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Sample records for field prototype photoneutron

  1. Experimental investigation of the photoneutron production out of the high-energy photon fields at linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Su; Yoon, In Ha; Bae, Sun Myeong; Kang, Tae Young; Baek, Geum Mun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Nam, Uk Won; Lee, Jae Jin; Park, Yeong Sik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, ASAN Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Photoneutron dose in high-energy photon radiotherapy at linear accelerator increase the risk for secondary cancer. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the dose variation of photoneutron with different treatment method, flattening filter, dose rate and gantry angle in radiation therapy with high-energy photon beam (E≥8 MeV). TrueBeam STxTM(Ver1.5, Varian, USA) and Korea Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (KTEPC) were used to detect the photoneutron dose out of the high-energy photon field. Complex Patient plans using Eclipse planning system (Version 10.0, Varian, USA) was used to experiment with different treatment technique(IMRT, VMAT), condition of flattening filter and three different dose rate. Scattered photoneutron dose was measured at eight different gantry angles with open field (Field size : 5×5cm). The mean values of the detected photoneutron dose from IMRT and VMAT were 449.7 μSv, 2940.7 μSv. The mean values of the detected photoneutron dose with Flattening Filter(FF) and Flattening Filter Free(FFF) were measured as 2940.7 μSv, 232.0 μSv. The mean values of the photoneutron dose for each test plan (case 1, case 2 and case 3) with FFF at the three different dose rate (400, 1200, 2400 MU/min) were 3242.5 μSv, 3189.4 μSv, 3191.2 μSv with case 1, 3493.2 μSv, 3482.6 μSv, 3477.2 μSv with case 2 and 4592.2 μSv, 4580.0 μSv, 4542.3 μSv with case 3, respectively. The mean values of the photoneutron dose at eight different gantry angles ( 0° , 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270° , 315°) were measured as 3.2 μSv, 4.3 μSv, 5.3 μSv, 11.3 μSv, 14.7 μSv, 11.2 μSv, 3.7 μSv, 3.0 μSv at 10 MV and as 373.7 μSv, 369.6 μSv, 384.4 μSv, 423.6 μSv, 447.1 μSv, 448.0 μSv, 384.5 μSv, 377.3 μSv at 15MV. As a result, it is possible to reduce photoneutron dose using FFF mode and VMAT method with TrueBeam STxTM. The risk for secondary cancer of the patients will be decreased with continuous evaluation of the photoneutron dose.

  2. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  3. NAA using the photoneutrons of a Linac as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera P, E.; De Leon M, H. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Soto B, T.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2012-10-01

    Linear accelerators working above 8 MV produce photoneutrons that represent a radiological risk in the patient and hospital staff. In this work a moderator has been designed in the aim to use the photoneutron field to perform neutron activation analysis (NAA) of small samples. The moderator has been designed using Monte Carlo methods, here the photoneutron spectrum is modified by the moderator having the maximum thermal neutron flux in the moderator cavity where the sample to be analyzed is located. (Author)

  4. Field Data Logger Prototype for Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Ghimire, Pramod; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2014-01-01

    and subsequent analysis of the data. This paper presents the development of a low cost prototype field data logger prototype using Raspberry PI and industrial sensors. The functionalities of the data logger prototype are described. An online rainflow count algorithm has been implemented as well.......Mission profile data is very important for the cost effective and reliable design of power converters. The converter design can be improved on the basis of actual field data. Actual mission profile data can be collected for the power converters using field data loggers over a long period of time...

  5. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs

  6. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Beatty, J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents selected preliminary results obtained during the first 54 days of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The test described is a precursor to the Engineered Barrier Systems Field Tests (EBSFT). The EBSFT will consist of in situ tests of the geohydrologic and geochemical environment in the near field (within a few meters) of heaters emplaced in welded tuff to simulate the thermal effects of waste packages. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The paper discusses the evolution of hydrothermal behavior during the prototype test, including rock temperatures, changes in rock moisture content, air permeability of fractures, gas pressures, and rock mass gas-phase humidity. 10 refs., 12 figs

  7. Photoneutron intensity variation with field size around radiotherapy linear accelerator 18-MeV X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, H.; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Maalej, N. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-08-15

