WorldWideScience

Sample records for field trial evaluation

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell field trial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.; Winstanley, R.; Nietsch, T.; Smith, C.; Knight, R.; Seymore, C.

    2000-07-01

    This report focuses on issues relating to a field trial of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Aspects examined include markets for SOFC systems, the choice of systems for demonstration in year 2002, the assessment of industrial interest, and evaluation and ranking of candidate systems. The identification and evaluation of interest in field trials, the estimation of the capital and running costs of a field trial, and identification of the benefits to the UK and barriers to implementation of SOFC systems are discussed. (UK)

  2. Evaluation of field trials of innovative practices in science education

    OpenAIRE

    Gerloff-Gasser, C; Büchel, K

    2012-01-01

    Science and technology (S&T) education is vital to increase the science literacy in modern societies and to stimulate more young people to opt for careers in S&T. Because there are considerable differences in S&T education among and sometimes within countries, it is promising to adopt an adaptive strategy to its innovation that allows a fit to the specific conditions of each of the countries. In this report, we present first results of field trials with innovative practices in S&T educatio...

  3. The Sandia/Arzamas-16 Magazine-to-Magazine Remote Monitoring Field Trial Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkanov, Boris; Blagin, Sergei; Croessmann, Dennis; Damico, Joe; Ehle, Steve; Nilsen, Curt

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (also known as Arzamas-16) are collaborating on ways to assure the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability of fissile material. For these collaborations, sensors and information technologies have been identified as important in reaching these standards in a cost-effective manner. Specifically, Sandia and VNIIEF have established a series of remote monitoring field trials to provide a mechanism for joint research and development on storage monitoring systems. These efforts consist of the ''Container-to-Container'', ''Magazine-to-Magazine'', and ''Facility-to-Facility'' field trials. This paper will describe the evaluation exercise Sandia and VNIIEF conducted on the Magazine-to-Magazine systems. Topics covered will include a description of the evaluation philosophy, how the various sensors and system features were tested, evaluation results, and lessons learned

  4. Evaluation of Visual Field and Imaging Outcomes for Glaucoma Clinical Trials (An American Ophthalomological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garway-Heath, David F; Quartilho, Ana; Prah, Philip; Crabb, David P; Cheng, Qian; Zhu, Haogang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of various visual field (VF) analysis methods to discriminate treatment groups in glaucoma clinical trials and establish the value of time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD OCT) imaging as an additional outcome. VFs and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements (acquired by TD OCT) from 373 glaucoma patients in the UK Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) at up to 11 scheduled visits over a 2 year interval formed the cohort to assess the sensitivity of progression analysis methods. Specificity was assessed in 78 glaucoma patients with up to 11 repeated VF and OCT RNFLT measurements over a 3 month interval. Growth curve models assessed the difference in VF and RNFLT rate of change between treatment groups. Incident progression was identified by 3 VF-based methods: Guided Progression Analysis (GPA), 'ANSWERS' and 'PoPLR', and one based on VFs and RNFLT: 'sANSWERS'. Sensitivity, specificity and discrimination between treatment groups were evaluated. The rate of VF change was significantly faster in the placebo, compared to active treatment, group (-0.29 vs +0.03 dB/year, P <.001); the rate of RNFLT change was not different (-1.7 vs -1.1 dB/year, P =.14). After 18 months and at 95% specificity, the sensitivity of ANSWERS and PoPLR was similar (35%); sANSWERS achieved a sensitivity of 70%. GPA, ANSWERS and PoPLR discriminated treatment groups with similar statistical significance; sANSWERS did not discriminate treatment groups. Although the VF progression-detection method including VF and RNFLT measurements is more sensitive, it does not improve discrimination between treatment arms.

  5. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Rados?aw; Gramza, Mateusz; R?j, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed – Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant...

  6. Field trials of a novel toolkit for evaluating 'intangible' values-related dimensions of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Gemma; Velasco, Ismael; Janoušková, Svatava; Zahradnik, Martin; Hak, Tomas; Podger, Dimity; Piggot, Georgia; Harder, Marie K

    2013-02-01

    A novel toolkit has been developed, using an original approach to develop its components, for the purpose of evaluating 'soft' outcomes and processes that have previously been generally considered 'intangible': those which are specifically values based. This represents a step-wise, significant, change in provision for the assessment of values-based achievements that are of absolutely key importance to most civil society organisations (CSOs) and values-based businesses, and fills a known gap in evaluation practice. In this paper, we demonstrate the significance and rigour of the toolkit by presenting an evaluation of it in three diverse scenarios where different CSOs use it to co-evaluate locally relevant outcomes and processes to obtain results which are both meaningful to them and potentially comparable across organisations. A key strength of the toolkit is its original use of a prior generated, peer-elicited 'menu' of values-based indicators which provides a framework for user CSOs to localise. Principles of participatory, process-based and utilisation-focused evaluation are embedded in this toolkit and shown to be critical to its success, achieving high face-validity and wide applicability. The emerging contribution of this next-generation evaluation tool to other fields, such as environmental values, development and environmental sustainable development, shared values, business, education and organisational change is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Rój, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur ). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis , brown seaweed - Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear, and shank length. The ear number per m 2 was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences). Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences) and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences). Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha). The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences). Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  8. Evaluation of supercritical extracts of algae as biostimulants of plant growth in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur. As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed – Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear and shank length. The ear number per square meter was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences. Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences.Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha. The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences. Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  9. Field reliability of competence to stand trial opinions: How often do evaluators agree, and what do judges decide when evaluators disagree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowensmith, W Neil; Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T

    2012-04-01

    Despite many studies that examine the reliability of competence to stand trial (CST) evaluations, few shed light on "field reliability," or agreement among forensic evaluators in routine practice. We reviewed 216 cases from Hawaii, which requires three separate evaluations from independent clinicians for each felony defendant referred for CST evaluation. Results revealed moderate agreement. In 71% of initial CST evaluations, all evaluators agreed about a defendant's competence or incompetence (kappa = .65). Agreement was somewhat lower (61%, kappa = .57) in re-evaluations of defendants who were originally found incompetent and sent for restoration services. We also examined the decisions judges made about a defendant's CST. When evaluators disagreed, judges tended to make decisions consistent with the majority opinion. But when judges disagreed with the majority opinion, they more often did so to find a defendant incompetent than competent, suggesting a generally conservative approach. Overall, results reveal moderate agreement among independent evaluators in routine practice. But we discuss the potential for standardized training and methodology to further improve the field reliability of CST evaluations.

  10. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  11. Steep cut slope composting : field trials and evaluation : project summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This project is a continuation of earlier work performed by Montana State University (Jennings et al. 2007) evaluating compost application on, and incorporation into, soils on steep cut slopes for the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT). The e...

  12. Randomized noninferiority field trial evaluating cephapirin sodium for treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazi, T; Lopes, T A F; Masson, V; Swinkels, J M; Santos, M V

    2018-05-16

    The general objective of this study was to evaluate whether cephapirin sodium is noninferior compared with a positive control broad-spectrum product formulated with a combination of antimicrobials for intramammary treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis. In addition, we compared the efficacy of treatments on the cure risks of pathogen groups (gram-positive, gram-negative, and cultures with no growth) based on culture results. A total of 346 cows distributed in 31 commercial dairy herds were selected to participate in the study, although only 236 met the criteria for evaluation of microbiological cure. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most isolated gram-positive pathogens in pretreatment milk samples, whereas the most common gram-negative bacterium was Escherichia coli. Cows attending the postadmission criteria were treated with 4 intramammary infusions (12 h apart) of one of the following antimicrobials: 300 mg of cephapirin sodium + 20 mg of prednisolone (CS), or the positive control treatment formulated with a combination of antimicrobials (200 mg of tetracycline + 250 mg of neomycin + 28 mg of bacitracin + 10 mg of prednisolone; TNB). Noninferiority analysis and mixed regression models (overall and considering the pathogen groups) were performed for the following outcomes: bacteriological cure (absence of the causative pathogens in cultures performed in milk samples collected at 14 and 21 ± 3 d after enrollment), pathogen cure (absence of any pathogen on both follow-up samples), clinical cure (absence of clinical sign in the milk and mammary gland at 48 h after the last antimicrobial infusion), extended clinical cure (normal milk and normal gland on the second posttreatment sample collection (d 21), and linear score of somatic cell count cure [linear score of somatic cell count recovery (≤4.0) on d 21 ± 3 after enrollment]. No significant differences were observed between treatments regarding any of the evaluated outcomes in both regression models

  13. IAEA monitoring field trials workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.; Cooley, J.N.; Belew, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent safeguards inspections in Iraq and elsewhere by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have led to the supposition that environmental monitoring can aid in verifying declared and in detecting undeclared nuclear activities or operations. This assumption was most recently examined by the IAEA's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI), in their reports to the IAEA Board of Governors. In their reports, SAGSI suggested that further assessment and development of environmental monitoring would be needed to fully evaluate its potential application to enhanced IAEA safeguards. Such an inquiry became part of the IAEA ''Programme 93+2'' assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards. In March, 1994, the International Safeguards Group at Oak Ridge hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for IAEA inspectors to train them in the techniques needed for effective environmental sampling. The workshop included both classroom lectures and actual field sampling exercises. The workshop was designed to emphasize the analytical infrastructure needed for an environmental program, practical sampling methods, and suggested procedures for properly planning a sampling campaign. Detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water associated sampling were covered. The overall approach to the workshop, and observed results, are described

  14. Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, I.; Frankena, K.; More, S.J.; Whelan, C.; Martin, W.; Gormley, E.; Corner, L.A.L.; Murphy, D.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination

  15. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds

  16. Malaria vaccines: lessons from field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Struchiner

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine candidates have already been tested and new trials are being carried out. We present a brief description of specific issues of validity that are relevant when assessing vaccine efficacy in the field and illustrate how the application of these principles might improve our interpretation of the data being gathered in actual malaria vaccine field trials. Our discussion assumes that vaccine evaluation shares the same general principles of validity with epidemiologic causal inference, i.e., the process of drawing inferences from epidemiologic data aiming at the identification of causes of diseases. Judicious exercise of these principles indicates that, for meaningful interpretation, measures of vaccine efficacy require definitions based upon arguments conditional on the amount of exposure to infection, and specification of the initial and final states in which one believes the effect of interest takes place.

  17. Optimising and evaluating the characteristics of a multiple antigen ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a badger vaccine field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Aznar

    Full Text Available A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM. The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%, while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation.

  18. Field trials at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Stone, Earl L.

    1987-01-01

    Last year's report summarized the status of both the long on-going soil and plant sampling programs (initiated by LLNL in 1978) and the field experiments aimed at reducing radionuclide levels in food plants to acceptable levels. In the current report the two are combined into a single summary table, indicating for each field trial or survey the results to date, information expected by the spring of 1988, and projection, if any, for continuation beyond FY1988. This table is therefore a comprehensive survey of the program and accordingly the individual items in it have been coded to facilitate reference to them. Analytical results from field studies installed in 1985 and 1986 are now providing much new information, briefly described below. In part, these results bear out or enlarge the hypotheses that prompted the studies. They also suggest how some treatments may be modified or combined for greater effectiveness. We shall discuss here certain groups of studies of immediate interest that deal with the blocking effects of potassium and other ions on cesium-137 uptake by plants, the effect of removing topsoil (excavation), cultural studies which involve the manipulation of the subsoil, plus some others

  19. Field trials at Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Livermore, CA (United States); Stone, Earl L [University of Florida, Soil Science Department, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Last year's report summarized the status of both the long on-going soil and plant sampling programs (initiated by LLNL in 1978) and the field experiments aimed at reducing radionuclide levels in food plants to acceptable levels. In the current report the two are combined into a single summary table, indicating for each field trial or survey the results to date, information expected by the spring of 1988, and projection, if any, for continuation beyond FY1988. This table is therefore a comprehensive survey of the program and accordingly the individual items in it have been coded to facilitate reference to them. Analytical results from field studies installed in 1985 and 1986 are now providing much new information, briefly described below. In part, these results bear out or enlarge the hypotheses that prompted the studies. They also suggest how some treatments may be modified or combined for greater effectiveness. We shall discuss here certain groups of studies of immediate interest that deal with the blocking effects of potassium and other ions on cesium-137 uptake by plants, the effect of removing topsoil (excavation), cultural studies which involve the manipulation of the subsoil, plus some others.

  20. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  1. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft sections to investigate several alternative...

  2. Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)

  3. Photovoltaic domestic field trial. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    An update on a photovoltaics field trial that has been running for four years is presented. The PV Domestic Field Trial was set up to use the design, construction, performance and monitoring of PV units to generate data for utilities, builders and other current and potential users of PVs. Subjects covered were appearance of the systems, architectural integration, fixing methods, cost effectiveness, opinions of users, monitoring and results. During the past 12 months, most of the human effort has gone into collation of data from 22 of the 28 projects. The study was sponsored by Great Britain's DTI.

  4. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several altern...

  5. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying : the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field : trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several al...

  6. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several altern...

  7. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  8. 7 CFR 1755.3 - Field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (5) Responsibility for testing, test equipment and normal operation and maintenance during the trial... Telephone Systems of RUS Borrowers,” RUS Bulletin 344-2. When new items of materials or equipment are... modifications that its suitability cannot be determined based on laboratory data and/or field experience, a...

  9. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2014-01-01

    increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu......Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly...

  10. Evaluation of pulsing magnetic field effects on paresthesia in multiple sclerosis patients, a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Daryoush; Moradian, Nasrin; Khalili, Majid; Razazian, Nazanin; Bostani, Arash; Hoseini, Jamal; Moradian, Mohamad; Ghiasian, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is mounting that magnet therapy could alleviate the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was performed to test the effects of the pulsing magnetic fields on the paresthesia in MS patients. This study has been conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial during the April 2012 to October 2013. The subjects were selected among patients referred to MS clinic of Imam Reza Hospital; affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Sixty three patients with MS were included in the study and randomly were divided into two groups, 35 patients were exposed to a magnetic pulsing field of 4mT intensity and 15-Hz frequency sinusoidal wave for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions and 28 patients was exposed to a magnetically inactive field (placebo) for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions. The severity of paresthesia was measured by the numerical rating scale (NRS) at 30, 60days. The study primary end point was NRS change between baseline and 60days. The secondary outcome was NRS change between baseline and 30days. Patients exposing to magnetic field showed significant paresthesia improvement compared with the group of patients exposing to placebo. According to our results pulsed magnetic therapy could alleviate paresthesia in MS patients .But trials with more patients and longer duration are mandatory to describe long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Field trials results of guided wave tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Leden, Edwin van der

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations

  12. Field trials results of guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim; van der Leden, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations.

  13. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  14. Evaluate existing radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, J.M.; Haggard, D.L.; Endres, G.W.R.; Fix, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Knowledge of the spectrum of energies for beta, gamma, and neutron radiation experienced in the field is crucial to the proper interpretation of personnel dose. Calibration sources and techniques are determined on the basis of their relationship to field exposure. Selected techniques were used to obtain neutron, photon, and beta energy spectra data at several Hanford locations. Four neutron energy spectra and dose measurement methods were used: (1) multisphere spectrometer system; (2) tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); (3) RASCAL (9'' to 3'' sphere ratios); and (4) helium-3 neutron spectrometer. Gamma spectroscopy was done using standard techniques. A specially designed TLD dosimeter was used to obtain beta spectrum measurements. The design and use of each of these instruments is described in the body of this report. Data collected and analyzed for each of the Hanford locations are included

  15. Conducting field trials for frost tolerance breeding in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattivelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Cereal species can be damaged by frost either during winter or at flowering stage. Frost tolerance per se is only a part of the mechanisms that allow the plants to survive during winter; winterhardiness also considers other biotic or physical stresses that challenge the plants during the winter season limiting their survival rate. While frost tolerance can also be tested in controlled environments, winterhardiness can be determined only with field evaluations. Post-heading frost damage occurs from radiation frost events in spring during the reproductive stages. A reliable evaluation of winterhardiness or of post-heading frost damage should be carried out with field trials replicated across years and locations to overcome the irregular occurrence of natural conditions which satisfactorily differentiate genotypes. The evaluation of post-heading frost damage requires a specific attention to plant phenology. The extent of frost damage is usually determined with a visual score at the end of the winter.

  16. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or

  17. Contamination control and revegetation (Field trials)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Stone, Earl L.

    1986-01-01

    The LLNL/DOE field program at Bikini Atoll began in 1977. The first few years were devoted to developing an adequate data base from which to do an updated dose assessment of Bikini and Eneu Islands. The results indicated that 137 Cs was the most significant radionuclide, actually accounting for more than 90% of the total estimated wholebody and bone marrow dose, and that the terrestrial food chain (especially coconut) was the most significant potential exposure pathway. Strontium-90 accounts for only about 507% of the total bone marrow dose and the transuranics, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am, less than 1%. Thus, if the intake of 137 Cs can be reduced to 10% or less of its current concentration in food crops the radiological dose for Bikini Island would be within federal guidelines. However, samples of vegetation and soil will be analyzed for Sr and the transuranics to ensure an adequate data for evaluation of these radionuclide. In 1980, prior to the formation of the BARC, the goals of our Marshall Island program were extended to include an initial evaluation of methods to reduce the uptake of 137 Cs by food crops and/or reduce the 137 Cs soil inventory. We expanded one of our experiments and added two more when the BARC was formed and additional funding became available for evaluating the rehabilitation of Bikini Atoll

  18. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazco, Julio G.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P.; Jordan, David R.; Eilers, Paul H.C.; Malosetti, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Abstract: Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and

  19. Developments in statistical evaluation of clinical trials

    CERN Document Server

    Oud, Johan; Ghidey, Wendimagegn

    2014-01-01

    This book describes various ways of approaching and interpreting the data produced by clinical trial studies, with a special emphasis on the essential role that biostatistics plays in clinical trials. Over the past few decades the role of statistics in the evaluation and interpretation of clinical data has become of paramount importance. As a result the standards of clinical study design, conduct and interpretation have undergone substantial improvement. The book includes 18 carefully reviewed chapters on recent developments in clinical trials and their statistical evaluation, with each chapter providing one or more examples involving typical data sets, enabling readers to apply the proposed procedures. The chapters employ a uniform style to enhance comparability between the approaches.

  20. Performance evaluation of ALCAN-AASF50-ferric coated activated alumina and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) for arsenic removal in the presence of competitive ions in an active well :Kirtland field trial - initial studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Linnah L.; Krumhansl, James Lee; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Khandaker, Nadim Reza

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a field trial program carried out at Well No.15 located at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico, to evaluate the performance of two relatively new arsenic removal media, ALCAN-AASF50 (ferric coated activated alumina) and granular ferric hydroxide (US Filter-GFH). The field trial program showed that both media were able to remove arsenate and meet the new total arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water of 10 {micro}g/L. The arsenate removal capacity was defined at a breakthrough effluent concentration of 5 {micro}g/L arsenic (50% of the arsenic MCL of 10 {micro}g/L). At an influent pH of 8.1 {+-} 0.4, the arsenate removal capacity of AASF50 was 33.5 mg As(V)/L of dry media (29.9 {micro}g As(V)/g of media on a dry basis). At an influent pH of 7.2 {+-} 0.3, the arsenate removal capacity of GFH was 155 mg As(V)/L of wet media (286 {micro}g As(V)/g of media on a dry basis). Silicate, fluoride, and bicarbonate ions are removed by ALCAN AASF50. Chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions were not removed by AASF50. The GFH media also removed silicate and bicarbonate ions; however, it did not remove fluoride, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Differences in the media performance partly reflect the variations in the feed-water pH between the 2 tests. Both the exhausted AASF50 and GFH media passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test with respect to arsenic and therefore could be disposed as nonhazardous waste.

  1. Soil stabilization field trial : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A five-year study was initiated seeking materials/additives and procedures that help to mitigate : crack susceptibility in cement-treated material (CTM). A field test program of six 305-m (1000-ft) test : sections was implemented in August 2000. The ...

  2. Glass microspheres covering film: first field evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, G.; Filippi, F.

    2006-01-01

    A trial was carried out to evaluate, in the North-Centre of Italy, the behaviour in field of a new plastic covering film, prepared with the inclusion of empty glass microspheres (Solex). The trial was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The new film was compared to a covering film with the same optical (diffuse light) and constitutional (co-extruded three layers EVA-WPE) characteristics. Since the first results, the innovative film showed a better behaviour than the control one. It presented light and thermal conditions (lower temperature during the day and slightly higher temperature in the night, compared to the control film) that allowed a better growth and yield than the control film. The growth analysis of tomato showed that plants grown under glass microsphere film had an higher growth rate (dry weight/days) and thickness of leaves compared to the control one. The yield of tomato and eggplant presented an increase in plants cultivated under the innovative film, especially for number and weight of fruits. The commercial quality did not show any differences between the films, except for the flesh hardness of tomato: this could be explained with the fact that the glass microspheres film provides environmental conditions avoiding plant stress during some stages of its cycle [it

  3. Empirical trials of plant field guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, W D; Cable, S; Marshall, C A M

    2014-06-01

    We designed 3 image-based field guides to tropical forest plant species in Ghana, Grenada, and Cameroon and tested them with 1095 local residents and 20 botanists in the United Kingdom. We compared users' identification accuracy with different image formats, including drawings, specimen photos, living plant photos, and paintings. We compared users' accuracy with the guides to their accuracy with only their prior knowledge of the flora. We asked respondents to score each format for usability, beauty, and how much they would pay for it. Prior knowledge of plant names was generally low (<22%). With a few exceptions, identification accuracy did not differ significantly among image formats. In Cameroon, users identifying sterile Cola species achieved 46-56% accuracy across formats; identification was most accurate with living plant photos. Botanists in the United Kingdom accurately identified 82-93% of the same Cameroonian species; identification was most accurate with specimens. In Grenada, users accurately identified 74-82% of plants; drawings yielded significantly less accurate identifications than paintings and photos of living plants. In Ghana, users accurately identified 85% of plants. Digital color photos of living plants ranked high for beauty, usability, and what users would pay. Black and white drawings ranked low. Our results show the potential and limitations of the use of field guides and nonspecialists to identify plants, for example, in conservation applications. We recommend authors of plant field guides use the cheapest or easiest illustration format because image type had limited bearing on accuracy; match the type of illustration to the most likely use of the guide for slight improvements in accuracy; avoid black and white formats unless the audience is experienced at interpreting illustrations or keeping costs low is imperative; discourage false-positive identifications, which were common; and encourage users to ask an expert or use a herbarium for

  4. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  5. Biochar: from laboratory mechanisms through the greenhouse to field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gao, X.; Dugan, B.; Silberg, J. J.; Zygourakis, K.; Alvarez, P. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The biochar community is excellent at pointing to individual cases where biochar amendment has changed soil properties, with some studies showing significant improvements in crop yields, reduction in nutrient export, and remediation of pollutants. However, many studies exist which do not show improvements, and in some cases, studies clearly show detrimental outcomes. The next, crucial step in biochar science and engineering research will be to develop a process-based understanding of how biochar acts to improve soil properties. In particular, we need a better mechanistic understanding of how biochar sorbs and desorbs contaminants, how it interacts with soil water, and how it interacts with the soil microbial community. These mechanistic studies need to encompass processes that range from the nanometer to the kilometer scale. At the nanometer scale, we need a predictive model of how biochar will sorb and desorb hydrocarbons, nutrients, and toxic metals. At the micrometer scale we need models that explain biochar's effects on soil water, especially the plant-available fraction of soil water. The micrometer scale is also where mechanistic information is neeed about microbial processes. At the macroscale we need physical models to describe the landscape mobility of biochar, because biochar that washes away from fields can no longer provide crop benefits. To be most informative, biochar research should occur along a lab-greenhouse-field trial trajectory. Laboratory experiments should aim determine what mechanisms may act to control biochar-soil processes, and then greenhouse experiments can be used to test the significance of lab-derived mechanisms in short, highly replicated, controlled experiments. Once evidence of effect is determined from greenhouse experiments, field trials are merited. Field trials are the gold standard needed prior to full deployment, but results from field trials cannot be extrapolated to other field sites without the mechanistic backup provided

  6. Field trial of brucellosis competitive ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, B.; Rojas, M.

    1998-01-01

    2990 sera samples from cattle were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using 8 serological tests for. The tests used were Rose Bengal (RBT), Buffer Plate Agglutination Test (BPAT), Complement Fixation (CFT), 2 Indirect and 2 Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Bacteriological evaluation from milk was done also. All tests were compared with respect to diagnostic specificity in vaccinated herds which were considered to be Brucella-free. The diagnostic specificity of the Indirect and Competitive ELISA was greater than 99,8%. Estimates of relative sensitivity were obtained from infected herds. The diagnostic sensitivity of the Indirect ELISA was greater than 95,8% and for the Competitive ELISA between 98,8 and 100 %, the last value refers to the Competitive ELISA Prototype II (SLPS antigen/M84 Mab), which was found highly suitable to differentiate vaccinated from brucella-infected cattle. The use of C-ELISA II for monitoring bovine populations under an eradication programme is recommended. (author)

  7. Field Trial of the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maikael A.; Baldwin, George T.; Hymel, Ross W

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the field trial of EDAS was to demonstrate the utility of secure branching of operator instrumentation for nuclear safeguards, identify any unforeseen implementation and application issues with EDAS, and confirm whether the approach is compatible with operator concerns and constraints.

  8. Large scale photovoltaic field trials. Second technical report: monitoring phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides an update on the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trials (LS-BIPV FT) programme commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry; BERR). It provides detailed profiles of the 12 projects making up this programme, which is part of the UK programme on photovoltaics and has run in parallel with the Domestic Field Trial. These field trials aim to record the experience and use the lessons learnt to raise awareness of, and confidence in, the technology and increase UK capabilities. The projects involved: the visitor centre at the Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall; a community church hall in London; council offices in West Oxfordshire; a sports science centre at Gloucester University; the visitor centre at Cotswold Water Park; the headquarters of the Insolvency Service; a Welsh Development Agency building; an athletics centre in Birmingham; a research facility at the University of East Anglia; a primary school in Belfast; and Barnstable civic centre in Devon. The report describes the aims of the field trials, monitoring issues, performance, observations and trends, lessons learnt and the results of occupancy surveys.

  9. Heat treatment trials for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors using Nb 3 Sn strands are used in ITER toroidal fields (TF) coils. Heat treatment generates thermal strain in CIC conductors because of the difference in thermal expansion between the Nb 3 Sn strands and the stainless-steel jacket. The elongation/shrinkage of the TF conductor may make it impossible to insert a wound TF conductor into the groove of a radial plate. In addition, it is expected that the deformation of the winding due to heat treatment-based release of the residual force in the jacket may also make it impossible to insert the winding in the groove, and that correcting the winding geometry to allow insertion of the winding may influence the superconducting performance of the TF conductor. The authors performed several trials using heat treatment as the part of activities in Phase II of TF coil procurement aiming to resolve the above-mentioned technical issues, and evaluated the elongations of 0.064, 0.074 and 0.072% for the straight and curved conductors and 1/3-scale double-pancake (DP) winding, respectively. It was confirmed that correction if the deformed winding did not influence the superconducting performance of the conductor. (author)

  10. Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation Yu. S. Yefimov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physical task is to evaluate the strength and topology of magnetic field in blazars and related ... polarization, spectral index of radiation, ratio of apparent velocity of the motion of matter along .... A detailed analysis of the evaluation of physical.

  11. Walkthrough screening evaluation field guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, S.J.; Eli, M.W.; Salmon, M.W.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a large inventory of existing facilities. Many of these facilities were not designed and constructed to current natural phenomena hazard (NPH) criteria. The NPH events include earthquakes, extreme winds and tornadoes, and floods. DOE Order 5480.28 establishes policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE facilities. DOE is conducting a multiyear project to develop evaluation guidelines for assessing the condition and determining the need for upgrades at DOE facilities. One element of the NPH evaluation guidelines' development involves the existing systems and components at DOE facilities. This effort is described in detail in a cited reference. In the interim period prior to availability of the final guidelines, DOE facilities are encouraged to implement an NPH walk through screening evaluation process by which systems and components that need attention can be rapidly identified. Guidelines for conducting the walk through screening evaluations are contained herein. The result of the NPH walk through screening evaluation should be a prioritized list of systems and components that need further action. Simple and inexpensive fixes for items identified in the walk through as marginal or inadequate should be implemented without further study. By implementing an NPH walk through screening evaluation, DOE facilities may realize significant reduction in risk from NPH in the short term

  12. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  13. Clinical trials in allied medical fields: A cross-sectional analysis of World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kannan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these trials and more support from various organizations.

  14. Note on field trials of a new prototype solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, S P

    1977-01-01

    Observations on field trials of a prototype still, of modified design, with respect to the quantity and quality of the fresh water obtained are reported. An average yield of 3.6 liters/m/sup 2//day of fresh water was obtained during the post-monsoon season and winter months. Traces of dissolved copper, zinc and iron were observed in the distilled water and the causes of metallic contamination are discussed. 10 references.

  15. The assessment of field trials in GMO research around the world and their possible integration in field trials for variety registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, M M; van de Wiel, C C M; Kleter, G A; Visser, R G F; Kok, E J

    2018-05-04

    Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials. In some countries, commercial non-GM reference varieties need to be included in a field study to compile reliable data that indicate the range of natural variation for the compounds tested at the specific location. Detailed analysis of pre-market assessment reports have so far not shown the added value of including these reference varieties in the field trials. In all cases where specific values were found to be outside of the range of the reference varieties, it proved possible to draw conclusions on the part of the pre-market risk assessment that relates to the compositional analysis, on the basis of already available compositional data. With the increasing quality of several databases on compositional data of a growing number of crop species, it seems unlikely that reference varieties will become more important on future occasions. It was furthermore investigated whether this part of the risk assessment can be related to field trial requirements for variety registration with the explicit intention of reducing the data burden on producers of new GM plant varieties. Field trials for variety registration so far include an assessment of phenotypic characteristics that do not cover safety aspects, with the exception of establishment of the glycoalkaloid content in potatoes in the Netherlands and Sweden. It may, however, under certain conditions be relatively easy to exchange data from compositional

  16. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  17. Pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy: current state of the field, review of the literature and clinical trial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Gross, A C; Ryder, J R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices with regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine, (2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials, and (3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial end-point selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity.

  18. US genetic regulations: bacterial field trial to go ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, S

    The National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) has approved a commercial proposal by Advanced Genetic Sciences Inc. to field-test recombinant ice-nucleating bacteria. Its decision came two weeks after a federal judge halted a similar trial by researchers from the University of California at Berkeley, and barred RAC from approving other federally-funded research that would release genetically-engineered organisms into the environment. The ruling, which resulted from an action filed by activist Jeremy Rifkin, exempted privately-funded research. RAC will continue to review commercial proposals, which are submitted voluntarily and are not legally bound by the committee decisions.

  19. PV domestic field trial. Third annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, F.; Davies, N.; Munzinger, M.; Pearsall, N.; Martin, C.

    2004-07-01

    This report summaries the results of a field trials investigating the design, construction and operation of photovoltaic (PV) systems installed during 2003 to provide information for utilities, building developers and those involved in PV installations and operations. Topics examined include the appearance of the systems, their architectural integration, the different fixing methods, the cost effectiveness of the systems, problems encountered, and monitoring activities. Key issues discussed include communication and co-ordination between interested bodies, siting and location, and good practice. Details are given of monitoring inspection visits, and performance analysis.

  20. Evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen F; Roth, Jeremy; Zhu, Kehao; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Meisner, Allison; Wilson, Francis Perry; Coca, Steven; Parikh, Chirag R

    2017-12-01

    A potential use of biomarkers is to assist in prognostic enrichment of clinical trials, where only patients at relatively higher risk for an outcome of interest are eligible for the trial. We investigated methods for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment. We identified five key considerations when considering a biomarker and a screening threshold for prognostic enrichment: (1) clinical trial sample size, (2) calendar time to enroll the trial, (3) total patient screening costs and the total per-patient trial costs, (4) generalizability of trial results, and (5) ethical evaluation of trial eligibility criteria. Items (1)-(3) are amenable to quantitative analysis. We developed the Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment at varying levels of screening stringency. We demonstrate that both modestly prognostic and strongly prognostic biomarkers can improve trial metrics using Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool. Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool is available as a webtool at http://prognosticenrichment.com and as a package for the R statistical computing platform. In some clinical settings, even biomarkers with modest prognostic performance can be useful for prognostic enrichment. In addition to the quantitative analysis provided by Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool, investigators must consider the generalizability of trial results and evaluate the ethics of trial eligibility criteria.

  1. Center-Within-Trial Versus Trial-Level Evaluation of Surrogate Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Lindsay A.; Shi, Qian; Xue, Yuan; Li, Junlong; Shang, Hongwei; Sargent, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of candidate surrogate endpoints using individual patient data from multiple clinical trials is considered the gold standard approach to validate surrogates at both patient and trial levels. However, this approach assumes the availability of patient-level data from a relatively large collection of similar trials, which may not be possible to achieve for a given disease application. One common solution to the problem of too few similar trials involves performing trial-level surrogacy analyses on trial sub-units (e.g., centers within trials), thereby artificially increasing the trial-level sample size for feasibility of the multi-trial analysis. To date, the practical impact of treating trial sub-units (centers) identically to trials in multi-trial surrogacy analyses remains unexplored, and conditions under which this ad hoc solution may in fact be reasonable have not been identified. We perform a simulation study to identify such conditions, and demonstrate practical implications using a multi-trial dataset of patients with early stage colon cancer. PMID:25061255

  2. Trial manufacture of ITER toroidal field coil radial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Katsutoshi; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Esaki, Koichi; Nagamoto, Yoshifumi; Makino, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    In an ITER toroidal field (TF) coil, tight tolerances of 1 mm in flatness and a few millimeters in profile are required to manufacture a radial plate (RP), although the height and width of the RP are 13 m and 9 m, respectively. In addition, since cover plates (CPs) should be fitted to a groove in the RP with tolerance of 0.5 mm, tight tolerances are also required for the CPs. The authors therefore performed preliminary and full-scale trials to achieve tight tolerances that meet the required RP manufacturing schedule, such as one RP every three weeks. Before the full-scale trials, preliminary trials were performed to optimize machining procedures, welding conditions and assembly procedures for the RP, and the manufacturing processes for the straight and curved CP segments. Based on these preliminary trial results, full-scale RP and CPs were fabricated. The flatness achieved for the RP is 1 mm, except at the top and bottom where gravity support is insufficient. If the gravity support is suitable, it is expected that a flatness of 1 mm is achievable. The profile of the RP was measured to be within the targeted range, better than 2 mm. In addition, most of the CPs fit the corresponding groove of the RP. Although the issue of hot-cracking in the weld still remains, the test results indicate that this problem can be prevented by improving the geometry of the welding joint. Thus, we can conclude that the manufacturing procedures for RP and CP have been demonstrated. (author)

  3. Spread and control of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides according to an increasing occurrence of resistance - Evaluation of field trials in the federal states Brandenburg, Hessen, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia in the years 2000 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinlschmidt, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing occurrence of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides with high densities has been reported for Brandenburg, Hessen, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Thuringia. In recent years, an increasing resistance to blackgrass especially to ALS inhibitors and partially to ACCase inhibitors has been reported for some eastern federal states and Hessen, too. It was determined to what extent dicotyledonous weeds are associated with blackgrass. The efficacy of different herbicide applications was tested in field trials between 2000 and 2014. A total of 191 trials have been included in the analysis of blackgrass. Using the HRAC-classification of herbicides tested, combinations of herbicides were used which might contribute to solve problems specifically linked to the detected resistance situation of the site. The study aimed to identify the right timing of the herbicide applications as well as applications as single or serial treatments and the use of herbicide at reduced doses according to the intensity of blackgrass. In autumn, single applications of soil active herbicides were not effective enough, especially at a high density of more than 500 heads of blackgrass per m2. The mixtures of soil active herbicides with leave active herbicides applied in autumn achieved very good control. The herbicide sequences were more effective than single applications. In order to counteract further spread of herbicide resistance, the right choice of the mode of action and highly efficacious herbicide treatments are the methods of choice, of course in addition to nonchemical controlling measures such as delayed autumn drilling, ploughing and crop rotation.

  4. Evaluation of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching combined with light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nieuwenhuijsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is quite prevalent in the working population and is in some cases accompanied by long-term sick leave. These stress complaints highly impact employees and are costly due to lost productivity and medical expenses. A new treatment platform with light therapy plus Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields (PEMF in combination with coaching was used to assess whether more positive effects on return to work, stress, work-related fatigue, and quality of life could be induced compared to coaching alone. Methods A placebo-controlled trial was executed after inclusion of 96 workers, aged 18–65 with work-related chronic stress complaints and who were on sick leave (either part-time or full-time. Participants were divided into three arms at random. Group 1 (n = 28 received the treatment and coaching (Intervention group, group 2 (n = 28 received the treatment with the device turned off and coaching (Placebo group and group 3 (n = 28 received coaching only (Control group. The data were collected at baseline, and after 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome was % return to work, and secondary outcomes were work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion and need for recovery after work, stress (distress and hair cortisol, and quality of life (SF-36 dimensions: vitality, emotional role limitation, and social functioning. Results Eighty-four workers completed all measurements, 28 in each group. All groups improved significantly over time in the level of return to work, as well as on all secondary outcomes. No statistical differences between the three groups were found either on the primary outcome or on any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusions Light therapy with Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields PEMF therapy has no additional effect on return to work, stress, fatigue, and quality of live compared to coaching alone. Trial registration NTR4794 , registration date: 18-sep-2014

  5. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  6. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  7. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, S.A.; Swarbrick, G.E.; Stuetz, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions

  8. Field Trial Measurements to Validate a Stochastic Aircraft Boarding Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient boarding procedures have to consider both operational constraints and the individual passenger behavior. In contrast to the aircraft handling processes of fueling, catering and cleaning, the boarding process is more driven by passengers than by airport or airline operators. This paper delivers a comprehensive set of operational data including classification of boarding times, passenger arrival times, times to store hand luggage, and passenger interactions in the aircraft cabin as a reliable basis for calibrating models for aircraft boarding. In this paper, a microscopic approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the passenger movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. This model is used to compare measurements from field trials of boarding procedures with simulation results and demonstrates a deviation smaller than 5%.

  9. An evaluation of Tsyganenko magnetic field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A long-standing goal of magnetospheric physics has been to produce a model of the Earth's magnetic field that can accurately predict the field vector at all locations within the magnetosphere for all dipole tilt angles and for various solar wind or magnetic activity conditions. A number of models make such predictions, but some only for limited spatial regions, some only for zero tilt angle, and some only for arbitrary conditions. No models depend explicitly on solar wind conditions. A data set of more than 22,000 vector averages of the magnetosphere magnetic field over 0.5 R E regions is used to evaluate Tsyganenko's 1982 and 1987 magnetospheric magnetic field models. The magnetic field predicted by the model in various regions is compared to observations to find systematic discrepancies which future models might address. While agreement is generally good, discrepancies are noted which include: (1) a lack of adequate field line stretching in the tail and ring current regions; (2) an inability to predict weak enough fields in the polar cusps; and (3) a deficiency of Kp as a predictor of the field configuration

  10. Automatic system for evaluation of ionizing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, N.L.; Calil, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional cartesian manipulator for evaluating the ionizing field and able to position a ionization chamber in any point of the space is developed. The control system is made using a IBM microcomputer. The system aimed the study of isodose curves from ionizing sources, verifying the performance of radiotherapeutic equipment. (C.G.C.)

  11. Evaluative Practices in the Culinary Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Strandgaard, Jesper

    This paper is concerned with evaluative practices within the culinary field. The focus is on the evaluative practices performed by two restaurant ranking systems, respectively the Michelin Red Guide system handled by the French tire manufacturer Michelin and the San Pellegrino ’World’s 50 Best...... Restaurant’ list organized by the English based Restaurant Magazine. Both ranking systems evaluate and rate restaurants (judging their food, service, physical setting and so forth) but in different ways through different practices and means, and with somewhat different results....

  12. Evaluation of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching combined with light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schoutens, Antonius M C; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2017-10-02

    Chronic work-related stress is quite prevalent in the working population and is in some cases accompanied by long-term sick leave. These stress complaints highly impact employees and are costly due to lost productivity and medical expenses. A new treatment platform with light therapy plus Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields (PEMF) in combination with coaching was used to assess whether more positive effects on return to work, stress, work-related fatigue, and quality of life could be induced compared to coaching alone. A placebo-controlled trial was executed after inclusion of 96 workers, aged 18-65 with work-related chronic stress complaints and who were on sick leave (either part-time or full-time). Participants were divided into three arms at random. Group 1 (n = 28) received the treatment and coaching (Intervention group), group 2 (n = 28) received the treatment with the device turned off and coaching (Placebo group) and group 3 (n = 28) received coaching only (Control group). The data were collected at baseline, and after 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome was % return to work, and secondary outcomes were work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion and need for recovery after work), stress (distress and hair cortisol), and quality of life (SF-36 dimensions: vitality, emotional role limitation, and social functioning). Eighty-four workers completed all measurements, 28 in each group. All groups improved significantly over time in the level of return to work, as well as on all secondary outcomes. No statistical differences between the three groups were found either on the primary outcome or on any of the secondary outcomes. Light therapy with Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields PEMF therapy has no additional effect on return to work, stress, fatigue, and quality of live compared to coaching alone. NTR4794 , registration date: 18-sep-2014.

  13. Technical results of Y-12/IAEA field trial of remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbell, B.H.; Whitaker, J.M.; Welch, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Remote Monitoring System (RMS) field trial has been conducted with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The RMS included a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies which provide containment seals, video monitoring, radiation asset measurements, and container identification data to the on-site DAS (Data Acquisition System) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LonWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information was transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines. The technologies tested in the remote monitoring environment are the RadCouple, RadSiP, and SmartShelf sensors from the ORSENS (Oak Ridge Sensors for Enhancing Nuclear Safeguards) technologies; the AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System) motion sensor (AMS), AIMS fiber-optic seal (AFOS), ICAM (Image Compression and Authentication Module) video surveillance system, DAS (Data Acquisition System), and DIRS (Data and Image Review Station) from Sandia; and the AssetLAN identification tag, VACOSS-S seal, and Gemini digital surveillance system from Aquila. The field trial was conducted from October 1996 through May 1997. Tests were conducted during the monthly IAEA Interim Inventory Verification (IIV) inspections for evaluation of the equipment. Experience gained through the field trials will allow the technologies to be applied to various monitoring scenarios

  14. Field trial of a pulsed limestone diversion well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Denholm, C.; Dunn, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The use of limestone diversion wells to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) is well-known, but in many cases, acid neutralization is not as complete as would be desired. Reasons for this include channeling of the water through the limestone bed, and the slow reaction rate of the limestone gravel. A new approach to improve the performance of the diversion well was tested in the field at the Jennings Environmental Education Center, near Slippery Rock, PA. In this approach, a finer size distribution of limestone was used so as to allow fluidization of the limestone bed, thus eliminating channeling and increasing particle surface area for faster reaction rates. Also, water flow was regulated through the use of a dosing siphon, so that consistent fluidization of the limestone sand could be achieved. Testing began late in the summer of 2010, and continued through November of 2011. Initial system performance during the 2010 field season was good, with the production of net alkaline water, but hydraulic problems involving air release and limestone sand retention were observed. In the summer of 2011, a finer size of limestone sand was procured for use in the system. This material fluidized more readily, but acid neutralization tapered off after several days. Subsequent observations indicated that the hydraulics of the system was compromised by the formation of iron oxides in the pipe leading to the limestone bed, which affected water distribution and flow through the bed. Although results from the field trial were mixed, it is believed that without the formation of iron oxides and plugging of the pipe, better acid neutralization and treatment would have occurred. Further tests are being considered using a different hydraulic configuration for the limestone sand fluidized bed.

