Area Multi Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectroscopic telescope. To date 101,086 spectra of 80,447 objects over the entire Kepler field have been acquired. Physical parameters, radial velocities, and rotational velocities of these stars will be reported in other papers. In this paper we present MK spectral classifications for these spectra determined with the automatic classification code MKCLASS. We discuss the quality and reliability of the spectral types and present histograms showing the frequency of the spectral types in the main table organized according to luminosity class. Finally, as examples of the use of this spectral database, we compute the proportion of A-type stars that are Am stars, and identify 32 new barium dwarf candidates.

  1. Observation of disruptions in tokamak plasma under the influence of resonant helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.; Vannucci, A.; Caldas, I.

    1996-01-01

    Disruptive instabilities were investigated in the small tokamak TBR-1 during the application of resonant helical magnetic fields created by external helical windings. Indications were found that the main triggering mechanism of the disruptions was the rapid increase of the m=2/n=1 mode which, apparently after reaching a certain amplitude, interacts with other resistive modes: the internal 1/1 mode in the case of minor disruptions. After the coupling, the growth of the associated islands would create a chaotic field line distribution in the region between the corresponding rational magnetic surfaces which caused the gross particle transport and, finally, destroyed the confinement. In addition, investigations on higher Z eff discharges in which a mixture of helium and hydrogen was used resulted in much more unstable plasmas but apparently did not alter basic characteristics of the disruptions

  2. Observation of the Avalanche of Runaway Electrons in Air in a Strong Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A. V.; Mesyats, G. A.; Zybin, K. P.; Yalandin, M. I.; Reutova, A. G.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.

    2012-08-01

    The generation of an avalanche of runaway electrons is demonstrated for the first time in a laboratory experiment. Two flows of runaway electrons are formed sequentially in an extended air discharge gap at the stage of delay of a pulsed breakdown. The first, picosecond, runaway electron flow is emitted in the cathode region where the field is enhanced. Being accelerated in the gap, this beam generates electrons due to impact ionization. These secondary electrons form a delayed avalanche of runaway electrons if the field is strong enough. The properties of the avalanche correspond to the existing notions about the runaway breakdown in air. The measured current of the avalanche exceeds up to an order the current of the initiating electron beam.

  3. Validation of an orimulsion spill fates model using observations from field test spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D. P.; Rines, H.; Masciangioli, P.

    1997-01-01

    The SIMAP Spill Impact Model system was developed to simulate fates and effects of spilled oil and other fuels in 3-D and time. Orimulsion is a Venezuelan product consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water which has been shipped to many parts of the world for some time without an accidental spill into coastal or marine waters. In July 1966 two intentional spills of Orimulsion into Carribean waters were made and sampled in detail in order to verify the SIMAP model. Data on physical dispersion was collected at the same time. Data collected in the field was compared with model simulations. Results confirmed SIMAP's ability to predict the increasing dispersion and shearing of the bitumen plume as wind speed increases, as well as the actual field distribution of subsurface and surface bitumen. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 26 figs

  4. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA). The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, bum pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy [DOE], the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], and Washington Department of Ecology [Ecology]) during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit work plan (DOE/RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure (IRM) as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE/RL 1991) and negotiations with DOE, EPA, and Ecology. An IRM is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The investigative phase was conducted in accordance with the RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (DOE/RL 1993f). The QRA was performed in accordance with the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE/RL 1993b) and the recommendations incorporate the strategies of the HPPS. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and (4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  5. The internal wave field in Sau reservoir : Observation and modeling of a third vertical mode

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Hurtado, Javier; Casamitjana, Xavier; Colomer, Jordi; Serra Putellas, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Water withdrawal from Mediterranean reservoirs in summer is usually very high. Because of this, stratification is often continuous and far from the typical two-layered structure, favoring the excitation of higher vertical modes. The analysis of wind, temperature, and current data from Sau reservoir (Spain) shows that the third vertical mode of the internal seiche (baroclinic mode) dominated the internal wave field at the beginning of September 2003. We used a continuous stratification two-dim...

  6. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from th...