  15. Field trials on the store dressing with rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Hänninen

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the soil phosphorus status by a store dressing with rock phosphate has been studied in two field trials of five years standing. Hyperphosphate Reno was applied to the nurse crop of a red clover-timothy ley in amounts of 0, 1000 kg/ha, or 2000 kg/ha, respectively. The split-plot technique was used to study the response of the ley to an additional annual application of 200 kg/ha of superphosphate. The soil analyses distinctly proved that, in spite of a careful working in of the hyperphosphate with a spade harrow, the fertilizer had not penetrated deeper than to the layer from 1 to 3 inches, with a large part of it remaining in the top inch. The treatment with hyperphosphate had mostly increased the fraction of the calcium-bound phosphorus, and, to a very low degree, the aluminium-bound phosphorus. The effect of superphosphate could be detected only in the fractions of aluminium- and iron-bound phosphorus of the surface inch. Although the store dressing did not produce marked responses in the yields of either trial, the statistically significant negative interaction between the effect of it and of superphosphate may be taken to indicate that hyperphosphate was able to improve the phosphorus status of these soils to some degree. The analyses of the hay samples from one of the trials in the fifth experimental year showed that the store dressing, particularly with the higher amount of hyperphosphate was able to increase the phosphorus content of hay to a satisfactory level which was equal to that produced by the annual superphosphate dressing only. Their combined effect resulted in the production of hay dry matter containing more than 0.24 % of P. In one of the experiments the residual effect of the treatments on rye was studied. The response to superphosphate was highly significant, probably owing to the high demands of phosphorus by rye, connected with the overwintering conditions, and also to the fact that ploughing in

  16. WP6 - Application Integration, Trials and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Cetin, Bilge Kartal; Moran, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    of the Total cost of ownership (TCO) associated to RFID systems as well as to confirm the ease of implementation of ASPIRE open source software (OSS) components into current IT SME infrastructure.The different pilot trials described in this deliverable are the following: • A Logistics pilot for the packing...... industry to be setup at SENSAP S.A in Greece. • A pilot for company STAFF-Jeans SA, which focuses on two distinct yet complementary scenarios, namely logistics and retail scenarios for the apparel-textiles industry • PV Lab pilot, which is demonstration pilot that aims at showcasing the ASPIRE middleware....

  17. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  18. Joint remote data transmission field trial at Ahaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkarinen, J.; Meylemans, P.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.; Kuribayashi, T.; Leslie, R.F.; Neumann, G.

    2001-05-01

    The international safeguards authorities Euratom Safeguards Office and international atomic energy agency (IAEA) intend to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their inspection efforts in nuclear facilities by replacing unattended remote monitoring technology for on-site inspection activities. In order to study aspects of cost-effectiveness as well as technical feasibility and reliability, a 13-month dedicated field trial was performed at the Ahaus spent fuel storage facility testing the remote retrieval of authenticated and encrypted image data files from a digital multi-camera optical surveillance system (DMOS) with three cameras. Each image data file was released with a delay of 24 hours for remote retrieval via ISDN. Retrieval, reviewing and archiving took place at Euratom headquarters in Luxembourg. Due to the applied distributed data storage concept no loss of data took place. The data reduction principle of front end scene change detection worked reliably, i.e. it was possible to significantly reduce the amount of data to be remotely transmitted and the associated transmission costs. Under the assumption that technically mature safeguards instrumentation is available, the implementation of remote monitoring systems is technically feasible but requires cost-benefit analyses on a case-by-case basis. (orig.) [de

  19. Evaluating the Flipped Classroom: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozny, Nathan; Balser, Cary; Ives, Drew

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent interest in flipped classrooms, rigorous research evaluating their effectiveness is sparse. In this study, the authors implement a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a flipped classroom technique relative to a traditional lecture in an introductory undergraduate econometrics course. Random assignment enables the…

  20. Not a load of rubbish: simulated field trials in large-scale containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, M; Stahl, A; Rudloff, J; Wittkop, B; Snowdon, R J

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of yield performance under fluctuating environmental conditions is a major aim of crop breeders. Unfortunately, results from controlled-environment evaluations of complex agronomic traits rarely translate to field performance. A major cause is that crops grown over their complete lifecycle in a greenhouse or growth chamber are generally constricted in their root growth, which influences their response to important abiotic constraints like water or nutrient availability. To overcome this poor transferability, we established a plant growth system comprising large refuse containers (120 L 'wheelie bins') that allow detailed phenotyping of small field-crop populations under semi-controlled growth conditions. Diverse winter oilseed rape cultivars were grown at field densities throughout the crop lifecycle, in different experiments over 2 years, to compare seed yields from individual containers to plot yields from multi-environment field trials. We found that we were able to predict yields in the field with high accuracy from container-grown plants. The container system proved suitable for detailed studies of stress response physiology and performance in pre-breeding populations. Investment in automated large-container systems may help breeders improve field transferability of greenhouse experiments, enabling screening of pre-breeding materials for abiotic stress response traits with a positive influence on yield. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) is an on-line ion-chromatography-based instrument designed for speciation of the inorganic gas and aerosol ammonium-nitrate-sulfate system. Previous work to characterize the performance of the MARGA has been primarily based on field comparison to other measurement methods to evaluate accuracy. While such studies are useful, the underlying reasons for disagreement among methods are not always clear. This study examines aspects of MARGA accuracy and precision specifically related to automated chromatography analysis. Using laboratory standards, analytical accuracy, precision, and method detection limits derived from the MARGA chromatography software are compared to an alternative software package (Chromeleon, Thermo Scientific Dionex). Field measurements are used to further evaluate instrument performance, including the MARGA’s use of an internal LiBr standard to control accuracy. Using gas/aerosol ratios and aerosol neutralization state as a case study, the impact of chromatography on measurement error is assessed. The new generation of on-line chromatography-based gas and particle measurement systems have many advantages, including simultaneous analysis of multiple pollutants. The Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA) is such an instrument that is used in North America, Europe, and Asia for atmospheric process studies as well as routine monitoring. While the instrument has been evaluat

  2. First field trial of a transmissible recombinant vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J M; Sánchez, C; Ramírez, M A; Morales, M; Bárcena, J; Ferrer, J; Espuña, E; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2001-08-14

    As a novel approach for immunisation of wild rabbits, we have recently developed a transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) based on a recombinant myxoma virus (MV) expressing the RHDV capsid protein [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1114]. The efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been extensively evaluated under laboratory conditions. In this study, we report the first limited field trial of the candidate vaccine that was undertaken in an island of 34 Has containing a population of around 300 rabbits. Following administration by the subcutaneous route to 76 rabbits, the vaccine induced specific antibody responses against both myxomatosis and RHDV in all the inoculated rabbits. Furthermore, the recombinant virus exhibited a limited horizontal transmission capacity, promoting seroconversion of around 50% of the uninoculated rabbit population. No evidence of undesirable effects due to the recombinant virus field release was detected.

  3. Field trials of the phenomena of concern for psychiatric/mental health nursing: proposed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H S

    1989-10-01

    An important step in the development of the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Task Force's Classification of Phenomena of Concern for Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing is a plan for conducting field trials to determine interrater diagnostic reliability using the classification system. The ANA Task Force identified field testing as stage two in a three-stage process for completion of our work. In this article, we identify methodologic directions that will allow us to answer two important questions. First, what is the interrater reliability of the system of psychiatric nursing diagnoses when applied to clients by psychiatric/mental health nurse clinicians in their practice, and second, how do the clinicians who use this system view its usefulness for planning and evaluating nursing care?

  4. Preliminary evaluation of factors associated with premature trial closure and feasibility of accrual benchmarks in phase III oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroen, Anneke T; Petroni, Gina R; Wang, Hongkun; Gray, Robert; Wang, Xiaofei F; Cronin, Walter; Sargent, Daniel J; Benedetti, Jacqueline; Wickerham, Donald L; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Slingluff, Craig L

    2010-08-01

    A major challenge for randomized phase III oncology trials is the frequent low rates of patient enrollment, resulting in high rates of premature closure due to insufficient accrual. We conducted a pilot study to determine the extent of trial closure due to poor accrual, feasibility of identifying trial factors associated with sufficient accrual, impact of redesign strategies on trial accrual, and accrual benchmarks designating high failure risk in the clinical trials cooperative group (CTCG) setting. A subset of phase III trials opened by five CTCGs between August 1991 and March 2004 was evaluated. Design elements, experimental agents, redesign strategies, and pretrial accrual assessment supporting accrual predictions were abstracted from CTCG documents. Percent actual/predicted accrual rate averaged per month was calculated. Trials were categorized as having sufficient or insufficient accrual based on reason for trial termination. Analyses included univariate and bivariate summaries to identify potential trial factors associated with accrual sufficiency. Among 40 trials from one CTCG, 21 (52.5%) trials closed due to insufficient accrual. In 82 trials from five CTCGs, therapeutic trials accrued sufficiently more often than nontherapeutic trials (59% vs 27%, p = 0.05). Trials including pretrial accrual assessment more often achieved sufficient accrual than those without (67% vs 47%, p = 0.08). Fewer exclusion criteria, shorter consent forms, other CTCG participation, and trial design simplicity were not associated with achieving sufficient accrual. Trials accruing at a rate much lower than predicted (accrual rate) were consistently closed due to insufficient accrual. This trial subset under-represents certain experimental modalities. Data sources do not allow accounting for all factors potentially related to accrual success. Trial closure due to insufficient accrual is common. Certain trial design factors appear associated with attaining sufficient accrual. Defining

  5. Cross-system evaluation of clinical trial search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Silis Y; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities.

  6. Evaluation of seismic stability of near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Takaji, Kazuhiko; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Mori, Koji

    1999-11-01

    For the buffer material of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan, it is considered to use a compacted bentonite or a compacted sand-mixture bentonite that is one kind of clay. The buffer material is expected to maintain long-term mechanical stability, to hold the waste in designated place, and to avoid the effects on the radionuclides migration. It is considered that the cyclic load due to seismic activities affects long-term mechanical stability in Japan, where many earthquakes have been occurring. In this report, aseismic mechanical stability of engineered barrier of HLW is studied by dynamic analysis based on equation of vibration, mainly in the view point of mechanical stability of the buffer. The analytical computer code that has been developed by JNC in cooperative project with National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention Science and Technology Agency is used in this study. Seismic wave at the disposal depth in the assumed geological environment is established by multiple reflection theory analysis, and then seismic wave at the disposal depth is used for the aseismic mechanical stability analysis. For the aseismic mechanical stability, total stress analyses (single-phase system) with the target field of near field are conducted to evaluate the shear failure of the buffer, the displacement of overpack, and vibrational behavior of the engineered barrier, and then effective stress analyses (two-phase system) with the target field of the engineered barrier are conducted to evaluate excursion in the pore water pressure within the buffer (i. e. liquefaction), concerning the non-linear dynamic properties of the buffer material. From the results, the following conclusions are obtained. (1) From the results of the total stress analyses, it is confirmed that the buffer must not reach a shear failure condition from the stresses caused by an earthquake and the overpack must not move significantly due to the inertial

  7. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs

  8. Field trials of 100G and beyond: an operator's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, S.; Schneiders, M.; Weiershausen, W.; Mayer, H.; Schippel, A.; Wagner, P.; Ehrhardt, A.; Braun, R.; Breuer, D.; Drafz, U.; Fritzsche, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a summary of the latest 100 Gbps field trials in the network of Deutsche Telekom AG with industry partners. We cover a brown field approach as alien wavelength on existing systems, a green field high speed overlay network approach and a high speed interface router-router coupling.

  9. An unattended verification station for UF6 cylinders: Field trial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. E.; Miller, K. A.; McDonald, B. S.; Webster, J. B.; Zalavadia, M. A.; Garner, J. R.; Stewart, S. L.; Branney, S. J.; Todd, L. C.; Deshmukh, N. S.; Nordquist, H. A.; Kulisek, J. A.; Swinhoe, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has pursued innovative techniques and an integrated suite of safeguards measures to address the verification challenges posed by the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the unattended instruments currently being explored by the IAEA is an Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS), which could provide automated, independent verification of the declared relative enrichment, 235U mass, total uranium mass, and identification for all declared uranium hexafluoride cylinders in a facility (e.g., uranium enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants). Under the auspices of the United States and European Commission Support Programs to the IAEA, a project was undertaken to assess the technical and practical viability of the UCVS concept. The first phase of the UCVS viability study was centered on a long-term field trial of a prototype UCVS system at a fuel fabrication facility. A key outcome of the study was a quantitative performance evaluation of two nondestructive assay (NDA) methods being considered for inclusion in a UCVS: Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA), and Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). This paper provides a description of the UCVS prototype design and an overview of the long-term field trial. Analysis results and interpretation are presented with a focus on the performance of PNEM and HEVA for the assay of over 200 "typical" Type 30B cylinders, and the viability of an "NDA Fingerprint" concept as a high-fidelity means to periodically verify that material diversion has not occurred.

  10. Assessing the Effectiveness of Defensive Aid Suite Technology Using a Field Trial and Modelling and Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    ...) community that Defensive Aid Suite (DAS) technologies can improve the protection of LAVs. A prototype DAS system was developed by DRDC Valcartier and tested in field trials held in 1995 and 1999...

  11. Use of reflectance confocal microscopy to evaluate 5-fluorouracil 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% in the field-directed treatment of subclinical lesions of actinic keratosis: subanalysis of a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, M; Reinhold, U; Falqués, M; Rodriguez Azeredo, R; Stockfleth, E

    2018-03-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common skin disorder that can progress to invasive squamous-cell carcinoma. AK can present as clinical (visible) or subclinical (invisible) lesions within areas of chronic sun damage. The importance of treating subclinical AK is gaining support. We present a subanalysis of a previously published Phase III, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study (NCT02289768), to assess 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% treatment of subclinical AK lesions, based on reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). To determine the efficacy of 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% as field-directed treatment for subclinical AK lesions using RCM. For inclusion in this subanalysis, patients had to have at least three subclinical AK lesions within a 25 cm 2 area of skin. Subclinical AK lesions were diagnosed according to the presence of three key RCM criteria: architectural disarray; keratinocyte atypia and pleomorphism at the basal, spinous and granular layer. Subclinical AK lesions were evaluated by RCM at baseline, after 4, 6 and 12 weeks of 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% treatment or vehicle, and 8 weeks following the end of treatment. Twenty-seven patients were included: 17 [mean age = 72.2 years, standard deviation (SD) = 6.3] received 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% treatment and 10 (mean age = 76.4 years, SD = 3.9) received vehicle. Eight weeks following the end of treatment, the mean number of subclinical lesions declined (from 3.0 at baseline) to 0.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.57) for the 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% group and 1.6 (95% CI 0.52-2.68) in the vehicle group (reductions of 90% [95% CI 72.1-107.1] vs. 47% [95% CI 24.8-69.5], respectively; P = 0.005). The proportion of patients receiving 5-FU 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% showing complete clearance of three preselected subclinical AK lesions was numerically greater than in the vehicle group (69% vs. 40%, respectively; P = 0.183). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomized, vehicle

  12. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    Climate change impacts resulting from fossil fuel combustion and concerns about the diversity of energy supply are driving interest to find low-carbon energy alternatives. As a result bioenergy is receiving widespread scientific, political and media attention for its potential role in both supplying energy and mitigating greenhouse (GHG) emissions. It is estimated that the bioenergy contribution to EU 2020 renewable energy targets could require up to 17-21 million hectares of additional land in Europe (Don et al., 2012). There are increasing concerns that some transitions into bioenergy may not be as sustainable as first thought when GHG emissions from the crop growth and management cycle are factored into any GHG life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy is complex and encapsulates a wide range of crops, varying from food crop based biofuels to dedicated second generation perennial energy crops and forestry products. The decision on the choice of crop for energy production significantly influences the GHG mitigation potential. It is recognised that GHG savings or losses are in part a function of the original land-use that has undergone change and the management intensity for the energy crop. There is therefore an urgent need to better quantify both crop and site-specific effects associated with the production of conventional and dedicated energy crops on the GHG balance. Currently, there is scarcity of GHG balance data with respect to second generation crops meaning that process based models and LCAs of GHG balances are weakly underpinned. Therefore, robust, models based on real data are urgently required. In the UK we have recently embarked on a detailed program of work to address this challenge by combining a large number of field studies with state-of-the-art process models. Through six detailed experiments, we are calculating the annual GHG balances of land use transitions into energy crops across the UK. Further, we are quantifying the total soil carbon gain or

  13. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  14. Australasian Resuscitation In Sepsis Evaluation trial statistical analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Anthony; Peake, Sandra L; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cameron, Peter; Holdgate, Anna; Howe, Belinda; Higgins, Alisa; Presneill, Jeffrey; Webb, Steve

    2013-10-01

    The Australasian Resuscitation In Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) study is an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of early goal-directed therapy compared with standard care for patients presenting to the ED with severe sepsis. In keeping with current practice, and taking into considerations aspects of trial design and reporting specific to non-pharmacologic interventions, this document outlines the principles and methods for analysing and reporting the trial results. The document is prepared prior to completion of recruitment into the ARISE study, without knowledge of the results of the interim analysis conducted by the data safety and monitoring committee and prior to completion of the two related international studies. The statistical analysis plan was designed by the ARISE chief investigators, and reviewed and approved by the ARISE steering committee. The data collected by the research team as specified in the study protocol, and detailed in the study case report form were reviewed. Information related to baseline characteristics, characteristics of delivery of the trial interventions, details of resuscitation and other related therapies, and other relevant data are described with appropriate comparisons between groups. The primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes for the study are defined, with description of the planned statistical analyses. A statistical analysis plan was developed, along with a trial profile, mock-up tables and figures. A plan for presenting baseline characteristics, microbiological and antibiotic therapy, details of the interventions, processes of care and concomitant therapies, along with adverse events are described. The primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes are described along with identification of subgroups to be analysed. A statistical analysis plan for the ARISE study has been developed, and is available in the public domain, prior to the completion of recruitment into the

  15. The assessment of field trials in GMO research around the world and their possible integration in field trials for variety registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kleter, G.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Kok, E.J.

    2018-01-01

    Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as

  16. U.S. laboratory and field trials of metofluthrin (SumiOne) emanators for reducing mosquito biting outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J R; Shono, Y; Iwasaki, T; Ishiwatari, T; Spero, N; Benzon, G

    2007-03-01

    Metofluthrin (SumiOne is a novel, vapor-active pyrethroid that is highly effective against mosquitoes. Laboratory and field trials were conducted in the United States to evaluate the mosquito repellent activity of metofluthrin-treated paper substrates ("emanators"). Initial studies were conducted to evaluate the field performance of 900-cm(2) paper fan emanators impregnated with 160 mg metofluthrin, where Aedes canadensis was the predominant species. Emanators reduced landing rates on human volunteers by between 85% and 100% compared to untreated controls. Subsequent tests with 4,000-cm(2) paper strip emanators impregnated with 200 mg metofluthrin were conducted in a wind tunnel as a precursor to conducting field trials using human bait and laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti. Paper strips, which were pre-aged in a fume hood to determine duration of protection, gave 89-91% reductions in landing rates compared with controls. Similar reductions in biting activity were also noted. Following these tests, field trials to assess effect on landing rates were conducted with emanators positioned 1.22 m on either side of volunteers protected from biting by Tyvek suits, with pre- and posttreatment counts being made. In Florida (predominantly Ochlerotatus spp.) 91-95% reductions were noted 10-30 min after emanators were deployed, while in Washington State (mostly Aedes vexans) 95-97% reductions were observed. These results demonstrate that metofluthrin-treated emanators are highly effective at repelling mosquitoes.

  17. Educational Evaluation: The State of the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard M., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Educational evaluation is discussed. Topics include: an evaluation framework, educational objectives and study design from a 20-year perspective, a sample study, educational evaluation for local school improvement, decision-oriented evaluation studies, reporting study results, and professional standards for assuring the quality of educational…

  18. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...... a range meteorological conditions. These include neutral conditions with relatively highwindspeed and low humidity as well as unstable conditions with low windspeed and high humidity, the most favorable conditions for lift-off to occur. The lidar was used to scan vertical cross-plume slices 100 meter...

  19. Evaluation of Kilifi epilepsy education programme: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibinda, Fredrick; Mbuba, Caroline K; Kariuki, Symon M; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Lowe, Brett; Fegan, Greg; Carter, Julie A; Newton, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The epilepsy treatment gap is largest in resource-poor countries. We evaluated the efficacy of a 1-day health education program in a rural area of Kenya. The primary outcome was adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as measured by drug levels in the blood, and the secondary outcomes were seizure frequency and Kilifi Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scores (KEBAS). Seven hundred thirty-eight people with epilepsy (PWE) and their designated supporter were randomized to either the intervention (education) or nonintervention group. Data were collected at baseline and 1 year after the education intervention was administered to the intervention group. There were 581 PWE assessed at both time points. At the end of the study, 105 PWE from the intervention group and 86 from the nonintervention group gave blood samples, which were assayed for the most commonly used AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine). The proportions of PWE with detectable AED levels were determined using a standard blood assay method. The laboratory technicians conducting the assays were blinded to the randomization. Secondary outcomes were evaluated using questionnaires administered by trained field staff. Modified Poisson regression was used to investigate the factors associated with improved adherence (transition from nonoptimal AED level in blood at baseline to optimal levels at follow-up), reduced seizures, and improved KEBAS, which was done as a post hoc analysis. This trial is registered in ISRCTN register under ISRCTN35680481. There was no significant difference in adherence to AEDs based on detectable drug levels (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.74-2.90, p = 0.28) or by self-reports (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71-1.40, p = 1.00) between the intervention and nonintervention group. The intervention group had significantly fewer beliefs about traditional causes of epilepsy, cultural treatment, and negative stereotypes than the nonintervention group. There was no

  20. Evaluation of the physicians‘ of n hospital opinion on clinical trials of medicinal products

    OpenAIRE

    Videikaitė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the research. To evaluate the physicians‘ of N Hospital opinion on clinical trials of medicinal products. Objectives. To evaluate the factors affecting physicians' motivation to perform clinical trials of medicinal products as well as those that prevent the physicians getting involved in the trials. To assess physicians' attitude towards clinical trials of medicinal products. To compare the opinions of physicians who have and have’nt participated in clinical trials. Methods of...

  1. Field performance of selected mutants of sorghum and rice. Field evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Agricultural research conducted in Mali by the Institute Polytechnique Rural (IPR) and the Institute d'Economie Rural (IER), from improvement of sorghum and African rice (Oryza glaberrima) with some Agency support, resulted in several advanced generations of sorghum and African rice with improved characteristics, including high yield. Project MLI/5/014 aims at further supporting both institutions to advance these promising results, particularly by supporting multi-location field trials to select high yielding plant varieties, and by adding capability in tissue culture techniques for advanced mutation breeding as well as in the use of nuclear techniques in soil studies. The project was approved in 1995, as a model project and the current budget for the Agency's input amounts to $469,300 until 1997. The disbursements up to April 1996 amount to $168,991. The present mid-term evaluation aims at assessing the progress of the project towards its intended objectives and overall goal and the evaluation methodology applied was based on the Logical Framework Approach for project design. Figs, tabs

  2. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  3. Plastic straws for frozen semen. (A field evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, J W; King, G J

    1966-04-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the routine frozen semen methods presently used at this laboratory with those reported by French workers. When the extender used was sterile milk both methods resulted in fertility equal to the standard. Fertility results obtained with the French method employing Lactiphos extender were significantly lower than the standard.

  4. Development, Validation, and Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Quantitative Multiplexing Method To Assess Levels of Ten Endogenous Allergens in Soybean Seed and Its Application to Field Trials Spanning Three Growing Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan C; Oman, Trent J; Wang, Xiujuan; Shan, Guomin; Schafer, Barry; Herman, Rod A; Tobias, Rowel; Shippar, Jeff; Malayappan, Bhaskar; Sheng, Li; Xu, Austin; Bradshaw, Jason

    2017-07-12

    As part of the regulatory approval process in Europe, comparison of endogenous soybean allergen levels between genetically engineered (GE) and non-GE plants has been requested. A quantitative multiplex analytical method using tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated to measure 10 potential soybean allergens from soybean seed. The analytical method was implemented at six laboratories to demonstrate the robustness of the method and further applied to three soybean field studies across multiple growing seasons (including 21 non-GE soybean varieties) to assess the natural variation of allergen levels. The results show environmental factors contribute more than genetic factors to the large variation in allergen abundance (2- to 50-fold between environmental replicates) as well as a large contribution of Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 to the total allergen profile, calling into question the scientific rational for measurement of endogenous allergen levels between GE and non-GE varieties in the safety assessment.

  5. Establishing vegetation on Kimberlite mine tailings: 2. Field trials. | N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of field experiments were carried out on Kimberlite mine tailing located at Cullinan in the Transvaal. The most successful species in pure sward were Chloris gayana, Cynodon aethiopicus, Eragrostis curvula, E. tef, Pennisetum purpureum, Melilotus alban and Medicago sativa. Growth of grasses in the absence of ...

  6. Defendant's or convict's competency to stand trial - forensic psychiatric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynkier, Przemysław N

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to draw attention to particularly important aspects of pronouncing forensic psychiatric judgment regarding the accused or convicted individuals' competency to stand trial. The level of a person's mental capacity should be established using a structured psychiatric interview concerning a variety of aspects of a trial. Emphasis should be placed on evaluating the defendant's consciousness of the charges, knowledge of the potential punishment, ability to make significant decisions and be engaged in defense, knowledge about the role that particular people present in the courtroom play, understanding of the meaning of the evidence gathered in the case, the risk of aggression. The analysis should take into account the specificity of the mental disorder, the influence of proceedings on the course of disorder, as well as the presence of reactive disorders. Using testing tools by the expert can facilitate the process of evaluation to a certain degree. Forensic psychiatric evaluations can give rise to difficulties for the experts, what with the changing legal regulations and their interpretations. It would be justified to develop the standards of evaluation in this kind of cases, which would on the one hand apply to experts but which would also be respected by the judicial organ.

  7. Evaluation of early efficacy endpoints for proof-of-concept trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Sun, Linda; Li, Chih-Lin

    2013-03-11

    A Phase II proof-of-concept (POC) trial usually uses an early efficacy endpoint other than a clinical endpoint as the primary endpoint. Because of the advancement in bioscience and technology, which has yielded a number of new surrogate biomarkers, drug developers often have more candidate endpoints to choose from than they can handle. As a result, selection of endpoint and its effect size as well as choice of type I/II error rates are often at the center of heated debates in design of POC trials. While optimization of the trade-off between benefit and cost is the implicit objective in such a decision-making process, it is seldom explicitly accounted for in practice. In this research note, motivated by real examples from the oncology field, we provide practical measures for evaluation of early efficacy endpoints (E4) for POC trials. We further provide optimal design strategies for POC trials that include optimal Go-No Go decision criteria for initiation of Phase III and optimal resource allocation strategies for conducting multiple POC trials in a portfolio under fixed resources. Although oncology is used for illustration purpose, the same idea developed in this research note also applies to similar situations in other therapeutic areas or in early-stage drug development in that a Go-No Go decision has to rely on limited data from an early efficacy endpoint and cost-effectiveness is the main concern.

  8. A convenient procedure for magnetic field homogeneity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, J; Garrido, C E; Tannus, A

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of research that utilize magnetic fields in their studies, it is important to obtain fields with a spatial distribution as homogeneous as possible. A procedure usually utilized to evaluate and to optimize field homogeneity is the expansion of the measured field in spherical harmonic components. In addition to the methods proposed in the literature, we present a more convenient procedure for evaluation of field homogeneity inside a spherical volume. The procedure uses the orthogonality property of the spherical harmonics to find the field variance. It is shown that the total field variance is equal to the sum of the individual variances of each field component in the spherical harmonic expansion. Besides the advantages of the linear behaviour of the individual variances, there is the fact that the field variance and standard deviation are the best parameters to achieve global homogeneity field information

  9. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  10. Field Guide for Evaluating Cottonwood Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.M. Broadfoot

    1960-01-01

    Two field methods have been developed at the Stoneville Research Center for estimating the capability of Midsouth soils to grow eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.). Data for establishing the procedures were collected from 155 plots* at the locations indicated in Figure 1.The methods give site index-that is, tree-growing...

  11. Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) Field Evaluation in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doheny, Robert C; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand...

  12. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  13. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD) in reindeer

    OpenAIRE

    Nordkvist, M.; Christensson, D.; Rehbinder, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983) as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females), as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females) were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD) at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly ...

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATION OF LIQUID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-26

    Feb 26, 2016 ... growth media and inoculant stabiliser solutions were evaluated. Balanced medium and ... direct human subsistence and is used in several other food products. .... controlled environment (light intensity of 200 µE m-2 second-1, ...

  15. Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2018-03-05

    Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m 3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A pragmatic cluster randomised trial evaluating three implementation interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rycroft-Malone Jo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation research is concerned with bridging the gap between evidence and practice through the study of methods to promote the uptake of research into routine practice. Good quality evidence has been summarised into guideline recommendations to show that peri-operative fasting times could be considerably shorter than patients currently experience. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of three strategies for the implementation of recommendations about peri-operative fasting. Methods A pragmatic cluster randomised trial underpinned by the PARIHS framework was conducted during 2006 to 2009 with a national sample of UK hospitals using time series with mixed methods process evaluation and cost analysis. Hospitals were randomised to one of three interventions: standard dissemination (SD of a guideline package, SD plus a web-based resource championed by an opinion leader, and SD plus plan-do-study-act (PDSA. The primary outcome was duration of fluid fast prior to induction of anaesthesia. Secondary outcomes included duration of food fast, patients’ experiences, and stakeholders’ experiences of implementation, including influences. ANOVA was used to test differences over time and interventions. Results Nineteen acute NHS hospitals participated. Across timepoints, 3,505 duration of fasting observations were recorded. No significant effect of the interventions was observed for either fluid or food fasting times. The effect size was 0.33 for the web-based intervention compared to SD alone for the change in fluid fasting and was 0.12 for PDSA compared to SD alone. The process evaluation showed different types of impact, including changes to practices, policies, and attitudes. A rich picture of the implementation challenges emerged, including inter-professional tensions and a lack of clarity for decision-making authority and responsibility. Conclusions This was a large, complex study and one of the first

  17. Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino Volcano Field I and II (EX0905, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are to test use of EX mapping sensors to characterize complex geological areas (i.e. volcanic field) and develop protocols to...

  18. Evaluating 239Pu levels using field detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.; Smith, W.J. II; Martin, B.

    1996-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cleanup was planned at three septic tanks where surface soil in the outfall drainage areas was found to be contaminated with 239 Pu. To meet budget and deadline constraints, a technique was developed that used field instruments to verify 239 Pu soil contamination at levels less than 2.8 Bq g -1 , the established cleanup level. The drainage areas were surveyed using a low-energy gamma probe to identify likely areas of 239 Pu contamination. Between 40 and 135 0.1-min gamma radiation measurements were obtained from each drainage area. From these data, locations were identified for subsequent screening for alpha radioactivity. Soil samples from between 11 and 18 locations at each drainage area were placed in petri dishes, dried, and counted for 10 minutes using an alpha probe. Alpha counts were then related to 239 Pu concentrations using a curve developed from local soils containing known concentrations of 239 Pu. Up to six soil samples from each drainage area, representing a range of alpha radioactivity levels, were sent for laboratory analysis of isotopic plutonium to confirm field measurement results. Analytical and field results correlated well at all but one outfall area. At this area, field measurements predicted more 239 Pu than was measured in the laboratory, indicating the presence of another alpha-emitting radionuclide that might have been missed if only laboratory analyses for plutonium had been used. This technique, which combined a large number of gamma radioactivity measurements, a moderate number of alpha radioactivity measurements, and a few isotopic plutonium measurements, allowed quick and inexpensive comparison of 239 Pu with the cleanup level

  19. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiss, Janet E; Wright, James C

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures. 16 Labrador Retrievers. At each of 5 field trials, 5 to 10 dogs were monitored during a test (retrieval of birds over a variable distance on land [1,076 to 2,200 m]; 36 assessments); ambient temperatures ranged from 2.2 degrees to 29.4 degrees C. For each dog, rectal temperature was measured and a venous blood sample was collected in a heparinized syringe within 5 minutes of test completion. Blood samples were analyzed on site for Hct; pH; sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations; and values of PvO2 and PvCO2. Scatterplots of each variable versus ambient temperature were reviewed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature ( 21 degrees C) on each variable. Compared with findings at ambient temperatures 21 degrees C; rectal temperature did not differ. Two dogs developed signs of heat stress in 1 test at an ambient temperature of 29 degrees C; their rectal temperatures were higher and PvCO2 values were lower than findings in other dogs. When running distances frequently encountered at field trials, healthy Labrador Retrievers developed hyperthermia regardless of ambient temperature. Dogs developed respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia at ambient temperatures > 21 degrees C.

  20. Technical implementation in support of the IAEA's remote monitoring field trial at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbell, B.H.; Moran, B.W.; Pickett, C.A.; Whitaker, J.M.; Resnik, W.; Landreth, D.

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitoring system (RMS) field trial will be conducted for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Remote monitoring technologies are being evaluated to verify their capability to enhance the effectiveness and timeliness of IAEA safeguards in storage facilities while reducing the costs of inspections and burdens on the operator. Phase one of the field trial, which involved proving the satellite transmission of sensor data and safeguards images from a video camera activated by seals and motion sensors installed in the vault, was completed in September 1995. Phase two involves formal testing of the RMS as a tool for use by the IAEA during their tasks of monitoring the storage of nuclear material. The field trial to be completed during early 1997 includes access and item monitoring of nuclear materials in two storage trays. The RMS includes a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies that provide video monitoring, radiation attribute measurements, and container identification to the on-site data acquisition system (DAS) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LONWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information will be transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines

  1. Study on the system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in Near Field 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutu, Kazuo; Morikawa, Seiji; Takamura, Hisashi

    2003-02-01

    For the high performance evaluation of reliability of TRU waste repository, the system development for evaluating long-term alteration in consideration of the changes action of barrier materials of hydraulic field in Near Field is required. In this research, the system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in Near Field was examined. The model evaluating each phenomena and the prototype system for chemical/mechanical analysis system were developed, and the method of coupling chemical with dynamic analysis was examined. To improve accuracy and propriety of this analysis system in the future, necessary development elements were arranged. The research result of this year is shown below. 1) Knowledge concerning the chemical phenomena in the near field evolution was rearranged. Experimental approaches and analysis methods were applied to the phenomena of which the knowledge can be obtained. Approaches to focus the model were applied to the phenomena for which knowledge is essentially difficult to obtain. The analysis model was improved using knowledge from natural analog and computational analyses. An analysis system was developed and the propriety of the model was demonstrated. 2) The model of bentonite material was developed by focusing attention on nonlinear swelling behavior. And the model of cement material was developed by focusing attention on deformation behavior influenced by leaching of calcium element which cause reducing of rigidity and strength. With regard to the bentonite model, to testify its propriety, the trial analysis result compared with the consolidation properties test data. Furthermore, the dynamic alteration action analysis system consisted of bentonite and cement model was developed, and trial analysis was performed. In this trial analysis, parameters of cation exchange ratio of Na-bentonite for Ca ion and leaching ratio of Ca from cement material were considered. On the one hand, as concerns rock, to include the

  2. A field performance evaluation of drip emitters: pressure versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field evaluation of irrigation systems (drip) can form a basis for decision making as to whether the irrigation system needs rehabilitation, overhaul or even dismantling if found to be very uneconomical. A comprehensive field evaluation of irrigation systems involves determining the overall efficiency of the system, for example, ...

  3. REARING TOMATO WHITEFLY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-05-27

    May 27, 2015 ... important agricultural and ornamental crops in all agro-ecological regions in the world. This study evaluated the ... conidia: (a) modified conidia (conidia with improved ecological competence), and (b) unmodified conidia of the three isolates were subjected ..... control of cotton spider mites. There was a wide ...

  4. Trial 1 versus Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering: Evaluating accuracy without a "gold standard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Douglas; Wygant, Dustin B; Gervais, Roger O; Hart, Kathleen J

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM) implemented in a Bayesian framework to evaluate archival Trial 1 and Trial 2 data collected from 1,198 adults who had undergone outpatient forensic evaluations. All subjects were tested with 2 other performance validity tests (the Word Memory Test and the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias), and for 70% of the subjects, data from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition Forced Choice trial were also available. Our results suggest that not even a perfect score on Trial 1 or Trial 2 justifies saying that an evaluee is definitely responding genuinely, although such scores imply a lower-than-base-rate probability of feigning. If one uses a Trial 2 cut-off higher than the manual's recommendation, Trial 2 does better than Trial 1 at identifying individuals who are almost certainly feigning while maintaining a negligible false positive rate. Using scores from both trials, one can identify a group of definitely feigning and very likely feigning subjects who comprise about 2 thirds of all feigners; only 1% of the members of this group would not be feigning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teleradiology (TELEACE) system: results of a field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Gi Bum; Seong, Yeung Soon; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kang, Duk Sik

    1993-01-01

    We report the results of field operation of TELEACE system between Kyung-Pook National University Hospital and Ul-Jin Goon Health Care Medical Center from December, 1990 to September, 1991, which had been operated as a kind of Integrated Services Digital Network projects by KOREA TELECOMMUNICATION Inc. Ul-Jin Goon Health Care Medical Center transmitted 414 plain radiographs to our hospital in speed of 9600BPS. Each image was composed of 1024X1024 pixelsX8 bits/pixel. In our hospital, the image flies were displayed on high resolution monitor (1280X1024 pixels). Text files of image interpretations were transmitted to the health care medical center. The two radiologists who had interpreted the transmitted images, went to the health care medical center and read radiographic films with blind test method. We obtained the following results: false negative rate of 6.3%, false positive rate of 2.4%, mean sensitivity of 81.4%, mean specificity of 96.3%, and mean accuracy of 91.3%. In predictive value of 0.05, there was no significant difference between results of these two types of radiographs. In conclusion, TELEACE system was valuable to the clinicians isolated from services of radiologists

  6. Steep cut slope composting : field trials and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Three different depths of compost and five compost retention techniques were tested to determine : their efficacy and cost effectiveness for increasing the establishment of native grass seedings and decreasing : erosion on steep roadside cut slopes i...

  7. Family in Focus: On Design and Field Trial of the Dynamic Collage [DC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    René Bakker; Koen van Turnhout; Jasper Jeurens

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and field trial of the Dynamic Collage. The Dynamic Collage was designed to facilitate and to stimulate participation of family members in the informal care of an elderly person. The Dynamic Collage enabled relatives to update their current activity by sending a

  8. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment : A field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, P; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F. M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-01-01

    Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation

  9. A field trial on the effects of algae addition to calf feed. Project T2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Berg, van den W.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a field trial that took place between 1 July and 2 October 2015 at a Dutch rose veal farm in which a group of 30 calves was fed with formula milk of which 2% of the dry matter was substituted with concentrated freshwater algae. The control group consisted of 25 calves. The farm

  10. Looking ahead – How field trials can work in iterative and exploratory design of ubicomp systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Bødker, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    . To introduce a sophisticated version of our own prototype in the course of an iterative design process, we conducted a public field trial of the system—a new platform for mobile democratic discussions in municipal planning—that we distributed via the Android Market. However, it turned out to be surprisingly...

  11. Iterative design and field trial of an aphasia-friendly email tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Mahmud, A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe the iterative design and field trial of Amail, an email client specifically designed for people with aphasia who have problems expressing themselves verbally. We conducted a 3-month study with eight persons with aphasia to better understand how people with aphasia could

  12. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Velazco (Julio G.); M.X. Rodríguez-Álvarez (María Xosé); M.P. Boer (Martin); D.R. Jordan (David R.); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); M. Malosetti (Marcos); F. van Eeuwijk (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials._ __Abstract:__ Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for

  13. Evaluation of the Field Gradient Lattice Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072983

    A novel Micro Pattern Gas Detector, named the Field Gradient Lattice Detector, has been implemented using technologies available to CERN’s Printed Circuit Workshop. Numerous prototypes based on various materials were constructed in different geometries and their gain performance has been studied using 55Fe and 109Cd X-ray sources in Argon-CO2 gas mixtures. Two axis (2D) prototype structures have been shown to provide stable gains of around 1000 while a 3D design, based on the same polyimide foils used in other MPGD elements, holds a gain of 5000 for 8.9 keV X-rays even at high rates of 22 kHz/mm2. At a gain of 3100, the device has been tested up to 1 MHz/mm2 and shows no signs of degradation in performance. The energy resolution of the 3D-in-polyimide is modest, around 40% for 5.9 keV X-rays and 30% if the source is collimated indicating a variation in gain over the 3x3 cm2 active area. Having the most promise for future applications, the 3D-in-polyimide design has been selected for testing with a custom-bu...

  14. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  15. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nordkvist

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983 as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females, as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly corresponding to 200 meg ivermectin per kg body weight, subcutaneous injection. Remaining 25 calves (14 males + 11 females served as untreated controls. The entire group of calves was then returned to the herd for free grazing during winter. During the winter 3 treated calves were found dead, all three of them had been suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. If any of the control animals had succumbed during the same time is not known. On April 21st, 1983 (approx. 150 days post treatment 44 calves (24 treated + 20 controls were weighed. 5 treated and 5 controls were randomly selected for slaughter. Carcasses and organs were thoroughly examined from a parasitological and, as far as lungs were concerned, pathological point of view. The efficacy of the treatment was 100(M> or nearly 100% against Oedemagena tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and nematode eggs in faeces. The efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes was, probably due to date of treatment, somewhat difficult to judge (Tab 1. A statistical analysis of the weight changes, relative to initial weights, (Tab. 2 supports the statements — that all animals had lost weight — that treated males had lost significantly less of their body weights than control males — That weight change of treated females did not differ significantly from that of control females — that the average weight loss of the entire treated group was significantly less than that of the

  16. Competency to stand trial evaluations: a study of actual practice in two states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E; Waters, J; Herbert, P

    1997-01-01

    A criminal defendant must be competent to stand trial (CST) to safeguard the fundamental right to a fair trial. If there is a question as to a defendant's ability to assist in his or her own defense, a mental health professional is asked to perform a CST evaluation. Forensic assessment is a growing field, and CST is the most frequent evaluation requested. Over the years, forensic examiners' reports to the courts have been criticized for lack of relevance, insufficiency, and invading the province of the judge. If mental health professionals wish to advance the field of forensic assessment and respond to these criticisms, research on current practice with suggestions for advancement are necessary. A total of 66 CST reports conducted within the last five years in two states were compared to a proposed model for CST assessment. Results indicated that although forensic examiners are maintaining legal relevance, some CST reports may lack thoroughness and/or provide information that exceeds their role responsibilities. The findings support the need for the development of a standardized method of conducting and writing CST evaluations that should improve the quality of such reports.

  17. Fusion bonded epoxy mainline and field joint coatings performance from the X100 field trial – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, A.N.K.; Thompson, I.

    2012-01-01

    Operating and distribution companies are potentially interested in the use of high and ultra-high strength steels for the transportation of high pressure gas. The ultra-high strength X100 grade steel was commercially developed as a potential option to meet this. However, there has been limited industry wide use of X100 to date. BP carried out a 2 year field trial to demonstrate the operational capacity and integrity of a large diameter (48 inch/1219 mm) high pressure pipeline constructed from X100 grade steel. The 800 m pipeline was buried in a clay backfill and exposed to wet ground conditions associated with the North of England. Flow pressure cycling was carried out, using water, to simulate 40 years of operational service. A 200 m section of the pipeline was exposed to three different potential (cathodic protection) zones for the duration of the trial: zero potential, intermediate potential (−850 to −950 mV) and high potential (−1200 to −1300 mV). This section also had damage and defects induced which are typically associated with bad installation and commissioning. An area of potential concern is the degradation of the mechanical properties (strain ageing) due to the external coating application temperature. Thus, a low coating application temperature is deemed desirable. The mainline and field joint coatings employed for the trial were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). Both of these have been used in other BP projects, with a good track record. They were applied at a lower application temperature of 220 °C, compared to the more typical 230–240 °C. The lower application temperature was within the manufacturers approved application and curing temperature range. The lower temperature was used to assess the ultimate performance properties of the mainline and field joint FBE coatings. Mainline and field joint coating samples were taken from the three different potential zones and extensive testing and characterisation carried out. This paper presents and

  18. Fusion bonded epoxy mainline and field joint coatings performance from the X100 field trial - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadoon, A.N.K., E-mail: ammer.jadoon@bp.com [BP Exploration and Production Technology, Chertsey Road, Sunbury TW16-7LN (United Kingdom); Thompson, I. [GL Industrial Services UK, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11-3GR (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Operating and distribution companies are potentially interested in the use of high and ultra-high strength steels for the transportation of high pressure gas. The ultra-high strength X100 grade steel was commercially developed as a potential option to meet this. However, there has been limited industry wide use of X100 to date. BP carried out a 2 year field trial to demonstrate the operational capacity and integrity of a large diameter (48 inch/1219 mm) high pressure pipeline constructed from X100 grade steel. The 800 m pipeline was buried in a clay backfill and exposed to wet ground conditions associated with the North of England. Flow pressure cycling was carried out, using water, to simulate 40 years of operational service. A 200 m section of the pipeline was exposed to three different potential (cathodic protection) zones for the duration of the trial: zero potential, intermediate potential (-850 to -950 mV) and high potential (-1200 to -1300 mV). This section also had damage and defects induced which are typically associated with bad installation and commissioning. An area of potential concern is the degradation of the mechanical properties (strain ageing) due to the external coating application temperature. Thus, a low coating application temperature is deemed desirable. The mainline and field joint coatings employed for the trial were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). Both of these have been used in other BP projects, with a good track record. They were applied at a lower application temperature of 220 Degree-Sign C, compared to the more typical 230-240 Degree-Sign C. The lower application temperature was within the manufacturers approved application and curing temperature range. The lower temperature was used to assess the ultimate performance properties of the mainline and field joint FBE coatings. Mainline and field joint coating samples were taken from the three different potential zones and extensive testing and characterisation carried out. This paper

  19. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  20. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Qu-M845 Isolate to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in Laboratory and Field Trials Evaluación del Aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en Ensayos de Laboratorio y Terreno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff Qu-M845 isolate was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. It was previously selected for thermal resistance (at 30 and 35 ºC and pathogenicity on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman. In the laboratory, the first evaluations were carried out by spraying and increasing the concentration from zero to 10(8 conidia mL-1 on varroa adults. Lethal concentrations required for 50 and 90% mite mortality (LC50 and LC90 were 3.8 x 10(5 and 8 x 10(7 conidia mL-1, respectively (χ2 = 2.03. In the autumn field trials, three application methods (doses of 5 x 10(10 conidia per hive were evaluated. The treatments were: a conidia stamped on filter paper, located on every second frame inside the hive; b dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames; and c dry conidia in a dispenser path at the entrance of the hive. Furthermore, untreated hives were included as controls. After 21 days of treatment, the dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames showed 67% less bees infested by the mite than the control (p La efectividad del aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff, seleccionado previamente por su resistencia a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC, y patogenicidad sobre Varroa destructor Anderson y Trueman fue evaluada en laboratorio y en ensayos de terreno. Las primeras pruebas consistieron en pulverizar concentraciones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 sobre varroas adultas. La concentración letal para matar el 50 y 90% de la población (CL50 y CL90 fueron de 3,8 x 10(5 y 8 x 10(7 conidias mL-1, respectivamente (χ² = 2,03. En otoño se evaluaron en terreno tres métodos de aplicación de una dosis de 5 x 10(10 conidias por colmena. Los tratamientos fueron: a conidias estampadas en papel filtro ubicado cada dos panales móviles al interior de la colmena; b conidias espolvoreadas sobre y entre los panales; y c dispensador de conidias ubicado en la piquera de las colmenas. Además se

  1. Clinical uses of melatonin: evaluation of human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barceló, E J; Mediavilla, M D; Tan, D X; Reiter, R J

    2010-01-01

    During the last 20 years, numerous clinical trials have examined the therapeutic usefulness of melatonin in different fields of medicine. The objective of this article is to review, in depth, the science regarding clinical trials performed to date. The efficacy of melatonin has been assessed as a treatment of ocular diseases, blood diseases, gastrointestinal tract diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, infectious diseases, neurological diseases, sleep disturbances, aging and depression. Melatonin has been also used as a complementary treatment in anaesthesia, hemodialysis, in vitro fertilization and neonatal care. The conclusion of the current review is that the use of melatonin as an adjuvant therapy seems to be well funded for macular degeneration, glaucoma, protection of the gastric mucosa, irritable bowel syndrome, arterial hypertension, diabetes, side effects of chemotherapy and radiation in cancer patients or hemodialysis in patients with renal insufficiency and, especially, for sleep disorders of circadian etiology (jet lag, delayed sleep phase syndrome, sleep deterioration associated with aging, etc.) as well as in those related with neurological degenerative diseases (Alzheimer, etc.,) or Smith-Magenis syndrome. The utility of melatonin in anesthetic procedures has been also confirmed. More clinical studies are required to clarify whether, as the preliminary data suggest, melatonin is useful for treatment of fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, infectious diseases, neoplasias or neonatal care. Preliminary data regarding the utility of melatonin in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis are either ambiguous or negative. Although in a few cases melatonin seems to aggravate some conditions, the vast majority of studies document the very low toxicity of melatonin over a wide range of doses.

  2. Evaluation of New Fluid Mud Survey System at Field Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engler

    1992-01-01

    This technical note presents an intermediate evaluation of a fluid mud survey system with respect to operability, practicability, and repeatability based on field tests conducted at Calcasieu River, Louisiana...

  3. Evaluation of uncertainty in the measurement of environmental electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    With regard to Non-ionising radiation protection, the relationship between human exposure to electromagnetic fields and health is controversial. Electromagnetic fields have become omnipresent in the daily environment. This paper assesses the problem of how to compare a measurement result with a limit fixed by the standard for human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz). The purpose of the paper is an appropriate representation of the basic information about evaluation of measurement uncertainty. (authors)

  4. Variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units collected from a field trial and marketplaces in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, Mohammad Dalower Hossain; Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2018-04-01

    Variability of pesticide residues among food items is very important when assessing the risks and food safety for the consumers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the unit-to-unit residue variability factors for eggplant. In total, 120 samples from a trial field and 142 samples from different marketplaces in Thessaloniki, Greece, were collected to estimate the variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units. They were extracted by the QuEChERS method and the residues were determined by LC-MS/MS. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) obtained for cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues were 2.54 and 2.51, respectively. The mean residue levels of both pesticides were higher in the composite samples than in the individual samples. The average VFs for the marketplace samples was 3.89. The eggplant units exposed to pesticides were higher in residues than the non-exposed units. The variability factors obtained in the marketplace samples were higher than those in the samples collected from the field trial. A default VF value of 3 for field trials is appropriate for use when assessing the acute dietary intake but a VF for the marketplace samples should be reconsidered with a larger data. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Evaluation of eligibility and recruitment in breast cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Julie; Forget, Geneviève; Brochu, Olyvia; Provencher, Louise; Cantin, Guy; Desbiens, Christine; Doyle, Catherine; Poirier, Brigitte; Camden, Stéphanie; Durocher, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Objectives of the study were to measure recruitment rates in clinical trials and to identify patients, physicians or trials characteristics associated with higher recruitment rates. Among patients who had a clinical trial available for their cancer, 83.5% (345/413) met the eligibility criteria to at least one clinical trial. At least one trial was proposed to 33.1% (113/341) of the eligible patients and 19.7% (68/345) were recruited. Overall recruitment was 16.5% (68/413). In multivariate analyses, trial proposal and enrollment were lower for elderly patients and higher in high cancer stages. Trials from pharmaceutical industry had higher recruitment rates and trials testing hormonal therapy enrolled more patients. Breast cancer patients' accrual to a clinical trial could be improved by trying to systematically identify all eligible patients and propose a trial to those eligible and to whom the treatment is planned to be equivalent to the standard arm of the trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of two counterflow traps for testing behaviour-mediating compounds for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. under semi-field conditions in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmied, W.H.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evaluation of mosquito responses towards different trap-bait combinations in field trials is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by experiments in contained semi-field systems. Possible use of the BG Sentinel (BGS) trap to sample Anopheles gambiae s.s. was evaluated. The

  7. A field-trial of two restorative materials used with atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Turkey: 24-month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Ercan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART. Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. RESULTS: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004, according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion.

  8. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  9. The Study of Indoor and Field Trials on 2×8 MIMO Architecture in TD-LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    the networks are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD. In this paper, measurement methods of four MIMO transmission modes (TMs in time division-LTE (TD-LTE are studied and analyzed. Link level simulation is carried out to evaluate the downlink throughput for different signal-to-noise ratios and parameter settings. Furthermore, indoor and field tests are also presented in the paper to investigate how real-world propagation affects the capacity and the error performance of MIMO transmission scheme. For the indoor test, radio channel emulators are applied to generate realistic wireless fading channel, while in the field trials, a live TD-LTE experiment cellular network is built, which contains several evolved nodeBs (eNBs and a precommercial user equipment (UE. It is shown from both simulation and tests results that MIMO deployment gives a substantial performance improvement compared with the third generation wireless networks.

  10. Evaluation of recent quantitative magnetospheric magnetic field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent quantitative magnetospheric field models contain many features not found in earlier models. Magnetopause models which include the effects of the dipole tilt were presented. More realistic models of the tail field include tail currents which close on the magnetopause, cross-tail currents of finite thickness, and cross-tail current models which model the position of the neutral sheet as a function of tilt. Finally, models have attempted to calculate the field of currents distributed in the inner magnetosphere. As the purpose of a magnetospheric model is to provide a mathematical description of the field that reasonably reproduces the observed magnetospheric field, several recent models were compared with the observed ΔB(B/sub observed/--B/sub main field/) contours. Models containing only contributions from magnetopause and tail current systems are able to reproduce the observed quiet time field only in an extremely qualitative way. The best quantitative agreement between models and observations occurs when currents distributed in the inner magnetosphere are added to the magnetopause and tail current systems. However, the distributed current models are valid only for zero tilt. Even the models which reproduce the average observed field reasonably well may not give physically reasonable field gradients. Three of the models evaluated contain regions in the near tail in which the field gradient reverses direction. One region in which all the models fall short is that around the polar cusp, though most can be used to calculate the position of the last closed field line reasonably well

  11. How to Evaluate Phase Differences between Trial Groups in Ongoing Electrophysiological Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies endeavor to reveal periodicities in sensory and cognitive functions, by comparing the distribution of ongoing (pre-stimulus) oscillatory phases between two (or more) trial groups reflecting distinct experimental outcomes. A systematic relation between the phase of spontaneous electrophysiological signals, before a stimulus is even presented, and the eventual result of sensory or cognitive processing for that stimulus, would be indicative of an intrinsic periodicity in the underlying neural process. Prior studies of phase-dependent perception have used a variety of analytical methods to measure and evaluate phase differences, and there is currently no established standard practice in this field. The present report intends to remediate this need, by systematically comparing the statistical power of various measures of “phase opposition” between two trial groups, in a number of real and simulated experimental situations. Seven measures were evaluated: one parametric test (circular Watson-Williams test), and three distinct measures of phase opposition (phase bifurcation index, phase opposition sum, and phase opposition product) combined with two procedures for non-parametric statistical testing (permutation, or a combination of z-score and permutation). While these are obviously not the only existing or conceivable measures, they have all been used in recent studies. All tested methods performed adequately on a previously published dataset (Busch et al., 2009). On a variety of artificially constructed datasets, no single measure was found to surpass all others, but instead the suitability of each measure was contingent on several experimental factors: the time, frequency, and depth of oscillatory phase modulation; the absolute and relative amplitudes of post-stimulus event-related potentials for the two trial groups; the absolute and relative trial numbers for the two groups; and the number of permutations used for non-parametric testing

  12. Therapeutic effects of antimicrobial treatment during lactation of recently acquired bovine subclinical mastitis: two linked randomized field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, B H P; van Schaik, G; Lam, T J G M; Nielen, M

    2010-01-01

    Two linked randomized field trials were performed on 39 herds in the Netherlands to 1) determine therapeutic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis (RASCM) during lactation, 2) evaluate the effect of duration of subclinical mastitis on therapeutic outcome, and 3) identify factors related to the therapeutic success of RASCM. Cows with a first elevated composite somatic cell count (CSCC) after 2 consecutive low CSCC measurements were eligible for enrollment in trial 1 (treatment at the first elevated CSCC). Quarter milk samples were collected to determine bacteriological status for major pathogens and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Cows with one or more culture-positive quarters with a quarter somatic cell count (QSCC) >or=100,000 cells/mL were defined to have RASCM and were randomly assigned treatment or control (no treatment). Untreated cows from trial 1 that had a second elevated CSCC at the next milk recording were eligible for enrollment in trial 2 (treatment at the second elevated CSCC). In trial 2, staphylococci-positive cows (Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci) were randomly assigned to treatment or control. Farmers used their own treatment protocols to treat quarters in both trials. Bacteriological cure was defined as absence of the pathogen identified pre-intervention in 2 samples post-intervention; QSCC, CSCC, and milk yield were also analyzed. Hierarchical logistic and linear models were used to determine therapeutic effects and to identify factors related to therapy outcome. Treated quarters had a higher bacteriological cure rate than control quarters for all pathogens in both trials. Treatment resulted in lower QSCC and CSCC, whereas milk yield was not affected by treatment. Bacteriological cure of RASCM was better in quarters with a low QSCC pre-intervention and in coagulase-negative staphylococci-positive quarters. Control quarters with a single culture-positive sample pre

  13. Mapping Field Trial IV Habitat Characterization (EX0907, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Cordell Bank & Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are more operational than exploratory. Like other field trials, this cruise has primary and secondary goals and objectives....

  14. Managing clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Sara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Managing clinical trials, of whatever size and complexity, requires efficient trial management. Trials fail because tried and tested systems handed down through apprenticeships have not been documented, evaluated or published to guide new trialists starting out in this important field. For the past three decades, trialists have invented and reinvented the trial management wheel. We suggest that to improve the successful, timely delivery of important clinical trials for patient benefit, it is time to produce standard trial management guidelines and develop robust methods of evaluation.

  15. Numerical evaluation of the tensor bispectrum in two field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveendran, Rathul Nath [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, HBNI, CIT Campus, Chennai, 600113 India (India); Sriramkumar, L., E-mail: rathulnr@imsc.res.in, E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036 India (India)

    2017-07-01

    We evaluate the dimensionless non-Gaussianity parameter h {sub NL}, that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bispectrum, numerically for a class of two field inflationary models such as double inflation, hybrid inflation and aligned natural inflation. We compare the numerical results with the slow roll results which can be obtained analytically. In the context of double inflation, we also investigate the effects on h {sub NL} due to curved trajectories in the field space. We explicitly examine the validity of the consistency relation governing the tensor bispectrum in the squeezed limit. Lastly, we discuss the contribution to h {sub NL} due to the epoch of preheating in two field models.

  16. Numerical evaluation of the tensor bispectrum in two field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Rathul Nath; Sriramkumar, L.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the dimensionless non-Gaussianity parameter h NL , that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bispectrum, numerically for a class of two field inflationary models such as double inflation, hybrid inflation and aligned natural inflation. We compare the numerical results with the slow roll results which can be obtained analytically. In the context of double inflation, we also investigate the effects on h NL due to curved trajectories in the field space. We explicitly examine the validity of the consistency relation governing the tensor bispectrum in the squeezed limit. Lastly, we discuss the contribution to h NL due to the epoch of preheating in two field models.

  17. Individual energy use and feedback in an office setting: A field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Nati, Michele; Headley, William R.; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Gluhak, Alexander; Imran, Muhammad Ali; Uzzell, David

    2013-01-01

    Despite national plans to deploy smart meters in small and medium businesses in the UK, there is little knowledge of occupant energy use in offices. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of individual feedback on energy use at the workdesk, and to test the relationship between individual determinants, energy use and energy reduction. A field trial is presented, which monitored occupant energy use and provided individual feedback to 83 office workers in a university. The trial comprised pre- and post-intervention surveys, energy measurement and provision of feedback for 18 weeks post-baseline, and two participant focus groups. The main findings were: statistically significant energy reduction was found, but not for the entire measurement period; engagement with feedback diminished over time; no measured individual variables were related to energy reduction and only attitudes to energy conservation were related to energy use; an absence of motivation to undertake energy reduction actions was in evidence. The implications for energy use in offices are considered, including the need for motivations beyond energy reduction to be harnessed to realise the clear potential for reduced energy use at workdesks. -- Highlights: •First study on individual energy use and feedback in offices. •Field trial with 83 office workers, measuring plug load at desks over 18 weeks. •Feedback resulted in energy reduction although not consistently. •Sizeable minority did not engage with the feedback. •Lack of motivation to conserve energy evident in focus groups

  18. Design, history and results of the Thiazolidinedione Intervention with vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE) randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punthakee, Z; Bosch, J; Dagenais, G

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data regarding cardiovascular effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D supported the need for a definitive trial. The Thiazolidinedione Intervention with vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE) trial aimed to assess the effects of TZDs (rosiglit......AIMS/OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data regarding cardiovascular effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D supported the need for a definitive trial. The Thiazolidinedione Intervention with vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE) trial aimed to assess the effects of TZDs...

  19. Systematic Evaluation of Promising Clinical Trials-Gene Silencing for the Treatment of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Numan; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Ozbek, Hanefi; Caliskan, Tezcan; Topuk, Savas; Sirin, Duygu Yasar; Ates, Ozkan

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the role of artificial small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in glioblastoma treatment and to give a detailed overview of the literature concerning studies performed in this field worldwide in the last 31 years. Articles about clinical trials conducted between December 1, 1949 and November 8, 2017, were identified from the Cochrane Collaboration, the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, ProQuest, the National Library of Medicine, and PubMed electronic databases, using the terms "post transcriptional gene silencing," "small interfering RNA," "siRNA," and "glioblastoma," either individually or combined (\\"OR\\" and \\"AND"), without language and country restrictions. Articles that met the examination criteria were included in the study. After descriptive statistical evaluation, the results were reported in frequency (%). After scanning 2.752 articles, five articles were found that met the research criteria. Examination of full texts of the five identified articles provided no sufficient evidence for research conducted with regard to the use of gene silencing via siRNAs in glioblastoma treatment. To be able to evaluate the clinical use of siRNAs, there is an urgent need for in-vivo studies and for trials with randomized, controlled, and clinical designs that provide long-term functional outcomes.

  20. Evaluating amber force fields using computed NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David R; Vries, John K

    2017-10-01

    NMR chemical shifts can be computed from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a template matching approach and a library of conformers containing chemical shifts generated from ab initio quantum calculations. This approach has potential utility for evaluating the force fields that underlie these simulations. Imperfections in force fields generate flawed atomic coordinates. Chemical shifts obtained from flawed coordinates have errors that can be traced back to these imperfections. We use this approach to evaluate a series of AMBER force fields that have been refined over the course of two decades (ff94, ff96, ff99SB, ff14SB, ff14ipq, and ff15ipq). For each force field a series of MD simulations are carried out for eight model proteins. The calculated chemical shifts for the 1 H, 15 N, and 13 C a atoms are compared with experimental values. Initial evaluations are based on root mean squared (RMS) errors at the protein level. These results are further refined based on secondary structure and the types of atoms involved in nonbonded interactions. The best chemical shift for identifying force field differences is the shift associated with peptide protons. Examination of the model proteins on a residue by residue basis reveals that force field performance is highly dependent on residue position. Examination of the time course of nonbonded interactions at these sites provides explanations for chemical shift differences at the atomic coordinate level. Results show that the newer ff14ipq and ff15ipq force fields developed with the implicitly polarized charge method perform better than the older force fields. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Initial Field Trial of a Coach-Supported Web-Based Depression Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, Stephen M; Mohr, David C

    2015-08-01

    Early web-based depression treatments were often self-guided and included few interactive elements, instead focusing mostly on delivering informational content online. Newer programs include many more types of features. As such, trials should analyze the ways in which people use these sites in order to inform the design of subsequent sites and models of support. The current study describes of a field trial consisting of 9 patients with major depressive disorder who completed a 12-week program including weekly coach calls. Patients usage varied widely, however, patients who formed regular patterns tended to persist with the program for the longest. Future sites might be able to facilitate user engagement by designing features to support regular use and to use coaches to help establish patterns to increase long-term use and benefit.

  2. The ''INVERSE PROBLEM'' to the evaluation of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the design of superconducting magnet elements, such as may be required to guide and focus ions in a particle accelerator, one frequently premises some particular current distribution and then proceeds to compute the consequent magnetic field through use of the laws of Biot and Savart or of Ampere. When working in this manner one of course may need to revise frequently the postulated current distribution before arriving at a resulting magnetic field of acceptable field quality. It therefore is of interest to consider an alternative (inverse) procedure in which one specifies a desired character for the field required in the region interior to the winding and undertakes then to evaluate the current distribution on the specified winding surface that would provide this desired field. By evaluating the specified potential in the region interior to the winding along the interface, the authors have determined that a relaxation solution to the potential in the region outside the winding can be converged and used to calculate wire location. They have demonstrated this method by applying a slightly modified version of the program POISSON to a periodic alternating sinusoidal quadrupole field

  3. A field evaluation of two vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S; Vinther, Jens; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bækbo, Poul

    2014-04-16

    A field trial was carried out with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in order to investigate the benefit of vaccination under field conditions in modern Danish pig production facilities with pigs being positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The M. hyopneumoniae infection of the herd was confirmed through blood samples that were positive for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae combined with gross lesions of the lungs related to M. hyopneumoniae at slaughter and detection of M. hyopneumoniae by polymerace chain reaction in these lesions. A total of 2,256 pigs from two herds were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received 2 mL ThoroVAX®VET, Group 2 received 1 mL Ingelvac®MycoFLEX, and Group 3 was a non-vaccinated control group. The vaccination was performed by a person who was not involved in the rest of the trial and vaccination status thereby blinded to the evaluators.The prevalence of lung lesions related to M. hyopneumoniae were significantly lower for pigs vaccinated with ThoroVAX®VET but not for pigs vaccinated with Ingelvac®MycoFLEX®, when compared to non-vaccinated pigs. There was no significant effect of vaccination on growth rate, antibiotic consumption or mortality. This trial demonstrated that vaccination with Thoro®VAX VET was effective in reducing the prevalence of lung lesion in pig units infected with M. hyopneumoniae.

  4. Field Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Five Commercial Vaccines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Five Commercial Vaccines Against Newcastle Disease in Poultry Farms in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information ...

  5. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the ...

  6. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelliher, F.M.; Cox, N.; Weerden, T.J. van der; Klein, C.A.M. de; Luo, J.; Cameron, K.C.; Di, H.J.; Giltrap, D.; Rys, G.

    2014-01-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  7. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  8. Evaluating the design and reporting of pragmatic trials in osteoarthritis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shabana Amanda; Kloseck, Marita; Lee, Karen; Walsh, Kathleen Ellen; MacDermid, Joy C; Fitzsimmons, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Among the challenges in health research is translating interventions from controlled experimental settings to clinical and community settings where chronic disease is managed daily. Pragmatic trials offer a method for testing interventions in real-world settings but are seldom used in OA research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the literature on pragmatic trials in OA research up to August 2016 in order to identify strengths and weaknesses in the design and reporting of these trials. We used established guidelines to assess the degree to which 61 OA studies complied with pragmatic trial design and reporting. We assessed design according to the pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary and reporting according to the pragmatic trials extension of the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines. None of the pragmatic trials met all 11 criteria evaluated and most of the trials met between 5 and 8 of the criteria. Criteria most often unmet pertained to practitioner expertise (by requiring specialists) and criteria most often met pertained to primary outcome analysis (by using intention-to-treat analysis). Our results suggest a lack of highly pragmatic trials in OA research. We identify this as a point of opportunity to improve research translation, since optimizing the design and reporting of pragmatic trials can facilitate implementation of evidence-based interventions for OA care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  10. A strategy for field shape evaluation in digital portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.H.; Quist, M.; Weistra, J.; Vossepoel, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Digital portal imagers allow accurate measurement of the field shape in radiotherapy. A strategy is introduced to determine origin and magnitude of discrepancies between the prescribed and measured field outline. After measurement of the actual detector position relative to the beam a conversion is made from pixels in the image matrix to mm in the plane of the isocenter, without using information from the imaged field. Using a distance transform a quick check is performed: the outline is accepted if all outline points deviate less then a predefined minimum (usually 5 mm). Subsequent evaluation starts if somewhere in the outline this minimum is exceeded. The collimator defined parts in the field outline are discriminated from the shielding blocks using an enclosing rectangle of the portal outline. This rectangle is found by minimization of the area as a function of rotation. If more than one solution is available, minimization of the entropy of the field outline projections determines which rectangle corresponds best to the field outline. A check for the validity of the determined collimator parts is performed with a separate linear fit through these parts. An outline part is accepted as a collimator outline part if it is longer than a predefined length. Using this procedure the position for each of the collimator jaws can be individually measured and compared with its prescription, thus allowing discrimination between symmetric and asymmetric collimator set-ups. Using the distance transform again, for each of the detected (secondary) shielding blocks the largest discrepancy or the area giving underdosage or overdosage can be computed to evaluate their shape and position. Parameter(s) and criteria that should be used to evaluate the field set-up are specified in clinical protocols. For standard shielding blocks usually only a maximum tolerated difference is specified, whereas for mantle fields also maximum allowed over- and underdose areas are specified. The

  11. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  12. BLIND TRIALS EVALUATING IN VITRO INFECTIVITY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS USING CELL CULTURE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...

  13. Evaluation of the Utility of a Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis in Early Intervention Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Paden, Amber; Dickes, Nitasha

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a discrete-trial functional analysis implemented by regular classroom staff in a classroom setting. The results suggest that the discrete-trial functional analysis identified a social function for each participant and may require fewer staff than standard functional analysis procedures.

  14. Evaluation practices in the field of Food and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Felipe Vianna GASPARINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize and analyze the different existing methods for the evaluation of food and nutrition programs and services in Brazil, through a systematic review of the literature focused on complete articles published in national indexed journals. We searched the PubMed, MedLine and LILACS databases using the following search terms and Boolean operators: “evaluation and program”; “project”; “intervention”; “servisse”; “actions and nutrition”; “nutritional”. The research was restricted to articles written in Portuguese, English and Spanish and published between 2001 and 2015. Twenty-two studies were selected and the analysis indicates; most were carried out through quantitative approaches and external evaluations based on epidemiological theory; participatory evaluation strategies are still uncommon; Impact assessments and implementation were predominant; there is little diversity in terms of references to the theoretical framework in the field of evaluation of health care programs in the planning and execution of the evaluation processes analyzed. The results of this study indicate the need for a more comprehensive evaluation considering the complexity of the interventions evaluated using the theoretical-methodological apparatus available in the literature to understand the importance of the different perspectives of the agents involved in the evaluation processes.

  15. Distributed acoustic sensing technique and its field trial in SAGD well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; He, Xiangge; Pan, Yong; Liu, Fei; Yi, Duo; Hu, Chengjun; Zhang, Min; Gu, Lijuan

    2017-10-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a very promising way for the development of heavy oil, extra heavy oil and tight oil reservoirs. Proper monitoring of the SAGD operations is essential to avoid operational issues and improve efficiency. Among all the monitoring techniques, micro-seismic monitoring and related interpretation method can give useful information about the steam chamber development and has been extensively studied. Distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) based on Rayleigh backscattering is a newly developed technique that can measure acoustic signal at all points along the sensing fiber. In this paper, we demonstrate a DAS system based on dual-pulse heterodyne demodulation technique and did field trial in SAGD well located in Xinjiang Oilfield, China. The field trail results validated the performance of the DAS system and indicated its applicability in steam-chamber monitoring and hydraulic monitoring.

  16. The inverse problem to the evaluation of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L. J.; Brady, V.

    1992-12-01

    In the design of superconducting magnet elements, such as may be required to guide and focus ions in a particle accelerator, one frequently premises some particular current distribution and then proceeds to compute the consequent magnetic field through use of the laws of Biot and Savart or of Ampere. When working in this manner one of course may need to revise frequently the postulated current distribution before arriving at a resulting magnetic field of acceptable field quality. It therefore is of interest to consider an alternative ('inverse') procedure in which one specifies a desired character for the field required in the region interior to the winding and undertakes them to evaluate the current distribution on the specified winding surface that would provide this desired field. We may note that in undertaking such an inverse procedure we would wish, on practical grounds, to avoid the use of any 'double-layer' distributions of current on the winding surface or interface but would not demand that no fields be generated in the exterior region, so that in this respect the goal would differ in detail from that discussed by other authors, in analogy to the distribution sought in electrostatics by the so-caged Green's equivalent stratum.

  17. Field trials of aquifer protection in longwall mining of shallow coal seams in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.S.; Fan, G.W.; Liu, Y.D.; Ma, L.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resource & Mine Safety, Xuzhou (China)

    2010-09-15

    The large-scale mining of shallow coal seams has a significant impact on the overlying aquifers and surface ecological environment. To protect the aquifers and maximize the coal resource recovery, field trials were undertaken during the operation of the LW32201 in Bulianta coal mine, Shendong, China. With a severely weathered rock (SWR) layer and two key strata (KS) in the overlying strata, aquifer protection in longwall mining (APLM) relies mainly on the rapid advance. In some localized zones, special measures should be taken to achieve the APLM, including lowering mining height, backfill and slurry injection. To further understand the mechanism and applicable conditions of the APLM and validate the effectiveness of the APLM, variation of the water table in the aquifer was observed as the longwall face passed through the zone. This paper also discusses the mechanism and basic requirements of the APLM and the relationship between the fall of the water table and the surface subsidence. The results of the field trials indicated that APLM in shallow coal seams could be successful under suitable conditions.

  18. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N.

    2003-01-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment

  19. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-11-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment.

  20. Effects of feedback on residential electricity demand—Findings from a field trial in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian; Gölz, Sebastian; Brunner, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of providing feedback on electricity consumption in a field trial involving more than 1500 households in Linz, Austria. About half of these households received feedback together with information about electricity-saving measures (pilot group), while the remaining households served as a control group. Participation in the pilot group was random, but households were able to choose between two types of feedback: access to a web portal or written feedback by post. Results from cross section OLS regression suggest that feedback provided to the pilot group corresponds with electricity savings of around 4.5% for the average household. Our results from quantile regressions imply that for households in the 30th to the 70th percentile of electricity consumption, feedback on electricity consumption is statistically significant and effects are highest in absolute terms and as a share of electricity consumption. For percentiles below or above this range, feedback appears to have no effect. Finally, controlling for a potential endogeneity bias induced by non random participation in the feedback type groups, we find no difference in the effects of feedback provided via the web portal and by post. - Highlights: • We estimate the effects of feedback on household electricity use in a field trial in Linz, Austria. • Providing feedback on electricity use corresponds with average savings of around 4.5%. • Effects of feedback are most pronounced in the 30th to the 70th percentile. • Feedback provided via a web portal and by post appears equally effective

  1. Retraction: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (Emf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This retracts the article "EVALUATION OF CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF" on page 245. The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal ofBasic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: “Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF” published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3:245-50.After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  2. Timely and complete publication of economic evaluations alongside randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Joanna C; Noble, Sian M; Hollingworth, William

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and nature of publication bias in economic evaluations. Our objective was to determine whether economic evaluations are subject to publication bias by considering whether economic data are as likely to be reported, and reported as promptly, as effectiveness data. Trials that intended to conduct an economic analysis and ended before 2008 were identified in the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) register; a random sample of 100 trials was retrieved. Fifty comparator trials were randomly drawn from those not identified as intending to conduct an economic study. The trial start and end dates, estimated sample size and funder type were extracted. For trials planning economic evaluations, effectiveness and economic publications were sought; publication dates and journal impact factors were extracted. Effectiveness abstracts were assessed for whether they reached a firm conclusion that one intervention was most effective. Primary investigators were contacted about reasons for non-publication of results, or reasons for differential publication strategies for effectiveness and economic results. Trials planning an economic study were more likely to be funded by government (p = 0.01) and larger (p = 0.003) than other trials. The trials planning an economic evaluation had a mean of 6.5 (range 2.7-13.2) years since the trial end in which to publish their results. Effectiveness results were reported by 70 %, while only 43 % published economic evaluations (p economic results included the intervention being ineffective, and staffing issues. Funding source, time since trial end and length of study were not associated with a higher probability of publishing the economic evaluation. However, studies that were small or of unknown size were significantly less likely to publish economic evaluations than large studies (p journal impact factor was 1.6 points higher for effectiveness publications than for the

  3. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  5. On multiplying methods in the field of research evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrick, G.; Molas-Gallart, J.; De Rijcke, S.; Meijer, I.; Van der Weijden, I.; Wouters, P.

    2016-07-01

    This special session forms part of a larger program aimed at the multiplication and integration of methodological approaches in the research evaluation and innovation policy field. The session builds on previous initiatives by Gemma Derrick and colleagues at CWTS, INGENIO, the Rathenau Instituut and SPRU, exploring the advantages of qualitative methodological tools at the STI/ENID conference in Lugano, and an international workshop in London in October 2015. The program is highly topical: the research evaluation field is currently reconsidering its methodological foundations in light of new research questions arising from policy initiatives regarding a) the move toward open science; b) a reconceptualization of research excellence to include societal relevance; c) diversification of academic careers, and d) the search for indicators showcasing responsible research behavior and innovation. This new special session at STI2016 will advance and broaden the scope of previous initiatives by building bridges between cutting edge research involving quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodological research designs. Bringing together leading experts and promising researchers with distinctive methodological skill-sets, the session will demonstrate the advantages of cross-fertilization between ‘core’ and ‘peripheral’ methodological approaches for the research evaluation and science indicators field. (Author)

  6. Evaluation of the field size in dental diagnostic radiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the field size of a dental X rays machine was evaluated considering the recommendation of the Brazilian Health Ministry Regulation 453 which established basic lines of radiological protection in medical and dental diagnostic radiology. The diameter of the field should not be superior to 6 cm in the localized end point, limiting the radiated area and protecting the head-neck region. The measurements were carried out in a dental X rays machine, Dabi Atlante, model Spectro 70X Seletronic. For the field size or useful beam determination, the intra-oral films were positioned on a plain surface to be exposed in four stages and two focus-film distances (FFD), 20 cm and 27.5 cm: 1) with spacer cone; 2) without spacer cone; 3) with spacer cone and film-holding device; 4) without spacer cone and film-holding device. The results show that the diameter of the field size is satisfactory only for FFD = 20 cm. When the film-holding device is used, which is recommended by the Regulation 453, item 5.8 d(ii), the diameter of the field size exceeds the maximum recommended value of 6 cm. (authors)

  7. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  8. Three-day Field Treatment with Ingenol Disoxate (LEO 43204) for Actinic Keratosis: A Phase II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel M; Tyring, Stephen; Nahm, Walter K; Østerdal, Marie Louise; Petersen, Astrid H; Berman, Brian

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ingenol disoxate gel using a once-daily, three-day field treatment regimen in patients with actinic keratosis. DESIGN: This was a Phase II, multicenter, open-label trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02305888). SETTING: The study was conducted in 20 trial sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included patients with 5 to 20 clinically typical actinic keratosis lesions on the full face/chest (250cm 2 ), scalp (25-250cm 2 ), or the trunk/extremities (250cm 2 ). MEASUREMENTS: We measured incidence of dose-limiting events based on local skin responses. Percentage reduction in actinic keratosis lesion count from baseline, complete clearance, and partial clearance (≥75%) of actinic keratosis lesions were assessed at Week 8. RESULTS: Nine of 63 (14.3%) patients in the face/chest group reported dose-limiting events; zero of 63 patients in the scalp group reported dose-limiting events; and 11 of 62 (17.7%) patients in the trunk/extremities group reported dose-limiting events. Mean composite local skin response scores peaked at Day 4, then rapidly declined, reaching or approaching baseline levels by Week 4. Less than five percent of patients reported severe adverse events; the most common treatment-related adverse events were application site pain and pruritus. The reduction in actinic keratosis lesion count was 78.9, 76.3, and 69.1 percent for the face/chest, scalp, and trunk/extremities groups, respectively. Complete clearance was achieved in 36.5, 39.7, and 22.6 percent of patients in the face/chest, scalp, and trunk/extremities groups, respectively. Partial clearance was achieved in 71.4, 65.1, and 50.0 percent of patients in the face/chest, scalp, and trunk/extremities groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ingenol disoxate demonstrated adverse events and local skin reaction profiles similar to results seen in trials evaluating shorter two-day regimens and was effective in patients

  9. Trial study on design of irradiated fields of radiotherapy in cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zeng Zhifan; Cui Nianji; He Zhichun; Huang Shaomin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare three kinds of irradiation treatment plans for cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer, in order to arrived at proper decision for the patient. Methods: From February 2001 to June 2004, 43 such patients were studied with three different simulated treatment plans made including conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan for every one. All plans were evaluated with iso- dose curve and dose-volume histogram. Results: GTV on 95% isodose curve was 99.5%, 98.2% and 87.4% in conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan, respectively; PTV 1 and PTV 2 on 95% isodose with 97.8%, 97.2%, 94.8% and 95.8%, 86.6%, 73.7%. The volume of > 20 Gy dose of left lung accepted was 18.6%, 17.2% and 32.3%, in conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan, respectively; the right lung received 20.5% ,19.9% and 35.5%. Conclusions: Conformal plan is the best in radiotherapy, as it can provide ideal dose distribution of irradiated target with adequate protection of the normal tissues. Conventional four-field plan, being easy to carry, out, can replace the conformal plan in most situations. Conventional two-field has the most uneven dose distribution and largest lung volume irradiated. (authors)

  10. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement, economic assessment and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, Simon; Carter, Sarah; Knowles, Tony; Middelink, Erik; Haefele, Stephan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In part I we described the gasification technology and characterised the physio-chemical properties and environmental impacts of the rice husk char (RHC) by-product. In part II we present summary results from field trials using the RHC, and provide an estimate of the carbon abatement and economic evaluation of the system. Statistically significant yield increases are demonstrated for RHC addition in irrigated rice cultivation (33% increase in paddy rice yield for a 41.5 t (dry weight) RHC application per hectare). The carbon abatement from the RHC addition is approximately 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk; including energy generation from gasification this increases to ca. 0.86 tCO 2 t −1 . Assuming a carbon value of $5 t CO 2 t −1 , and agronomic value of $3 t −1 RHC based on the field trials, the economic value of the RHC varies from $9 t −1 (including only recalcitrant carbon) to $15 t −1 (including avoided emissions from energy production). We summarise results from parts I and II, concluding that the gasification–biochar system meets many of the criteria of sustainability, but requires better waste water management and more field trials to demonstrate repeatable agronomic efficacy of RHC application. - Highlights: ► Field trials show statistically significant rice yield increases using rice husk char (RHC). ► Carbon abatement of 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk from RHC production. ► Bioenergy generation via gasification gives carbon abatement of 0.44 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Total carbon abatement is therefore ca. 0.86 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Agronomic value from trials is $3 t −1 char; assuming $5 CO 2 t −1 , the total value of RHC is $9–$15 t −1 .

  11. Field evaluation of an exoantigen-containing Babesia vaccine in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montenegro-James

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is endemic in Venezuela, causing significant losses in highly susceptible imported cattle. Current immunoprphylatic methods include the less desirable use of live parasites. Inactivated vaccines derived from exoantigen-containing supernatant fluids of in vitro Babesia bovis and B. bigemina cultures have been developed and constitute a major improvement in vaccine safety, stability and ease of handling. Vaccination trials conducted under field conditions provide the final evaluation of a culture-derived B. bovis-B. bigemina vaccine. During a 5-year period, approximately 8,000 cattle were vaccinated and 16 clinical trials carried out in. 7 states of Venezuela Clinical, serologic and parasitologic data were collected monthly from 10% of the animals over a 2-year period. Data were also collected from a similar number of nonvaccinated control cattle. Analysis of results from these trials demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of clinical disease among vaccinated animals and complete protection against mortality among vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. Use of this inactivated vaccine offers the best combination od safety, potency and efficacy for thew immunoprophylatic control of bovine babesiosis.

  12. Field evaluation of an exoantigen-containing Babesia vaccine in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-James, S; Toro, M; Leon, E; Guillen, A T

    1992-01-01

    Bovine babesiosis is endemic in Venezuela, causing significant losses in highly susceptible imported cattle. Current immunoprophylactic methods include the less desirable use of live parasites. Inactivated vaccines derived from exoantigen-containing supernatant fluids of in vitro Babesia bovis and B. bigemina cultures have been developed and constitute a major improvement in vaccine safety, stability and ease of handling. Vaccination trials conducted under field conditions provide the final evaluation of a culture-derived B. bovis-B. bigemina vaccine. During a 5-year period, approximately 8,000 cattle were vaccinated and 16 clinical trials carried out in 7 states of Venezuela. Clinical, serologic and parasitologic data were collected monthly from 10% of the animals over a 2-year period. Data were also collected from a similar number of nonvaccinated control cattle. Analysis of results from these trials demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of clinical disease among vaccinated animals and complete protection against mortality caused by babesiosis. Vaccine efficacy was measured calculating the incidence rates of disease and mortality among vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. Use of this inactivated vaccine offers the best combination of safety, potency and efficacy for the effective immunoprophylactic control of bovine babesiosis.

  13. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  14. Implementing a complex rehabilitation intervention in a stroke trial: a qualitative process evaluation of AVERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Julie A; Craig, Louise E; Bennett, Leanne; Ellery, Fiona; Langhorne, Peter; Wu, Olivia; Bernhardt, Julie

    2016-05-10

    The implementation of multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation interventions is challenging, even when the intervention is evidence-based. Very little is known about the implementation of complex interventions in rehabilitation clinical trials. The aim of study was to better understand how the implementation of a rehabilitation intervention in a clinical trial within acute stroke units is experienced by the staff involved. This qualitative process evaluation was part of a large Phase III stroke rehabilitation trial (AVERT). A descriptive qualitative approach was used. We purposively sampled 53 allied health and nursing staff from 19 acute stroke units in Australia, New Zealand and Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone, voice-internet, or face to face. Digitally recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by two researchers using rigorous thematic analysis. Our analysis uncovered ten important themes that provide insight into the challenges of implementing complex new rehabilitation practices within complex care settings, plus factors and strategies that assisted implementation. Themes were grouped into three main categories: staff experience of implementing the trial intervention, barriers to implementation, and overcoming the barriers. Participation in the trial was challenging but had personal rewards and improved teamwork at some sites. Over the years that the trial ran some staff perceived a change in usual care. Barriers to trial implementation at some sites included poor teamwork, inadequate staffing, various organisational barriers, staff attitudes and beliefs, and patient-related barriers. Participants described successful implementation strategies that were built on interdisciplinary teamwork, education and strong leadership to 'get staff on board', and developing different ways of working. The AVERT stroke rehabilitation trial required commitment to deliver an intervention that needed strong collaboration between nurses and

  15. Evaluation of Depth of Field for depth perception in DVR

    KAUST Repository

    Grosset, A.V.Pascal; Schott, Mathias; Bonneau, Georges-Pierre; Hansen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a user study on the use of Depth of Field for depth perception in Direct Volume Rendering. Direct Volume Rendering with Phong shading and perspective projection is used as the baseline. Depth of Field is then added to see its impact on the correct perception of ordinal depth. Accuracy and response time are used as the metrics to evaluate the usefulness of Depth of Field. The onsite user study has two parts: static and dynamic. Eye tracking is used to monitor the gaze of the subjects. From our results we see that though Depth of Field does not act as a proper depth cue in all conditions, it can be used to reinforce the perception of which feature is in front of the other. The best results (high accuracy & fast response time) for correct perception of ordinal depth occurs when the front feature (out of the two features users were to choose from) is in focus and perspective projection is used. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Evaluation of Depth of Field for depth perception in DVR

    KAUST Repository

    Grosset, A.V.Pascal

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present a user study on the use of Depth of Field for depth perception in Direct Volume Rendering. Direct Volume Rendering with Phong shading and perspective projection is used as the baseline. Depth of Field is then added to see its impact on the correct perception of ordinal depth. Accuracy and response time are used as the metrics to evaluate the usefulness of Depth of Field. The onsite user study has two parts: static and dynamic. Eye tracking is used to monitor the gaze of the subjects. From our results we see that though Depth of Field does not act as a proper depth cue in all conditions, it can be used to reinforce the perception of which feature is in front of the other. The best results (high accuracy & fast response time) for correct perception of ordinal depth occurs when the front feature (out of the two features users were to choose from) is in focus and perspective projection is used. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ''Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards

  18. Public demonstration projects and field trials: Accelerating commercialisation of sustainable technology in solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, James; Hendry, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the role of government funded demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) in accelerating the commercialisation of new energy technologies that meet a public good but do not have immediate market appeal [Sagar, A.D., van der Zwaan, B., 2006. Technological innovation in the energy sector: R and D, deployment, and learning-by-doing. Energy Policy 34, 2601-2608]. Drawing on an original database of DTs in the EU, Japan and USA from 1973 to 2004, we review the history of DTs in photovoltaic technology for electricity generation, and its subsequent take up as a commercial energy source. We find that DTs that are aimed purely at discovering suitable market opportunities are less successful in achieving diffusion than projects that target a particular application and concentrate resources on it. The former nevertheless have a vital role to play in the learning process, while a targeted focus is often dependent on national industrial and institutional factors.