  7. Can a nightside geomagnetic Delta H observed at the equator manifest a penetration electric field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Fraenz, M.; Dubinin, E.; He, M.; Ren, Z.; Zhao, B.; Liu, J.; Wan, W.; Yumoto, K.; Watari, S.; Alex, S.

    2013-06-01

    A prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) usually manifests itself in the form of an equatorial ionospheric electric field being in correlation with a solar wind electric field. Due to the strong Cowling conductivity, a PPEF on the dayside can be inferred from Delta H (ΔH), which is the difference in the magnitudes of the horizontal (H) component between a magnetometer at the magnetic equator and one off the equator. This paper aims to investigate the performance of ΔH in response to a PPEF on the nightside, where the Cowling conductivity is not significant. We first examine the strongest geomagnetically active time during the 20 November 2003 superstorm when the Dst drops to -473 nT and show that the nightside ΔH can indeed manifest a PPEF but with local time dependence and longitude dependence. We then examine a moderately active time by taking advantage of the multiple-penetration event during 11-16 November 2003 when the Dst remains greater than -60 nT. During this event, a series of PPEF pulses recorded in Peru, Japan, and India form a database, allowing us to examine PPEF effects at different local times and longitudes. The results show that (1) the nightside ΔH was caused by attenuation of the effects of the polar electric field with decreasing latitude; (2) the nightside ΔH can manifest a PPEF at least in the midnight-dawn sector (0000-0500 LT), but not always; and (3) the magnitude of the nightside ΔH in the midnight-dawn sector in Peru is on average only 1/18 of that of the dayside ΔH in response to a given PPEF.

  8. Observations and modeling of magnetized plasma jets and bubbles launched into a transverse B-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dustin M.; Zhang, Yue; Wallace, Ben; Gilmore, Mark; Manchester, Ward B., IV; van der Holst, Bart; Rogers, Barrett N.; Hsu, Scott C.

    2017-10-01

    Hot, dense, plasma structures launched from a coaxial plasma gun on the HelCat dual-source plasma device at the University of New Mexico drag frozen-in magnetic flux into the chamber's background magnetic field providing a rich set of dynamics to study magnetic turbulence, force-free magnetic spheromaks, shocks, as well as CME-like dynamics possibly relevant to the solar corona. Vector magnetic field data from an eleven-tipped B-dot rake probe and images from an ultra-fast camera will be presented in comparison with ongoing MHD modeling using the 3-D MHD BATS-R-US code developed at the University of Michigan. BATS-R-US employs an adaptive mesh refinement grid (AMR) that enables the capture and resolution of shock structures and current sheets and is uniquely suited for flux-rope expansion modeling. Recent experiments show a possible magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability that appears asymmetrically at the interface between launched spheromaks (bubbles) and their entraining background magnetic field. Efforts to understand this instability using in situ measurements, new chamber boundary conditions, and ultra-fast camera data will be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.

  9. Temperature and magnetic field effect on oscillations observed in GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.M.; Mazzucato, S.; Ardali, S.; Celik, O.; Mutlu, S.; Royall, B.; Tiras, E.; Balkan, N.; Puustinen, J.; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Guina, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied p-i-n GaInNAs MQW devices as function of temperature and magnetic field. ► Observed oscillations in the sample current–voltage curves at low temperature. ► Shift in oscillation position with magnetic field described by Landau level split. ► Resonant tunnelling and thermionic emission used to describe oscillations. - Abstract: The photoconductivity of p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) mesa structures is investigated. When illuminated with photons at energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, a number of oscillations are observed in the current–voltage I–V characteristics. The amplitude and position of the oscillations is shown to depend upon the temperature, as well as upon the exciting wavelength and intensity. Due to the absence of the oscillations in the dark I–V and at temperatures above T = 200 K, we explain them in terms of photogenerated electrons escaping from quantum wells via tunnelling or thermionic emission. Magnetic fields up to B = 11 T were applied parallel to the planes of the QWs. A small voltage shift in the position of the oscillations was observed, proportional to the magnetic field intensity and dependent upon the temperature. Calculation of the Landau level energy separation (16 meV) agrees with the observed experimental data. Magneto-tunnelling spectroscopy probes in detail the nature of band- or impurity-like states responsible for resonances in first and second subbands, observing the I–V plot in dark condition and under illumination. The field-dependence of the amplitude of the oscillation peaks in I–V has the characteristic form of a quantum mechanical admixing effect. This enhancement is also probably due to the hole recombination with majority electrons tunnelling in the N-related states of the quantum wells.