  19. Evaluation of the quality of the reporting of phase II clinical trials in oncology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Chauvin, Franck; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2018-05-01

    To describe the current state of knowledge concerning the quality of reporting in phase II clinical trials in oncology and to describe the various methods published allowing this quality evaluation. databases including MEDLINE and COCHRANE were searched. Reviews and meta-analyses analyzing the quality of the reporting of phase II trials in oncology were included. Descriptive analysis of the results was performed. Thirteen publications were retained. Only 2 publications adopted a systematic approach of evaluation of the quality of reporting by overall scores. The Key Methodological Score (KMS), proposed by Grellety et al., gathering 3 items, seemed adapted for such an evaluation. A score of 3/3 was found in 16.1% of the 156 phase II trials analysed by this score. The other reviews used a qualitative analysis to evaluate the reporting, via an analysis of a single criterion, generally the statistical plan of the study. This item was considered as having been correctly reported in less than 50% of the analysed articles. The quality of reporting in phase II trials in oncology is a field that has been investigated very little (13 publications). When it is studied, the estimated level of quality is not satisfactory, whatever the method employed. The use of an overall score of evaluation is a path which should be pursued, in order to get reliable results. It also seems necessary to propose strong recommendations, which would create a consensus for the methodology and the reporting of these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs

  1. Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Alken, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 12th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was issued in December 2014 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html). This revision comprises new spherical...... by the British Geological Survey (UK), DTU Space (Denmark), ISTerre (France), IZMIRAN (Russia), NOAA/NGDC (USA), GFZ Potsdam (Germany), NASA/GSFC (USA), IPGP (France), LPG Nantes (France), and ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Each candidate model was carefully evaluated and compared to all other models and a mean model...

  3. Accurate evaluation of exchange fields in finite element micromagnetic solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Escobar, M. A.; Li, S.; Lubarda, M. V.; Lomakin, V.

    2012-04-01

    Quadratic basis functions (QBFs) are implemented for solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation via the finite element method. This involves the introduction of a set of special testing functions compatible with the QBFs for evaluating the Laplacian operator. The results by using QBFs are significantly more accurate than those via linear basis functions. QBF approach leads to significantly more accurate results than conventionally used approaches based on linear basis functions. Importantly QBFs allow reducing the error of computing the exchange field by increasing the mesh density for structured and unstructured meshes. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  4. Evaluation of abutment scour prediction equations with field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, S.T.; Deshpande, N.; Aziz, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with FHWA, compared predicted abutment scour depths, computed with selected predictive equations, with field observations collected at 144 bridges in South Carolina and at eight bridges from the National Bridge Scour Database. Predictive equations published in the 4th edition of Evaluating Scour at Bridges (Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18) were used in this comparison, including the original Froehlich, the modified Froehlich, the Sturm, the Maryland, and the HIRE equations. The comparisons showed that most equations tended to provide conservative estimates of scour that at times were excessive (as large as 158 ft). Equations also produced underpredictions of scour, but with less frequency. Although the equations provide an important resource for evaluating abutment scour at bridges, the results of this investigation show the importance of using engineering judgment in conjunction with these equations.

  5. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  6. Bone metastasis: review and critical analysis of random allocation trials of local field treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Powers, William E.; Moss, William T.; Perez, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Compare and contrast reports of random allocation clinical trials of local field radiation therapy of metastases to bone to determine the techniques producing the best results (frequency, magnitude, and duration of benefit), and relate these to the goals of complete relief of pain and prevention of disability for the remaining life of the patient. Methods and Materials: Review all published reports of random allocation clinical trials, and perform a systematic analysis of the processes and outcomes of the several trial reports. Results: All trials were performed on selected populations of patients with symptomatic metastases and most studies included widely diverse groups with regard to: (a) site of primary tumor, (b) location, extent, size, and nature of metastases, (c) duration of survival after treatment. All trial reports lack sufficient detail for full and complete analysis. Much collected information is not now available for reanalysis and many important data sets were apparently never collected. Several of the variations in patient and tumor characteristics were found to be much more important than treatment dose in the outcome results. Treatment planning and delivery techniques were unsophisticated and probably resulted in a systematic delivery of less than the assigned dose to some metastases. In general the use and benefit of retreatment was greater in those patients who initially received lower doses but the basis and dose of retreatment was not documented. Follow-up of patients was varied with a large proportion of surviving patients lost to follow-up in several studies. The greatest difference in the reports is the method of calculation of results. The applicability of Kaplan-Meier actuarial analysis, censoring the lost and dead patients, as used in studies with loss to follow-up of a large number of patients is questionable. The censoring involved is 'informative' (the processes of loss relate to the outcome) and not acceptable since it

  7. Field Trial of LANL On-Line Advanced Enrichment Monitor for UF6 GCEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lombardi, Marcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacArthur, Duncan W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Robert F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keller, Clifford [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friend, Peter [URENCO; Dunford, Andrew [URENCO

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) Technology basis of on-line enrichment monitoring; (2) Timescale of trial; (3) Description of installed equipment; (4) Photographs; (5) Results; (6) Possible further development; and (7) Conclusions. Summary of the good things about the Advanced Enrichment Monitor (AEM) performance is: (1) High accuracy - normally better than 1% relative, (2) Active system as accurate as passive system, (3) Fast and accurate detection of enrichment changes, (4) Physics is well understood, (5) Elegant method for capturing pressure signal, and (6) Data capture is automatic, low cost and fast. A couple of negative things are: (1) Some jumps in measured passive enrichment - of around +2% relative (due to clock errors?); and (2) Data handling and evaluation is off-line, expensive and very slow. Conclusions are: (1) LANL AEM is being tested on E23 plant at Capenhurst; (2) The trial is going very well; (3) AEM could detect production of HEU at potentially much lower cost than existing CEMO; (4) AEM can measure {sup 235}U assay accurately; (5) Active system using X-Ray source would avoid need for pressure measurement; (6) Substantial work lies ahead to go from current prototype to a production instrument.

  8. Performance Evaluation Of Furrow Lengths And Field Application Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated performance of furrow lengths and field application techniques. The experiment was conducted on 2000 m2 field at Bontanga irrigation scheme. Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD was used with three replicates. The replicates include Blocks A B and C of furrow lengths 100 m 75 m and 50 m respectively. Each replicate had surge cut-off cut-back and bunds treatments. Water was introduced into the furrows and the advance distances and time were measured. Results of the study showed that at Block A surge technique recorded the highest advance rate of 1.26 minm and opportunity time of 11 min whilst bunds recorded the lowest advance rate of 0.92 minm. Significant difference 3.32 pamp88050.05 occurred between treatment means of field application techniques at Block A 100 m. Significant difference 2.71 pamp88050.05 was also recorded between treatment means. At Block B 75 m there was significant difference 2.71 pamp88050.05 between treatment means. No significant difference 0.14 pamp88040.05 was observed among surge cut-back and bunds techniques. There was significant difference 2.60 pamp88050.05 between treatment means but no significant difference between cut-back and bunds techniques in Block C 50 m. Their performance was ranked in the order Surge Cut-back Cut-off Bunds for furrow lengths 100 m 75 m and 50 m respectively.

  9. Field evaluation of female medfly attractants in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemany, A.; Alonso, R.; Miranda, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains data from experiments conducted in Mallorca in collaboration with the Year 4 Experiments of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Development of Medfly Female Attractants. In the last year of the program, research focused on testing three female attractants (FA-3: putrescine, ammonium acetate, and trimethylamine) in plastic International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT) or Tephri traps (a Spanish version of the IPMT). Traps were either used as dry traps (provided with DDVP) or wet traps (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant). Field trials were carried out in an unmanaged citrus orchard of about 14 ha situated at sea level in the south of the island of Mallorca, about 7 km from Palma. The experimental orchard was a mixed citrus orchard of 3 ha and included tangerines, navel and navelate varieties. Two experiments were carried out. The first was with cold temperatures and a high population level (about 12 flies/trap/day) in October, November and December 1997. The second was with warm temperatures and a low population level (< 1.4 flies/trap/day) in April and May 1998. Treatments and traps included in both trials were: IPMT, FA-3, wet; IPMT, FA-3, dry; Tephri, FA-3, dry; IPMT, NU+B (IPMT trap baited with NuLure 9% and borax 3%); Tephri, FA-3, wet; and De, TML (a yellow delta trap baited with Trimedlure). The methodology followed was that described in the IAEA protocol. Fly captures were expressed as numbers of flies or flies/trap/day (F/T/D). Based on results from both studies, the Tephri, FA-3, wet was the most efficient for capturing female medflies in cool temperatures and high population conditions as well as in moderate temperatures and low population conditions. Although Tephri, FA-3, wet was the most efficient, we recommend the use of the Tephri, FA-3, dry as being the best choice for female trapping in Balearic conditions because of several drawbacks for the use of the Tephri trap as a wet trap. These included: capture of high

  10. Characterization of a new fertilizer during field trials by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Trella, Agata; Garcia Izquierdo, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the LIFE RESAFE Project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/000356) "Innovative fertilizer from urban waste, bio-char and farm residues as substitute of chemical fertilizers". The aim of RESAFE project is the production of a new fertilizer from waste for agricultural practices. The new fertilizer was tested on 5 different crops during field trials carried out in Spain: barley, corn, tomato, potato and melon. For each crop six different treatments were applied and compared to verify the quality of RESAFE fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The possibility to apply hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to perform soil evolution monitoring and characterization in respect to the fertilizer utilization and quality of the resulting crops was investigated. Soil samples were acquired by HSI in the near infrared field (1000-1700 nm) and on the same samples classical chemical analyses were carried out with reference to total nitrogen, total organic carbon, C/N ratio, total organic matter. Hyperspectral data were analyzed adopting a chemometric approach through application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for exploratory purposes and Partial Least Squares Analysis (PLS) for estimation of chemical parameters. The results showed as the proposed hardware and software integrated architecture allows to implement low cost and easy to use analytical procedures able to quantitatively assess soil chemical-physical attributes according to different fertilization strategies, in respect of different environmental conditions and selected crops.

  11. Trial of Engineer Educating of Manufacturing Field in Kagoshima National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Hombu, Mitsuyuki; Kusuhara, Yoshito; Kashine, Kenji; Sakasegawa, Eiichi; Tashima, Daisuke; Fukidome, Hiromi

    In Kagoshima National College of Technology, based on investigation with “the job boost measure investigation work in a power supply area” undertaken in the 2005 fiscal year, we accepted the trust from Kyushu Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry, and undertook “the small-and-medium-sized-enterprises personnel educating work which utilized the technical college etc.” for three years from the 2006 fiscal year to the 2008 fiscal year. As the trial of engineer educating according to the electrical engineering concept to the manufacturing field based on a conventional result, we act as a professor of the base technique for applying alternative energy (a fuel cell and a solar cell) in which social needs are powerful these days, and aim at aiming at cultivation of the problem-solving type engineer who can contribute to a low carbon society through manufacturing, we undertook this work according to the manufacturing bearer educating work (personnel educating and secured work of the manufacturing field) in the 2009 fiscal year of National Federation of Small Business Associations.

  12. Successful field trial of a multi-process phytoremediation system for remediation of petroleum impacted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Greenberg, B.M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)]|[Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation described a field trial of a new phytoremediation technology. The multi process phytoremediation system (MPPS) was designed for use in physical soil treatment and used seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The technology aerated the soil and photo-oxidized petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) by exposing them to the light. In this study, 2 natural non-pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas putida were applied to seeds prior to planting. PGPR was used to create conditions suitable for the biodegradation of PHC, while also preserving natural soil structure and texture. High levels of microbial biomass in the soil were achieved. The presentation also provided details of a field study conducted in Hinton, Alberta which established vegetation in the treatment area in order to reduce PHC levels. The area was contaminated with compost invert drilling mud (CIDM) that had previously and unsuccessfully been treated with a biopile. The treatment plan consisted of aeration, soil sampling, and seeding. Soil and vegetation sampling was also conducted. Results of the study showed the vegetation was well established using the technique, and reduced hydrocarbon levels by between 17 and 53 per cent. It was concluded that continued hydrocarbon reduction levels are anticipated using the technology. tabs., figs.

  13. Prospective Multicenter Trial Evaluating Balloon-Catheter Partial-Breast Irradiation for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Andrea M.; Portschy, Pamela R. [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Lee, Chung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Le, Chap T. [Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Han, Linda K. [Department of Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Washington, Tara [Vantage Oncology, Redhawk and Wildomar Centers California, Wildomar, California (United States); Kinney, Michael [Center for Advanced Breast Care, Arlington Heights, Illinois (United States); Bretzke, Margit [Surgical Specialists of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Tuttle, Todd M., E-mail: tuttl006@umn.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) with MammoSite in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial between 2003 and 2009. Inclusion criteria included age >18 years, core needle biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, and no prior breast cancer history. Patients underwent breast-conserving surgery plus MammoSite placement. Radiation was given twice daily for 5 days for a total of 34 Gy. Patients were evaluated for development of toxicities, cosmetic outcome, and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Results: A total of 41 patients (42 breasts) completed treatment in the study, with a median follow up of 5.3 years. Overall, 28 patients (68.3%) experienced an adverse event. Skin changes and pain were the most common adverse events. Cosmetic outcome at 6 months was judged excellent/good by 100% of physicians and by 96.8% of patients. At 12 months, 86.7% of physicians and 92.3% of patients rated the cosmetic outcome as excellent/good. Overall, 4 patients (9.8%) developed an IBTR (all DCIS), with a 5-year actuarial rate of 11.3%. All IBTRs were outside the treatment field. Among patients with IBTRs, the mean time to recurrence was 3.2 years. Conclusions: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using MammoSite seems to provide a safe and cosmetically acceptable outcome; however, the 9.8% IBTR rate with median follow-up of 5.3 years is concerning. Prospective randomized trials are necessary before routine use of APBI for DCIS can be recommended.

  14. Prospective Multicenter Trial Evaluating Balloon-Catheter Partial-Breast Irradiation for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Andrea M.; Portschy, Pamela R.; Lee, Chung; Le, Chap T.; Han, Linda K.; Washington, Tara; Kinney, Michael; Bretzke, Margit; Tuttle, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) with MammoSite in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial between 2003 and 2009. Inclusion criteria included age >18 years, core needle biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, and no prior breast cancer history. Patients underwent breast-conserving surgery plus MammoSite placement. Radiation was given twice daily for 5 days for a total of 34 Gy. Patients were evaluated for development of toxicities, cosmetic outcome, and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Results: A total of 41 patients (42 breasts) completed treatment in the study, with a median follow up of 5.3 years. Overall, 28 patients (68.3%) experienced an adverse event. Skin changes and pain were the most common adverse events. Cosmetic outcome at 6 months was judged excellent/good by 100% of physicians and by 96.8% of patients. At 12 months, 86.7% of physicians and 92.3% of patients rated the cosmetic outcome as excellent/good. Overall, 4 patients (9.8%) developed an IBTR (all DCIS), with a 5-year actuarial rate of 11.3%. All IBTRs were outside the treatment field. Among patients with IBTRs, the mean time to recurrence was 3.2 years. Conclusions: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using MammoSite seems to provide a safe and cosmetically acceptable outcome; however, the 9.8% IBTR rate with median follow-up of 5.3 years is concerning. Prospective randomized trials are necessary before routine use of APBI for DCIS can be recommended

  15. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico.OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results.Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  16. Expression of endogenous proteins in maize hybrids in a multi-location field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R; Purushottam, Divakar; Veeramachaneni, Aruna; Tigulla, Sarita; Kodappully, Vikas; Enjala, Chandana; Rajput, Hitendrasinh; Anderson, Jennifer; Hong, Bonnie; Schmidt, Jean; Bagga, Shveta

    2018-05-17

    Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions. Understanding the effects of genotype, growth stage and location on the concentration of endogenous housekeeping proteins may provide insight into the contribution these factors could have on transgenic protein concentrations in GM crops. The concentrations of three endogenous proteins (actin, elongation factor 1-alpha, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were measured in several different maize hybrids grown across multiple field locations over 2 years. Leaf samples were collected from healthy plants at three developmental stages across the growing seasons, and protein concentrations were quantified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each protein. In general, the concentrations of these three endogenous proteins were relatively consistent across hybrid backgrounds, when compared within one growth stage and location (2-26%CV), whereas the concentrations of proteins in the same hybrid and growth stage across different locations were more variable (12-64%CV). In general, the protein concentrations in 2013 and 2014 show similar trends in variability. Some degree of variability in protein concentrations should be expected for both transgenic and endogenous plant-expressed proteins. In the case of GM crops, the potential variation in protein concentrations due to location effects is captured in the current model of multi-location field testing.

  17. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  18. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  19. Evaluating Intermittent Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Phase III Clinical Trials: The Devil Is in the Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Maha; Tangen, Catherine; Higano, Celestia; Vogelzang, Nicholas; Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-20

    Intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) has been widely tested in prostate cancer. However, phase III trials testing continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) versus IAD have reached inconclusive and seemingly contradictory results. Different design and conduct issues must be critically evaluated to better interpret the results. Seven published phase III trials were examined for prespecified design and outcomes. Treatment specifications; primary end point; superiority versus noninferiority design assumptions, including magnitude of assumed versus observed noninferiority margin (NIM); duration of follow-up; and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes were considered in terms of the results and conclusions reported. Five trials had a superiority and three had a noninferiority primary hypothesis. Only three trials had a uniform population and overall survival (OS) end point. All trials observed better outcomes in terms of OS and progression-free survival (PFS) than assumed at time of study design, translating into prespecified NIMs or hazard ratios that reflected larger absolute differences in OS or PFS between arms. Lower-than-expected event rates also reduced statistical power for the trials. Other factors, including length of follow-up, cause of death, QOL, and primary end point, and their impact on trial interpretation are discussed. No trial to date has demonstrated survival superiority of IAD compared with CAD. Trials concluding IAD is noninferior to CAD were based on wide NIMs that included clinically important survival differences, not likely to be considered comparable by physicians or patients. Interim analyses relying on short follow-up and including a majority of non-prostate cancer deaths will favor a noninferiority conclusion and should be interpreted cautiously. Adequate follow-up is required to ensure capture of prostate cancer deaths in both superiority and noninferiority trials. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Impact of weed control strategies on resistance evolution in Alopecurus myosuroides – a long-term field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulber, Lena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of various herbicide strategies on populations of Alopecurus myosuroides is investigated in a longterm field trial situated in Wendhausen (Germany since 2009. In the initial years of the field experiment, resistant populations were selected by means of repeated application of the same herbicide active ingredients. For the selection of different resistance profiles, herbicides with actives from different HRAC groups were used. The herbicide actives flupyrsulfuron, isoproturon und fenoxaprop-P were applied for two years on large plots. In a succeeding field trial starting in 2011, it was investigated if the now existing resistant field populations could be controlled by various herbicide strategies. Eight different strategies consisting of various herbicide combinations were tested. Resistance evolution was investigated by means of plant counts and molecular genetic analysis.

  1. Systematic literature review of clinical trials evaluating pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder in elderly patients: An assessment of trial quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Kristin D; Xu, Yingxin; Zou, Kelly H; Ntanios, Fady; Chapman, Douglass S; Luo, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) disproportionately affects older-aged adults, yet most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) underrepresent patients ≥65. This systematic literature review (SLR) identified RCTs evaluating β-3 adrenergic agonists or muscarinic antagonists in elderly patients with OAB, and compared study quality across trials. MEDLINE ® , Embase ® , and Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Clinical Trials databases were searched from inception through April 28, 2015 to identify published, peer-reviewed RCT reports evaluating β-3 adrenergic agonists or muscarinic antagonists in elderly OAB patients (either ≥65 years or study-described as "elderly"). To assess study quality of RCT reports, we focused on internal/external validity, assessed via two scales: the validated Effective Public Health Practice Project [EPHPP]): Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, and a tool commissioned by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Database searches yielded 1380 records that were then screened according to predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. We included eight papers meeting study criteria. Despite scientific community efforts to improve RCT reporting standards, published reports still include incomplete and inconsistent reporting-of subject attrition, baseline patient characteristics, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and other important details. Only three of the eight OAB RCTs in this review received quality ratings of Strong (EPHPP) or Fair (AHRQ) and were multicenter with large samples. Despite the prevalence of OAB among older age individuals, relatively few RCTs evaluate OAB treatments explicitly among elderly subjects. The findings from this quality assessment suggest some areas for improvement in both conduct and reporting of future RCTs assessing OAB treatment in elderly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Field trial of a synthetic tsetse-repellent technology developed for the control of bovine trypanosomosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; Randolph, T F; Irungu, P; Nyamwaro, S O; Kitala, P; Gathuma, J; Grace, D; Vale, G; Hargrove, J; McDermott, J

    2010-12-01

    We conducted a field trial among Maasai cattle-keepers in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse-repellent technology developed for the control of trypanosomosis in cattle. The technology was a repellent (2-methoxy 4-methylphenol) emitted from dispensers attached to collars worn by cattle. Treatment was allocated at the herd level to ensure adequate protection of all the animals in a herd, with measurements of effectiveness conducted at the individual-animal level. The trial began in April 2005 and ran for 16 months including a baseline phase of 4 months. We recruited 12 herds in each area using a restricted random-sampling technique and distributed them equally into intervention (repellent) and control groups. Sample size was determined using a formal power calculation. Effectiveness or minimal worthwhile difference was defined as a 50% reduction in the incidence of trypanosome infection in the treated versus control group (effectiveness below which the technology was considered by experts as not viable compared to existing control techniques). All the animals in the recruited herds were screened monthly (buffy-coat technique) for trypanosome infections. The analysis followed the principle of intention-to-treat by which subjects are analysed according to their initial treatment assignment, regardless of the mechanical performance of the device. Crude and adjusted effects of the technology were 23% (ptechnology estimated in this study did not achieve the threshold of 50% reduction in the trypanosome infection incidence set a priori to indicate effectiveness (ptechnology package was not sufficiently effective in reducing trypanosome infection incidence under natural tsetse challenge to merit commercial development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-economic evaluation in implant trials: design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Volker; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Szalay, Gabor; Heiss, Christian; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    In today's world, demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and quality of a new treatment strategy is no longer sufficient in many countries for market entry and reimbursement in the public healthcare system. This implies that new implants in orthopedic and orthopedic trauma surgery not only must be shown to lead to better medical outcome compared with the standard of care implant, but also must be shown to exhibit "good value" for the money for the public health-care system based on sound economic data from health-economic studies. The purpose of this article is to elucidate a framework for health-economic aspects alongside implant trials, with the assumption that the new implant is more costly but potentially better than the control implant. Cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies are suitable for the assessment of the health-economic value of a new implant. The following criteria should be considered for a health-economic study design in the context with an implant: i) it should state medical benefits of the new implant compared with the control implant; ii) it should precise the type of health economic study; iii) it should define the methodological approach, perspective of the study, and types of costs; iv) if necessary, it should state discount costs and/benefits; and v) a sound sensitivity analysis should be included. Furthermore, close cooperation between researchers, clinicians, and health economists is essential.

  4. Adalimumab for treating childhood plaque psoriasis: a clinical trial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lernia, Vito

    2017-12-01

    Most systemic therapies have not been systematically investigated in moderate to severe childhood plaque psoriasis. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of systemic treatments is limited and therapeutic guidelines are lacking. Recently adalimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha, was investigated in childhood psoriasis. Adalimumab is licensed for many inflammatory conditions including chronic plaque psoriasis in adults. Areas covered: A randomized phase III study published provided favourable efficacy and safety data of adalimumab in childhood psoriasis. The active comparator was methotrexate. After 16 weeks of treatment, a PASI 75 score was achieved in 58% of patients within the adalimumab 0.8 mg/kg group compared with 32% of patients within the methotrexate group. Safety data gave no evidence of drug-related serious adverse events and no organ toxicity. This is the first randomised controlled study of either adalimumab or methotrexate in children and adolescents with psoriasis. Expert opinion: The aforementioned trial was the first to provide clinical data on adalimumab's efficacy and safety in the short term when treating children and adolescents with psoriasis. Through the use of an active comparator, this study has opened the way for the future assessment of systemic therapies in children and adolescent with this condition.

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E; Wilcox, Holly C; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H; Newcomer, Alison; McKitty, Mellisha V; Regier, Darrel A; Narrow, William E

    2014-06-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients' experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. Copyright © 2013, American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Cucumber cultivars for container gardening and the value of field trials for predicting Cucumber performance in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most popular vegetable crops grown in U.S. home and urban gardens. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivars and planting densities for high yield of container-grown cucumbers. Additional objectives were to determine the value of field trials...

  7. First Field Trial of Optical Label-Based Switching and Packet Drop on a 477km NTON/Sprint Link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, V J; Pan, Z; Cao, J; Tsui, V K; Bansal, Y; Fong, S K H; Zhang, Y; Jeon, M Y; Yoo, S J B; Bodtker, B; Bond, S; Lennon, W J; Higashi, H; Lyles, B; McDonald, R

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the first field trial of optical label-based wavelength switching and packet drop on 476.8km of the National Transparent Optical Network. Subcarrier multiplexed labels control a switch fabric that includes a tunable wavelength converter and arrayed waveguide grating router

  8. Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results from Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H.; Newcomer, Alison; Mckitty, Mellisha V.; Regier, Darrel A.; Narrow, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients’ experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. PMID:24615761

  10. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  11. Evaluation of the magnetic field requirements for nanomagnetic gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouriki, A.; Farrow, N.; Clements, M.A.; Dobson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the effects of magnet distance (and by proxy, field strength) on nanomagnetic transfection efficiency. Methods non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection was evaluated using both static and oscillating magnet arrays. Results Fluorescence intensity (firefly luciferase) of transfected H292 cells showed no increase using a 96-well NdFeB magnet array when the magnets were 5 mm from the cell culture plate or nearer. At 6 mm and higher, fluorescence intensity decreased systematically. Conclusion In all cases, fluorescence intensity was higher when using an oscillating array compared to a static array. For distances closer than 5 mm, the oscillating system also outperformed Lipofectamine 2000™. PMID:22110859

  12. Evaluation of the magnetic field requirements for nanomagnetic gene transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouriki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effects of magnet distance (and by proxy, field strength on nanomagnetic transfection efficiency. Methods: non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection was evaluated using both static and oscillating magnet arrays. Results: Fluorescence intensity (firefly luciferase of transfected H292 cells showed no increase using a 96-well NdFeB magnet array when the magnets were 5 mm from the cell culture plate or nearer. At 6 mm and higher, fluorescence intensity decreased systematically. Conclusion: In all cases, fluorescence intensity was higher when using an oscillating array compared to a static array. For distances closer than 5 mm, the oscillating system also outperformed Lipofectamine 2000™.

  13. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  14. Implementing a complex rehabilitation intervention in a stroke trial: a qualitative process evaluation of AVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Luker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation interventions is challenging, even when the intervention is evidence-based. Very little is known about the implementation of complex interventions in rehabilitation clinical trials. The aim of study was to better understand how the implementation of a rehabilitation intervention in a clinical trial within acute stroke units is experienced by the staff involved. This qualitative process evaluation was part of a large Phase III stroke rehabilitation trial (AVERT. Methods A descriptive qualitative approach was used. We purposively sampled 53 allied health and nursing staff from 19 acute stroke units in Australia, New Zealand and Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone, voice-internet, or face to face. Digitally recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by two researchers using rigorous thematic analysis. Results Our analysis uncovered ten important themes that provide insight into the challenges of implementing complex new rehabilitation practices within complex care settings, plus factors and strategies that assisted implementation. Themes were grouped into three main categories: staff experience of implementing the trial intervention, barriers to implementation, and overcoming the barriers. Participation in the trial was challenging but had personal rewards and improved teamwork at some sites. Over the years that the trial ran some staff perceived a change in usual care. Barriers to trial implementation at some sites included poor teamwork, inadequate staffing, various organisational barriers, staff attitudes and beliefs, and patient-related barriers. Participants described successful implementation strategies that were built on interdisciplinary teamwork, education and strong leadership to ‘get staff on board’, and developing different ways of working. Conclusions The AVERT stroke rehabilitation trial required commitment to deliver

  15. Evaluation of long-term mechanical stability of near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Okutsu, Kazuo; Miura, Kazuhiko; Tabei, Kazuto; Noda, Masaru; Takahashi, Shinichi; Sugie, Shigehiko

    1999-11-01

    In the near field, as tunnels and pits are excavated, a redistribution of stresses in the surrounding rock will occur. For a long period of time after the emplacement of waste packages various events will take place, such as the swelling of the buffer, sinking of the overpack under its own weight, deformation arising from expansion of overpack corrosion products and the creep deformation of the rock mass. The evaluation of what effects these changes in the stress-state will have on the buffer and rock mass is a major issue from the viewpoint of safety assessment. Therefore, rock creep analysis, overpack corrosion expansion analysis and overpack sinking analysis have been made in order to examine the long-term mechanical stability of the near field and the interaction of various events that may affect the stability of the near field over a long period of time. As the results, rock creep behavior, the variations of the stress-state and the range of the influence zone differ from the rock strength, strength of buffer in the tunnel and side pressure coefficient etc. about the hard rock system and soft rock system established as basic cases. And the magnitude of the stress variations for buffer by the overpack sinking and rock creep deformation is negligible compared with it by the overpack corrosion expansion. Furthermore, though very limited zone of buffer around the overpack is close to the critical state by the overpack corrosion expansion, the engineered barrier system attains a comparatively stable state for a long period of time. (author)

  16. Evaluating secular acceleration in geomagnetic field model GRIMM-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, V.; Wardinski, I.

    2012-12-01

    Secular acceleration of the magnetic field is the rate of change of its secular variation. One of the main results of studying magnetic data collected by the German survey satellite CHAMP was the mapping of field acceleration and its evolution in time. Questions remain about the accuracy of the modeled acceleration and the effect of the applied regularization processes. We have evaluated to what extent the regularization affects the temporal variability of the Gauss coefficients. We also obtained results of temporal variability of the Gauss coefficients where alternative approaches to the usual smoothing norms have been applied for regularization. Except for the dipole term, the secular acceleration of the Gauss coefficients is fairly well described up to spherical harmonic degree 5 or 6. There is no clear evidence from observatory data that the spectrum of this acceleration is underestimated at the Earth surface. Assuming a resistive mantle, the observed acceleration supports a characteristic time scale for the secular variation of the order of 11 years.

  17. Field study to evaluate radiation doses in dental practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, W.; Scheurer, C.

    1984-05-01

    An inexpensive and simple test device was developed and used in a field study to evaluate entrance dose, dose to an intra-oral film, filtration and field size under routine conditions in more than 150 dental practices. The test device consists of two films of different speed and a set of 5 thin copper filters for a filter analytical determination of the radiation quality. Dentists voluntarily participating in the study were asked to expose the test device like they usually do when examining a molar tooth. The main result was the evidence of a significant dose reduction compared to the findings of similar studies performed in 1970 and 1976. This reduction is due to a general shift to lower values and a complete disappearance of values above 45 mGy (5 R) which in 1970 were still more than 15%. In the same way the number of facilities showing insufficient filtration or collimation had decreased. Nevertheless, a large spread of dose values could still be observed, ranging from less than 0.45 mGy (50 mR) to more than 26 mGy (3 R), for the entrance dose. The most striking result, however, was that such an important parameter like the speed of the films used at the respective unit turned out to have no impact on the entrance dose. (orig./HP)

  18. Impact of copula directional specification on multi-trial evaluation of surrogate endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Lindsay A.; Shang, Hongwei; Sargent, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of surrogate endpoints using patient-level data from multiple trials is the gold standard, where multi-trial copula models are used to quantify both patient-level and trial-level surrogacy. While limited consideration has been given in the literature to copula choice (e.g., Clayton), no prior consideration has been given to direction of implementation (via survival versus distribution functions). We demonstrate that evenwith the “correct” copula family, directional misspecification leads to biased estimates of patient-level and trial-level surrogacy. We illustrate with a simulation study and a re-analysis of disease-free survival as a surrogate for overall survival in early stage colon cancer. PMID:24905465

  19. [Evaluation of Web-based software applications for administrating and organising an ophthalmological clinical trial site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K; Reznicek, L; Leicht, S; Ulbig, M; Wolf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance and complexity of clinical trials is continuously increasing, especially in innovative specialties like ophthalmology. Therefore an efficient clinical trial site organisational structure is essential. In modern internet times, this can be accomplished by web-based applications. In total, 3 software applications (Vibe on Prem, Sharepoint and open source software) were evaluated in a clinical trial site in ophthalmology. Assessment criteria were set; they were: reliability, easiness of administration, usability, scheduling, task list, knowledge management, operating costs and worldwide availability. Vibe on Prem customised by the local university met the assessment criteria best. Other applications were not as strong. By introducing a web-based application for administrating and organising an ophthalmological trial site, studies can be conducted in a more efficient and reliable manner. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The opportunities and challenges of pragmatic point-of-care randomised trials using routinely collected electronic records : evaluations of two exemplar trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Dyson, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Padmanabhan, Shivani; Belatri, Rabah; Goldacre, Ben; Cassell, Jackie; Pirmohamed, Munir; Torgerson, David; Ronaldson, Sarah; Adamson, Joy; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan; Mahmood, Samhar; Baracaia, Simona; Round, Thomas; Fox, Robin; Hunter, Tommy; Gulliford, Martin; Smeeth, Liam

    BACKGROUND: Pragmatic trials compare the effects of different decisions in usual clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate methods to implement simple pragmatic trials using routinely collected electronic health records (EHRs) and recruiting patients at the point of care; to identify

  1. Explaining feast or famine in randomized field trials. Medical science and criminology compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P

    2003-06-01

    A feast of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in medical science and comparative famine in criminology can be explained in terms of cultural and structural factors. Of central importance is the context in which the evaluation of interventions is done and the difference in status of situational research in the two disciplines. Evaluation of medical interventions has traditionally been led by practitioner (clinical) academics. This is not the case in criminal justice, where theory has had higher status than intervention research. Medical science has advanced in, or closely associated with, university teaching hospitals, but links between criminology and criminal justice services are far more tenuous. The late development of situational crime prevention seems extraordinary from a medical perspective, as does the absence of university police schools in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These structural and cultural factors explain concentration of expectation, resource, and RCT productivity in medical science. The Campbell Collaboration and the Academy of Experimental Criminology are forces which are reducing this polarization of feast and famine in RCTs. But unless scientific criminology is embedded in university schools which are responsible for the education and training of law, probation, and police practitioners, convergence in terms of RCTs and implementation of findings in practice seems unlikely.

  2. The Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Field Trial Results and Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerger, D. R.; Bradley, A. M.; Martin, S. C.; Whitcomb, L. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle combines an efficient long range survey capability with the ability to maneuver at low speeds. These attributes will permit Sentry to perform a variety of conventional and unconventional surveys including long range sonar surveys, hydrothermal plume surveys and near-bottom photo surveys. Sentry's streamlined body and fore and aft tilting planes, each possessing an independently controlled thruster, enable efficient operation in both near-bottom and cruising operations. Sentry is capable of being configured in two modes: hover mode, which commands Sentry's control surfaces to be aligned vertically, and forward flight mode, which allows Sentry's control surfaces to actuate between plus or minus 45 degrees. Sentry is equipped for full 6-Degrees of freedom position measurement. Vehicle heading, roll, and pitch are instrumented with a TCM2 PNI heading and attitude sensor. A Systron Donner yaw rate sensor instrumented heading rate. Depth is instrumented by a Paroscientific depth sensor. A 300kHz RD Instruments Doppler Sonar provides altitude and XYZ velocity measurements. In April 2006, we conducted our first deep water field trials of Sentry in Bermuda. These trials enabled us to examine a variety of issues, including the control software, vehicle safety systems, launch and recovery procedures, operation at depth, heading and depth controllers over a range of speeds, and power consumption. Sentry employ's a control system based upon the Jason 2 control system for low-level control, which has proven effective and reliable over several hundred deep-water dives. The Jason 2 control system, developed jointly at Johns Hopkins University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, was augmented to manage Sentry-specific devices (sensors, actuators, and power storage) and to employ a high-level mission controller that supported autonomous mission scripting and error detection and response. This control suite will also support the Nereus

  3. Predicting plant invasions under climate change: are species distribution models validated by field trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christine S; Burns, Bruce R; Stanley, Margaret C

    2014-09-01

    Climate change may facilitate alien species invasion into new areas, particularly for species from warm native ranges introduced into areas currently marginal for temperature. Although conclusions from modelling approaches and experimental studies are generally similar, combining the two approaches has rarely occurred. The aim of this study was to validate species distribution models by conducting field trials in sites of differing suitability as predicted by the models, thus increasing confidence in their ability to assess invasion risk. Three recently naturalized alien plants in New Zealand were used as study species (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava and Schefflera actinophylla): they originate from warm native ranges, are woody bird-dispersed species and of concern as potential weeds. Seedlings were grown in six sites across the country, differing both in climate and suitability (as predicted by the species distribution models). Seedling growth and survival were recorded over two summers and one or two winter seasons, and temperature and precipitation were monitored hourly at each site. Additionally, alien seedling performances were compared to those of closely related native species (Rhopalostylis sapida, Lophomyrtus bullata and Schefflera digitata). Furthermore, half of the seedlings were sprayed with pesticide, to investigate whether enemy release may influence performance. The results showed large differences in growth and survival of the alien species among the six sites. In the more suitable sites, performance was frequently higher compared to the native species. Leaf damage from invertebrate herbivory was low for both alien and native seedlings, with little evidence that the alien species should have an advantage over the native species because of enemy release. Correlations between performance in the field and predicted suitability of species distribution models were generally high. The projected increase in minimum temperature and reduced

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of Remote Field Eddy Current Defect Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin Oh; Yi, Jae Kyung; Kim, Hyoung Jean

    2000-01-01

    The remote field eddy current (RFEC) inspection was performed on the ductile cast iron pipes with nominal outer diameter of 100mm, which were machined with various shapes and sizes of defects. Ductile cast iron pipes which are used as water supply pipe have the non-uniform thickness and asymmetric cross section due to relatively high degree of allowable errors during the manufacturing processes. These characteristics of ductile cast in pipes cause the long range background noises in RFEC signals along the pipe. In this study, tile machined defects in pipes were effectively classified by the moving window average (MWA) method which eliminated the long-range noise. The voltage plane polar plots (VPPP) method was used to quantitatively evaluate the depth and circumferential degree of defects. The VPPP signatures showed that the angle between defect signature and the normalized in-phase component on the VPPP is linear to the depth of defects. The nondestructive RFEC technique proved to be capable of quantitatively evaluating the machined defects of underground water supply pipe

  5. Restoration of a Mediterranean forest after a fire: bioremediation and rhizoremediation field-scale trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Fernández, Matilde; Niqui, José Luis; Solano, Jennifer; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Roca, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires pose a serious threat to countries in the Mediterranean basin, often razing large areas of land each year. After fires, soils are more likely to erode and resilience is inhibited in part by the toxic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during the combustion of cellulose and lignins. In this study, we explored the use of bioremediation and rhizoremediation techniques for soil restoration in a field-scale trial in a protected Mediterranean ecosystem after a controlled fire. Our bioremediation strategy combined the use of Pseudomonas putida strains, indigenous culturable microbes and annual grasses. After 8 months of monitoring soil quality parameters, including the removal of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as vegetation cover, we found that the site had returned to pre-fire status. Microbial population analysis revealed that fires induced changes in the indigenous microbiota and that rhizoremediation favours the recovery of soil microbiota in time. The results obtained in this study indicate that the rhizoremediation strategy could be presented as a viable and cost-effective alternative for the treatment of ecosystems affected by fires. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, A; Vatandoost, H; Jabbari, H; Mesdaghinia, A R; Mahvi, A H; Younesian, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Bozorgzadeh, S

    2012-10-01

    Concerns about traditional chemical pesticides has led to increasing research into novel mosquito control methods. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different types of polystyrene beads for control of mosquito larvae in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. Simulated field trials were done in artificial pools and field trials were carried out in 2 villages in an indigenous malaria area using WHO-recommended methods. Application of expanded polystyrene beads or shredded, waste polystyrene chips to pool surfaces produced a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment density of mosquitoes (86% and 78% reduction respectively 2 weeks after treatment). There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 types of material. The use of polystyrene beads as a component of integrated vector management with other supportive measures could assist in the control of mosquito-borne diseases in the Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries.

  8. The psychometric properties of the personality inventory for DSM-5 in an APA DSM-5 field trial sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Ayearst, Lindsay; Chmielewski, Michael; Pollock, Bruce G; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-06-01

    Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a hybrid model of personality pathology, in which dimensional personality traits are used to derive one of seven categorical personality disorder diagnoses. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants to produce a freely available instrument to assess the personality traits within this new system. To date, the psychometric properties of the PID-5 have been evaluated primarily in undergraduate student and community adult samples. In the current investigation, we extend this line of research to a psychiatric patient sample who participated in the APA DSM-5 Field Trial (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health site). A total of 201 psychiatric patients (102 men, 99 women) completed the PID-5 and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The internal consistencies of the PID-5 domain and facet trait scales were acceptable. Results supported the unidimensional structure of all trait scales but one, and the convergence between the PID-5 and analogous NEO PI-R scales. Evidence for discriminant validity was mixed. Overall, the current investigation provides support for the psychometric properties of this diagnostic instrument in psychiatric samples.

  9. Reporting and evaluation of HIV-related clinical endpoints in two multicenter international clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lifson, A; Rhame, F; Bellosa, W

    2006-01-01

    adjudication between reviewers before diagnostic certainty was assigned. CONCLUSION: Important requirements for HIV trials using clinical endpoints include objective definitions of "confirmed" and "probable," a formal reporting process with adequate information and supporting source documentation, evaluation......PURPOSE: The processes for reporting and review of progression of HIV disease clinical endpoints are described for two large phase III international clinical trials. METHOD: SILCAAT and ESPRIT are multicenter randomized HIV trials evaluating the impact of interleukin-2 on disease progression...... and death in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. We report definitions used for HIV progression of disease endpoints, procedures for site reporting of such events, processes for independent review of reported events by an Endpoint Review Committee (ERC), and the procedure...