  10. Temperature and magnetic field effect on oscillations observed in GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, H.M., E-mail: hkhalia@essex.ac.uk [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, CO4 3SQ, Colchester (United Kingdom); Mazzucato, S. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, CO4 3SQ, Colchester (United Kingdom); Ardali, S.; Celik, O.; Mutlu, S. [Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Yunus Emre Campus 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Royall, B. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, CO4 3SQ, Colchester (United Kingdom); Tiras, E. [Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Yunus Emre Campus 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Balkan, N. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, CO4 3SQ, Colchester (United Kingdom); Puustinen, J.; Korpijaervi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 10, FI-33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied p-i-n GaInNAs MQW devices as function of temperature and magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observed oscillations in the sample current-voltage curves at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shift in oscillation position with magnetic field described by Landau level split. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resonant tunnelling and thermionic emission used to describe oscillations. - Abstract: The photoconductivity of p-i-n GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) mesa structures is investigated. When illuminated with photons at energy greater than the GaAs bandgap, a number of oscillations are observed in the current-voltage I-V characteristics. The amplitude and position of the oscillations is shown to depend upon the temperature, as well as upon the exciting wavelength and intensity. Due to the absence of the oscillations in the dark I-V and at temperatures above T = 200 K, we explain them in terms of photogenerated electrons escaping from quantum wells via tunnelling or thermionic emission. Magnetic fields up to B = 11 T were applied parallel to the planes of the QWs. A small voltage shift in the position of the oscillations was observed, proportional to the magnetic field intensity and dependent upon the temperature. Calculation of the Landau level energy separation (16 meV) agrees with the observed experimental data. Magneto-tunnelling spectroscopy probes in detail the nature of band- or impurity-like states responsible for resonances in first and second subbands, observing the I-V plot in dark condition and under illumination. The field-dependence of the amplitude of the oscillation peaks in I-V has the characteristic form of a quantum mechanical admixing effect. This enhancement is also probably due to the hole recombination with majority electrons tunnelling in the N-related states of the quantum wells.

  11. Regional 3-D Modeling of Ground Geoelectric Field for the Northeast United States due to Realistic Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, E.; Kruglyakov, M.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    During extreme space weather events electric currents in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere experience large variations, which leads to dramatic intensification of the fluctuating magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. According to Faraday's law of induction, the fluctuating geomagnetic field in turn induces electric field that generates harmful currents (so-called "geomagnetically induced currents"; GICs) in grounded technological systems. Understanding (via modeling) of the spatio-temporal evolution of the geoelectric field during enhanced geomagnetic activity is a key consideration in estimating the hazard to technological systems from space weather. We present the results of ground geoelectric field modeling for the Northeast United States, which is performed with the use of our novel numerical tool based on integral equation approach. The tool exploits realistic regional three-dimensional (3-D) models of the Earth's electrical conductivity and realistic global models of the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems responsible for geomagnetic disturbances. We also explore in detail the manifestation of the coastal effect (anomalous intensification of the geoelectric field near the coasts) in this region.

  12. Cognitive Factors that Impact Learning in the Field: Observations from an REU Project on Precambrian Rocks of Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Goodwin, C.

    2011-12-01

    Field work requires cognitive processing on many different levels, and constitutes a powerful and important learning environment. To be effective and meaningful, the context of field work must be fully understood in terms of key research questions, earlier published work, regional geology, geologic history, and geologic processes. Scale(s) of observation and sample selection methods and strategies must be defined. Logistical decisions must be made about equipment needed, points of access, and navigation in the field. Professional skills such as field note-taking, measuring structural data, and rock descriptions must be employed, including appropriate use of field tools. Interpretations of geologic features in the field must be interpreted through recall of concepts from the geologic knowledge base (e.g. crystallization history of igneous rocks interpreted through phase diagrams). Field workers need to be able to self-monitor and self-regulate their actions (metacognitively), and make adjustments to daily plans as needed. The results of field work must be accurately and effectively communicated to other geoscientists. Personal and professional ethics and values are brought to bear as decisions are made about whether or not the work has been satisfactorily completed at a field site. And, all of this must be done against a back drop of environmental factors that affect the ability to do this work (e.g. inclement weather, bears, impassable landscapes). The simultaneous relevance of all these factors creates a challenging, but rewarding environment for learning on many different scales. During our REU project to study the Precambrian rocks in the back country of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), we considered these cognitive factors in designing our project curriculum. To reduce the "novelty space" of the project a website was developed that described the project goals and expected outcomes, introduced primary literature, and alerted students about the physical demands

  13. Self-sealing Faults in the Opalinus Clay - Evidence from Field Observations, Hydraulic Testing and Pore water Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste, the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) is currently investigating the Jurassic (Aalenian) Opalinus Clay as a potential host formation (Nagra 1988, 1994). The Opalinus Clay consists of indurated dark grey micaceous Clay-stones (shales) that are subdivided into several litho-stratigraphic units. Some of them contain thin sandy lenses, limestone concretions or siderite nodules. The clay mineral content ranges from 40-80 weight per cent (9-29% illite, 3-10% chlorite, 6-20% kaolinite and 4-22% illite/smectite mixed layers in the ratio 70/30). Other minerals are quartz (15-30%), calcite (6-40%), siderite (2-3%), ankerite (0-3%), feldspars (1-7%), pyrite (1-3%) and organic carbon (<1%). The total water content ranges from 4-19% (Mazurek 1999, Nagra 2001). Faults are mainly represented by fault gouge and fault breccias, partly associated with minor veins of calcite. A key question in safety assessment is, whether these faults may represent preferential pathways for radionuclide transport. An extensive hydrogeological data base - part of which derives from strongly tectonized geological environments - suggests that advective transport through faults in the Opalinus Clay at depth > 200 m is insignificant. This conclusion is also supported by independent evidence from clay pore water hydrochemical and isotopic data. The lack of hydrochemical anomalies and the lack of extensive mineral veining suggest that there was also no significant paleo-flow through such faults. These observations can only be reconciled with a strong self-sealing capacity of the faults. Therefore it is concluded, that reactivated existing faults or newly induced fractures will not act as pathways for significant fluid flow at anytime due to self-healing processes. These conclusions are supported by results from laboratory hydro-frac and flow-through tests, and from field-tests in the Mont Terri underground

  14. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2016-01-01

    Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation.

  15. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. OBJECTIVE The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. METHODS We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. RESULTS Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. CONCLUSIONS The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. PMID:29075146

  16. Monthly gravity field solutions based on GRACE observations generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission consists of determining the temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field. These variations are captured by time series of gravity field models of limited resolution at, e.g., monthly intervals. We present a new time series of monthly models, which was computed with the so-called Celestial Mechanics Approach (CMA), developed at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The secular and seasonal variations in the monthly models are tested for statistical significance. Calibrated errors are derived from inter-annual variations. The time-variable signal can be extracted at least up to degree 60, but the gravity field coefficients of orders above 45 are heavily contaminated by noise. This is why a series of monthly models is computed up to a maximum degree of 60, but only a maximum order of 45. Spectral analysis of the residual time-variable signal shows a distinctive peak at a period of 160 days, which shows up in particular in the C20 spherical harmonic coefficient. Basic filter- and scaling-techniques are introduced to evaluate the monthly models. For this purpose, the variability over the oceans is investigated, which serves as a measure for the noisiness of the models. The models in selected regions show the expected seasonal and secular variations, which are in good agreement with the monthly models of the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). The results also reveal a few small outliers, illustrating the necessity for improved data screening. Our monthly models are available at the web page of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM).