  10. Public availability of results of observational studies evaluating an intervention registered at ClinicalTrials.gov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudart, Marie; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Dechartres, Agnes; Haneef, Romana; Boutron, Isabelle

    2016-01-28

    Observational studies are essential for assessing safety. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether results of observational studies evaluating an intervention with safety outcome(s) registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were published and, if not, whether they were available through posting on ClinicalTrials.gov or the sponsor website. We identified a cohort of observational studies with safety outcome(s) registered on ClinicalTrials.gov after October 1, 2007, and completed between October 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011. We systematically searched PubMed for a publication, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and the sponsor website for results. The main outcomes were the time to the first publication in journals and to the first public availability of the study results (i.e. published or posted on ClinicalTrials.gov or the sponsor website). For all studies with results publicly available, we evaluated the completeness of reporting (i.e. reported with the number of events per arm) of safety outcomes. We identified 489 studies; 334 (68%) were partially or completely funded by industry. Results for only 189 (39%, i.e. 65% of the total target number of participants) were published at least 30 months after the study completion. When searching other data sources, we obtained the results for 53% (n = 158; i.e. 93% of the total target number of participants) of unpublished studies; 31% (n = 94) were posted on ClinicalTrials.gov and 21% (n = 64) on the sponsor website. As compared with non-industry-funded studies, industry-funded study results were less likely to be published but not less likely to be publicly available. Of the 242 studies with a primary outcome recorded as a safety issue, all these outcomes were adequately reported in 86% (114/133) when available in a publication, 91% (62/68) when available on ClinicalTrials.gov, and 80% (33/41) when available on the sponsor website. Only 39% of observational studies evaluating an intervention with safety outcome

  11. A semi-automated tool for treatment plan-quality evaluation and clinical trial quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Chen, Wenzhou; Studenski, Matthew; Cui, Yunfeng; Lee, Andrew J.; Xiao, Ying

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a plan-quality evaluation program for clinical routine and multi-institutional clinical trials so that the overall evaluation efficiency is improved. In multi-institutional clinical trials evaluating the plan quality is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. In this note, we present a semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program which combines MIMVista, Java/MATLAB, and extensible markup language (XML). More specifically, MIMVista is used for data visualization; Java and its powerful function library are implemented for calculating dosimetry parameters; and to improve the clarity of the index definitions, XML is applied. The accuracy and the efficiency of the program were evaluated by comparing the results of the program with the manually recorded results in two RTOG trials. A slight difference of about 0.2% in volume or 0.6 Gy in dose between the semi-automated program and manual recording was observed. According to the criteria of indices, there are minimal differences between the two methods. The evaluation time is reduced from 10-20 min to 2 min by applying the semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program.

  12. A semi-automated tool for treatment plan-quality evaluation and clinical trial quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Chen, Wenzhou; Studenski, Matthew; Cui, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ying; Lee, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a plan-quality evaluation program for clinical routine and multi-institutional clinical trials so that the overall evaluation efficiency is improved. In multi-institutional clinical trials evaluating the plan quality is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. In this note, we present a semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program which combines MIMVista, Java/MATLAB, and extensible markup language (XML). More specifically, MIMVista is used for data visualization; Java and its powerful function library are implemented for calculating dosimetry parameters; and to improve the clarity of the index definitions, XML is applied. The accuracy and the efficiency of the program were evaluated by comparing the results of the program with the manually recorded results in two RTOG trials. A slight difference of about 0.2% in volume or 0.6 Gy in dose between the semi-automated program and manual recording was observed. According to the criteria of indices, there are minimal differences between the two methods. The evaluation time is reduced from 10–20 min to 2 min by applying the semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program. (note)

  13. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  14. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40.

  15. Trial evaluations in comparison with the 1983 safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, R.; Sege, G.

    1985-06-01

    This report provides retrospective comparisons of selected generic regulatory actions to the 1983 NRC safety goals, which had been issued for evaluation during a two-year period. The issues covered are those analyzed by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) (assisted in some cases by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory). The issues include auxiliary feedwater reliability, pressurized thermal shock, power-operated relief valve isolation, asymmetric blowdown loads on PWR primary systems, pool dynamic loads for BWR containments, and steam generator tube rupture. Calculated core-melt frequencies, mortality risks, and cost-benefit ratios are compared with the corresponding safety-goal quantitative design objectives. Considerations that should influence interpretation of the comparisons are discussed. Comments are included on whether and how the safety goals may have helped in the regulatory decision process and on problems encountered

  16. Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C; Pulford, I D; Riddell-Black, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow (Salix) clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial. If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues. The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul (S. triandra) were less resistant to elevated concentrations of heavy metals than a group of hardier clones, including S. burjatica 'Germany,' S.x dasyclados, S. candida and S. spaethii. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

  17. Comparison of nuisance parameters in pediatric versus adult randomized trials: a meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeer, Ben; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G.; Bassler, Dirk; Fernandes, Ricardo M.; Askie, Lisa; Saloojee, Haroon; Baiardi, Paola; Ellenberg, Susan S.; van der Lee, Johanna H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former. Methods: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of

  18. An open-label Optional Titration Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week open-label optional titration trial to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Valsartan 80 mg/ & 160 mg once daily was carried out in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. There was a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood ...

  19. The Results of a Randomized Control Trial Evaluation of the SPARK Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Curtis J.; Christian, Michael; Rice, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a two-year randomized control trial evaluation of the SPARK literacy program. SPARK is an early grade literacy program developed by Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Milwaukee. In 2010, SPARK was awarded an Investing in Innovation (i3) Department of Education grant to further develop the…

  20. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  1. Evaluation of the trial design studies for an advanced marine reactor, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambo, Noriaki; Yokomura, Takeyoshi.

    1988-03-01

    As for the CARAMEL fuel (plate-type fuel) that was the fuel of the integrated-type reactor which was one of the trial design studies for an Advanced Marine Reactor, its structure and its fuel specific characteristics were studied and compared with a fuel rod (cylindrical fuel), and the total characteristics of the caramel fuel was reviewed and evaluated. (author)

  2. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  3. Evaluating the importance of sham controlled trials in the investigation of medical devices in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Robert A; Capodanno, Davide; Mahfoud, Felix; Fajadet, Jean; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter; Baumbach, Andreas; Wijns, William; Haude, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Cardiovascular medicine is one of the specialties that has relied most heavily on evidence from randomized clinical trials in determining best practice for the management of common disease conditions. When comparing treatment approaches, trials incorporating random allocation are the most appropriate method for protecting against treatment allocation bias. In order to protect against performance and ascertainment bias, trial designs including placebo control are preferable where feasible. In contrast to testing of medicines, treatments based on procedures or use of medical devices are more challenging to assess, as sham procedures are necessary to facilitate blinding of participants. However, in many cases, ethical concerns exist, as individual patients allocated to sham procedure are exposed only to risk without potential for benefit. Accordingly, the potential benefits to the general patient population must be carefully weighed against the risks of the exposed individuals. For this reason, trial design and study conduct are critically important to ensure that the investigation has the best chance of answering the study question at hand. In the current manuscript, we aim to review issues relating to the conduct of sham-controlled trials and discuss a number of recent examples in the field of interventional cardiology.

  4. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  5. Synoptic climatology evaluation of wind fields in the alpine region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotteraner, C.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation basically consists of two parts: In the first part, a 22-year set of 3-hourly 2D-wind analyses (1980-2001) that have been generated within the framework of the VERACLIM (VERA-Climatology) project are evaluated climatologically over the Alpine region. VERACLIM makes use of the VERA (Vienna Enhanced Resolution Analysis) analysis system, combining both the high spatial resolution as provided by the analysis algorithm and the high temporal resolution of a comprehensive synop data set, provided by ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) data archives. The obtained charts of averaged wind speed and the mean wind vector as well as the evaluations of frequency distribution of wind speed and wind direction on gridpoints for several different time periods should be interpreted very carefully as orographic influence is not taken into consideration in the analysis algorithm. However, the 3-hourly wind analyses of the time period 1980-2001 are suitable for investigation of the so-called Alpine Pumping. For that purpose, an arbitrarily chosen border has been drawn around the Alps and the Gauss theorem has been applied in a way that the mean diurnal variations of the two-dimensional divergence over the Alps could be evaluated. The sinusoidal run of the curve not only visualizes the 'breathing of the Alps' in an impressive way, it also enables us to roughly estimate the diurnal air volume exchange on days with a weak large-scale pressure gradient and strong incoming solar radiation. The second part of this investigation deals with the development of three different 'wind-fingerprints' which are included in the VERA-system in order to improve the analysis quality. The wind-fingerprints are designed in a way that they reflect the wind field pattern in the Alpine region on days with weak large-scale pressure gradient and strong incoming solar radiation. Using the fingerprints, both the effects of channelling as well as thermally induced

  6. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  7. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  8. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  9. Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2012-05-21

    CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230°F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy's R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230°F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

  10. Research and field trials with a blend of ethanol in diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission K-E E Consultant, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experiences acquired and data generated during the project named `The mixed fuel project` which was carried out during the years 1993 to 1997. The project was initiated after that some information had been collected in Australia, where a similar project was underway. The Australian project showed some interesting data and within that project an emulsifier had been developed - an emulsifier which has also been used in the Swedish project. In order to avoid a costly development of a method for blending ethanol in diesel oil, a form of co-operation was established between the people involved in Australia and those involved in Sweden. The content of ethanol in diesel oil used in Australia was 15 % and the investigations in Sweden reported further down in this report the ratio 15 % ethanol in MK 1 (an environmentally classified diesel fuel in Sweden) was the best alternative to be used also in Sweden. Twelve reports have been studied and used as references in order to summarize the results and experiences from the project. In order to fulfil the obligations of the project many institutions, private and community companies, consultants and universities in Sweden were involved. In the report presents the main results from the different investigations and field trials with ethanol-diesel fueled vehicles. It can be said that there are no technical problems connected to the use of ethanol-diesel fuel but the most serious drawback is the cost of the fuel. There is also a need for further development of the technology of making a homogenous emulsion of ethanol in diesel oil at a reasonable cost. The main advantage of using the mixed fuel is that the emission of particles is considerably reduced. The emission of CO{sub 2} is also reduced when the ethanol is produced from biomass using an environmentally friendly method 17 refs, 22 figs, 22 tabs

  11. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  12. Evaluating the PRASE patient safety intervention - a multi-centre, cluster trial with a qualitative process evaluation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Laura; O'Hara, Jane; Armitage, Gerry; Wright, John; Cocks, Kim; McEachan, Rosemary; Watt, Ian; Lawton, Rebecca

    2014-10-29

    Estimates show that as many as one in 10 patients are harmed while receiving hospital care. Previous strategies to improve safety have focused on developing incident reporting systems and changing systems of care and professional behaviour, with little involvement of patients. The need to engage with patients about the quality and safety of their care has never been more evident with recent high profile reviews of poor hospital care all emphasising the need to develop and support better systems for capturing and responding to the patient perspective on their care. Over the past 3 years, our research team have developed, tested and refined the PRASE (Patient Reporting and Action for a Safe Environment) intervention, which gains patient feedback about quality and safety on hospital wards. A multi-centre, cluster, wait list design, randomised controlled trial with an embedded qualitative process evaluation. The aim is to assess the efficacy of the PRASE intervention, in achieving patient safety improvements over a 12-month period.The trial will take place across 32 hospital wards in three NHS Hospital Trusts in the North of England. The PRASE intervention comprises two tools: (1) a 44-item questionnaire which asks patients about safety concerns and issues; and (2) a proforma for patients to report (a) any specific patient safety incidents they have been involved in or witnessed and (b) any positive experiences. These two tools then provide data which are fed back to wards in a structured feedback report. Using this report, ward staff are asked to hold action planning meetings (APMs) in order to action plan, then implement their plans in line with the issues raised by patients in order to improve patient safety and the patient experience.The trial will be subjected to a rigorous qualitative process evaluation which will enable interpretation of the trial results. fieldworker diaries, ethnographic observation of APMs, structured interviews with APM lead and collection

  13. Use of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of petroleum impacted soils : results of successful field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Gurska, J.; Huang, X.D.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Yu, X.M.; Nykamp, J.; MacNeill, G.; Yang, S.; Lu, X.; Glick, B.; Wang, W.; Knezevich, N.; Reid, N.

    2008-01-01

    The multi-process phytoremediation system (MPPS) was developed to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in impacted soils. Phytoremediation of persistent contaminants in soils holds significant promise for rapid remediation kinetics. MPPS effectively removes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) from soils. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria interaction is the main element for success as it mitigates stress ethylene effects in plants, leading to high root biomass which, in turn, promotes growth of rhizosphere organisms. Field tests of the MPPS were initiated at a farm site in Sarnia, Ontario in the summer of 2004. The field was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from refinery oil sludge. The second field trial was performed for 3 consecutive years at a petroleum contaminated biopile in Turner Valley, Alberta. The paper presented the results of the successful field tests of the MPPS. It was concluded that increased root biomass is achieved in the contaminated soils, which leads to more efficient and complete removal of TPHs in the field. Three years of field trials of the MPPS showed that remediation continues with successive seasons. 28 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial: lessons from the study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, L; Gwiazda, J

    2004-01-01

    The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), a multicentre clinical trial based in 4 schools of optometry in the United States, evaluated the effect of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on myopia progression in an ethnically diverse group of 469 myopic children aged 6 to 11 years. Completion of the clinical trial phase of the study provides an opportunity to evaluate aspects of the study design that contribute to its success. This article describes aspects of the study design that were influential in ensuring the smooth conduct of COMET. These include a dedicated team of investigators, an organisational structure with strong leadership and an independent Co-ordinating Centre, regular communication among investigators, flexible and creative approaches to recruitment and retention, sensitivity to concerns for child safety and child participation, and methods for enhancing and monitoring data reliability. The experience with COMET has provided a number of valuable lessons for all aspects of the study design that should benefit the development and implementation of future clinical trials, particularly those done in similar populations of children. The use of a carefully designed protocol using standard methods by dedicated members of the study team is essential in ensuring achievement of the study aims.

  15. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  16. A protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial evaluating outcomes of emergency nurse practitioner service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Natasha; Gardner, Glenn; O'Reilly, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate emergency nurse practitioner service effectiveness on outcomes related to quality of care and service responsiveness. Increasing service pressures in the emergency setting have resulted in the adoption of service innovation models; the most common and rapidly expanding of these is the emergency nurse practitioner. The delivery of high quality patient care in the emergency department is one of the most important service indicators to be measured in health services today. The rapid uptake of emergency nurse practitioner service in Australia has outpaced the capacity to evaluate this model in outcomes related to safety and quality of patient care. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial at one site with 260 participants. This protocol describes a definitive prospective randomized controlled trial, which will examine the impact of emergency nurse practitioner service on key patient care and service indicators. The study control will be standard emergency department care. The intervention will be emergency nurse practitioner service. The primary outcome measure is pain score reduction and time to analgesia. Secondary outcome measures are waiting time, number of patients who did not wait, length of stay in the emergency department and representations within 48 hours. Scant research enquiry evaluating emergency nurse practitioner service on patient effectiveness and service responsiveness exists currently. This study is a unique trial that will test the effectiveness of the emergency nurse practitioner service on patients who present to the emergency department with pain. The research will provide an opportunity to further evaluate emergency nurse practitioner models of care and build research capacity into the workforce. Trial registration details: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry dated 18th August 2013, ACTRN12613000933752. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Trial-based economic evaluations in occupational health: principles, methods, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Johanna M; van Wier, Marieke F; Tompa, Emile; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Bosmans, Judith E

    2014-06-01

    To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless, only a few of the studies that consider the effectiveness of OHS interventions take the extra step of considering their resource implications. Moreover, the methodological quality of those that do is generally poor. Therefore, this study aims to help occupational health researchers conduct high-quality trial-based economic evaluations by discussing the theory and methodology that underlie them, and by providing recommendations for good practice regarding their design, analysis, and reporting. This study also helps consumers of this literature with understanding and critically appraising trial-based economic evaluations of OHS interventions.

  18. The Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial statistical analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Anthony P; Peake, Sandra L; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cameron, Peter; Holdgate, Anna; Howe, Belinda; Higgins, Alisa; Presneill, Jeffrey; Webb, Steve

    2013-09-01

    The Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) study is an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of early goal-directed therapy compared with standard care for patients presenting to the emergency department with severe sepsis. In keeping with current practice, and considering aspects of trial design and reporting specific to non-pharmacological interventions, our plan outlines the principles and methods for analysing and reporting the trial results. The document is prepared before completion of recruitment into the ARISE study, without knowledge of the results of the interim analysis conducted by the data safety and monitoring committee and before completion of the two related international studies. Our statistical analysis plan was designed by the ARISE chief investigators, and reviewed and approved by the ARISE steering committee. We reviewed the data collected by the research team as specified in the study protocol and detailed in the study case report form. We describe information related to baseline characteristics, characteristics of delivery of the trial interventions, details of resuscitation, other related therapies and other relevant data with appropriate comparisons between groups. We define the primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes for the study, with description of the planned statistical analyses. We have developed a statistical analysis plan with a trial profile, mock-up tables and figures. We describe a plan for presenting baseline characteristics, microbiological and antibiotic therapy, details of the interventions, processes of care and concomitant therapies and adverse events. We describe the primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes with identification of subgroups to be analysed. We have developed a statistical analysis plan for the ARISE study, available in the public domain, before the completion of recruitment into the study. This will minimise analytical bias and

  19. Evaluation of completeness of selected poison control center data fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jeanie E; Marchbanks, Brenda; Willis, Branch; Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-08-01

    Poison control center data are used in research and surveillance. Due to the large volume of information, these efforts are dependent on data being recorded in machine readable format. However, poison center records include non-machine readable text fields and machine readable coded fields, some of which are duplicative. Duplicating this data increases the chance of inaccurate/incomplete coding. For surveillance efforts to be effective, coding should be complete and accurate. Investigators identified a convenience sample of 964 records and reviewed the substance code determining if it matched its text field. They also reviewed the coded clinical effects and treatments determining if they matched the notes text field. The substance code matched its text field for 91.4% of the substances. The clinical effects and treatments codes matched their text field for 72.6% and 82.4% of occurrences respectively. This under-reporting of clinical effects and treatments has surveillance and public health implications.

  20. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  1. Commentary: Randomized controlled trials in autism spectrum disorder: state of the field and challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily

    2018-04-01

    This issue of the Journal includes two articles summarizing the evidence from clinical trials aimed at improving symptoms of autism. French and Kennedy (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2018, xx, xxxx) systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at an "early intervention" and focus on trials including children with or at risk of autism under age 6 years. Although no type of intervention were excluded from their review, none of the included 48 RCTs employed pharmacological modalities and the overwhelming majority tested psychological/behavioural interventions aimed at modifying aspects of observed behaviours that are abnormal in children with autism. Using the standard Cochrane tool for evaluating risk of bias, French and Kennedy conclude that many RCTs are of low quality, which throws into question the reliance that should be placed on the findings. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    variations between candidates originate. A retrospective analysis of IGRF-10 main field candidates for epoch 2005.0 and predictive secular variation candidates for 2005.0–2010.0 using the new IGRF-11 models as a reference is also reported. The high quality and consistency of main field models derived using...

  3. Economic evaluations and Randomized trials in spinal disorders: Principles and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korthals-de Bos, I; Van Tulder, M; Van Dieten, H

    2004-01-01

    Study Design. Descriptive methodologic recommendations. Objective. To help researchers designing, conducting, and reporting economic evaluations in the field of back and neck pain. Summary of Background Data. Economic evaluations of both existing and new therapeutic interventions are becoming...... increasingly important. There is a need to improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders. Materials and Methods. To improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders, this article describes the various steps in an economic evaluation, using as example...... a study on the cost-effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy, and usual care provided by the general practitioner for patients with neck pain. Results. An economic evaluation is a study in which two or more interventions are systematically compared with regard to both costs and effects...

  4. Molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambo, Adewale J.; Strapoc, Dariusz; Pittenger, Michelle; Huizinga, Bradley [ConocoPhillips (Canada); Wood, Ladonna; Ashby, Matt [Taxon Biosciences (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field. From field sampling, variability was seen in water chemistry and environmental parameters across the field; DNA yield also varied across the field and showed distinct spatial variation. The composition of microbial populations and relative distribution of archaea populations in the Cooks Inlet water is represented using pie and bar charts. The nutrient recipe was developed using known information on nutrient requirements of mathematically correlated microbial associations. The process of on-site nutrient injection is explained. Some of the mitigation plans for the risks involved during the process include, among others, limiting biofilm prevalence and avoiding bio-plugging and bio-corrosion. Biofilm is likely to develop in the injection line but less likely in nutrient mixing due to the high nutrient concentration. From the study, it can be concluded that community composition correlates with field geochemical parameters and methane pathways.

  5. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, E.; Alvarez, B. J.; Patiño, H.; Telenti, A.; Barreiro, J.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed.

  6. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, E; Alvarez, B J; Patiño, H; Telenti, A; Barreiro, J

    2016-01-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed. (paper)

  7. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Cushing, C.E.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The goals were: (1) determine the variability (both within and between laboratories) for the various bioassay procedures using contaminated soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA); (2) assess variability within and between plots for several assessment techniques (for sampling small mammals, plants, insects including honeybees and microarthropods) so that field studies could be designed to detect a defined biotic change; (3) establish three field plant transects which are apparently (a) contaminated, (b) appear contaminated and (c) could serve as a control; (4) assess the feasibility (in the laboratory) of using Basin F water to contaminate RMA soil artificially, and to supply information for the design of a field plot study in 1983; (5) attempt to obtain preliminary data on any promising field or laboratory bioassessment techniques not currently mentioned in the statement of work; and (6) obtain field data to assess the ecological status of RMA lakes and compare these observations to results from bioassessment testing.

  8. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Husabo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP is too close, as this may hinder the GP’s objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. Methods/design The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians’ and social insurance agencies’ current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18–65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the “common trend” assumption. Discussion The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  9. Results from a Field Trial of the Radio Frequency Based Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System at the Global Nuclear Fuel Americas Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D.; Martyn, Rose; Pickett, Chris A.; Rowe, Nathan C.; Younkin, James R.; Shephard, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) is a tool designed for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to improve overall inspector efficiency through real-time unattended monitoring of cylinder movements, site specific rules-based event detection, and the capability to integrate many types of monitoring technologies. The system is based on the tracking of cylinder movements using (radio frequency) RF tags, and the collection of data, such as accountability weights, that can be associated with the cylinders. This presentation will cover the installation and evaluation of the CATS at the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC. This system was installed to evaluate its safeguards applicability, operational durability under operating conditions, and overall performance. An overview of the system design and elements specific to the GNF deployment will be presented along with lessons learned from the installation process and results from the field trial.

  10. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Routine programs of health care systems as an opportunity toward communication skills training for family physicians: A randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Ahmad Reza; Motamedi, Narges; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    To have high-quality primary health care services, an adequate doctor-patient communication is necessary. Because of time restrictions and limited budget in health system, an effective, feasible, and continuous training approach is important. The aim of this study is to assess the appropriateness of a communication skills training program simultaneously with routine programs of health care system. It was a randomized field trial in two health network settings during 2013. Twenty-eight family physicians through simple random sampling and 140 patients through convenience sampling participated as intervention and control group. The physicians in the intervention group (n = 14) attended six educational sessions, simultaneous organization meeting, with case discussion and peer education method. In both the groups, physicians completed communication skills knowledge and attitude questionnaires, and patients completed patient satisfaction of medical interview questionnaire at baseline, immediately after intervention, and four months postintervention. Physicians and health network administrators (stakeholders), completed a set of program evaluation forms. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, t-test, and repeated measure analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Use of routine program as a strategy of training was rated by stakeholders highly on "feasibility" (80.5%), "acceptability" (93.5%), "educational content and method appropriateness" (80.75%), and "ability to integrating in the health system programs" (approximate 60%). Significant improvements were found in physicians' knowledge (P Communication skills training program, simultaneous organization meeting was successfully implemented and well received by stakeholders, without considering extra time and manpower. Therefore it can be a valuable opportunity toward communication skills training.

  12. Field evaluation of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent (metofluthrin) against Aedes albopictus and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Smith, Michael L; Gaines, Marcia K; Weaver, James H; Debboun, Mustapha

    2012-05-01

    Repellent efficacy of the Off! Clip-on Mosquito Repellent device (S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., Racine, WI) containing Metofluthrin was evaluated on six human volunteers against the container-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and the salt marsh mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) at two field locations in northeastern Florida. The device repelled mosquitoes by releasing a vaporized form of the pyrethroid insecticide metofluthrin ([AI] 31.2%) and provided 70% protection from Ae. albopictus bites for > 3 h. For the second field trial, a repellent device that was used in the first trial was tested after being open for >1 wk. This device provided 79% protection from Ae. taeniorhynchus bites for 3 h. Our field results showed that the repellent device was 70 and 79% effective at repelling Ae. albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus from human test subjects in both field locations in northeastern Florida.

  13. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  14. Economic Evaluation of PRIMROSE—A Trial-Based Analysis of an Early Childhood Intervention to Prevent Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Döring

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChildhood obesity is a major clinical and economic health concern. Alongside the clinical understanding of obesity, there is a growing interest in designing and implementing interventions that are worth their money given the scarce resources in the health care sector. This study is one of the first efforts to provide evidence by assessing the effects and costs of a population-based primary prevention intervention targeting pre-school children attending child health centers in Sweden.MethodsThe economic evaluation is based on the PRIMROSE cluster-randomized controlled trial aiming to establish healthy eating and physical activity among pre-school children (9–48 months of age through motivational interviewing applied by trained nurses at child health centers. The cost-effectiveness is assessed over the trial period from a societal perspective. The primary outcome was BMI at age 4. Cost data was prospectively collected alongside the trial. Scenario analyses were carried out to identify uncertainty.ResultsThe estimated additional mean total costs of the PRIMROSE intervention were 342 Euro (95% CI: 334; 348 per child. During pre-school years direct costs mainly consist of training costs and costs for the additional time used by nurses to implement the intervention compared to usual care. Early indirect costs mainly consist of parents’ absence from work due to their participation in the intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case analysis was 3,109 Euro per 1 BMI unit prevented.ConclusionWe cannot provide evidence that the PRIMROSE intervention is cost-effective, given the uncertainty in the effect measure. Until further evidence is provided, we recommend resources to be spent elsewhere within the field of obesity prevention. Furthermore, to achieve valid and reliable cost-effectiveness results, the economic evaluation of obesity prevention programs in early childhood should incorporate the life time

  15. Evaluation of field test equipment for halide and DOP testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.L.; Kovach, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The Nucon Testing Services Department, field testing at power reactor sites, has performed tests using R-11, R-12, and R-112 in conjunction with gas chromatographs and direct reading halide detectors. The field operational experience with these detector systems, thus sensitivity, precision, and manner of field calibration, are presented. Laboratory experiments regarding 3 H-tagged methyl iodide for in place leak testing of adsorber systems indicate a low hazard, high reliability process for leak testing in facilities where atmospheric cross contamination occurs. (U.S.)

  16. Evaluation of a cloud-based local-read paradigm for imaging evaluations in oncology clinical trials for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko; Kobayashi, Naomi; Bonnard, Eric; Charbonnier, Colette; Yamamichi, Junta; Mizobe, Hideaki; Kimura, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Although tumor response evaluated with radiological imaging is frequently used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials, it is difficult to obtain precise results because of inter- and intra-observer differences. To evaluate usefulness of a cloud-based local-read paradigm implementing software solutions that standardize imaging evaluations among international investigator sites for clinical trials of lung cancer. Two studies were performed: KUMO I and KUMO I Extension. KUMO I was a pilot study aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of cloud implementation and identifying issues regarding variability of evaluations among sites. Chest CT scans at three time-points from baseline to progression, from 10 patients with lung cancer who were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were evaluated independently by two oncologists (Japan) and one radiologist (France), through a cloud-based software solution. The KUMO I Extension was performed based on the results of KUMO I. KUMO I showed discordance rates of 40% for target lesion selection, 70% for overall response at the first time-point, and 60% for overall response at the second time-point. Since the main reason for the discordance was differences in the selection of target lesions, KUMO I Extension added a cloud-based quality control service to achieve a consensus on the selection of target lesions, resulting in an improved rate of agreement of response evaluations. The study shows the feasibility of imaging evaluations at investigator sites, based on cloud services for clinical studies involving multiple international sites. This system offers a step forward in standardizing evaluations of images among widely dispersed sites

  17. A proposed framework for evaluating and comparing efficacy estimates in clinical trials of new rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Kathleen M; Zaman, K; Victor, John C

    2014-08-11

    Oral rotavirus vaccines have yielded different point estimates of efficacy when tested in different populations. While population and environmental factors may account for these differences, study design characteristics should also be considered. We review the study design elements of rotavirus vaccine trials that may affect point estimates of efficacy, and propose a framework for evaluating new rotavirus vaccines. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. SMART operational field test evaluation : dispatchers survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automaticscheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans toimplement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The purpo...

  19. SMART operational field test evaluation : scheduler survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automatic scheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans to implement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The pur...

  20. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of the Natural Saponin CAY-1, for Control of Several Strawberry Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steroidal saponin from cayenne pepper, CAY-1, was tested as a potential fungicide in detached leaf assays and field trials. Efficacy of CAY-1 against strawberry anthracnose was compared to the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Both fungicides prevented anthracnose leaf lesions when applied to...

  1. Field evaluation of hazardous waste site bioassessment protocols. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; McShane, M.C.; Rogers, J.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The overall goal of the plan was to demonstrate that honeybees could be used in detecting likely areas of chemical pollution, to demonstrate the usefulness of microbial and plant phytoassays, and to demonstrate a relationship between laboratory derived phytotoxicity results and field observations of plant community structure and diversity. Field studies were conducted through a cooperative arrangement with the US Army arsenal in Commerce City, Colorado.

  2. The PD COMM trial: a protocol for the process evaluation of a randomised trial assessing the effectiveness of two types of SLT for people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson-Algar, Patricia; Burton, Christopher R; Brady, Marian C; Nicoll, Avril; Clarke, Carl E; Rick, Caroline; Hughes, Max; Au, Pui; Smith, Christina H; Sackley, Catherine M

    2017-08-29

    The PD COMM trial is a phase III multi-centre randomised controlled trial whose aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two approaches to speech and language therapy (SLT) compared with no SLT intervention (control) for people with Parkinson's disease who have self-reported or carer-reported problems with their speech or voice. Our protocol describes the process evaluation embedded within the outcome evaluation whose aim is to evaluate what happened at the time of the PD COMM intervention implementation and to provide findings that will assist in the interpretation of the PD COMM trial results. Furthermore, the aim of the PD COMM process evaluation is to investigate intervention complexity within a theoretical model of how the trialled interventions might work best and why. Drawing from the Normalization Process Theory and frameworks for implementation fidelity, a mixed method design will be used to address process evaluation research questions. Therapists' and participants' perceptions and experiences will be investigated via in-depth interviews. Critical incident reports, baseline survey data from therapists, treatment record forms and home practice diaries also will be collected at relevant time points throughout the running of the PD COMM trial. Process evaluation data will be analysed independently of the outcome evaluation before the two sets of data are then combined. To date, there are a limited number of published process evaluation protocols, and few are linked to trials investigating rehabilitation therapies. Providing a strong theoretical framework underpinning design choices and being tailored to meet the complex characteristics of the trialled interventions, our process evaluation has the potential to provide valuable insight into which components of the interventions being delivered in PD COMM worked best (and what did not), how they worked well and why. ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN12421382 . Registered on 18 April 2016.

  3. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  4. Using Poisson-gamma model to evaluate the duration of recruitment process when historical trials are available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minois, Nathan; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Savy, Stéphanie; Attal, Michel; Andrieu, Sandrine; Anisimov, Vladimir; Savy, Nicolas

    2017-10-15

    At the design of clinical trial operation, a question of a paramount interest is how long it takes to recruit a given number of patients. Modelling the recruitment dynamics is the necessary step to answer this question. Poisson-gamma model provides very convenient, flexible and realistic approach. This model allows predicting the trial duration using data collected at an interim time with very good accuracy. A natural question arises: how to evaluate the parameters of recruitment model before the trial begins? The question is harder to handle as there are no recruitment data available for this trial. However, if there exist similar completed trials, it is appealing to use data from these trials to investigate feasibility of the recruitment process. In this paper, the authors explore the recruitment data of two similar clinical trials (Intergroupe Francais du Myélome 2005 and 2009). It is shown that the natural idea of plugging the historical rates estimated from the completed trial in the same centres of the new trial for predicting recruitment is not a relevant strategy. In contrast, using the parameters of a gamma distribution of the rates estimated from the completed trial in the recruitment dynamic model of the new trial provides reasonable predictive properties with relevant confidence intervals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hypothermia after cardiac arrest should be further evaluated-A systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Friberg, Hans; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend mild induced hypothermia (MIH) to reduce mortality and neurological impairment after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the evidence for MIH taking into consideration the risks of systematic and random error and to GRADE...... the evidence. METHODS: Systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised trials evaluating MIH after cardiac arrest in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases until May 2009. Retrieved trials were evaluated with Cochrane methodology. Meta-analytic estimates....... The substantial risk of bias and concerns with directness rated down the quality of the evidence to low. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence regarding MIH after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is still inconclusive and associated with non-negligible risks of systematic and random errors. Using GRADE-methodology, we conclude...

  6. Reasearch and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields of Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of refrigerators causes the occurence of electromagnetic fields that are invisible and intangible, which therefore makes difficulties in protecting ourselves from them. A refrigerator is an irreplaceable item in domestic household and thus can be hardly ignored by a modern way of human life. In order to preserve the characteristics of products, the refrigerator must operate continuously (24 hrs a day, regardless of the time of the year. This results in a huge increase in electricity consumption, which leads to energy consumption related pollution of the environment emitting CO2 gas. On these grounds, it is necessary to assess electromagnetic fields created by the refrigerator. Studies on electromagnetic fields produced by refrigerators were conducted in domestic premises where people spent a significant part of the day. For comparison purposes, five different power refrigerators were chosen (1 – 0.20 kW; 2 – 0.25 kW; 3 – 0.30 kW; 4 – 0.35 kW; 5 – 0.40 kW. The obtained results, according to the parameters of their electromagnetic fields, were presented in graphs and charts and showed that the values of electric and magnetic intensity of refrigerators depended on the distance and the power of the refrigerator. The conducted research also disclosed that none of tested refrigerators exceeded the permissible limits of electromagnetic fields.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Evaluation of environmental control technologies for magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The peripheral magnetic fields of several energy-related technologies are calculated, and shielding options are studied for three field intensities as possible exposure levels: 200 G, 10 G, and 0.3 G. Seven fusion reactor designs are studied. For a 200-G field level, shielding is not required. For the 10- and 0.3-G levels, land is the most economical shielding method, with shield coils an acceptable alternative at 0.3 G. Nonnuclear technologies studied are superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric generators, magnetically levitated vehicles, superconducting ac generators, and underground transmission lines. Superconducting ac generators and underground transmission lines require no shielding. The superconducting magnetic energy storage coil requires no shielding for 200 G. Both a shield coil and land are needed to meet 10 G or 0.3 G. The MHD generator needs no shielding to 200 G and 10 G. Land is the most economical means of meeting the 0.3 G level. Most of the magnetically levitated vehicles require no shielding to 200 G. The field on-board can be reduced from 200 to 25 G, depending upon the vehicle design, with shield coils. The use of iron, or another permeable material, is necessary to reduce the field to 10 G or 0.3 G. However, iron introduces too much added weight to allow efficient operation.

  8. Reporting Quality of Randomized, Controlled Trials Evaluating Combined Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Lee, Anne W.M. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen (China); Vermorken, Jan B. [Department of Medical Oncology, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem (Belgium); Wee, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lin, Jin-Ching [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Mai, Hai-Qiang [Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Li [Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Guo, Ying [Clinical Trials Centre, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Ai-Hua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Sun, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); and others

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To comprehensively assess the reporting quality of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and to identify significant predictors of quality. Methods and Materials: Two investigators searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for RCTs published between January 1988 and December 2015 that assessed the effect of combined chemoradiotherapy for NPC. The overall quality of each report was assessed using a 28-point overall quality score (OQS) based on the 2010 Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. To provide baseline data for further evaluation, we also investigated the reporting quality of certain important issues in detail, including key methodologic items (allocation concealment, blinding, intention-to-treat principle), endpoints, follow-up, subgroup analyses, and adverse events. Results: We retrieved 24 relevant RCTs including 6591 patients. Median 2010 OQS was 15.5 (range, 10-24). Half of the items in the 2010 OQS were poorly reported in at least 40% of trials. Multivariable regression models revealed that publication after 2010 and high impact factor were significant predictors of improved 2010 OQS. Additionally, many issues that we consider significant were not reported adequately. Conclusions: Despite publication of the CONSORT statement more than a decade ago, overall reporting quality for RCTs in NPC was unsatisfactory. Additionally, substantial selectivity and heterogeneity exists in reporting of certain crucial issues. This survey provides the first prompt for NPC trial investigators to improve reporting quality according to the CONSORT statement; increased scrutiny and diligence by editors and peer reviewers is also required.

  9. Likelihood-based methods for evaluating principal surrogacy in augmented vaccine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    There is growing interest in assessing immune biomarkers, which are quick to measure and potentially predictive of long-term efficacy, as surrogate endpoints in randomized, placebo-controlled vaccine trials. This can be done under a principal stratification approach, with principal strata defined using a subject's potential immune responses to vaccine and placebo (the latter may be assumed to be zero). In this context, principal surrogacy refers to the extent to which vaccine efficacy varies across principal strata. Because a placebo recipient's potential immune response to vaccine is unobserved in a standard vaccine trial, augmented vaccine trials have been proposed to produce the information needed to evaluate principal surrogacy. This article reviews existing methods based on an estimated likelihood and a pseudo-score (PS) and proposes two new methods based on a semiparametric likelihood (SL) and a pseudo-likelihood (PL), for analyzing augmented vaccine trials. Unlike the PS method, the SL method does not require a model for missingness, which can be advantageous when immune response data are missing by happenstance. The SL method is shown to be asymptotically efficient, and it performs similarly to the PS and PL methods in simulation experiments. The PL method appears to have a computational advantage over the PS and SL methods.

  10. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO EXPERT EVALUATION OF PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL TRIALS OF HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULIN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the experience of Russian and leading foreign regulatory agencies in organisation and conduction of preclinical and clinical trials of human immunoglobulin products. The authors suggest a classification of human immunoglobulins and provide updated information on authorization of these products in Russia. The article summarizes methodological approaches, basic scientific principles and criteria relating to expert evaluation of preclinical and clinical trials of blood products. The authors further define the expert body’s requirements for data on preclinical and clinical trials of human normal immuniglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases which are submitted as part of applications for marketing authorization or marketing authorization variation. The article suggests programs of preclinical and clinical trials for human normal immunoglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases that are aligned with the Russian legislation and Eurasian Economic Union’s regulations on medicines circulation, and have been elaborated with respect to the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency.

  11. Reporting Quality of Randomized, Controlled Trials Evaluating Combined Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Lee, Anne W.M.; Vermorken, Jan B.; Wee, Joseph; O'Sullivan, Brian; Eisbruch, Avraham; Lin, Jin-Ching; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Zhang, Li; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To comprehensively assess the reporting quality of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and to identify significant predictors of quality. Methods and Materials: Two investigators searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for RCTs published between January 1988 and December 2015 that assessed the effect of combined chemoradiotherapy for NPC. The overall quality of each report was assessed using a 28-point overall quality score (OQS) based on the 2010 Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. To provide baseline data for further evaluation, we also investigated the reporting quality of certain important issues in detail, including key methodologic items (allocation concealment, blinding, intention-to-treat principle), endpoints, follow-up, subgroup analyses, and adverse events. Results: We retrieved 24 relevant RCTs including 6591 patients. Median 2010 OQS was 15.5 (range, 10-24). Half of the items in the 2010 OQS were poorly reported in at least 40% of trials. Multivariable regression models revealed that publication after 2010 and high impact factor were significant predictors of improved 2010 OQS. Additionally, many issues that we consider significant were not reported adequately. Conclusions: Despite publication of the CONSORT statement more than a decade ago, overall reporting quality for RCTs in NPC was unsatisfactory. Additionally, substantial selectivity and heterogeneity exists in reporting of certain crucial issues. This survey provides the first prompt for NPC trial investigators to improve reporting quality according to the CONSORT statement; increased scrutiny and diligence by editors and peer reviewers is also required.

  12. [Clinical trials in dermatology. Evaluation of the tolerability and efficacy of a topical anti-acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoore, M; Poncet, M; Schaefer, H; Revuz, J; De Prost, Y; Guillaume, J C; Ortonne, J P; Czernielewski, J

    1991-01-01

    Acne is a frequent dermatologic disease of the teenagers. Methodology of antiacne preparations clinical trials has evolved recently, leading to better comprehension of acne treatment on acne lesions. The main rules for good clinical evaluation of acne treatments are: an objective counting of each individual lesions on a defined area (face, back), a global acne assessment, a therapy duration from 1 to 3 months or more, a skin safety evaluation for erythema, desquamation, dryness, itching, burning and oiliness with a 0 to 3 scoring system.

  13. [Methodological quality evaluation of randomized controlled trials for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liao, Xing; Zhao, Hui; Li, Zhi-Geng; Wang, Nan-Yue; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health, in order to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of clinical trials and systematic review. Such databases as CNKI, CBM, VIP, Wanfang, EMbase, Medline, Clinical Trials, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTS for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health between the time of establishment and February 29, 2016. Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to screen literatures and extract data, and CONSORT statement and CONSORT for traditional Chinese medicine statement were adopted as the basis for quality evaluation. Among the 72 RCTs included in this study, 67 (93.05%) trials described the inter-group baseline data comparability, 39(54.17%) trials described the unified diagnostic criteria, 28(38.89%) trials described the unified standards of efficacy, 4 (5.55%) trials mentioned the multi-center study, 19(26.38%) trials disclosed the random distribution method, 6(8.33%) trials used the random distribution concealment, 15(20.83%) trials adopted the method of blindness, 3(4.17%) study reported the sample size estimation in details, 5 (6.94%) trials showed a sample size of more than two hundred, 19(26.38%) trials reported the number of withdrawal, defluxion cases and those lost to follow-up, but only 2 trials adopted the ITT analysis,10(13.89%) trials reported the follow-up results, none of the trial reported the test registration and the test protocol, 48(66.7%) trials reported all of the indicators of expected outcomes, 26(36.11%) trials reported the adverse reactions and adverse events, and 4(5.56%) trials reported patient compliance. The overall quality of these randomized controlled trials for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health is low, with methodological defects in different degrees. Therefore, it is still necessary to emphasize the correct application of principles

  14. HOTSPOT, Field Evaluation of Radiation Release from Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides, calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground survey measurements, and screening of plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Version 8 allows users to add their own custom radionuclide library and to create custom radionuclide mixtures. It also includes wet deposition to approximate the enhanced plume depletion and ground deposition due to the effects of rain. Additional release geometry options for TRITIUM RELEASE and GENERAL PLUME were added, as well as several other enhancements and improvements. See info (f1) from the main HOTSPOT menu for additional

  15. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  16. A randomised controlled trial evaluating family mediated exercise (FAME therapy following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes Emma

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a leading cause of disability among adults worldwide. Evidence suggests that increased duration of exercise therapy following stroke has a positive impact on functional outcome following stroke. The main objective of this randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the impact of additional family assisted exercise therapy in people with acute stroke. Methods/Design A prospective multi-centre single blind randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Forty patients with acute stroke will be randomised into either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will receive routine therapy and additional lower limb exercise therapy in the form of family assisted exercises. The control group will receive routine therapy with no additional formal input from their family members. Participants will be assessed at baseline, post intervention and followed up at three months using a series of standardised outcome measures. A secondary aim of the project is to evaluate the impact of the family mediated exercise programme on the person with stroke and the individual(s assisting in the delivery of exercises using a qualitative methodology. The study has gained ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committees of each of the clinical sites involved in the study. Discussion This study will evaluate a structured programme of exercises that can be delivered to people with stroke by their 'family members/friends'. Given that the progressive increase in the population of older people is likely to lead to an increased prevalence of stroke in the future, it is important to reduce the burden of this illness on the individual, the family and society. Family mediated exercises can maximise the carry over outside formal physiotherapy sessions, giving patients the opportunity for informal practice. Trial Registration The protocol for this study is registered with the US NIH Clinical trials registry (NCT00666744

  17. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Thébault; Christopher C. Finlay; Patrick Alken; Ciaran D. Beggan; Elisabeth Canet; Arnaud Chulliat; Benoit Langlais; V. Lesur; Frank J. Lowes; Chandrasekharan Manoj; Martin Rother; Reyko Schachtschneider

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 12th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was issued in December 2014 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html). This revision comprises new spherical harmonic main field models for epochs 2010.0 (DGRF-2010) and 2015.0 (IGRF-2015) and predictive linear secular variation for the interval 2015.0-2020.0 (SV-2010-2015). Findings: The models were deri...