  17. Multifractal characterizations of nonstationary and intermittency in geophysical fields: Observed, retrieved, or simulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Wiscombe, W.; Cahalan, R.; Marshak, A.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical data rarely show any smoothness at any scale, and this often makes comparison with theoretical model output difficult. However, highly fluctuating signals and fractual structures are typical of open dissipative systems with nonlinear dynamics, the focus of most geophysical research. High levels of variability are excited over a large range of scales by the combined actions of external forcing and internal instability. At very small scales we expect geophysical fields to be smooth, but these are rarely resolved with available instrumentation or simulation tools; nondifferentiable and even discontinuous models are therefore in order. We need methods of statistically analyzing geophysical data, whether measured in situ, remotely sensed or even generated by a computer model, that are adapted to these characteristics. An important preliminary task is to define statistically stationary features in generally nonstationary signals. We first discuss a simple criterion for stationarity in finite data streams that exhibit power law energy spectra and then, guided by developments in turbulence studies, we advocate the use of two ways of analyzing the scale dependence of statistical information: singular measures and qth order structure functions. In nonstationary situations, the approach based on singular measures seeks power law behavior in integrals over all possible scales of a nonnegative stationary field derived from the data, leading to a characterization of the intermittency in this field. In contrast, the approach based on structure functions uses the signal itself, seeking power laws for the statistical moments of absolute increments over arbitrarily large scales, leading to a characterization of the prevailing nonstationarity in both quantitative and qualitative terms. We explain graphically, step by step, both multifractal statistics which are largely complementary to each other. 45 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Small-scale features in the Earth's magnetic field observed by Magsat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J.C.; Schmitz, D.R.; Muth, L.

    1984-01-01

    A spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 29 is derived using a selected magnetically quiet sample of Magsat data. Global maps representing the contribution due to terms of the expansion above n = 13 at 400 km altitude are compared with previously published residual anomaly maps and shown to be similar, even in polar regions. An expansion with such a high degree and order displays all but the sharpest features seen by the satellite and gives a more consistent picture of the high-order field structure at a constant altitude than do component maps derived independently. -Authors

  19. Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope

    OpenAIRE

    SHVETS, IGOR

    1997-01-01

    PUBLISHED It is demonstrated that it is possible to image magnetic domains with a resolution of better than 60 nm with the Kerr effect in a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope. Images taken of tracks of thermomagnetically prewritten bits in a Co/Pt multilayer structure magnetized out-of plane showed optical features in a track pattern whose appearance was determined by the position of an analyzer in front of the photomultiplier tube. These features were not apparent in t...

  20. Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Durkam, C.; Shvets, I.V.; Lodder, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that it is possible to image magnetic domains with a resolution of better than 60 nm with the Kerr effect in a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope. Images taken of tracks of thermomagnetically prewritten bits in a Co/Pt multilayer structure magnetized out-of plane showed optical features in a track pattern whose appearance was determined by the position of an analyzer in front of the photomultiplier tube. These features were not apparent in the topography...

  1. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment. The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, burn pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Work Plan (DOE-RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (DOE-RL 1991) and negotiations with the Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. An interim remedial measure is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and 4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  2. Biological effects of static and low-frequency electromagnetic fields: an overview of United States literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-04-12

    Results are reviewed from a number of studies on the biological effects of static and low frequency electromagnetic fields on animals. Based on a long history of experience with electric fields by the utility industry, it appears that intermittent and repeated exposures to strong 60-Hz electromagnetic fields from present power transmission systems have no obvious adverse effect on the health of man. It has been recognized recently that this belief must be tested by carefully designed and executed experiments under laboratory conditions where precise control can be exercised over coexisting environmental factors. A number of studies have been initiated in response to this need to evaluate possible effects from both acute and chronic exposures. 100 references.

  3. Treatment and follow-up results of children with electrical burn who observed in burn intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Aliosmanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns are infrequent relative to other injuries, but they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess management and follow-up results of pediatric patients’ who observed in intensive care unit and also review the precautions for preventing electrical burns.Materials and methods: Totally 22 patients aged under 17 years who were observed in the burn intensive care unit of Şanlıurfa Education and Research Hospital during the period between July 2009-October 2010. Cases were investigated retrospectively. The patients’ age, gender, total burn surface area, length of stay in hospital, musculo-skeletal system complication, cardiovascular system complication, kidney damage and attempts were recorded.Results: Of the 22 cases, 19 (86.3% were male and 3 (13.7% were female. The mean age of the patients was 11.5 years. In 10 (45.4% children burns were occurred in workplace and working area and 12 (54.6% were occurred in the home environment. Depth of burns were third degree in 10 (45.4% children and second degree in 12 (54.6%. The mean percentage of burn surface area was 25.9%. The mean length of stay in hospital was 17 days. Debridement and grafting were performed to 12 (54.6% cases and 10 (45.4% children were treated with dressings. No patient had increased creatinine kinase levels, oliguria, myoglobuinuria and arrhythmia. The mean hospitalization time was 17 days.Conclusion: Nearly half of patients underwent debridement plus grafting. None of our patients developed renal failure other severe system dysfunction.