  18. A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Restorative Practices: An Illustration to Spur High-Quality Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Joie D.; Chinman, Matthew; Ebener, Patricia; Phillips, Andrea; Xenakis, Lea; Malone, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Restorative practices in schools lack rigorous evaluation studies. As an example of rigorous school-based research, this article describes the first randomized control trial of restorative practices to date, the Study of Restorative Practices. It is a 5-year, cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Restorative Practices Intervention (RPI)…

  19. Water Column Exploration Field Trial I (EX0904, EM302) aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gorda Ridge, off the coasts of Oregon and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a water column exploration field trial cruise, designed to test and refine operations for conducting water column exploration using NOAA Ship Okeanos...

  20. Electromagnetic soil properties variability in a mine-field trial site in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Rañada-Shaw, A.; Schoolderman, A.J.; Rhebergen, J.B.; Slob, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the characterization of the electromagnetic soil properties of a blind lane used in a trial for a dual-sensor mine detector is presented. Several techniques are used and are compared here; Time Domain Reflectometry, gravimetric techniques and Frequency Domain Reflection and

  1. Explaining Feast or Famine in Randomized Field Trials: Medical Science and Criminology Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the contrast between the frequency of randomized clinical trials in the health sciences and the relative famine of such studies in criminology. Attributes this difference to the contexts in which research is done and the difference in the status of situational research in the two disciplines. (SLD)

  2. Evaluation Of Farmer Field School On Integrated Pest | Rustum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is aimed to explore the quality of the program implementation of the Integrated Pest Management Field Farmer School (IPMFFS) (in Indonesian ... quantity (3) participate agricultural extension, (4) remedial practice, (5) insight development, (6) motivation establishment, (7) the readiness of the participants, ...

  3. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  4. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted ...

  5. Evaluations of electric field in laser-generated pulsed plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Rohlena, Karel; Wolowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. B (2006), B580-B585 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22./. Prague, 26.06.2006-29.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : electric field in plasma * debye length * plasma temperature * plasma density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  6. Evaluating research and impact: a bibliometric analysis of research by the NIH/NIAID HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Rosas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative bibliometrics uses advanced techniques to assess the impact of scholarly work in the context of other scientific work and usually compares the relative scientific contributions of research groups or institutions. Using publications from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID HIV/AIDS extramural clinical trials networks, we assessed the presence, performance, and impact of papers published in 2006-2008. Through this approach, we sought to expand traditional bibliometric analyses beyond citation counts to include normative comparisons across journals and fields, visualization of co-authorship across the networks, and assess the inclusion of publications in reviews and syntheses. Specifically, we examined the research output of the networks in terms of the a presence of papers in the scientific journal hierarchy ranked on the basis of journal influence measures, b performance of publications on traditional bibliometric measures, and c impact of publications in comparisons with similar publications worldwide, adjusted for journals and fields. We also examined collaboration and interdisciplinarity across the initiative, through network analysis and modeling of co-authorship patterns. Finally, we explored the uptake of network produced publications in research reviews and syntheses. Overall, the results suggest the networks are producing highly recognized work, engaging in extensive interdisciplinary collaborations, and having an impact across several areas of HIV-related science. The strengths and limitations of the approach for evaluation and monitoring research initiatives are discussed.

  7. Protocol for the effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after six months sick leave: a randomized controlled trial of independent medical evaluation versus treatment as usual in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husabo, Elisabeth; Monstad, Karin; Holmås, Tor Helge; Oyeflaten, Irene; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje

    2017-06-14

    It has been discussed whether the relationship between a patient on sick leave and his/her general practitioner (GP) is too close, as this may hinder the GP's objective evaluation of need for sick leave. Independent medical evaluation involves an independent physician consulting the patient. This could lead to new perspectives on sick leave and how to follow-up the patient. The current study is a randomized controlled trial in a Norwegian primary care context, involving an effect evaluation, a cost/benefit analysis, and a qualitative evaluation. Independent medical evaluation will be compared to treatment as usual, i.e., the physicians' and social insurance agencies' current management of long-term sick-listed patients. Individuals aged 18-65 years, sick listed by their GP and on full or partial sick leave for the past 6 months in Hordaland county will be included. Exclusion criteria are pregnancy, cancer, dementia or an ICD-10 diagnosis. A total sample of 3800 will be randomly assigned to either independent medical evaluation or treatment as usual. Official register data will be used to measure the primary outcome; change in sickness benefits at 7, 9 and 12 months. Sick listed in other counties will serve as a second control group, if appropriate under the "common trend" assumption. The Norwegian effect evaluation of independent medical evaluation after 6 months sick leave is a large randomized controlled trial, and the first of its kind, to evaluate this type of intervention as a means of getting people back to work after long-term sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02524392 . Registered June 23, 2015.

  8. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This presentation provides information about NREL's real-world evaluations of commercial vehicle technologies, which compare the performance of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles to conventional vehicles. NREL conducts these customized evaluations in partnership with commercial and government fleets across the nation. Current fleet and industry partners include UPS, Workhorse, Parker Hannifin, Proterra, Foothill Transit, Long Beach Transit, BYD, Odyne, Duke Energy, Miami-Dade, TransPower, Eaton, Cummins, Bosch, and Clean Cities/National Clean Fleet Partnership. The presentation focuses on two particular vehicle evaluation projects -- hydraulic hybrid refuse haulers operated by Miami-Dade and electric transit buses operated by Foothill Transit.

  9. Fractional nonablative 1,540-nm laser resurfacing of atrophic acne scars. A randomized controlled trial with blinded response evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, Lene; Moreau, Karen Estell R; Beyer, Ditte M

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing of acne scars has been described in case reports and uncontrolled trials. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial in this field. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and adverse effects of 1,540-nm nonablative...... fractional laser treatment of acne scars. Ten patients with acne scars were included. Two intraindividual areas of similar size and appearance within contralateral anatomical regions were randomized to (1) 3-monthly laser treatments with a StarLux 1,540-nm fractional handpiece, and (2) no treatment. Blinded...... appeared more even and smooth than untreated control areas (4.5, 2-6.5, versus 6.5, 4.5-8, P=0.0156, at 4 weeks; 4.5, 2.5-6.5, versus 6.5, 4.5-8, at 12 weeks; P=0.0313). Patients were satisfied with the treatment (5.5, 1-7, after 12 weeks) and five of the ten patients evaluated their acne scars...

  10. A sense of urgency: Evaluating the link between clinical trial development time and the accrual performance of cancer therapy evaluation program (NCI-CTEP) sponsored studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Steven K; Dietrich, Mary S; Dilts, David M

    2010-11-15

    Postactivation barriers to oncology clinical trial accruals are well documented; however, potential barriers prior to trial opening are not. We investigate one such barrier: trial development time. National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP)-sponsored trials for all therapeutic, nonpediatric phase I, I/II, II, and III studies activated between 2000 and 2004 were investigated for an 8-year period (n = 419). Successful trials were those achieving 100% of minimum accrual goal. Time to open a study was the calendar time from initial CTEP submission to trial activation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR), controlling for study phase and size of expected accruals. Among the CTEP-approved oncology trials, 37.9% (n = 221) failed to attain the minimum accrual goals, with 70.8% (n = 14) of phase III trials resulting in poor accrual. A total of 16,474 patients (42.5% of accruals) accrued to those studies were unable to achieve the projected minimum accrual goal. Trials requiring less than 12 months of development were significantly more likely to achieve accrual goals (OR, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.57, P = 0.003) than trials with the median development times of 12 to 18 months. Trials requiring a development time of greater than 24 months were significantly less likely to achieve accrual goals (OR, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.78; P = 0.011) than trials with the median development time. A large percentage of oncology clinical trials do not achieve minimum projected accruals. Trial development time appears to be one important predictor of the likelihood of successfully achieving the minimum accrual goals. ©2010 AACR.

  11. 167: CRITICALLY APPRAISE OF THE REPORTING QUALITY OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS ARTICLES IN THE FIELD OF DIABETES IN MEDICAL GUIDELINES IN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletaha, Azadeh; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Soltani, Akbar; Ramezani, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims To determine the quality of randomized controlled clinical trial reports in diabetes research in Iran and their presence in domestic and foreign credible guidelines which can imply whether randomized controlled trial articles in the field of diabetes are of good quality or not with respect to their high level of received citations, quality and credibility. Method We included RCTs conducted on Diabetes mellitus in Iran. Animal studies, educational, interventions, and non-randomized trials were excluded. This was a bibliographic study examining published journal articles involving RCTs in diabetes research from Iranian authors. A systematic search of ten databases(ISI Web of science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, The Cochrane Library, Taylor & Francis Online, Biomed Central, EBSCO, ProQuest and OVID)were undertaken from July 2004–2014. We excluded duplicated publications reporting the same groups of participants and intervention two independent reviewers identify all eligible articles specifically designed data extraction form. Two reviewers assessed the quality of reporting by CONSORT 2010 (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) checklist statement and also evaluate each article with Scientometry tools in 260 valid English diabetes guidelines. Result Overall, we included 185 RCTs on diabetes mellitus, One hundred and eight five (185) studies were included and appraised. Half of them (55.7%) were published in Iranian journals. Most (89.7%) were parallel RCTs, and being performed on type2 diabetic patients (77.8%). Less than half of the CONSORT items (43.2%) were reported in studies, totally. The reporting of randomization and blinding were poor. A few studies 15.1% mentioned the method of random sequence generation and strategy of allocation concealment. And only 34.8% of trials report how blinding was applied. From 185 articles, twelve articles (10%) are presented in 260 Guidelines. Conclusion The reporting quality of abstracts of RCTs

  12. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  13. Adherence to placebo and mortality in the Beta Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Alice; Avins, Andrew L; Neuhaus, John; Ackerson, Lynn; Rudd, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Randomized controlled trials have reported lower mortality among patients who adhere to placebo compared with those who do not. We explored this phenomenon by reanalyzing data from the placebo arm of the Beta Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of bucindolol and mortality. Our primary aim was to measure and explain the association between adherence to placebo and total mortality among the placebo-allocated participants in the BEST trial. Secondary aims included assessment of the association between placebo adherence and cause-specific mortality. Participants with "higher placebo adherence" were defined as having taken at least 75% of their placebo study medication over the entire course of each individual's participation in the study, while those with "lower placebo adherence" took <75%. Primary outcome was in-study all-cause mortality. To account for confounding, we adjusted for all available modifiable, non-modifiable and psychosocial variables. Adherent participants had a significantly lower total mortality compared to less-adherent participants (HR=0.61, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.46-0.82). Adjusting for available confounders did not change the magnitude or significance of the estimates. When considering cause-specific mortality, CVD and pump failure showed similar associations. Analyses of the BEST trial data support a strong association between adherence to placebo study medication and total mortality. While probably not due to publication bias or simple confounding by healthy lifestyle factors, the underlying explanation for the association remains a mystery. Prospective examination of this association is necessary to better understand the underlying mechanism of this observation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding influences on teachers' uptake and use of behaviour management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Edwards, Vanessa; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Byford, Sarah; Norwich, Brahm; Logan, Stuart; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-02-10

    The 'Supporting Teachers And childRen in Schools' (STARS) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a public health intervention. TCM is a 6 day training course delivered to groups of 8-12 teachers. The STARS trial will investigate whether TCM can improve children's behaviour, attainment and wellbeing, reduce teachers' stress and improve their self-efficacy. This protocol describes the methodology of the process evaluation embedded within the main trial, which aims to examine the uptake and implementation of TCM strategies within the classroom plus the wider school environment and improve the understanding of outcomes. The STARS trial will work with eighty teachers of children aged 4-9 years from eighty schools. Teachers will be randomised to attend the TCM course (intervention arm) or to "teach as normal" (control arm) and attend the course a year later. The process evaluation will use quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess fidelity to model, as well as explore headteachers' and teachers' experiences of TCM and investigate school factors that influence the translation of skills learnt to practice. Four of the eight groups of teachers (n = 40) will be invited to participate in focus groups within one month of completing the TCM course, and again a year later, while 45 of the 80 headteachers will be invited to take part in telephone interviews. Standardised checklists will be completed by group leaders and each training session will be videotaped to assess fidelity to model. Teachers will also complete standardised session evaluations. This study will provide important information about whether the Teacher Classroom Management course influences child and teacher mental health and well-being in both the short and long term. The process evaluation will provide valuable insights into factors that may facilitate or impede any impact. The trial has been registered with ISCTRN

  15. Performance evaluation of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistor by a distributed-element circuit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yukinori; Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Tanabe, Akihito; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Liu, Yongxun; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    The performance of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), in which band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) was initiated in-line to the gate electric field was evaluated. The TFET was fabricated by inserting an epitaxially-grown parallel-plate tunnel capacitor between heavily doped source wells and gate insulators. Analysis using a distributed-element circuit model indicated there should be a limit of the drain current caused by the self-voltage-drop effect in the ultrathin channel layer.

  16. Randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Meghan O; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Knap, Kim E; Evans, Richard B

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy (PST) in reducing pain and increasing function in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) using a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial. Adult dogs (n = 60) with moderate-to-severe clinical signs of OA. Dogs were randomized by age into 2 groups: dogs ≥ 9 years and dogs Goniometry and gait analysis were performed, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) questionnaire was given to the owners to fill out without supervision. Outcome measures were repeated at the end of treatment (Day 11) and 6 weeks after beginning treatment (Day 42). The PST group performed significantly better than the control group as measured by the CBPI Severity and Interference scores (P Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Subjective preference evaluation of sound fields by performing singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noson, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    A model of the auditory process is proposed for performing singers, which incorporates the added signal from bone conduction, as well as the psychological distance for subjective preference of the performer from the acoustic sound field of the stage. The explanatory power of previous scientific studies of vocal stage acoustics has been limited by a lack of an underlying theory of performer preference. Ando's theory, using the autocorrelation function (ACF) for parametrizing temporal factors, was applied to interpretation of singer sound field preference determined by the pair comparison method. Melisma style singing (no lyrics) was shown to increase the preferred delay time of reflections from a mean of 14 ms with lyrics to 23 ms without (pThesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis are available from the author by inquiry at BRC Acoustics, 1741 First Avenue South, Seattle, WA 98134 USA. E-mail address: dnoson@brcacoustics.com

  18. Field trial using bone meal amendments to remediate mine waste derived soil contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, I.R.; Orueetxebarria, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Schofield, P.F.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bone meal amendments are being considered as a remediation method for metal-contaminated wastes. In various forms (biogenic, geogenic or synthetic), apatite, the principal mineral constituent of bone, has shown promise as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soils via the formation of insoluble phosphates of Pb and possibly other metals. The efficacy of commercially available bovine bone meal in this role was investigated in a field trial at Nenthead, Cumbria with a mine waste derived soil contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd. Two 5 m 2 plots were set up; the first as a control and the second, a treatment plot where the soil was thoroughly mixed with bone meal to a depth of 50 cm at a soil to amendment ratio of 25:1 by weight. An array of soil solution samplers (Rhizon SMS TM ) were installed in both plots and the soil pore water was collected and analysed for Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb regularly over a period of 2 a. Concurrently with the field trial, a laboratory trial with 800 mm high and 100 mm wide leaching columns was conducted using identical samplers and with soil from the field site. A substantial release of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ca was observed associated with the bone meal treatment. This release was transient in the case of the leaching columns, and showed seasonal variation in the case of the field trial. It is proposed that this effect resulted from metal complexation with organic acids released during breakdown of the bone meal organic fraction and was facilitated by the relatively high soil pH of 7.6-8.0. Even after this transient release effect had subsided or when incinerated bone meal was substituted in order to eliminate the organic fraction, no detectable decrease in dissolved metals was observed and no P was detected in solution, in contrast with an earlier small column laboratory study. It is concluded that due to the relative insolubility of apatite at above-neutral pH, the rate of supply of phosphate to soil solution was insufficient to result in

  19. Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil by carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Dai, Z Y; Zhu, R; Shu, W S

    2009-08-01

    Use of metal-accumulating woody species to extract metals from heavy metal contaminated soil has received more attention. While considerable studies have focused on the phytoextraction potential of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.), similar information is rare for other woody species. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a high-biomass tree and has been identified as a new Cd-accumulating species. The present study aimed to evaluate the Cd phytoextraction potential of carambola under field condition. After growing in a slightly Cd-contaminated site for about 170 d, the carambola stand initiated by seed-seedling with high planting density (encoded with "HD-1yr") attained a high shoot biomass yield of 18.6 t ha(-1) and extracted 213 g Cdha(-1), resulting in a 1.6-fold higher Cd removal efficiency than that of a contrasting stand established by grafted-seedling with low planting density (5.3% vs. 2%). That is, "HD-1yr" would remove 50% of the total soil Cd with 13yr, assuming that the Cd removal efficiency would not change over time. Further, one crop of "HD-1yr" significantly decreased (63-69%) the Cd uptake by subsequent vegetables. Among the four carambola stands established using grafted-seedling, the 2-yr-old stand exhibited the highest annual Cd removal efficiency (3.7%), which was yet lower than that of "HD-1yr". These results suggested that phytoextraction of Cd by carambola (especially for "HD-1yr" stand) presented a feasible option to clean up agricultural soils slightly contaminated by Cd.

  20. The Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation provisional criteria for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Pistorio, Angela; Ravelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    To develop a provisional definition for the evaluation of response to therapy in juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) based on the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation juvenile DM core set of variables....

  1. The evaluation of a trial of syringe vending machines in Canberra, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    2009-07-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been trialled in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, as an intervention aiming to increase the availability of sterile injecting equipment for use by IDUs. This study evaluated the 12-month trial. A utilisation-focused evaluation model, with both formative and summative components, was employed. Four SVMs were installed, each dispensing packs containing four 1 mL syringes and associated injecting paraphernalia. The trial participants were the clients of the SVMs and other key informants. The core measurements used were the number of syringes dispensed in Canberra by SVMs and other outlets, SVM clients' demographics and experiences of and attitudes towards SVMs, perceived impacts of SVMs on needle sharing, unsafe disposal of used syringes in the vicinity of SVMs, and community and stakeholder attitudes. The trial was implemented successfully, with no adverse consequences identified. The SVMs appear to be serving both the usual clients of the other outlets for sterile injecting equipment (community pharmacies and the Needle Syringe Program outlets) and others who are reluctant to use such outlets or find them inconvenient. The out-of-business-hours provision of syringes through the SVMs was particularly welcomed by both SVM clients and other stakeholders. The continuing operation of the initial four SVMs is widely supported, and additional machines are requested by clients and others. Owing to the success of the trial in terms of feasibility and outcomes for both IDUs and for the broader community, it is desirable that providing sterile injecting equipment through SVMs continues and be expanded as an integral component of harm reduction strategies.

  2. Mesh fixation in endoscopic inguinal hernia repair: evaluation of methodology based on a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederhuber, Hans; Stiede, Franziska; Axer, Stephan; Dahlstrand, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    The issue of mesh fixation in endoscopic inguinal hernia repair is frequently debated and still no conclusive data exist on differences between methods regarding long-term outcome and postoperative complications. The quantity of trials and the simultaneous lack of high-quality evidence raise the question how future trials should be planned. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched, using the filters "randomised clinical trials" and "humans". Trials that compared one method of mesh fixation with another fixation method or with non-fixation in endoscopic inguinal hernia repair were eligible. To be included, the trial was required to have assessed at least one of the following primary outcome parameters: recurrence; surgical site infection; chronic pain; or quality-of-life. Fourteen trials assessing 2161 patients and 2562 hernia repairs were included. Only two trials were rated as low risk for bias. Eight trials evaluated recurrence or surgical site infection; none of these could show significant differences between methods of fixation. Two of 11 trials assessing chronic pain described significant differences between methods of fixation. One of two trials evaluating quality-of-life showed significant differences between fixation methods in certain functions. High-quality evidence for differences between the assessed mesh fixation techniques is still lacking. From a socioeconomic and ethical point of view, it is necessary that future trials will be properly designed. As small- and medium-sized single-centre trials have proven unable to find answers, register studies or multi-centre studies with an evident focus on methodology and study design are needed in order to answer questions about mesh fixation in inguinal hernia repair.

  3. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith AY; Silburn, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) program by investigating pre-c...

  4. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) following forward planned field-in field IMRT: Results from the Cambridge Breast IMRT trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukesh, Mukesh B.; Qian, Wendi; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Dorling, Leila; Barnett, Gillian C.; Moody, Anne M.; Wilson, Charles; Twyman, Nicola; Burnet, Neil G.; Wishart, Gordon C.; Coles, Charlotte E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in breast cancer reduces clinician-assessed breast tissue toxicity including fibrosis, telangectasia and sub-optimal cosmesis. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are also important as they provide the patient’s perspective. This longitudinal study reports on (a) the effect of forward planned field-in-field IMRT (∼simple IMRT) on PROMs compared to standard RT at 5 years after RT, (b) factors affecting PROMs at 5 years after RT and (c) the trend of PROMs over 5 years of follow up. Methods: PROMs were assessed at baseline (pre-RT), 6, 24 and 60 months after completion of RT using global health (EORTC QLQ C30) and 4 breast symptom questions (BR23). Also, 4 breast RT-specific questions were included at 6, 24 and 60 months: change in skin appearance, firmness to touch, reduction in breast size and overall change in breast appearance since RT. The benefits of simple IMRT over standard RT at 5 years after RT were assessed using standard t-test for global health and logistic regression analysis for breast symptom questions and breast RT-specific questions. Clinical factors affecting PROMs at 5 years were investigated using a multivariate analysis. A repeated mixed model was applied to explore the trend over time for each of PROMs. Results: (89%) 727/815, 84%, 81% and 61% patients completed questionnaires at baseline, 6, 24 and 60 months respectively. Patients reported worse toxicity for all four BR23 breast symptoms at 6 months, which then improved over time (p < 0.0001). They also reported improvement in skin appearance and breast hardness over time (p < 0.0001), with no significant change for breast shrinkage (p = 0.47) and overall breast appearance (p = 0.13). At 5 years, PROMs assessments did not demonstrate a benefit for simple IMRT over standard radiotherapy. Large breast volume, young age, baseline surgical cosmesis and post-operative infection were the most important variables to affect PROMs

  5. Implementing telephone triage in general practice: a process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jamie; Varley, Anna; Fletcher, Emily; Britten, Nicky; Price, Linnie; Calitri, Raff; Green, Colin; Lattimer, Valerie; Richards, Suzanne H; Richards, David A; Salisbury, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Campbell, John L

    2015-04-10

    Telephone triage represents one strategy to manage demand for face-to-face GP appointments in primary care. However, limited evidence exists of the challenges GP practices face in implementing telephone triage. We conducted a qualitative process evaluation alongside a UK-based cluster randomised trial (ESTEEM) which compared the impact of GP-led and nurse-led telephone triage with usual care on primary care workload, cost, patient experience, and safety for patients requesting a same-day GP consultation. The aim of the process study was to provide insights into the observed effects of the ESTEEM trial from the perspectives of staff and patients, and to specify the circumstances under which triage is likely to be successfully implemented. Here we report perspectives of staff. The intervention comprised implementation of either GP-led or nurse-led telephone triage for a period of 2-3 months. A qualitative evaluation was conducted using staff interviews recruited from eight general practices (4 GP triage, 4 Nurse triage) in the UK, implementing triage as part of the ESTEEM trial. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 44 staff members in GP triage and nurse triage practices (16 GPs, 8 nurses, 7 practice managers, 13 administrative staff). Staff reported diverse experiences and perceptions regarding the implementation of telephone triage, its effects on workload, and on the benefits of triage. Such diversity were explained by the different ways triage was organised, the staffing models used to support triage, how the introduction of triage was communicated across practice staff, and by how staff roles were reconfigured as a result of implementing triage. The findings from the process evaluation offer insight into the range of ways GP practices participating in ESTEEM implemented telephone triage, and the circumstances under which telephone triage can be successfully implemented beyond the context of a clinical trial. Staff experiences and perceptions of telephone

  6. Field quality evaluation of the superconducting magnets of the relativistic heavy ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.C.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.G.; Trahern, C.G.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first present the procedure established to evaluate the field quality, quench performance, and alignment of the superconducting magnets manufactured for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and then discuss the strategies used to improve the field quality and to minimize undesirable effects by sorting the magnets. The field quality of the various RHIC magnets is briefly summarized

  7. Laboratory and field evaluation of the impact of exercise on the performance of regular and polymer-based deet repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Steven; Tepper, Martin; Gadawski, Randy

    2007-11-01

    Studies were done in Manitoba, Canada, to evaluate the impact of exercise on repellent performance against mosquitoes. Two products containing the active ingredient N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) were tested; one product was a polymer-based cream (3M Ultrathon Insect Repellent) and the other product was an alcohol-based pump spray formulation (Muskol Insect Repellent). Assessments were done in the laboratory using Aedes aegypti (L.) and in the field with naturally occurring populations of mosquitoes. Repellent was applied to the forearms (laboratory) or a lower leg (field) of test subjects at 1.5 g of test product per 600 cm2 surface area (0.75 or 0.83 mg deet/cm2). For a given test day, subjects exercised or did not. Exposure to mosquito attack was for 1 min at 30-min intervals in laboratory procedures, and it was continuous in field tests. Performance was measured as complete protection time (CPT). Moderate levels of physical activity resulted in a >40% decline in mean CPT, from 468 to 267 min in the laboratory experiments and from 359 to 203 min in field tests. Repellent product did not affect the magnitude of the decline. Mean biting pressure during field trials was 21.3 bites per min, and mosquito collections were made up primarily of Ochlerotatus sticticus (Meigen) and Aedes vexans (Meigen).

  8. Study on the system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutu, Kazuo; Morikawa, Seiji; Takamura, Hisashi

    2002-02-01

    For the high performance evaluation of reliability of TRU waste repository, the system development for evaluating long-term alteration in consideration of the changes action of barrier materials of hydraulic field in Near Field is required. In this research, system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in Near Field was examined. Examination of the basic specification of chemical/dynamic alteration action analysis system used as the composition element of this system and a whole system were performed. The research result of this year is shown below. 1) The system by which the chemical changes happened by Near Field as influence of the exudation liquid from cement material are evaluated was examined. In this year, document investigation about the various processes about chemical alteration and extraction of a choice, presentation of the uncertainty about a model or data, preliminary modeling, a simple analysis tool creation and sensitivity analysis, extraction of the process which should be taken into consideration in a system valuation modeling and a phenomenon analysis model, and a corresponding mathematics model, optimization of the software composition for development of a system valuation modeling, the exercise by the preliminary system analysis model, the experiment plan for the corroboration of a model were shown. 2) In consideration of change of the physical characteristic accompanying chemical alteration of bentonite material and cement material, the system by which dynamic changes action of repository is evaluated was examined. In this year, arrangement of the dynamics action of repository for long-term were shown. Extraction of a phenomenon made applicable to evaluation was shown. And the dynamic models were investigated and the prototype of the dynamics model that can take into consideration the characteristic of bentonite material was shown. And the basic composition of a dynamic changes action analysis system was shown. 3

  9. Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, K R; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L; Tewolde, H; Brink, G E

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60-30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study to quantify broiler litter N mineralization using similar soils and litter application rates as the laboratory incubation. Broiler litter was applied at an equivalent rate of 350 kg total N ha(-1) for both studies except for control treatments. Subsamples were taken at different timing for both experiments for NO3-N and NH4-N determinations. In the laboratory experiment, soil moisture regimes had no significant impact on litter-derived inorganic N. Total litter-derived inorganic N across all treatments increased from 23 mg kg(-1) at time 0, to 159 mg kg(-1) at 93 d after litter application. Significant differences were observed among the soil types. Net litter-derived inorganic N was greater for Brooksville followed by Ruston and Catlin soils. For both studies and all soils, NH4-N content decreased while NO3-N content increased indicating a rapid nitrification of the mineralized litter N. Litter mineralization in the field study followed the same trend as the laboratory study but resulted in much lower net inorganic N, presumably due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature, which may have resulted in more denitrification and immobilization of mineralized litter N. Litter-derived inorganic N from the field study was greater for Ruston than Brooksville. Due to no impact by soil moisture regimes, additional studies are warranted in order to develop predictive relationships to quantify broiler litter N availability.

  10. Economic evaluation of soil fertility management in groundnut fields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides the economic evaluation of soil fertility replenishing technologies (use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manure, and rhizobium inoculant) that were tested and recommended. Data on groundnut technologies used, yields, resource availability and use, and farmers' characteristics were collected through ...

  11. Field evaluation of a novel haemoglobin measuring device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the use of a robust, cheap method for haemoglobin estimation by non-laboratory-trained personnel in a rural setting. Design. Comparative study. Setting. Tintswalo Hospital. Acomhoek. Participants. 7 nursing sisters, 4 medical students, 2 lay persons. Outcome measures. Haemoglobin estimates ...

  12. Exterior field evaluation of new generation video motion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advancements in video motion detection (VMD) system design and technology have resulted in several new commercial VMD systems. Considerable interest in the new VMD systems has been generated because the systems are advertised to work effectively in exterior applications. Previous VMD systems, when used in an exterior environment, tended to have very high nuisance alarm rates due to weather conditions, wildlife activity and lighting variations. The new VMD systems advertise more advanced processing of the incoming video signal which is aimed at rejecting exterior environmental nuisance alarm sources while maintaining a high detection capability. This paper discusses the results of field testing, in an exterior environment, of two new VMD systems

  13. Field Evaluation Of Four Sweet Potato Cultivars For Yield And Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sweet potato cultivars (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 2532 OP. 1. 13 and Ex Igbariam) were evaluated for yield and damage of C. puncticollis during the period June to October in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Plants were ...

  14. Technical Evaluation of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems which were Implemented in Tea Fields of the Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Designing and management of sprinkler irrigation systems depend on the situation and location of its implementation and often rely on professional and long-term tests (9. Having a good irrigation system depends on knowledge of the relationship between soil, water, plants, irrigation scheduling, the required amount of irrigation water to the water-holding capacity of soil, climate and plant growth (6.The less use of sprinkler irrigation systems and less performed research projects in the Guilan province, lack of correct design parameters due to shortage of the required parameters for local and regional planning, has led to reliance on charts and tables. Therefore, planning water resources cannot be performed well and with accurate details. According to many researchers (8, the technical evaluation should be a regular and short-term process to review the problems and possible performance of irrigation systems. Merriam and Keller (10 defined the assessment of an irrigation system analysis, based on field measurements in real terms during the normal work of the system. Therefore, to develop these systems over the next few years, it is essential to evaluate the use of irrigation systems and review the performance of existing problems and utilizing the results to improve it. The aim of this study was to assess the current status of implemented irrigation systems in the tea plantations of Guilan and evaluate their performance. Materials and Methods: In this study, six classic sprinkler irrigation systems in tea fields of Guilan province were evaluated during two years. Sprinkler irrigation systems of semi-portable, solid-set and solid-set (hand-move sprinkler were selected randomly. To evaluate this irrigation systems, Christiansen’s uniformity coefficient (CU, distribution uniformity (DU, potential application efficiency of low-quarter (PELQ and application efficiency of low-quarter (AELQ in the form of trial blocks were estimated by

  15. Study on the system development for evaluating long-term alteration of hydraulic field in Near Field. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutu, Kazuo; Morikawa, Seiji; Taguchi, Katsunori

    2004-02-01

    For the high performance evaluation of reliability of TRU waste repository, the system development for evaluating long-term alteration in consideration of the changes action of barrier materials of hydraulic field in Near Fields is required. In this research, the system development for evaluating the long-term alteration of hydraulic field in near field was examined. The 'Evidential Support logic' for ensuring the long-term stability of the repository was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, the developed chemical/mechanical alteration action analysis system was verified and improved. The system was coupled for the long-term alteration evaluation analysis. The research results of this year are shown below. 1) A logic tree was constructed for the purpose of supporting the high performance evaluation of reliability of a TRU waste repository. The thesis that the long term safety of the TRU waste repository is preserved was ramified into subsidiary theses until all the final theses were supported by objective evidence. The probability of the subsidiary thesis supporting the upper thesis was established by interviewing specialists. The reliability of the thesis was evaluated by applying present knowledge. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the reliability of the highest thesis to increasing reliability of evidence was investigated. Appropriate targets for experiment and analysis were presented based on the sensitivity of evidence. 2) The object of the hydraulic - chemical analysis was determined from the above-mentioned logic tree. The analysis system was improved to perform the 2D analysis. A user interface was developed to simplify the setting of analysis conditions. The system was demonstrated by comparing the results with the experimental results. Furthermore, the system was applied to the near field problem to fix the condition that the safety of the TRU waste repository is preserved. 3) Both the model of bentonite material and the model of cement material were

  16. Evaluation of Occupational Cold Environments: Field Measurements and Subjective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLIVEIRA, A. Virgílio M.; GASPAR, Adélio R.; RAIMUNDO, António M.; QUINTELA, Divo A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study. PMID:24583510

  17. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S 11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance. (paper)

  18. Evaluation of occupational cold environments: field measurements and subjective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Raimundo, António M; Quintela, Divo A

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study.

  19. Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.

  20. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS), Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC) were randomized into intervention (n = 9) and control (n = 11) groups. The health professionals (n = 200) at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38), second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53), and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03). The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80), chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83), petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98) and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85) in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  1. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. METHODS: Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS, Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC were randomized into intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 11 groups. The health professionals (n = 200 at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. RESULTS: 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38, second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53, and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56 was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03. The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80, chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83, petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98 and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85 in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  2. Effect of Expedited Microneedle-Assisted Photodynamic Therapy for Field Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhova, Tatyana A; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Barath, Mayanka; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and cosmetically favorable treatment modality for actinic keratoses (AKs). However, prolonged incubation times and pain associated with treatment are burdensome to the patient and a hindrance to widespread use of PDT as standard field therapy for AK. To evaluate efficacy and pain associated with microneedle expedited PDT. The Microneedle Photodynamic Therapy II (MNPDT-II) study was a randomized, single-blinded, split-face controlled, 2-arm clinical trial. Thirty-three participants with AK on the face were recruited in a university dermatology outpatient clinic from 2015 to 2016, and 32 participants completed the study. Participants were randomized into 2 incubations arms, either 10-minute or 20-minute aminolevulinic acid (ALA) incubation times, after pretreatment with a microneedle roller (200 um) vs a sham roller. They were blinded to the laterality of microneedle and sham roller assignments. After incubation, they were exposed to blue light (Blu-U, Dusa Pharmaceuticals) for 1000 seconds for a total fluence of 10 J/cm2. The primary outcome was to quantitatively measure AK resolution, and the secondary outcome was to assess pain associated with microneedle pretreatment. Thirty-three individuals were recruited and randomized to either the 20-minute or the 10-minute incubation arm. Thirty-two participants completed the study with a mean follow-up time of 34.5 days in the 20-minute group, and 30.2 days in the 10-minute group. For the 20-minute incubation arm, average AK clearance was 76% vs 58% on the sham side (P microneedle and sham sides (0.7 and 0.4; P = .28), respectively. For the 10-minute incubation arm AK clearance for the microneedle pretreated side was 43% compared with 38% on the sham side (P = .66). Pain during the blue light exposure was not significantly different between the microneedle and sham sides, 4.5 mm and 3.4 mm (P = .21), respectively. Photodynamic therapy with microneedle pretreatment at

  3. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151. PMID:22369511

  4. Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-01-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS

  6. An algorithm for evaluating the ethics of a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, R J; Biddle, C J

    2001-10-20

    The purpose of this article is to clarify the decision points that are important to consider when evaluating the ethics of a placebo-controlled trial. The ethical requirements for research involving human subjects are reviewed, and the rationale for and potential problems with concomitant placebo control are explained. A series of case discussions are used to illustrate each decision point. The critical decision points in the evaluation of the ethics of a placebo-controlled trial are as follows: (i) Is placebo being used in place of standard therapy? (ii) Is standard therapy likely to be effective? (iii) Is the toxicity of standard therapy such that patients routinely refuse this treatment? (iv) Could the use of placebo result in severe suffering or irreversible harm? (v) Is the variability in the placebo response such that it is reasonable to consider other options for the control group? (vi) Would a reasonable person with an average degree of altruism and risk aversiveness agree to participate in this study? The algorithm presented in this article gives researchers and research monitors (such as Institutional Review Board members) the tools they need to evaluate the ethics of a study that uses concomitant placebo control. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Criteria for evaluating response and outcome in clinical trials for children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Niemeyer, Charlotte M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disease in young children. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic option for most patients, children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia increasingly receive novel agents in phase I-II clinical trials as pre-transplant therapy or therapy for relapse after transplantation. However, response criteria or definitions of outcome for standardized evaluation of treatment effect in patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia are currently lacking. Here we propose criteria to evaluate the response to the non-transplant therapy and definitions of remission status after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For the evaluation of non-transplant therapy, we defined 6 clinical variables (white blood cell count, platelet count, hematopoietic precursors and blasts in peripheral blood, bone marrow blast percentage, spleen size and extramedullary disease) and 3 genetic variables (cytogenetic, molecular and chimerism response) which serve to describe the heterogeneous picture of response to therapy in each individual case. It is hoped that these criteria will facilitate the comparison of results between clinical trials in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

  8. Evaluation of web-based annotation of ophthalmic images for multicentric clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Jain, P; Shah, V A; Shah, Gaurav Y

    2006-06-01

    An Internet browser-based annotation system can be used to identify and describe features in digitalized retinal images, in multicentric clinical trials, in real time. In this web-based annotation system, the user employs a mouse to draw and create annotations on a transparent layer, that encapsulates the observations and interpretations of a specific image. Multiple annotation layers may be overlaid on a single image. These layers may correspond to annotations by different users on the same image or annotations of a temporal sequence of images of a disease process, over a period of time. In addition, geometrical properties of annotated figures may be computed and measured. The annotations are stored in a central repository database on a server, which can be retrieved by multiple users in real time. This system facilitates objective evaluation of digital images and comparison of double-blind readings of digital photographs, with an identifiable audit trail. Annotation of ophthalmic images allowed clinically feasible and useful interpretation to track properties of an area of fundus pathology. This provided an objective method to monitor properties of pathologies over time, an essential component of multicentric clinical trials. The annotation system also allowed users to view stereoscopic images that are stereo pairs. This web-based annotation system is useful and valuable in monitoring patient care, in multicentric clinical trials, telemedicine, teaching and routine clinical settings.

  9. A random walk model for evaluating clinical trials involving serial observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, J L; Young, G P

    1988-05-01

    For clinical trials where the variable of interest is ordered and categorical (for example, disease severity, symptom scale), and where measurements are taken at intervals, it might be possible to achieve a greater discrimination between the efficacy of treatments by modelling each patient's progress as a stochastic process. The random walk is a simple, easily interpreted model that can be fitted by maximum likelihood using a maximization routine with inference based on standard likelihood theory. In general the model can allow for randomly censored data, incorporates measured prognostic factors, and inference is conditional on the (possibly non-random) allocation of patients. Tests of fit and of model assumptions are proposed, and application to two therapeutic trials of gastroenterological disorders are presented. The model gave measures of the rate of, and variability in, improvement for patients under different treatments. A small simulation study suggested that the model is more powerful than considering the difference between initial and final scores, even when applied to data generated by a mechanism other than the random walk model assumed in the analysis. It thus provides a useful additional statistical method for evaluating clinical trials.

  10. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  11. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsun Wang

    Full Text Available Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min. Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  12. [Methodological quality and reporting quality evaluation of randomized controlled trials published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Liao, Xing; Zhi, Ying-Jie; Jiang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the methodological quality and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials(RCTs) published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, we searched CNKI and China Journal of Chinese Materia webpage to collect RCTs since the establishment of the magazine. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of RCTs. The CONSORT 2010 list was adopted as reporting quality evaluating tool. Finally, 184 RCTs were included and evaluated methodologically, of which 97 RCTs were evaluated with reporting quality. For the methodological evaluating, 62 trials(33.70%) reported the random sequence generation; 9(4.89%) trials reported the allocation concealment; 25(13.59%) trials adopted the method of blinding; 30(16.30%) trials reported the number of patients withdrawing, dropping out and those lost to follow-up;2 trials (1.09%) reported trial registration and none of the trial reported the trial protocol; only 8(4.35%) trials reported the sample size estimation in details. For reporting quality appraising, 3 reporting items of 25 items were evaluated with high-quality,including: abstract, participants qualified criteria, and statistical methods; 4 reporting items with medium-quality, including purpose, intervention, random sequence method, and data collection of sites and locations; 9 items with low-quality reporting items including title, backgrounds, random sequence types, allocation concealment, blindness, recruitment of subjects, baseline data, harms, and funding;the rest of items were of extremely low quality(the compliance rate of reporting item<10%). On the whole, the methodological and reporting quality of RCTs published in the magazine are generally low. Further improvement in both methodological and reporting quality for RCTs of traditional Chinese medicine are warranted. It is recommended that the international standards and procedures for RCT design should be strictly followed to conduct high-quality trials

  13. An evaluation of the effectiveness of recruitment methods: the staying well after depression randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, Adele; Rudolf von Rohr, Isabelle; Muse, Kate; Duggan, Danielle; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely accepted as being the most efficient way of investigating the efficacy of psychological therapies. However, researchers conducting RCTs commonly report difficulties in recruiting an adequate sample within planned timescales. In an effort to overcome recruitment difficulties, researchers often are forced to expand their recruitment criteria or extend the recruitment phase, thus increasing costs and delaying publication of results. Research investigating the effectiveness of recruitment strategies is limited, and trials often fail to report sufficient details about the recruitment sources and resources utilized. We examined the efficacy of strategies implemented during the Staying Well after Depression RCT in Oxford to recruit participants with a history of recurrent depression. We describe eight recruitment methods utilized and two further sources not initiated by the research team and examine their efficacy in terms of (1) the return, including the number of potential participants who contacted the trial and the number who were randomized into the trial; (2) cost-effectiveness, comprising direct financial cost and manpower for initial contacts and randomized participants; and (3) comparison of sociodemographic characteristics of individuals recruited from different sources. Poster advertising, web-based advertising, and mental health worker referrals were the cheapest methods per randomized participant; however, the ratio of randomized participants to initial contacts differed markedly per source. Advertising online, via posters, and on a local radio station were the most cost-effective recruitment methods for soliciting participants who subsequently were randomized into the trial. Advertising across many sources (saturation) was found to be important. It may not be feasible to employ all the recruitment methods used in this trial to obtain participation from other populations, such as those currently unwell, or in

  14. Exploratory field trial of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB): Considerations on the acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Thompson, Jason; Fitzharris, Michael; Lenné, Michael G

    2016-11-16

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) acts to slow down a vehicle when an unavoidable impending collision is detected. In addition to documented benefits when applied to passenger cars, AEB has also shown potential when applied to motorcycles (MAEB). However, the feasibility of MAEB as practically applied to motorcycles in the real world is not well understood. In this study we performed a field trial involving 16 riders on a test motorcycle subjected to automatic decelerations, thus simulating MAEB activation. The tests were conducted along a rectilinear path at nominal speed of 40 km/h and with mean deceleration of 0.15 g (15% of full braking) deployed at random times. Riders were also exposed to one final undeclared brake activation with the aim of providing genuinely unexpected automatic braking events. Participants were consistently able to manage automatic decelerations of the vehicle with minor to moderate effort. Results of undeclared activations were consistent with those of standard runs. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a moderate automatic deceleration in a scenario of motorcycle travelling in a straight path, supporting the notion that the application of AEB on motorcycles is practicable. Furthermore, the proposed field trial can be used as a reference for future regulation or consumer tests in order to address safety and acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations on a motorcycle.

  15. Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailing by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2012-10-01

    The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb >9850 mg kg(-1)) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer attained the highest total biomass (15.3 g plant(-1)) followed by P. pterocarpum (12.6 g plant(-1)) and A. mangium (10.8 g plant(-1)) both treated with cow manure. Cow manure application resulted in the highest root Pb accumulation (>10000 mg kg(-1)) in L. floribunda and P. macrocarpus. These two species also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (85-88 mg plant(-1)). Results from field trial also showed that Osmocote promoted the best growth performance in E. camaldulensis (biomass 385.7 g plant(-1), height 141.7 cm) followed by A. mangium (biomass 215.9 g plant(-1), height 102.7 cm), and they also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (600-800 microg plant(-1)). A. mangium with the addition of organic fertilizer was the best option for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated mine tailing because it retained higher Pb concentration in the roots.

  16. Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Hitoshi, E-mail: nakahara@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I-V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6x10{sup 9} A/m{sup 2} sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

  17. Evaluations of carbon nanotube field emitters for electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kono, Takumi; Saito, Yahachi

    2009-11-01

    Brightness of carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters was already reported elsewhere. However, brightness of electron emitter is affected by a virtual source size of the emitter, which strongly depends on electron optical configuration around the emitter. In this work, I- V characteristics and brightness of a CNT emitter are measured under a practical field emission electron gun (e-gun) configuration to investigate availability of CNT for electron microscopy. As a result, it is obtained that an emission area of MWNT is smaller than its tip surface area, and the emission area corresponds to a five-membered-ring with 2nd nearest six-membered-rings on the MWNT cap surface. Reduced brightness of MWNT is measured as at least 2.6×109 A/m 2 sr V. It is concluded that even a thick MWNT has enough brightness under a practical e-gun electrode configuration and suitable for electron microscopy.

  18. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    on grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore...... as meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p

  19. A new cognitive evaluation battery for Down syndrome and its relevance for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana ede Sola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent prospect of pharmaceutical interventions for cognitive impairment of Down syndrome(DS has boosted a number of clinical trials in this population. However, running the trials has raised some methodological challenges and questioned the prevailing methodology used to evaluate cognitive functioning of DS individuals. This is usually achieved by comparing DS individuals to matched healthy controls of the same mental age. We propose a new tool, the TESDAD Battery that uses comparison with age-matched typically developed adults. This is an advantageous method for probing the clinical efficacy of DS therapies, allowing the interpretation and prediction of functional outcomes in clinical trials. In our DS population the TESDAD battery permitted a quantitative assessment of cognitive defects, which indicated language dysfunction and deficits in executive function, as the most important contributors to other cognitive and adaptive behavior outcomes as predictors of functional change in DS. Concretely, auditory comprehension and functional academics showed the highest potential as end-point measures of therapeutic intervention for clinical trials: the former as a cognitive key target for therapeutic intervention, and the latter as a primary functional outcome measure of clinical efficacy. Our results also emphasize the need to explore the modulating effects of IQ, gender and age on cognitive enhancing treatments. Noticeably, women performed significantly better than men of the same age and IQ in most cognitive tests, with the most consistent differences occurring in memory and executive functioning and negative trends rarely emerged on quality of life linked to the effect of age after adjusting for IQ and gender. In sum, the TESDAD battery is a useful neurocognitive tool for probing the clinical efficacy of experimental therapies in interventional studies in the DS population suggesting that age-matched controls are advantageous for determining

  20. Field Efficiency Trial of 72% Streptomycin against Konjac Bacterial Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Yongsheng; Li; Xiaojun; Zhu; Shijin; Ma; Yongsheng; Wang; Li

    2014-01-01

    72% Streptomycin soluble powder was used to control konjac bacterial soft rot in the study. The control efficiency and yield of different treatments were investigated,and the benefit was analyzed. The control scheme against konjac bacterial soft rot was as follows: spraying 72% atreptomycinon twice on rotation fields after all the seedlings were strong and uniform,or irrigating roots with 72% atreptomycinon once and spraying twice on continuous cropping fields.

  1. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  2. Visual field protective effect of Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. extract on glaucoma with controlled intraocular pressure: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yisheng; Xiang, Minhong; Ye, Wen; Cheng, Yu; Jiang, Youqin

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the visual field protective effect of Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. (EBHM) extract on glaucoma with controlled intraocular pressure (IOP). Forty patients (40 eyes) with primary open-angle glaucoma, visual field defects and a postsurgical IOP of <18 mmHg were enrolled. The EBHM and placebo tablets were given orally according to the randomized and double-blind principle. Two tablets (of either EBHM or placebo) were taken three times a day for a period of 6 months. Patients were examined every 2 months after treatment commenced. At the end of the study, the results were given to the drug manufacturer. All patients completed the prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. No obvious adverse effects were found in patients during the treatment period. In the placebo group, no significant difference was found in mean defect (MD) or mean sensitivity (MS) between the values at pre-treatment and after 2, 4, and 6 months of treatment. After 6 months of EBHM treatment, the MD was significantly decreased and the MS was significantly increased compared with pre-treatment (p < 0.05). In the patients with moderate and late glaucoma, the MD was significantly decreased and the MS was significantly increased after 2, 4, and 6 months of EBHM treatment compared with pre-treatment. EBHM extract may have a partial protective effect on the visual field of glaucoma patients with controlled IOP. Further studies are needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of long-term EBHM treatment.

  3. Field test to evaluate colostrum quality in alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Flodr, Hanna; Wheeler, Jane C.; Krüger D., Paloma; Olazábal L., Juan; Rosadio A., Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Las concentraciones de inmunoglobulinas (Igs) calostrales en la mayoría de especies productivas determinan los niveles de Igs en sus crías, y las fallas en la transferencia pasiva ocasionan susceptibilidades a infecciones en el recién nacido. El presente estudio evaluó dos pruebas de campo (grado de viscosidad visual y uso de refractómetro) para determinar la calidad del calostro de la alpaca en 77 muestras. Asimismo, se determinó la concentración de Igs mediante una prueba de inmunodifusión ...

  4. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  5. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment.

  6. Evaluation of field development plans using 3-D reservoir modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Newbery, J.D.H. [Conoco, UK Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Three-dimensional reservoir modelling has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically modelled using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.

  7. Demonstration and Field Evaluation of Streambank Stabilization with Submerged Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, H.; Hoopes, J.; Poggi, D.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Walz, K.; ,

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of submerged vanes for reducing bank erosion and improving aquatic habitat is being evaluated at a site on North Fish Creek, a Lake Superior tributary. Increased runoff from agricultural areas with clayey soils has increased flood magnitudes and the erosion potential/transport capacity of the stream. Most of the creek's sediment load originates from the erosion of 17 large bluffs. This creek contains important recreational fisheries that are potentially limited by the loss of aquatic habitat from deposition of sediment on spawning beds. Submerged vanes are a cost effective and environmentally less intrusive alternative to traditional structural stabilization measures. Submerged vanes protrude from a channel bed, are oriented at an angle to the local velocity, and are distributed along a portion of channel. They induce a transverse force and torque on the flow along with longitudinal vortexes that alter the cross sectional shape and alignment of the channel. Submerged vanes were installed at a bluff/bend site in summer and fall 2000. The number, size, and layout of the vanes were based upon the channel morphology under estimated bankfull conditions. The effectiveness of the vanes will be evaluated by comparing surveys of the bluff face, streamflow, and channel conditions for several years after installation of the submerged vanes with surveys before and immediately after their installation.

  8. Evaluation of Wet Cupping Therapy: Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed K M; Posadzki, Paul; Sohaibani, Imen; Aboushanab, Tamer Shaaban; AlQaed, Meshari; Ali, Gazzaffi I M

    2016-10-01

    Wet cupping is a widely used traditional therapy in many countries, which justifies a continuous scientific evaluation of its efficacy and safety. To perform a systematic review to critically evaluate and update the available evidence of wet cupping in traditional and complementary medicine. Ten electronic databases were searched from their inceptions to February 2016. Included studies were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated wet cupping against any type of control interventions in patients with any clinical condition, as well as healthy individuals. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to appraise the included RCTs. Fourteen RCTs met the eligibility criteria. The included studies evaluated the following clinical conditions: nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP), hypertension, brachialgia, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), chronic neck pain, metabolic syndrome, migraine headaches, oxygen saturation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and oral and genital ulcers due to Behçet disease. Two RCTs evaluated physiologic and biochemical parameters of healthy individuals. Overall, 9 RCTs favored wet cupping over various control interventions in NSLBP (n = 2), hypertension (n = 1), brachialgia (n = 1), CTS (n = 1), chronic neck pain (n = 2), oxygen saturation in smokers with COPD (n = 1), and oral and genital ulcers due to Behçet disease (n = 1). Five RCTs showed no statistically significant between-group differences: NSLBP (n = 1), metabolic syndrome (n = 1), migraine headaches (n = 1), and physiologic and biochemical parameters of healthy individuals (n = 2). Included RCTs had a variable risk of bias across all domains and suffered methodologic limitations. There is a promising evidence in favor of the use of wet cupping for musculoskeletal pain, specifically NSLBP, neck pain, CTS, and brachialgia. Better-quality trials are needed to generate solid evidence and firmly inform policy makers.

  9. Pyrolysis of attapulgite clay blended with yak dung enhances pasture growth and soil health: Characterization and initial field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Joseph, Stephen D; Li, Fei; Bai, Yanfu; Shang, Zhanhuan; Rawal, Aditya; Hook, James M; Munroe, Paul R; Donne, Scott; Taherymoosavi, Sara; Mitchell, David R G; Pace, Ben; Mohammed, Mohanad; Horvat, Joseph; Marjo, Christopher E; Wagner, Avital; Wang, Yanlong; Ye, Jun; Long, Rui-Jun

    2017-12-31

    Recent studies have shown that the pyrolysis of biomass combined with clay can result in both lower cost and increase in plant yields. One of the major sources of nutrients for pasture growth, as well as fuel and building materials in Tibet is yak dung. This paper reports on the initial field testing in a pasture setting in Tibet using yak dung, biochar, and attapulgite clay/yak dung biochars produced at ratios of 10/90 and 50/50 clay to dung. We found that the treatment with attapulgite clay/yak dung (50/50) biochar resulted in the highest pasture yields and grass nutrition quality. We also measured the properties and yields of mixtures of clay/yak dung biochar used in the field trials produced at 400°C and 500°C to help determine a possible optimum final pyrolysis temperature and dung/clay ratio. It was observed that increasing clay content increased carbon stability, overall biochar yield, pore size, carboxyl and ketone/aldehyde functional groups, hematite and ferrous/ferric sulphate/thiosulphate concentration, surface area and magnetic moment. Decreasing clay content resulted in higher pH, CEC, N content and an enhanced ability to accept and donate electrons. The resulting properties were a complex function of both processing temperature and the percentage of clay for the biochars processed at both 400°C and 500°C. It is possible that the increase in yield and nutrient uptake in the field trial is related to the higher concentration of C/O functional groups, higher surface area and pore volume and higher content of Fe/O/S nanoparticles of multiple oxidation state in the 50/50 clay/dung. These properties have been found to significantly increase the abundance of beneficial microorganisms and hence improve the nutrient cycling and availability in soil. Further field trials are required to determine the optimum pyrolysis production conditions and application rate on the abundance of beneficial microorganisms, yields and nutrient quality. Copyright © 2017

  10. Laboratory and field evaluation of sterile male boll weevil competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The production of pheromone by boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, treated with 10,000 rad of CO-60 gamma irradiation compared favorably with that of control weevils for 5 days; however, feeding (determined by frass collection) was reduced from the first day post-treatment. No direct correlation was found between production of pheromone and elimination of frass. Overwintered male boll weevils were found to produce small quantities of pheromone and the ratio of components was less attractive at the same concentration as the standard laboratory formulation of grandlure. Most healthy sterilized male weevils should be more attractive than overwintered males. Laboratory-reared sterilized male boll weevils can be as attractive to female weevils as overwintered field males. Weevils treated with busulfan (1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate) alone were more attractive than those treated with combinations of busulfan and hempa. In general, sterilization reduced the attractiveness of laboratory males by about 50 percent. Evidence is presented for the existence of ''super-males.''

  11. Joint research and evaluation work in the field of fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Such, J.M.; Casselman, C. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Recherches en Securite, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Laborde, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Prevention et d' Etudes des Accidents, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bertrand, R.; Blot, M.; Chaussard, M.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept d' Evaluation de Surete, 92 (France)

    2001-07-01

    In general, any assessment concerning the safety of nuclear facilities is based on acquired scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, some areas related to safety remain still inadequately explored, knowledge in these areas needs to be further developed either through the results obtained from studies or from experimental research. With the aim of achieving an optimal safety level, one of IPSN's main tasks is to highlight these gags in current knowledge and point out to nuclear facility operators the need to fill them. These general considerations are pertinent to the particular field of fire. At IPSN, safety assessment activities and research are carried out side-by-side, thus facilitating the implementation of corresponding research programs. This ability to orient research with respect to safety assessment requirements, the contribution of research scientists to safety assessment or the formulation of safety problems, are today counted among the strong points of IPSN operation. This paper presents also the present main fire risk safety concerns for Nuclear Power Plants and the associated research carried out by IPSN (past, underway and future) to improve the scientific knowledge in the related areas. (authors)

  12. Joint research and evaluation work in the field of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Such, J.M.; Casselman, C.; Laborde, J.C.; Bertrand, R.; Blot, M.; Chaussard, M.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    In general, any assessment concerning the safety of nuclear facilities is based on acquired scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, some areas related to safety remain still inadequately explored, knowledge in these areas needs to be further developed either through the results obtained from studies or from experimental research. With the aim of achieving an optimal safety level, one of IPSN's main tasks is to highlight these gags in current knowledge and point out to nuclear facility operators the need to fill them. These general considerations are pertinent to the particular field of fire. At IPSN, safety assessment activities and research are carried out side-by-side, thus facilitating the implementation of corresponding research programs. This ability to orient research with respect to safety assessment requirements, the contribution of research scientists to safety assessment or the formulation of safety problems, are today counted among the strong points of IPSN operation. This paper presents also the present main fire risk safety concerns for Nuclear Power Plants and the associated research carried out by IPSN (past, underway and future) to improve the scientific knowledge in the related areas. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of PHB nanocomposite by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mariana Bruno Rocha e; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) based on nanocomposites containing different amounts of a commercial organically modified clay (viscogel B8) were prepared employing solution intercalation method. The relationship among the processing conditions; molecular structure and intermolecular interaction, between both nanocomposite components, were investigated using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as a part of characterization methodology, which has been used by Tavares et al. It involves the proton spin-lattice relaxation time, T1 H, by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, employing low field NMR. X-ray diffraction was also employed because it is a conventional technique, generally used to obtain the first information on nanocomposite formation. Changes in PHB crystallinity were observed after the organophilic nanoclay had been incorporated in the polymer matrix. These changes, in the microstructure, were detected by the variation of proton nuclear relaxation time values and by X-ray, which showed an increase in the clay interlamellar space due to the intercalation of the polymer in the clay between lamellae. (author)

  14. Development and evaluation of an Individualized Outcome Measure (IOM) for randomized controlled trials in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Francesca; Williams, Julie; Bird, Victoria; Freidl, Marion; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Macpherson, Rob; Slade, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Pre-defined, researcher-selected outcomes are routinely used as the clinical end-point in randomized controlled trials (RCTs); however, individualized approaches may be an effective way to assess outcome in mental health research. The present study describes the development and evaluation of the Individualized Outcome Measure (IOM), which is a patient-specific outcome measure to be used for RCTs of complex interventions. IOM was developed using a narrative review, expert consultation and piloting with mental health service users (n = 20). The final version of IOM comprises two components: Goal Attainment (GA) and Personalized Primary Outcome (PPO). For GA, patients identify one relevant goal at baseline and rate its attainment at follow-up. For PPO, patients choose an outcome domain related to their goal from a pre-defined list at baseline, and complete a standardized questionnaire assessing the chosen outcome domain at baseline and follow-up. A feasibility study indicated that IOM had adequate completion (89%) and acceptability (96%) rates in a clinical sample (n = 84). IOM was then evaluated in a RCT (ISRCTN02507940). GA and PPO components were associated with each other and with the trial primary outcome. The use of the PPO component of IOM as the primary outcome could be considered in future RCTs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A randomized control trial evaluating fluorescent ink versus dark ink tattoos for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeg, Steven J; Kirby, Anna M; Lee, Steven F; Bartlett, Freddie; Titmarsh, Kumud; Donovan, Ellen; Griffin, Clare L; Gothard, Lone; Locke, Imogen; McNair, Helen A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this UK study was to evaluate interfraction reproducibility and body image score when using ultraviolet (UV) tattoos (not visible in ambient lighting) for external references during breast/chest wall radiotherapy and compare with conventional dark ink. In this non-blinded, single-centre, parallel group, randomized control trial, patients were allocated to receive either conventional dark ink or UV ink tattoos using computer-generated random blocks. Participant assignment was not masked. Systematic (∑) and random (σ) setup errors were determined using electronic portal images. Body image questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, 1 month and 6 months to determine the impact of tattoo type on body image. The primary end point was to determine that UV tattoo random error (σ setup ) was no less accurate than with conventional dark ink tattoos, i.e. tattoos. 45 patients completed treatment (UV: n = 23, dark: n = 22). σ setup for the UV tattoo group was tattoo group compared with the dark ink group at 1 month [56% (13/23) vs 14% (3/22), respectively] and 6 months [52% (11/21) vs 38% (8/21), respectively]. UV tattoos were associated with interfraction setup reproducibility comparable with conventional dark ink. Patients reported a more favourable change in body image score up to 6 months following treatment. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to evaluate UV tattoo external references in a randomized control trial.

  16. Rationale and design of a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial to evaluate the effect of empagliflozin on endothelial function: the EMBLEM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Okada, Yosuke; Taguchi, Isao; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Teragawa, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Seigo; Yoshida, Hisako; Sato, Yasunori; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Ikehara, Yumi; Machii, Noritaka; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Shima, Kosuke R; Takamura, Toshinari; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuo; Sakuma, Masashi; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Inoue, Teruo; Higashi, Yukihito; Ueda, Shinichiro; Node, Koichi

    2017-04-12

    empagliflozin-mediated actions with endothelial function and other CV markers will be evaluated. Thus, the trial is designed to elucidate potential mechanisms by which empagliflozin protects CV systems and improves CV outcomes. Trial registration Unique Trial Number, UMIN000024502 ( https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000028197 ).

  17. Clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of biocompound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP in the third-molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Franco-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A controlled, parallel, randomized and comparative trial was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP versus ibuprofen in patients after third-molar surgery over seven days. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP was evaluated using the method of Amin and Laskin, and the analysis of cytokine production (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, INF-γ in saliva was done by flow cytometry. The swelling process after surgery was significant (p < 0.05 and the treatments with IMMUNEPOTENT CRP or ibuprofen controlled this process properly; no difference between the groups was found (p < 0.05. Both treatments were shown to modulate the cytokine production. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of the natural compound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP and suggest it could be used in clinical dental practice.

  18. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  19. Evaluation of the field relevance of several injury risk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Mertz, Harold J; Dalmotas, Danius J; Augenstein, Jeffrey S; Diggs, Kennerly

    2010-11-01

    An evaluation of the four injury risk curves proposed in the NHTSA NCAP for estimating the risk of AIS>= 3 injuries to the head, neck, chest and AIS>=2 injury to the Knee-Thigh-Hip (KTH) complex has been conducted. The predicted injury risk to the four body regions based on driver dummy responses in over 300 frontal NCAP tests were compared against those to drivers involved in real-world crashes of similar severity as represented in the NASS. The results of the study show that the predicted injury risks to the head and chest were slightly below those in NASS, and the predicted risk for the knee-thigh-hip complex was substantially below that observed in the NASS. The predicted risk for the neck by the Nij curve was greater than the observed risk in NASS by an order of magnitude due to the Nij risk curve predicting a non-zero risk when Nij = 0. An alternative and published Nte risk curve produced a risk estimate consistent with the NASS estimate of neck injury. Similarly, an alternative and published chest injury risk curve produced a risk estimate that was within the bounds of the NASS estimates. No published risk curve for femur compressive load could be found that would give risk estimates consistent with the range of the NASS estimates. Additional work on developing a femur compressive load risk curve is recommended.

  20. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  1. Evaluation of the COPING parent online universal programme: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Dawn Adele; Griffith, Nia; Hutchings, Judy

    2017-04-26

    Bangor University, Brigantia Building, College Road, Bangor, LL57 2AS, UK INTRODUCTION: The COPING parent online universal programme is a web-based parenting intervention for parents of children aged 3-8 years with an interest in positive parenting. The programme focuses on strengthening parent-child relationships and encouraging positive child behaviour. This trial will evaluate whether the intervention is effective in increasing the use of positive parenting strategies outlined in the programme using parent report and blind observation measures. This is a pilot randomised controlled trial with intervention and wait-list control conditions. The intervention is a 10-week online parenting programme to promote positive parent-child relations by teaching core social learning theory principles that encourage positive child behaviour, primarily through the use of praise and rewards. Health visitors and school nurses will circulate a recruitment poster to parents of children aged 3-8 years on their current caseloads. Recruitment posters will also be distributed via local primary schools and nurseries. Parents recruited to the trial will be randomised on a 2:1 ratio to intervention or wait-list control conditions (stratified according to child gender and age). The primary outcome measure is positive parenting as measured by a behavioural observation of parent-child interactions using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Secondary outcomes include parent report of child behaviour, and self-reported parental sense of competence, parenting behaviour and parental mental health. Data will be collected at baseline and 3 months later (postintervention) for all participants and 6 months postbaseline for the intervention group only. Analysis of covariance will be the main statistical method used. The trial has received ethical approval from the NHS Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board Ethics Committee (REC) and the School of Psychology, Bangor University REC (15

  2. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  3. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  4. Trial Application of Pulse-Field Magnetization to Magnetically Levitated Conveyor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Miyatake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically levitated conveyor system using superconductors is discussed. The system is composed of a levitated conveyor, magnetic rails, a linear induction motor, and some power supplies. In the paper, pulse-field magnetization is applied to the system. Then, the levitation height and the dynamics of the conveyor are controlled. The static and dynamic characteristics of the levitated conveyor are discussed.

  5. Field trial of 160 Gb/s all-optical packet switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Herrera Llorente, J.; Raz, O.; Tangdiongga, E.; Marti, J.; Ramos, F.; Maxwell, G.D.; Poustie, A.; Mulvad, H.C.H.; Hill, M.T.; Waardt, de H.; Khoe, G.D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Nakano, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a transmission experiment, over 110 km of field installed fiber, for an all-optical 160 Gb/s packet switching system. The system uses in-band optical labels which are processed entirely in the optical domain using a narrow-band all-optical filter. The label decision

  6. Strengthening of the nuclear safety regulatory body. Field evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    As a result of a request from the Preparation Committee of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) in 1992, and as recommended by the CEC/RAMG (Commission of European Communities/Regulatory Assistance Management Group) and the Agency mission in July 1993 to the Slovak Republic, the project SLR/9/005 was approved in 1993 as a model project for the period 1994-1996. Current budge is $401,340 and disbursements to date amount to $312,873. The project time schedule has been extended to 1997. The major conclusions of this evaluation are as follows: The project responded to an urgent national need, as well as to a statutory mandate of the Agency, and was adequately co-ordinated with other international assistance programmes to NRA. The project was designed as a structured programme of assistance by means of expert missions, scientific visits and a limited amount of equipment, acting upon several key areas of NRA regulatory responsibilities. Agency assistance was provided in a timely manner. A high concentration of expert missions was noticed at the initial stages of the project, which posed some managements problems. This was corrected to some extent in the course of implementation. Additionally, some overlapping of expert mission recommendations suggests that improvements are needed in the design of such missions. The exposure to international regulatory practice and expertise has resulted in substantial developments of NRA, both in organizational and operational terms. The project can claim to have contributed to NRA having gained governmental and international confidence. NRA's role in the safety assessment of Bohunice V1 reconstruction, as well as in Bohunice V2 safety review, Bohunice A1 decommissioning and in informing the public, also points at the success achieved by the project. The institutional and financial support of the Government contributed decisively to the project achievements. (author). Figs, tabs

  7. Evaluation of gamma ray fields by HPGE spectrometry in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krnac, S; Slugen, V [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Ragan, P; Fueloep, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the in situ spectrometric measurement for application in gamma radiation dosimetry with portability and flexibility in use was studied. In order to allow operation of the detector in any orientation without liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) spillage, a multi-attitude cryostat (MAC) has been used which consists of a Dewar with LN{sub 2} capacity of 7.0 litres and a holding time of 5 days. This allows the Dewar to be operated in the horizontal position, pointing vertically upward or vertically downward, without loss of LN{sub 2}. The MAC detector has been positioned in a 4{sup p}i{sup -}goniometer and, therefore is movable to any measurable angle. Pulses from the detector have been fed into a portable multichannel analyzer (Canberra 35+) with connection to a PC/AT compatible computer system. The main results and findings of present contribution may be summarized as follows: 1. A technique called the scaling confirmatory factor analysis (SCFA) presented else can be advantageously employed for determination of the response operator characterizing an influence of measuring device on physical gamma-spectra obtained. The in situ response operator has been reproduced only from the internal factors of appropriate latent structure that do not depend upon materials surrounding the detector. 2. The photon fluence rate response operator for in situ application has been obtained from the reduced response operator by a correction according to the geometric factor 4{sup p}i{sup (}r{sub 0}+r){sup 2}.The effective distance r{sub 0} has been determined via a performance of the radial calibration which yields a condition of, minimally, 10 cm distance of the detector cover from the potential sources. 3. The real incident gamma ray spectra achieved by application of the SCFA response allow direct evaluation of spectral distributions of the fundamental photon dosimetric quantities. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Economic evaluations and randomized trials in spinal disorders: principles and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korthals-de Bos, Ingeborg; van Tulder, Maurits; van Dieten, Hiske; Bouter, Lex

    2004-02-15

    Descriptive methodologic recommendations. To help researchers designing, conducting, and reporting economic evaluations in the field of back and neck pain. Economic evaluations of both existing and new therapeutic interventions are becoming increasingly important. There is a need to improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders. To improve the methods of economic evaluations in the field of spinal disorders, this article describes the various steps in an economic evaluation, using as example a study on the cost-effectiveness of manual therapy, physiotherapy, and usual care provided by the general practitioner for patients with neck pain. An economic evaluation is a study in which two or more interventions are systematically compared with regard to both costs and effects. There are four types of economic evaluations, based on analysis of: (1) cost-effectiveness, (2) cost-utility, (3) cost-minimization, and (4) cost-benefit. The cost-utility analysis is a special case of cost-effectiveness analysis. The first step in all these economic evaluations is to identify the perspective of the study. The choice of the perspective will have consequences for the identification of costs and effects. Secondly, the alternatives that will be compared should be identified. Thirdly, the relevant costs and effects should be identified. Economic evaluations are usually performed from a societal perspective and include consequently direct health care costs, direct nonhealth care costs, and indirect costs. Fourthly, effect data are collected by means of questionnaires or interviews, and relevant cost data with regard to effect measures and health care utilization, work absenteeism, travel expenses, use of over-the-counter medication, and help from family and friends, are collected by means of cost diaries, questionnaires, or (telephone) interviews. Fifthly, real costs are calculated, or the costs are estimated on the basis of real costs, guideline prices

  9. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  10. 'Healthy Eating and Lifestyle in Pregnancy (HELP)' trial: Process evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sharon A; Cassidy, Dunla; John, Elinor

    2014-07-01

    We developed and tested in a cluster RCT a theory-driven group-based intervention for obese pregnant women. It was designed to support women to moderate weight gain during pregnancy and reduce BMI one year after birth, in addition to targeting secondary health and wellbeing outcomes. In line with MRC guidance on developing and evaluating complex interventions in health, we conducted a process evaluation alongside the trial. This paper describes the development of the process evaluation framework. This cluster RCT recruited 598 pregnant women. Women in the intervention group were invited to attend a weekly weight-management group. Following a review of relevant literature, we developed a process evaluation framework which outlined key process indicators that we wanted to address and how we would measure these. Central to the process evaluation was to understand the mechanism of effect of the intervention. We utilised a logic-modelling approach to describe the intervention which helped us focus on what potential mediators of intervention effect to measure, and how. The resulting process evaluation framework was designed to address 9 core elements; context, reach, exposure, recruitment, fidelity, recruitment, retention, contamination and theory-testing. These were assessed using a variety of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The logic model explained the processes by which intervention components bring about change in target outcomes through various mediators and theoretical pathways including self-efficacy, social support, self-regulation and motivation. Process evaluation is a key element in assessing the effect of any RCT. We developed a process evaluation framework and logic model, and the results of analyses using these will offer insights into why the intervention is or is not effective. Copyright © 2014.

  11. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  12. Implications of process evaluation for clinical effectiveness and clinical practice in a trial on chronic shoulder complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, J.J.; Goossens, M.E.J.B.; Haastregt, J.C. van; Groot, I.J.M. de; Bruijn, C.P. de; Bie, R.A. de; Koke, A.J.; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The intervention process was evaluated in a randomised clinical trial on the effectiveness of a behavioural Graded Exercise Therapy (GET) programme for patients with chronic shoulder complaints in primary care settings. This process evaluation was done for three reasons: first, to know

  13. Different doses of Pilates-based exercise therapy for chronic low back pain : a randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Franco, Katherinne Ferro Moura; van Dongen, Johanna M; Franco, Yuri Rafael Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Amaral, Diego Diulgeroglo Vicco; Branco, Amanda Nery Castelo; da Silva, Maria Liliane; van Tulder, Maurits W; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-utility of the addition of different doses of Pilates to an advice for non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) from a societal perspective. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation. SETTING: Physiotherapy clinic in São Paulo,

  14. Cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and general practitioner care for neck pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals-de Bos, Ingeborg B. C.; Hoving, Jan L.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Adèr, Herman J.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Koes, Bart W.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Bouter, Lex M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 183 patients with neck pain for at least two weeks

  15. Study on visibility evaluation model which is considered field factors; Field factor wo koryoshita shininsei hyoka model ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, M; Hagiwara, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The present study proposes a model to evaluate visual performance of road traffic facilities required for drivers. Two factors were employed to obtain the suitable contrast for drivers under driving situation. One factor is a suitable luminance range, which is derived from minimum required luminance and glare luminance. Another is a field. The model showed capability of providing visibility range in some cases. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Field trial of GABA-fortified rice plants and oral administration of milled rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.

  17. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  18. GATEWAY Report Brief: SSL Demonstration: Long-Term Evaluation of Indoor Field Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-02-28

    Report brief summarizing a GATEWAY program evaluation of the long-term performance characteristics (chromaticity change, maintained illuminance, and operations and maintenance) of LED lighting systems in four field installations previously documented in separate DOE GATEWAY reports.

  19. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Long-Term Evaluation of SSL Field Performance in Select Interior Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The GATEWAY program evaluated the long-term performance characteristics (chromaticity change, maintained illuminance, and operations and maintenance) of LED lighting systems in four field installations previously documented in separate DOE GATEWAY reports.

  20. Agronomic behavior of phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa using isotopic techniques. 1. Field trial with concentrated and non concentrated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casa G, L.

    1989-01-01

    With the aim to assess the agronomic behaviour of the phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa, a field trial was carried out with concentrated and non concentrated 100 mesh sieved rock. The method of isotopic dilution was used with TSP labeled P32 (TSP-P32) as standard fertilizer. Total dry matter, total P by colorimetry and P32 by liquid scintillation using the Cerenkov effect were measured. Both agronomic and isotope parameters were analyzed. The concentrated phosphoric rock was 3.7 times better than the same non concentrated rock. These also was a positive effect from non concentrated at 400 kg P205/ha dose. This effect was attributed to a higher saturation in the points of P sorption. The TSP showed a better behaviour than the phosphoric rock under study. (author)

  1. Precision analysis of 15N-labelled samples with the emission spectrometer NOI-5 for nitrogen balance in field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.

    1984-01-01

    A technique was adapted for the preparation of samples with 15 N to be analyzed with the emission spectrometer NOI-5. This technique is based on methods of analyzing 15 N labelled gas samples in denitrification experiments. Nitrogen released from ammonium compounds by using hypobromite is injected into a repeatedly usable gaseous discharge tube where it is freed from water traces by means of the molecular sieve 5A. The described procedure of activating the molecular sieve allows to record spectra of reproducible quality thus promising an accuracy of analysis of +- 0.003 at% in the range of natural isotope frequency and the possibility of soil nitrogen analysis in field trials with fertilizers of low nitrogen content (3 to 6.5 at%; corresponding with 0.055 to 0.14% N/sub t/ of soils) without being dependent on mass spectrometers. (author)

  2. Exploring and reducing stress in young restaurant workers: results of a randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petree, Robyn D; Broome, Kirk M; Bennett, Joel B

    2012-01-01

    Young adult restaurant workers face the dual stressors of work adjustment and managing personal responsibilities. We assessed a new psychosocial/health promotion training designed to reduce these stressors in the context of restaurant work. DESIGN . A cluster-randomized trial of a training program, with surveys administered approximately 2 weeks before training and both 6 and 12 months after training. A national restaurant chain. A total of 947 restaurant workers in 28 restaurants. Personal stress, exposure to problem coworkers, and personal and job characteristics. Team Resilience (TR) is an interactive program for stress management, teamwork, and work-life balance. TR focuses on "five Cs" of resilience: compassion, commitment, centering, community, and confidence. ANALYSIS . Mixed-model (multilevel) analysis of covariances. Compared with workers in control stores, workers in TR-trained stores showed significant reductions over time in exposure to problem coworkers (F[2, 80.60]  =  4.48; p  =  .01) and in personal stress (F[2, 75.28]  =  6.12; p  =  .003). The TR program may help young workers who face the challenges of emerging adulthood and work-life balance.

  3. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurindah Nurindah; Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012...

  4. Field manual for ground water reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, groundwater sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  5. Field manual for stream sediment reconnaissance. Savannah River Laboratory National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1976-07-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, stream sediment sample collection, water sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides public relations information for field sampling teams as well as technical direction

  6. The impact of farmers’ participation in field trials in creating awareness and stimulating compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Schou, Torben Wilde

    2016-01-01

    -barrier approach field trials. The results of the study show that participation in the field trials has statistically significant effects on farmers’ awareness of the farm-based multiple-barrier approach. Compliance has, however, been undermined by the farmers’ perception that the cost of compliance is more......The results of a study aimed as assessing the extent to which urban vegetable farmers’ participation in field trials can impact on their awareness and engender compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach are presented in this paper. Both qualitative...... and quantitative approaches have been used in this paper. One hundred vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana were covered. The individual farmers were grouped into two, namely: (1) participants and (2) non-participants of the farm-based multiple...

  7. Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feder Gene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation

  8. Evaluator-blinded trial evaluating nurse-led immunotherapy DEcision Coaching In persons with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (DECIMS) and accompanying process evaluation: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Anne Christin; Köpke, Sascha; Kasper, Jürgen; Vettorazzi, Eik; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Heesen, Christoph

    2015-03-21

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition usually starting in early adulthood and regularly leading to severe disability. Immunotherapy options are growing in number and complexity, while costs of treatments are high and adherence rates remain low. Therefore, treatment decision-making has become more complex for patients. Structured decision coaching, based on the principles of evidence-based patient information and shared decision-making, has the potential to facilitate participation of individuals in the decision-making process. This cluster randomised controlled trial follows the assumption that decision coaching by trained nurses, using evidence-based patient information and preference elicitation, will facilitate informed choices and induce higher decision quality, as well as better decisional adherence. The decision coaching programme will be evaluated through an evaluator-blinded superiority cluster randomised controlled trial, including 300 patients with suspected or definite relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, facing an immunotherapy decision. The clusters are 12 multiple sclerosis outpatient clinics in Germany. Further, the trial will be accompanied by a mixed-methods process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness study. Nurses in the intervention group will be trained in shared decision-making, coaching, and evidence-based patient information principles. Patients who meet the inclusion criteria will receive decision coaching (intervention group) with up to three face-to-face coaching sessions with a trained nurse (decision coach) or counselling as usual (control group). Patients in both groups will be given access to an evidence-based online information tool. The primary outcome is 'informed choice' after six months, assessed with the multi-dimensional measure of informed choice including the sub-dimensions risk knowledge (questionnaire), attitude concerning immunotherapy (questionnaire), and immunotherapy uptake (telephone survey

  9. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effects of Diosmin in the Treatment of Radicular Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhe Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diosmin has been widely used to treat patients with vascular pain for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of Diosmin in the treatment of radicular pain, we conducted an investigator-initiated, randomized, active-controlled noninferiority trial between January 1, 2009, and December 1, 2010. Diosmin (50 mg/kg/day was orally administered to treat the radicular pain in 150 patients for one month. Another 150 patients with the same symptom were given 20% 250 ml mannitol (1 g/kg/day for 7 days and dexamethasone (10 mg/day for 3 days intravenously guttae. Short-term relief and long-term relief were measured. Secondary outcomes include improvement in functional and psychological status, return to work, and reduction in anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs intake. Patients treated with oral Diosmin achieved reduction in radicular pain. The total satisfaction rate of Diosmin group was 84.7% [95% confidence interval (CI: 77.9%, 90.0%], and the complete satisfaction rate was 50.7% (95% CI: 42.4%, 58.9%. No statistically significant difference was found between the Diosmin group and the active-control group regarding patient satisfaction. No adverse effects were found during the study period. Our study suggests that clinical application of Diosmin with a dose of 50 mg/kg/day might reduce the radicular pain. This trial is registered with ISRCTN97157037.

  11. Field evaluations of N2 fixation by grain legumes in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.Y.; Ahmad, T.; Asad, T.; Malik, K.; Shah, N.H.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were undertaken with four legume species that are economically important in Pakistan, to gain an understanding of how host-genotype, rhizobial-strain, and environmental factors affect the root-nodule N 2 -fixing symbiosis of field-grown plants. Strong responses to inoculation were obtained with lentil (Lens culinaris) that showed significant host-genotype x rhizobial strain interaction. In contrast, only one of eight mung-bean (Vigna radiata) genotypes and none of five black-gram (V. mungo) genotypes responded positively to inoculation; however, negative effects of inoculation were cautionary that host-genotype x rhizobial strain interactions must nevertheless be considered. Trials with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) indicated that biomass, grain yield and total N may be used as indicators of the amount of N fixed for large screening trials in which employment of the 15 N-dilution technique would be prohibitively expensive

  12. Orthodontic brackets in high field MR imaging: experimental evaluation of magnetic field interactions at 3.0 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, J.; Adam, G.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate static magnetic field interactions for 32 commonly used orthodontic brackets in a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Materials and methods: 32 orthodontic brackets consisting of a steel alloy (n=27), a cobalt-chromium alloy (n=2), ceramic (n=1), ceramic with a steel slot (n=1), and titanium (n=1) from 13 different manufacturers were tested for magnetic field interactions in a static magnetic field at 3.0 T (Gyroscan Intera 3.0 T, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The magnetic deflection force F Z [mN] was evaluated by determining the deflection angle β[ ] using the established deflection angle test according to the ASTM guidelines. The magnetic-field-induced rotational force F rot or torque was qualitatively determined using a 5-point grading scale (0: no torque; +4: very strong torque). Results: In 18 of the 32 brackets, the deflection angle β was found to be > 45 and the translational force exceeded the gravitational force F G on the particular bracket (F Z : 1.2-45.7 mN). The translational force F Z was found to be up to 68.5 times greater than the gravitational force F G (F Z /F G : 1.4-68.5). The rotational force F rot was correspondingly high (+3/+4) for those brackets. For the remaining 14 objects, the deflection angles were < 45 and the torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. The static magnetic field did not affect the titanium bracket and the ceramic bracket. No measurable translational and rotational forces were found. (orig.)

  13. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamuli Eugena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA 95% CI: 85.09-117.26 more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151.

  14. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winstein Carolee J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP, compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC. Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only usual and customary (UCC therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary

  15. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  16. A metabolomic evaluation of the phytochemical composition of tomato juices being used in human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2017-08-01

    Juices from the traditional red tomato and a unique tangerine tomato variety are being investigated as health promoting foods in human clinical trials. However, it is unknown how the tangerine and red tomato juices differ in biologically relevant phytochemicals beyond carotenoids. Here liquid-chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry metabolomics was used to evaluate broadly the similarities and differences in carotenoids and other phytochemicals between red and tangerine tomato juices intended for clinical interventions. This untargeted approach was successful in the rapid detection and extensive characterization of phytochemicals belonging to various compound classes. The tomato juices were found to differ significantly in a number of phytochemicals, including carotenoids, chlorophylls, neutral lipids, and cinnamic acid derivatives. The largest differences were in carotenoids, including lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, neurosporene, and ζ-carotene. Smaller, but significant, differences were observed in polar phytochemicals, such as chlorogenic acid, hydroxyferulic acid, phloretin-di-C-glycoside, and isopropylmalic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a cognitive psychophysiological model for management of tic disorders: an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc; Blanchet, Pierre; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2016-07-01

    Tic disorders, in particular chronic tic disorder and Tourette syndrome, affect about 1% of the population. The current treatment of choice is pharmacological or behavioural, addressing tics or the premonitory urges preceding tic onset. The current study reports an open trial evaluating the effectiveness of a cognitive psychophysiological treatment addressing Tourette-specific sensorimotor activation processes rather than the tic. Forty-nine people with Tourette syndrome and 36 people with chronic tics completed 10 weeks of individual cognitive psychophysiological therapy. Outcome measures included two tic severity scales and psychosocial measures. Post-treatment both groups had significantly improved on the tic scales with strong effect sizes across tic locations and complex and simple tics, maintained at 6-month follow-up with further change in perfectionism and self-esteem. The cognitive psychophysiological approach targeting underlying sensorimotor processes rather than tics in Tourette's and chronic tic disorder reduced symptoms with a large effect size. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Decision theory and the evaluation of risks and benefits of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe, Rosemarie D C; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2012-12-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) are tasked to assess the risks and the benefits of a clinical trial. In previous studies, it was shown that RECs find this task difficult, if not impossible, to do. The current approaches to benefit-risk assessment (i.e. Component Analysis and the Net Risk Test) confound the various risk-benefit tasks, and as such, make balancing impossible. In this article, we show that decision theory, specifically through the expected utility theory and multiattribute utility theory, enable for an explicit and ethically weighted risk-benefit evaluation. This makes a balanced ethical justification possible, and thus a more rationally defensible decision making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings.

  20. Evaluation of a New Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana and a New Field Delivery Method against Solenopsis invicta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Qiang; Lin, Miaofeng; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Jingwen; Chen, Dasong; Li, Zhigang; Dai, Jianqing; Han, Shichou

    2016-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is one of the most important pests in China, and control measures are mainly based on the use of synthetic pesticides, which may be inadequate and unsustainable. Hence, there is a growing interest in developing biological control alternatives for managing S. invicta, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi. To facilitate the commercialization of entomopathogenic fungi against S. invicta, 10 Beauveria bassiana isolates originating from different hosts were tested for virulence in laboratory bioassays, and the most pathogenic strain, ZGNKY-5, was tested in field studies using an improved pathogen delivery system. The cumulative mortality rate reached 93.40% at 1×108 mL-1 conidia after 504 h. The germination and invasion of the spores were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and several conidia adhered to the cuticle of S. invicta after 2 h. Furthermore, the germ tubes of the conidia oriented toward the cuticle after 48 h, and the mycelium colonized the entire body after 96 h. Based on the efficacy observed in the laboratory trials, further experiments were performed with ZGNKY-5 strain to evaluate its utility in an injection control technology against S. invicta in the field. We found that three dosage treatments of ZGNKY-5 strain (500 mL, 750 mL, and 1,000 mL per nest) had significant control effects. Our results show that this strain of Beauveria bassiana and our control method were effective against S. invicta in both laboratory and field settings. PMID:27341441

  1. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space.