  4. Field observations of mating behavior in the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sasa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We observed the mating behavior of the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (a common species of colubrid in the South Pacific of Costa Rica in the pre-montane wet forest of Las Cruces Biological Station (San Vito de Java, Costa Rica. Three S. annulatus were observed during courtship between 10-12 AM in a patch of primary forest. The two males were observed to interact with the female, but not signs of male-male agonistic interactions were observed. Their behavior includes grabbing and holding the female, copula, and biting during the copula. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 647-650. Epub 2006 Jun 01.El comportamiento de apareamiento es descrito para la serpiente Scaphiodontophis annulatus, una especie de colúbrido común en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. El comportamiento incluye capturar y sujetar a la hembra, mordiscos durante la cópula y coito. Dos machos fueron observados al interactuar con una sola hembra, pero no se detectó señales de interacciones antagónicas macho-macho.

  5. The observation of resistivity change on the ultrasonic treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under magnetic field influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marzuki; Purwanto, Setyo; Mujamilah; Dimyati, Arbi

    2018-03-01

    About the observation of resistivity change on the ultrasonic treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under magnetic field influence. This paper reported about the observation of the resistivity change in the ultrasonic pre-treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under the influence of magnetic field at the Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Material, Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia. Fe-Cr ODS alloy were sinthesized by vacuum sintering of Fe- and Cr-powder dispersed Y2O3. However, before sintering the powder mixture was subjected to the irradiation process by ultrasonic for 50 hours at 20 kHz and then isostatic pressed up to 50.91 MPa to form a coin of 10 mm in diameter. LCR meassurement revealed the decreasing of resistivity about 3 times by increasing of applied magnetic field from 0 to 70 mT. In addition, VSM meassurement was performed on both as powder material and as sintered sample. The results showed increasing the magnetization with increasing magnetic field and the curve exhibits almost exact symmetry S-form with small hysterese indicating fast changing magnetization and demagnetization capability without energy loss. This opens strong speculations about the existence of magnetoresistant property of the material which is important for many application in field of sensors or electro magnetic valves.

  6. Emplacement dynamics and lava field evolution of the flood basalt eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland: Observations from field and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro; Höskuldsson, Armann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Thórdarson, Thorvaldur; Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Durmont, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    The Holuhraun eruption (Aug 2014- Feb 2015) is the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, with an estimated lava volume of ~1.6 km3 covering an area of ~83 km2. The eruption provides an unprecedented opportunity to study i) lava morphologies and their emplacement styles, ii) Morphological transitions iii) the transition from open to closed lava pathways and iv) the implication of lava pond formation. This study is based on three different categories of data; field data, airborne data and satellite data. The field data include tracking of the lava advancement by Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements and georeferenced GoPro cameras allowing classification of the lava margin morphology. Furthermore, video footage on-site documented lava emplacement. Complimentary observations have been provided from aircraft platforms and by satellite data. Of particular importance for lava morphology observations are 1-12 m/pixel airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images (x-band), as well as SAR data from TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed satellites. The Holuhraun lava field comprises a continuum of morphologies from pāhoehoe to 'a'ā, which have varied temporally and spatially. Shelly pāhoehoe lava was the first morphology to be observed (08-29). Spatially, this lava type was not widely distributed, but was emplaced throughout the eruption close to the vent area and the lava channels. Slabby pāhoehoe lava was initially observed the 08-31 and was observed throughout most of the eruption during the high-lava-flux phase of new lava lobe emplacement. 'A'