  2. A multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of ion-exchange water softeners for the treatment of eczema in children: the Softened Water Eczema Trial (SWET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K S; Koller, K; Dean, T; O'Leary, C J; Sach, T H; Frost, A; Pallett, I; Crook, A M; Meredith, S; Nunn, A J; Burrows, N; Pollock, I; Graham-Brown, R; O'Toole, E; Potter, D; Williams, H C

    2011-02-01

    parents, but it is likely that such improvements were the result of response bias. Whether or not the wider benefits of installing a water softener in the home are sufficient to justify the purchase of a softener is something for individual householders to consider on a case-by-case basis. This trial demonstrated overwhelming demand for non-pharmacological interventions for the treatment of eczema, and this is something that should be considered when prioritising future research in the field. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71423189. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 15, No. 8. See the HTA programme website for further project information. Results of this trial are also published at www.plosmedicine.org.

  3. Estudo comparativo entre espécies de agave Field trial on agave species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Ciaramello

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Agave sisalana e A. fourcroydes, responsáveis pela produção de praticamente 90% das fibras duras consumidas no mundo, foram estudadas comparativamente em relação a A. amaniensis, A. letonae, A. zapupe e A. sisalana f. marginata, de 1965 a 1974, em experimento conduzido na E.E. de Tatui, do Instituto Agronômico. Ao completar nove anos de plantio no campo, a espécie A. fourcroydes ainda se encontrava com todas as plantas em produção, tendo as demais espécies concluído o ciclo vegetativo em períodos que variaram de quatro a oito anos. A. fourcroydes produziu a maior quantidade total de fibras por planta, com 5.044 gramas, enquanto A. sisalana apresentou a maior produção média anual, com 582 gramas de fibras secas por planta. Agave sisalana, tanto em sua forma normal como na variegada, deu, aproximadamente, o mesmo número de folhas que o obtido, até ao presente, para A. fourcroydes; as demais espécies produziram menor número de folhas.A trial designed to compare the fiber production of Agave sisalana, A. fourcroydes, A. amaniensis, A. letonae, A. zapupe, and A. sisalana f. marginatawas conducted from 1966 to 1974, at the Tatui Experimental Station, of the Instituto Agronômico, S. Paulo State, Brazil. A. zapupe was the first to pole, at the fourth year, being followed by A. letonae, A. amaniensis, A. sisalana, and A. sisalana f. marginata. A. fourcroydesdid not pole until the ninth year. The spacing adopted was 3 m x 1 m and each species produced per plant respectively: 2 kg for A. zapupe, 3 kg for A. amaniensis and A. letonae, 4 kg for A. sisalana and A. sisalana f. marginata, and 5 kg for A. fourcroydes of dried fiber. Considering the poling age A. sisalana gave the highest production, with the average of 582 g of dried fibers per year by plant.

  4. Recruitment for 'A pilot study of randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Makoto; Mizukami, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic computed tomography (CT), a randomized controlled trial was planned in Japan. The randomized trial was designed as follows: participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups, CT group and XP group; XP group would receive 10 times of lung cancer screening by chest x-ray annually for 10 years; smokers in CT group would receive 10 times of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT annually for 10 years; non-smokers in CT group would receive 3 times of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT and 7 times of chest x-ray during 10 years. A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of the trial. A letter for recruitment to participate in the above trial was mailed to the citizens in Hakui City, who were 50-64 years old and underwent regular lung cancer screening using chest x-ray this year. In the letter we explained that the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT had not been proved yet; only half of the participants could undergo thoracic CT screening; thoracic CT screening might cause unfavorable consequences like radiation exposure, false positives or overdiagnosis. Of 329 persons who received the letter of recruitment, 117 replied. After meeting with us for detailed explanation, 111 persons participated in the above randomized trial. The compliance of recruitment is high (approximately one third) and the above trial may be feasible. (author)

  5. Reaching and recruiting Turkish migrants for a clinical trial through Facebook: A process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unlu, B.; Cuijpers, P.; van t Hof, E.; Riper, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic minorities are underrepresented in mental health research, especially in randomized controlled trials. Recruiting ethnic minorities is challenging and there is a need to develop effective recruitment strategies. This study used data from a randomized controlled trial examining the

  6. Assessing the Consequences of Microbial Infection in Field Trials: Seen, Unseen, Beneficial, Parasitic and Pathogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Looseley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections of crop plants present an ongoing threat to agricultural production. However, in recent years, we have developed a more nuanced understanding of the ecological role of microbes and how they interact with plants. This includes an appreciation of the influence of crop physiology and environmental conditions on the expression of disease symptoms, the importance of non-pathogenic microbes on host plants and pathogens, and the capacity for plants to act as hosts for human pathogens. Alongside this we now have a variety of tools available for the identification and quantification of microbial infections on crops grown under field conditions. This review summarises some of the consequences of microbial infections in crop plants, and discusses how new and established assessment tools can be used to understand these processes. It challenges our current assumptions in yield loss relationships and offers understanding of the potential for more resilient crops.

  7. Activated carbon amendment to sequester PAHs in contaminated soil: a lysimeter field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist, Marie; Brändli, Rahel; Hartnik, Thomas; Jakob, Lena; Henriksen, Thomas; Werner, David; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying polyoxymethylene (POM) passive samplers. In addition, POM samplers were dug directly in the AC amended and unamended soil in order to monitor the reduction in free aqueous PAH concentrations in the soil pore water. The total PAH concentration in the drainage water, measured by direct solvent extraction of the water, was reduced by 14% for the PAC amendment and by 59% for GAC, 12 months after amendment. Measurements carried out with POM showed a reduction of 93% for PAC and 56% for GAC. The free aqueous PAH concentration in soil pore water was reduced 93% and 76%, 17 and 28 months after PAC amendment, compared to 84% and 69% for GAC. PAC, in contrast to GAC, was more effective for reducing freely dissolved concentrations than total dissolved ones. This could tentatively be explained by leaching of microscopic AC particles from PAC. Secondary chemical effects of the AC amendment were monitored by considering concentration changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. DOC was bound by AC, while the concentrations of nutrients (NO(3), NO(2), NH(4), PO(4), P-total, K, Ca and Mg) were variable and likely affected by external environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on development of experimental system for trial manufacture of semi-field scale lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Masae; Watabe, Teruhisa; Tanaka, Hirobumi; Ohwaku, Keiichi

    1978-01-01

    Because of difficulties in conduct of in situ experiments using the radiotracer method for this purpose, it is necessary to develope the technique on utilization of the results obtained by the laboratory works to resolve phenomenon in the actual environment. For this kind of extrapolation, optimum size of experimental model, designed as large as reasonable in scale to simulate the actual environment (defined as the term, 'semi-field scale experimental model' for convenience) was investigated. For this kind of extrapolation, optimum size of experimental model, designed as large as reasonable in scale to simulate the actual environment (defined as the term, 'semi-field scale experimental model' for convenience) was investigated. For this object, following experiments are especially conducted. The effects of vegetation to the mobility of transition elements in the surface layer of soil was studied by Wagner pot experiment. The vertical movement pattern of radionuclides in the deeper layer in the ground, especially transfer of long-lived-nuclides from soil into water, was investigated using radioactivity survey data of fallout. These results indicated the importance of information on the behaviour of contaminants in 'surface soil', 'Intermediate zone', 'capillary zone' and 'aquifer'. Therefore, an experimental mode, consisted of above four parts, was designed. The apparatus would include several substructures; an artificial rainfall apparatus, the Lysimeter, and receptive basin and so on. A regulation system for the fluctuation of hydraulic gradient in the aquifer would be also required. In order to get information on the above four parts of ground constitutions altogether, approximately 4 - 12 m depth was recommended for the model. (author)

  9. Numerically evaluating the bispectrum in curved field-space— with PyTransport 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, John W.; Mulryne, David J.

    2018-01-01

    We extend the transport framework for numerically evaluating the power spectrum and bispectrum in multi-field inflation to the case of a curved field-space metric. This method naturally accounts for all sub- and super-horizon tree level effects, including those induced by the curvature of the field-space. We present an open source implementation of our equations in an extension of the publicly available PyTransport code. Finally we illustrate how our technique is applied to examples of inflationary models with a non-trivial field-space metric.

  10. Impact of selected magnetic fields on the therapeutic effect in patients with lumbar discopathy: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taradaj, Jakub; Ozon, Marcin; Dymarek, Robert; Bolach, Bartosz; Walewicz, Karolina; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2018-03-23

    Interdisciplinary physical therapy together with pharmacological treatment constitute conservative treatment strategies related to low back pain (LBP). There is still a lack of high quality studies aimed at an objective evaluation of physiotherapeutic procedures according to their effectiveness in LBP. The aim of this study is to carry out a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, and placebocontrolled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of magnetic fields in discopathy-related LBP. A group of 177 patients was assessed for eligibility based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the end, 106 patients were randomly assigned into 5 comparative groups: A (n = 23; magnetic therapy: 10 mT, 50 Hz); B (n = 23; magnetic therapy: 5 mT, 50 Hz); C (n = 20; placebo magnetic therapy); D (n = 20; magnetic stimulation: 49.2 μT, 195 Hz); and E (n = 20; placebo magnetic stimulation). All patients were assessed using tests for pain intensity, degree of disability and range of motion. Also, postural stability was assessed using a stabilographic platform. In this study, positive changes in all clinical outcomes were demonstrated in group A (p 0.05). It was determined that the application of magnetic therapy (10 mT, 50 Hz, 20 min) significantly reduces pain symptoms and leads to an improvement of functional ability in patients with LBP.

  11. Field trial of a fast single-pass transmit-receive probe during Gentilly II steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Cantin, M.; Renaud, J.; Cecco, V.; Lakhan, R.; Sullivan, S.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of transmit-receive single-pass probes, denoted as C6 or X probe, was field tested during the Gentilly II, 2000 steam generator tube inspection. This probe has a performance equivalent to rotating probes and can be used for tubesheet and full-length inspection at an inspection speed equivalent to that of bobbin probes. Existing C3 transmit-receive probes have been demonstrated to be effective in detecting circumferential cracks. The C5 probe can detect both circumferential and axial cracks and volumetric defects but cannot discriminate between them. The C6 probe expands on the capabilities of both probes in a single probe head. It can simultaneously detect and discriminate between circumferential and axial cracks to satisfy different plugging criteria. It has excellent coverage, good defect detectability, and improved sizing and characterization. Probe data is displayed in C-scan format so that the amount of data to be analyzed is similar to rotating probes. The C6 probe will significantly decrease inspection time and the need for re-inspection and tube pulling. This paper describes the advantages of the probe and demonstrates its capabilities employing signals from tube samples with calibration flaws and laboratory induced cracks. It shows the results from the field trial of the probe at Gentilly II and describes the instrumentation, hardware and software used for the inspection. (author)

  12. Reliability of kinetic visual field testing in children with mutation-proven retinal dystrophies: Implications for therapeutic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedania, Vaidehi S; Liu, Jerry Y; Schlegel, Dana; Andrews, Chris A; Branham, Kari; Khan, Naheed W; Musch, David C; Heckenlively, John R; Jayasundera, K Thiran

    2018-01-01

    Kinetic visual field testing is used to monitor disease course in retinal dystrophy clinical care and treatment response in treatment trials, which are increasingly recruiting children. This study investigates Goldmann visual field (GVF) changes in young children with mutation-proven retinal dystrophies as they age and with progression of the retinal degeneration. Retrospective review of children ≤ 17 years old with a mutation-proven retinal dystrophy. Objective clinical disease activity was assessed by a retinal degeneration specialist masked to GVF results. Digital quantification of GVF area was performed. Twenty-nine children (58 eyes), ages 5-16, were identified. GVF area increased with age despite progression in 20 children and clinical stability in nine children. Mean ± standard error increase in GVF area/year was 333 ± 130 mm 2 (I4e, p = 0.012), 720 ± 155 mm 2 (III4e, p children with mutation-proven retinal dystrophies, there is a significant increase in GVF area with age, particularly those children with retinal dystrophies can be an unreliable measure of response to treatment and on which to base appropriate counseling about visual impairment.

  13. Field trial of a fast single-pass transmit-receive probe during Gentilly II steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Cantin, M.; Renaud, J.; Cecco, V.; Lakhan, R.; Sullivan, S.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of transmit-receive single-pass probes, denoted as C6 or X probe, was field-tested during the Gentilly II, 2000 steam generator tube inspection. This probe has a performance equivalent to rotating probes and can be used for tubesheet and full-length inspection at an inspection speed equivalent to that of bobbin probes. Existing C3 transmit-receive probes have been demonstrated to be effective in detecting circumferential cracks. The C5 probe can detect both circumferential and axial cracks and volumetric defects but cannot discriminate between them. The C6 probe expands on the capabilities of both probes in a single probe head. It can simultaneously detect and discriminate between circumferential and axial cracks to satisfy different plugging criteria. It has excellent coverage, good defect detectability, and improved sizing and characterization. Probe data is displayed in C-scan format so that the amount of data to be analyzed is similar to rotating probes. The C6 probe will significantly decrease inspection time and the need for re-inspection and tube pulling. This paper describes the advantages of the probe and demonstrates its capabilities employing signals from tube samples with calibration flaws and laboratory induced cracks. It shows the results from the field trial of the probe at Gentilly II and describes the instrumentation, hardware and software used for the inspection. (author)

  14. Reprioritization of failures in a system failure mode and effects analysis by decision making trial and evaluation laboratory technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed-Hosseini, S.M.; Safaei, N.; Asgharpour, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an effective methodology related to decision making field has been developed for reprioritization of failure modes in a system Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for corrective actions. The proposed methodology can cover some of inherently shortcomings of conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) method and like. The current prioritization methods have two main deficiencies as: they have not considered indirect relations between components and are deficient for systems with many subsystems or components. The proposed method called Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is an effective approach for analyzing relation between components of a system in respect to its type (direct/indirect) and severity. The main advantages of DEMATEL are involving indirect relations in analyze, allocating as possible as unique ranks to alternatives and clustering alternatives in large systems. The demonstrated results have shown that DEMATEL method can be an efficient, complementary and confident approach for reprioritization of failure modes in a FMEA. For verification of proposed methodology, two illustrative practical examples are solved and obtained outcomes are reported

  15. Goal-setting to Promote a Healthier Lifestyle in Later Life: Qualitative Evaluation of the AgeWell Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Sharon M; Thom, Jeanette M; Jones, Ian Rees; Hindle, John V; Clare, Linda

    2017-12-15

    We report a mixed method evaluation of the feasibility and implementation of the AgeWell goal-setting intervention to promote healthy ageing later life. Researcher field notes, goal-setting interview content, and semi-structured interviews with participants were content analysed to review trial implementation and participants' perspective on the goal-setting and mentoring intervention. 75 people were recruited: 21 in the goal-setting and 22 in the goal-setting with mentoring arms of the intervention. Goal-setting was feasible in the main domains of interest. Adherence to the protocol was good and the mentoring schedule was adhered to. Participants reported satisfaction with their goal attainment, but barriers for non-achievement were also identified. Recommendations for small changes to the intervention included reducing the number of goals. Participants understood the goal-setting process, and were able to set realistic and achievable lifestyle goals. The intervention and the procedures were acceptable but changes in how goal-setting is both introduced and monitored are needed for wider implementation. Goal-setting can be a useful process to help people alter their lifestyle to allow them to age more successfully and reduce risk factors associated with dementia.

  16. A cluster randomized control field trial of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention: Replication and extension of basic findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella Angele Piquette

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a cluster randomized control trial evaluation of teaching using ABRACADABRA (ABRA, an evidence-based and web-based literacy intervention (http://abralite.concordia.ca with 107 kindergarten and 96 grade 1 children in 24 classes (12 intervention 12 control classes from all 12 elementary schools in one school district in Canada. Children in the intervention condition received 10-12 hours of whole class instruction using ABRA between pre- and post-test. Hierarchical linear modeling of post-test results showed significant gains in letter-sound knowledge for intervention classrooms over control classrooms. In addition, medium effect sizes were evident for three of five outcome measures favoring the intervention: letter-sound knowledge (d = +.66, phonological blending (d = +.52, and word reading (d = +.52, over effect sizes for regular teaching. It is concluded that regular teaching with ABRA technology adds significantly to literacy in the early elementary years.

  17. Challenges in preparing and implementing a clinical trial at field level in an Ebola emergency: A case study in Guinea, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carazo Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the large Ebola outbreak that affected West Africa in 2014 and 2015, studies were launched to evaluate potential treatments for the disease. A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the antiviral drug favipiravir was conducted in Guinea. This paper describes the main challenges of the implementation of the trial in the Ebola treatment center of Guéckédou. Following the principles of the Good Clinical Research Practices, we explored the aspects of the community's communication and engagement, ethical conduct, trial protocol compliance, informed consent of participants, ongoing benefit/risk assessment, record keeping, confidentiality of patients and study data, and roles and responsibilities of the actors involved. We concluded that several challenges have to be addressed to successfully implement a clinical trial during an international medical emergency but that the potential for collaboration between research teams and humanitarian organizations needs to be highlighted.

  18. Evaluation of mitigation effect of the upland field on the regional environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuge, K.; Oohira, Y.; Hao, A.; Nakano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of the mitigation effect of the upland field on the regional intrinsic environment, considering the crop growth stages. FAO Penman-Monteith method is introduced for calculation of the reference evapotranspiration. The crop transpiration and the soil surface evaporation in the upland fields are separately estimated using the crop coefficients, considering the crop growth stages. The ratios of the crop transpiration and the soil surface evaporation in the water consumption change drastically with the crop growth stages. To evaluate the mitigation, effect of the upland field, the latent heat fluxes in the sugar cane field and bare field are estimated during the crop growth period. The deference of the latent heat fluxes in the sugar cane field and the bare field is not marked in the initial crop growth stages. However, in the sugar cane field, the latent heat flux increases drastically, with the sugar cane growing. In the mid-season stage, the latent heat flux is larger than the net radiation. These results indicate that the crop field has the large mitigation effect on the environment, and the efficiency changes with the various factors, including the crop types, the crop growth stages, the cultivation condition, and so on

  19. Natural phenomena evaluation of the Department of Energy-field office Oak Ridge office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, R.W.; Fricke, K.E.; Hunt, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy - Field Office Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) is performing natural phenomena evaluations of existing office buildings located in the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The natural phenomena considered are earthquake, wind, and flood. The evaluations are being performed to determine if the facilities are in compliance with DOE General Design Criteria 6430.IA. This paper presents results of the evaluations for three of the office buildings

  20. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF ADJUSTING RANDOMIZED TRIAL DATA FOR ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS: A DEMONSTRATION FROM THE ASCUS-LSIL TRIAGE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G.; Castle, Philip E.; Schiffman, Mark; Kim, Jane J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is widely considered the most reliable method for evaluation of health care interventions, challenges to both internal and external validity exist. Thus, the efficacy of an intervention in a trial setting does not necessarily represent the real-world performance that decision makers seek to inform comparative effectiveness studies and economic evaluations. Methods Using data from the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS), we performed a simplified economic evaluation of age-based management strategies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) among women who were referred to the study with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). We used data from the trial itself to adjust for 1) potential lead time bias and random error that led to variation in the observed prevalence of CIN3 by study arm, and 2) potential ascertainment bias among providers in the most aggressive management arm. Results We found that using unadjusted RCT data may result in counterintuitive cost-effectiveness results when random error and/or bias are present. Following adjustment, the rank order of management strategies changed for two of the three age groups we considered. Conclusion Decision analysts need to examine study design, available trial data and cost-effectiveness results closely in order to detect evidence of potential bias. Adjustment for random error and bias in RCTs may yield different policy conclusions relative to unadjusted trial data. PMID:22147881

  1. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  2. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  3. Field trial of a brucellosis competitive enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samartino, L.E.; Gregoret, R.J.; Sigal, G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a competitive ELISA system for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in comparison to conventional aerological tests routinely used in Argentina. A total of 2.500 serum samples, comprising Brucella-free herds, vaccinated cattle and naturally infected animals, was tested by the following tests: buffered plate agglutination, Rose Bengal, 2-mercaptoethanol, complement fixation, and indirect and competitive ELISAs. Specificity and relative sensitivity at each test were determined. The competitive ELISA was considered suitable for detection of vaccinated animals and had higher specificity than the other tests. The results point to the potential use of the test as a complementary assay in the brucellosis control programme in Argentina. (author)

  4. Design and analysis considerations in the Ebola_Tx trial evaluating convalescent plasma in the treatment of Ebola virus disease in Guinea during the 2014-2015 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tansy; Semple, Malcolm G; De Weggheleire, Anja; Claeys, Yves; De Crop, Maaike; Menten, Joris; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Temmerman, Sarah; Lynen, Lutgarde; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Smith, Peter G; van Griensven, Johan

    2016-02-01

    trial series actually received plasma, as an intention-to-treat analysis. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat approaches gave similar conclusions. An important caveat in the interpretation of the findings is that it is unlikely that all potential sources of confounding, such as any variation in supportive care over time, were eliminated. Protocols and electronic data capture systems have now been extensively field-tested for emergency evaluation of treatment with convalescent plasma. Ongoing studies seek to quantify the level of neutralizing antibodies in different plasma donations to determine whether this influences the response and survival of treated patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Joint IAEA/FAO evaluation the Agency's activities in some sectors of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on field evaluation in Kenya, Senegal, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. Special evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A desk review was completed in 1995 of the Agency's activities in the Sub-Saharan region during the previous ten years, covering soil science, irrigation and plant nutrition, plant breeding and genetics, and agricultural biochemistry. As a follow-up of the recommendations of this review, a field evaluation covering activities in Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, as four of the six participants in the first phase of the ongoing regional project ''Increasing Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa'', was conducted in 1996 jointly with the FAO Programme and Budget Evaluation. Ethiopia and Niger were not included in the field evaluation. To date, total disbursement during the last ten years in the 19 projects considered in this evaluation amounted to $2.5 million, evenly distributed in the four countries, plus about $500,000 for training funded outside the projects. Agency inputs included isotope analysers, sample preparation equipment, moisture and density gauges, labelled fertilizers, isotopes and supporting soil laboratory equipment, training of researchers and technicians and expert advice on research trials and on-the-job training on the use of laboratory equipment. Figs, tabs

  6. Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in a High-Risk Screening Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David J.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ruth, Karen; Egleston, Brian L.; Chen, David Y.T.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Uzzo, Robert G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Clinical factors in addition to PSA have been evaluated to improve risk assessment for prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk calculator provides an assessment of prostate cancer risk based on age, PSA, race, prior biopsy, and family history. This study evaluated the risk calculator in a screening cohort of young, racially diverse, high-risk men with a low baseline PSA enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program. Patients and Methods Eligibility for PRAP include men ages 35-69 who are African-American, have a family history of prostate cancer, or have a known BRCA1/2 mutation. PCPT risk scores were determined for PRAP participants, and were compared to observed prostate cancer rates. Results 624 participants were evaluated, including 382 (61.2%) African-American men and 375 (60%) men with a family history of prostate cancer. Median age was 49.0 years (range 34.0-69.0), and median PSA was 0.9 (range 0.1-27.2). PCPT risk score correlated with prostate cancer diagnosis, as the median baseline risk score in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was 31.3%, versus 14.2% in patients not diagnosed with prostate cancer (p<0.0001). The PCPT calculator similarly stratified the risk of diagnosis of Gleason score ≥7 disease, as the median risk score was 36.2% in patients diagnosed with Gleason ≥7 prostate cancer versus 15.2% in all other participants (p<0.0001). Conclusion PCPT risk calculator score was found to stratify prostate cancer risk in a cohort of young, primarily African-American men with a low baseline PSA. These results support further evaluation of this predictive tool for prostate cancer risk assessment in high-risk men. PMID:19709072

  7. Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Sara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK. Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will

  8. Evaluating the appropriateness of speech input in marine applications : a field evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lumsden, Jo; Langton, Nathan; Kondratova, Irina

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the first of three studies which collectively represent a convergence of two ongoing research agendas: (1) the empirically-based comparison of the effects of evaluation environment on mobile usability evaluation results; and (2) the effect of environment - in this case lobster fishing boats - on achievable speech-recognition accuracy. We describe, in detail, our study and outline our results to date based on preliminary analysis. Broadly speaking, the potential for effect...

  9. Effects of an Advocacy Trial on Food Industry Salt Reduction Efforts-An Interim Process Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Petersen, Kristina; Thow, Anne Marie; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-17

    The decisions made by food companies are a potent factor shaping the nutritional quality of the food supply. A number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) advocate for corporate action to reduce salt levels in foods, but few data define the effectiveness of advocacy. This present report describes the process evaluation of an advocacy intervention delivered by one Australian NGO directly to food companies to reduce the salt content of processed foods. Food companies were randomly assigned to intervention ( n = 22) or control ( n = 23) groups. Intervention group companies were exposed to pre-planned and opportunistic communications, and control companies to background activities. Seven pre-defined interim outcome measures provided an indication of the effect of the intervention and were assessed using intention-to-treat analysis. These were supplemented by qualitative data from nine semi-structured interviews. The mean number of public communications supporting healthy food made by intervention companies was 1.5 versus 1.8 for control companies ( p = 0.63). Other outcomes, including the mean number of news articles, comments and reports (1.2 vs. 1.4; p = 0.72), a published nutrition policy (23% vs. 44%; p = 0.21), public commitment to the Australian government's Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) (41% vs. 61%; p = 0.24), evidence of a salt reduction plan (23% vs. 30%; p = 0.56), and mean number of communications with the NGO (15 vs. 11; p = 0.28) were also not significantly different. Qualitative data indicated the advocacy trial had little effect. The absence of detectable effects of the advocacy intervention on the interim markers indicates there may be no impact of the NGO advocacy trial on the primary outcome of salt reduction in processed foods.

  10. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Shelley A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  11. Prevention of shoulder dystocia: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate an obstetric maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujade, Olivier; Azria, Elie; Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Davitian, Carine; Khater, Carine; Chatel, Paul; Pernin, Emilie; Aflak, Nizar; Koskas, Martin; Bourgeois-Moine, Agnès; Hamou-Plotkine, Laurence; Valentin, Morgane; Renner, Jean-Paul; Roy, Carine; Estellat, Candice; Luton, Dominique

    2018-08-01

    Shoulder dystocia is a major obstetric emergency defined as a failure of delivery of the fetal shoulder(s). This study evaluated whether an obstetric maneuver, the push back maneuver performed gently on the fetal head during delivery, could reduce the risk of shoulder dystocia. We performed a multicenter, randomized, single-blind trial to compare the push back maneuver with usual care in parturient women at term. The primary outcome, shoulder dystocia, was considered to have occurred if, after delivery of the fetal head, any additional obstetric maneuver, beginning with the McRoberts maneuver, other than gentle downward traction and episiotomy was required. We randomly assigned 522 women to the push back maneuver group (group P) and 523 women to the standard vaginal delivery group (group S). Finally, 473 women assigned to group P and 472 women assigned to group S delivered vaginally. The rate of shoulder dystocia was significantly lower in group P (1·5%) than in group S (3·8%) (odds ratio [OR] 0·38 [0·16-0·92]; P = 0·03). After adjustment for predefined main risk factors, dystocia remained significantly lower in group P than in group S. There were no significant between-group differences in neonatal complications, including brachial plexus injury, clavicle fracture, hematoma and generalized asphyxia. In this trial in 945 women who delivered vaginally, the push back maneuver significantly decreased the risk of shoulder dystocia, as compared with standard vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An economic evaluation of highly purified HMG and recombinant FSH based on a large randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechowski, Jaroslaw; Connolly, Mark; McEwan, Philip; Kennedy, Richard

    2007-11-01

    Public funding for IVF is increasingly being challenged by health authorities in an attempt to minimize health service costs. In light of treatment rationing, the need to consider costs in relation to outcomes is paramount. To assess the cost implications of gonadotrophin treatment options, an economic evaluation comparing highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (HP-HMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been conducted. The analysis is based on individual patient data from a large randomized controlled trial (n = 731) in a long agonist IVF protocol. The economic evaluation uses a discrete event simulation model to assess treatment costs in relation to live births for both treatments based on published UK costs. After one cycle the mean costs per IVF treatment for HP-HMG and rFSH were pound2396 (95% CI pound2383-2414) and pound2633 ( pound2615-2652), respectively. The average cost-saving of pound237 per IVF cycle using HP-HMG allows one additional cycle to be delivered for every 10 cycles. With maternal and neonatal costs applied, the median cost per IVF baby delivered with HP-HMG was pound8893 compared with pound11,741 for rFSH (P cost-saving potential of HP-HMG in IVF was still apparent after varying critical cost parameters in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis.

  13. Evaluating the statistical methodology of randomized trials on dentin hypersensitivity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matranga, Domenica; Matera, Federico; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2017-12-27

    The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics and quality of statistical methodology used in clinical studies on dentin hypersensitivity management. An electronic search was performed for data published from 2009 to 2014 by using PubMed, Ovid/MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases. The primary search terms were used in combination. Eligibility criteria included randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of desensitizing agents in terms of reducing dentin hypersensitivity. A total of 40 studies were considered eligible for assessment of quality statistical methodology. The four main concerns identified were i) use of nonparametric tests in the presence of large samples, coupled with lack of information about normality and equality of variances of the response; ii) lack of P-value adjustment for multiple comparisons; iii) failure to account for interactions between treatment and follow-up time; and iv) no information about the number of teeth examined per patient and the consequent lack of cluster-specific approach in data analysis. Owing to these concerns, statistical methodology was judged as inappropriate in 77.1% of the 35 studies that used parametric methods. Additional studies with appropriate statistical analysis are required to obtain appropriate assessment of the efficacy of desensitizing agents.

  14. Pink bollworm integrated management using sterile insects under field trial conditions, Imperial Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.L.; Staten, R.T.; Roberson, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The pink bollworm moth (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) feeds almost exclusively on cotton (Gossypium spp.) and causes economic loss (Pfadt 1978). The pink bollworm (PBW) is often the key pest of cotton in Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The larvae (immature stages) bore into the developing cotton fruit, where they feed on the cotton lint and seeds, causing significant damage and dramatically reducing the yield of cotton lint (Pfadt 1978). The PBW is difficult to control with conventional means (insecticides) because it spends the destructive larval phase inside the cotton boll where it is well protected from control measures. Cultural controls, such as a short growing season, have successfully decreased the population in the Imperial Valley (Chu et al. 1992) to the point where eradication may be possible using sterile insects and genetically engineered cotton. Because the PBW is an introduced insect, with few plant hosts other than cultivated cotton, its eradication from continental USA is a desirable and economically attractive alternative to the continued use of pesticides and/or further loss to the pest. Mass releases of sterile insects began in earnest in 1970 in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in order to inhibit normal reproduction and to eradicate the pest in an environmentally responsible manner. Sterile release involves mass production and sexual sterilisation using irradiation (20 krad for PBW adults). This was accomplished by building a rearing facility in Phoenix, AZ. The facility has 6,410 square metres of permanent laboratories, rearing and irradiation chambers and insect packing rooms. The facility operates the year round but with a variable production rate, that is, maximal during the cotton growing season (May through September). Sterile insect technology is based on the monitoring of the native and sterile populations in the field and the subsequent release of appropriate numbers of sterile insects in order to

  15. The power of statistical tests using field trial count data of non-target organisms in enviromental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Publications on power analyses for field trial count data comparing transgenic and conventional crops have reported widely varying requirements for the replication needed to obtain statistical tests with adequate power. These studies are critically reviewed and complemented with a new simulation

  16. Helping hands: A cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulscher Marlies

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand hygiene prescriptions are the most important measure in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Yet, compliance rates are generally below 50% of all opportunities for hand hygiene. This study aims at evaluating the short- and long-term effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses. Methods/design This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial with inpatient wards as the unit of randomisation. Guidelines for hand hygiene will be implemented in this study. Two strategies will be used to improve the adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene. The state-of-the-art strategy is derived from the literature and includes education, reminders, feedback, and targeting adequate products and facilities. The extended strategy also contains activities aimed at influencing social influence in groups and enhancing leadership. The unique contribution of the extended strategy is built upon relevant behavioural science theories. The extended strategy includes all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with gaining active commitment and initiative of ward management, modelling by informal leaders at the ward, and setting norms and targets within the team. Data will be collected at four points in time, with six-month intervals. An average of 3,000 opportunities for hand hygiene in approximately 900 nurses will be observed at each time point. Discussion Performing and evaluating an implementation strategy that also targets the social context of teams may considerably add to the general body of knowledge in this field. Results from our study will allow us to draw conclusions on the effects of different strategies for the implementation of hand hygiene guidelines, and based on these results we will be able to define a preferred implementation strategy for hospital based nursing. Trial registration The study is registered as a Clinical Trial in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT

  17. Sylvatic plague vaccine partially protects prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Tripp, Daniel W.; Russell, Robin E.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Richgels, Katherine; Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Griebel, Randall; Schroeder, Greg; Grassel, Shaun M.; Pipkin, David R.; Cordova, Jennifer; Kavalunas, Adam; Maxfield, Brian; Boulerice, Jesse; Miller, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1–59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y. pestis positive carcasses or fleas). Even though plague mortality occurred in prairie dogs on vaccine plots, SPV treatment had an overall positive effect on CPUE in all three years, regardless of plague status. Odds of capturing a unique animal were 1.10 (95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.02–1.19) times higher per trap day on vaccine-treated plots than placebo plots in 2013, 1.47 (95% C.I. 1.41–1.52) times higher in 2014 and 1.19 (95% C.I. 1.13–1.25) times higher in 2015. On pairs where plague occurred, odds of apparent survival were 1.76 (95% Bayesian credible interval [B.C.I.] 1.28–2.43) times higher on vaccine plots than placebo plots for adults and 2.41 (95% B.C.I. 1.72–3.38) times higher for juveniles. Our results provide evidence that consumption of vaccine-laden baits can protect prairie dogs against plague; however, further evaluation and refinement are needed to optimize SPV use as a management tool.

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultra-high-field liver MRI: A feasibility trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umutlu, Lale, E-mail: Lale.Umutlu@uk-essen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Bitz, Andreas K.; Maderwald, Stefan; Orzada, Stephan; Kinner, Sonja; Kraff, Oliver; Brote, Irina; Ladd, Susanne C.; Schroeder, Tobias; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald; Ladd, Mark E. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics, University Nuernberg-Erlangen (Germany); Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 7 T MRI of the liver using an eight-channel radiofrequency (RF) transmit/receive body-coil. 16 healthy subjects were examined on a 7 T MR system utilizing a custom-built eight-channel RF body-coil suitable for RF-shimming. The following data were acquired: (1) steady state free precession imaging, (2) T2w turbo spin echo imaging, (3) T1w in and opposed-phase imaging, (4) T1w 3D FLASH images pre-contrast and in arterial, portal-venous and venous phase and (5) a fat-saturated pre- and post-contrast 2D FLASH sequence. Visual evaluation of (1) the delineation of liver vasculature, (2) the overall image quality, and (3) artifact presence and consequent image impairment was performed. SNR of the liver parenchyma was measured for the contrast-enhanced 2D and 3D FLASH sequences. For statistical analysis, a Wilcoxon-Rank Test was used. Best delineation of non-enhanced liver vasculature and overall image quality was found for 2D FLASH MRI, with only slight improvement in vessel conspicuity after the application of contrast media. T2-weighted TSE imaging remained strongly impaired, falling short of diagnostic relevance and precluding a clinical application. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and diagnostic potential of dedicated contrast-enhanced 7 T liver MRI as well as the potential for non-contrast-enhanced angiographic application.

  19. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control, Group II (A. vera and Group III (propolis. Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry.

  20. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Biodegradable Polyesters for Sustained Release of Isometamidium and Ethidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Geerts

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of the results obtained with biodegradable sustained release devices (SRDs containing a mixture of polymers and either isometamidium (ISMM or ethidium. Under controlled laboratory conditions (monthly challenge with tsetse flies infected with Trypanosoma congolense the protection period in SRD treated cattle could be extended by a factor 2.8 (for ethidium up to 4.2 (for ISMM as compared to animals treated intramuscularly with the same drugs. Using a competitive drug ELISA ISMM concentrations were detected up to 330 days after the implantation of the SRDs, whereas after i.m. injection the drug was no longer present three to four months post treatment. Two field trials carried out in Mali under heavy tsetse challenge showed that the cumulative infection rate was significantly lower in the ISMM-SRD implanted cattle than in those which received ISMM intramuscularly. Using ethidium SRD, however, contradictory results were obtained in field trials in Zambia and in Mali. The potential advantages and inconvenients of the use of SRDs are discussed and suggestions are made in order to further improve the currently available devices.

  1. Mass balance and swath displacement evaluations from agricultural application field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray drift is on an ongoing concern for any agricultural application and continues to be the focus for new developments and research efforts dealing with drift reduction technologies, best management application practices and the development of new decision support systems for applicators. Typical...

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of "Time to Read", a Volunteer Tutoring Program for 8- to 9-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah; Connolly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tutoring is commonly employed to prevent early reading failure, and evidence suggests that it can have a positive effect. This article presents findings from a large-scale ("n" = 734) randomized controlled trial evaluation of the effect of "Time to Read"--a volunteer tutoring program aimed at children aged 8 to 9 years--on…

  3. Return to work and occupational physicians' management of common mental health problems--process evaluation of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebergen, David S.; Bruinvels, David J.; Bos, Chris M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the adherence of occupational physicians (OP) to the Dutch guideline on the management of common mental health problems and its effect on return to work as part of the process evaluation of a trial comparing adherence to the guideline to care as usual. The first

  4. Evaluation of stratification factors and score-scales in clinical trials of treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektoen, L; Ødegaard, S A; Løken, T; Larsen, S

    2004-05-01

    There is often a need to reduce sample size in clinical trials due to practical limitations and ethical considerations. Better comparability between treatment groups by use of stratification in the design, and use of continuous outcome variables in the evaluation of treatment results, are two methods that can be used in order to achieve this. In this paper the choice of stratification factors in trials of clinical mastitis in dairy cows is investigated, and two score-scales for evaluation of clinical mastitis are introduced. The outcome in 57 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis and included in a clinical trial comparing homeopathic treatment, placebo and a standard antibiotic treatment is investigated. The strata of various stratification factors are compared across treatments to determine which other factors influence outcome. The two score scales, measuring acute and chronic mastitis symptoms, respectively, are evaluated on their ability to differentiate between patients classified from clinical criteria as responders or non-responders to treatment. Differences were found between the strata of the factors severity of mastitis, lactation number, previous mastitis this lactation and bacteriological findings. These factors influence outcome of treatment and appear relevant as stratification factors in mastitis trials. Both score scales differentiated between responders and non-responders to treatment and were found useful for evaluation of mastitis and mastitis treatment.

  5. One-year evaluation of the effect of physical therapy for masticatory muscle pain : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craane, B.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Stappaerts, K.; De Laat, A.

    Physical therapy is widely used to decrease pain and restore function in patients suffering from masticatory muscle pain. Controlled studies on its efficacy are scarce. This study evaluated the 1-year effect of a 6-week physical therapy programme in a single blind, randomized, controlled trial.

  6. Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology; Genehmigungsverfahren klinischer Studien im Bereich der Radioonkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Monique; Buettner, Daniel [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Habeck, Matthias; Habeck, Uta; Brix, Gunnar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institut fuer Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Mainz (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Noelling, Torsten

    2015-12-15

    Application of ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical research in Germany needs to be approved by the national authority for radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS). For studies in the field of radiation oncology, differentiation between use of radiation for ''medical care (Heilkunde)'' versus ''medical research'' frequently leads to contradictions. The aim of this article is to provide principle investigators, individuals, and institutions involved in the process, as well as institutional review or ethics committees, with the necessary information for this assessment. Information on the legal frame and the approval procedures are also provided. A workshop was co-organized by the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO), the Working Party for Radiation Oncology (ARO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG), the German Society for Medical Physics (DGMP), and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) in October 2013. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop and the follow-up discussions between the organizers and the BfS. Differentiating between ''Heilkunde'' which does not need to be approved by the BfS and ''medical research'' is whether the specific application of radiation (beam quality, dose, schedule, target volume, etc.) is a clinically established and recognized procedure. This must be answered by the qualified physician(s) (''fachkundiger Arzt'' according to German radiation protection law) in charge of the study and the treatments of the patients within the study, taking into consideration of the best available evidence from clinical studies, guidelines and consensus papers. Among the important parameters for assessment are indication, total dose, and fractionation. Radiation treatments applied outside clinical trials do not require approval by the BfS, even if they are applied within a randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial

  7. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Michael B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP program by investigating pre-conceptual health and risk behaviours, teen pregnancy and the resultant birth outcomes, early child health and maternal health. Methods and Design Fifty-seven schools (86% of 66 eligible secondary schools in Perth, Australia were recruited to the clustered (by school randomised trial, with even randomisation to the intervention and control arms. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP program was administered to 1,267 participants in the intervention schools, while 1,567 participants in the non-intervention schools received standard curriculum. Participants were all female and aged between 13-15 years upon recruitment. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires measured short-term impact and participants are now being followed through their teenage years via data linkage to hospital medical records, abortion clinics and education records. Participants who have a live birth are interviewed by face-to-face interview. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards regression will test for differences in pregnancy, birth and abortion rates during the teenage years between the study arms. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed overview of the trial design as well as initial results in the form of participant flow. The authors describe the intervention and its delivery within the natural school setting and discuss the practical issues in the conduct of the trial, including recruitment. The trial is pragmatic and will directly inform those who provide

  8. Integrating a suicide prevention program into the primary health care network: a field trial study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  9. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  10. Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Assess the Acute Diuretic Effect of Equisetum arvense (Field Horsetail in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Maciel Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 36 healthy male volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups (n=12 that underwent a three-step treatment. For four consecutive days, we alternately administered a standardized dried extract of Equisetum arvense (EADE, 900 mg/day, placebo (corn starch, 900 mg/day, or hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/day, separated by a 10-day washout period. Each volunteer served as his own control, and the groups’ results were compared. We repeated the same evaluation after each stage of treatment to evaluate the safety of the drug. The diuretic effect of EADE was assessed by monitoring the volunteers’ water balance over a 24 h period. The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes. There was no significant increase in the urinary elimination of catabolites. Rare minor adverse events were reported. The clinical examinations and laboratory tests showed no changes before or after the experiment, suggesting that the drug is safe for acute use. Further research is needed to better clarify the mechanism of diuretic action and the other possible pharmacological actions of this phytomedicine.

  11. Economic evaluation of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Hendriks, Jan C M; Graff, Maud J L; Adang, Eddy M M; Munneke, Marten; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2015-07-01

    A large randomized clinical trial (the Occupational Therapy in Parkinson's Disease [OTiP] study) recently demonstrated that home-based occupational therapy improves perceived performance in daily activities of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. We performed an economic evaluation over a 6-month period for both arms of the OTiP study. Participants were 191 community-dwelling PD patients and 180 primary caregivers. The intervention group (n = 124 patients) received 10 weeks of home-based occupational therapy; the control group (n = 67 patients) received usual care (no occupational therapy). Costs were assessed from a societal perspective including healthcare use, absence from work, informal care, and intervention costs. Health utilities were evaluated using EuroQol-5d. We estimated cost differences and cost utility using linear mixed models and presented the net monetary benefit at different values for willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life-year gained. In our primary analysis, we excluded informal care hours because of substantial missing data for this item. The estimated mean total costs for the intervention group compared with controls were €125 lower for patients, €29 lower for caregivers, and €122 higher for patient-caregiver pairs (differences not significant). At a value of €40,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained (reported threshold for PD), the net monetary benefit of the intervention per patient was €305 (P = 0.74), per caregiver €866 (P = 0.01) and per patient-caregiver pair €845 (P = 0.24). In conclusion, occupational therapy did not significantly impact on total costs compared with usual care. Positive cost-effectiveness of the intervention was only significant for caregivers. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Evaluation of using digital gravity field models for zoning map creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    At the present time the di