    In X-ray radiotherapy accelerators, neutrons are produced mainly by ({gamma},n) reaction when high energy X-rays interact with high Z materials of the linear accelerator head. These materials include the lead (Pb) used as shielding in the collimator, tungsten (W) target used for the production of X-rays and iron (Fe) in the accelerator head. These unwanted neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and contribute to the patient dose during the treatment of a cancer patient. Knowing the neutron distribution around the radiotherapy accelerator is therefore desired. CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs) were used to study the variation of fast and thermal neutron relative intensities around an 18 MeV linear accelerator X-ray beam with the field sizes of 0, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40cm{sup 2}. For fast neutron detection, bare NTDs were used. For thermal neutron detection, NTDs were covered with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters. The NTDs were placed at different locations in the direction perpendicular to the treatment couch (transversal) and in the direction parallel to the treatment couch (longitudinal) with respect to the isocenter of the accelerator. The fast neutron relative intensity is symmetrical about the beam axis and exhibits an exponential-like drop with distance from the isocenter of the accelerator for all the field sizes. At the primary beam (isocenter), the relative fast neutron intensity is highest for 40x40cm{sup 2} field size and decreases linearly with the decrease in the field size. However, fast neutron intensities do not change significantly with beam size for the measurements outside the primary beam. The fast neutron intensity in the longitudinal direction outside the primary beam decreases linearly with the field size. The thermal neutron intensity, at any location, was found to be almost independent of the field size.

  8. Comparative Field Tests of Pressurised Rover Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G. A.; Wood, N. B.; Clarke, J. D.; Piechochinski, S.; Bamsey, M.; Laing, J. H.

    The conceptual designs, interior layouts and operational performances of three pressurised rover prototypes - Aonia, ARES and Everest - were field tested during a recent simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. A human factors experiment, in which the same crew of three executed the same simulated science mission in each of the three vehicles, yielded comparative data on the capacity of each vehicle to safely and comfortably carry explorers away from the main base, enter and exit the vehicle in spacesuits, perform science tasks in the field, and manage geological and biological samples. As well as offering recommendations for design improvements for specific vehicles, the results suggest that a conventional Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) would not be suitable for analog field work; that a pressurised docking tunnel to the main habitat is essential; that better provisions for spacesuit storage are required; and that a crew consisting of one driver/navigator and two field science crew specialists may be optimal. From a field operations viewpoint, a recurring conflict between rover and habitat crews at the time of return to the habitat was observed. An analysis of these incidents leads to proposed refinements of operational protocols, specific crew training for rover returns and again points to the need for a pressurised docking tunnel. Sound field testing, circulating of results, and building the lessons learned into new vehicles is advocated as a way of producing ever higher fidelity rover analogues.

  9. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Wilder, D.G.

    1991-02-01

    This progress report presents the interpretation of data obtained (up to November 1, 1988) from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test site. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for the field tests for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities, at a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site in Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the tests is to provide the basis for determining whether tests planned for Yucca Mountain have the potential to be successful. Thirteen chapters discuss the following: mapping the electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of the rock mass; changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe; characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the heater borehole; electrical resistance heater installed in a 30-cm borehole; relative humidity measurements; the operation, design, construction, calibration, and installation of a microwave circuit that might provide partial pressure information at temperatures in excess of 200 degree C (392 degree F); pressure and temperature measurements in the G-Tunnel; the moisture collection system, which attempts to collect steam that migrates into the heater borehole; The borehole television and borescope surveys that were performed to map the location, orientation, and aperture of the fractures intersecting the boreholes; preliminary scoping calculations of the hydrothermal conditions expected for this prototype test; the Data Acquisition System; and the results of the PEBSFT, preliminary interpretations of these results, and plans for the remainder of the test. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

    1991-08-01

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT

  11. Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcall, R.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; Shore, R.A.; LaRiviere, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    Medical electron accelerators operated in the photon mode produce significant amounts of photoneutrons at energies above 15 MeV. There can be definite radiation problems at doors of treatment rooms where operating consoles are often located. These problems are due in large part to inadequate maze design by physicists unaccustomed to shielding against neutrons. The radiation field at the door is an unusual combination of low energy neutrons, thermal neutrons and capture γ-rays from the concrete walls of the maze and the door itself. While this radiation field is dependent upon the actual construction details, these three components each contribute roughly one-third of the total dose equivalent. Reducing these high radiation levels presents a formidable problem. The neutrons can be absorbed by hydrogenous material which can be attached to the door, but the neutron capture γ-rays would require massive amounts of lead for the required attenuation. Both measurements and Monte Carlo calculations are presented to illustrate the problem. Some possible shielding solutions are presented for pre-existing treatment rooms, as well as design recommendations for new rooms. (H.K.)

  12. Photoneutron spectrum measured with Bonner Spheres in Planetary method mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Velazquez F, J., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Posgrado en Ciencias Biologico Agropecuarias, Carretera Tepic-Compostela Km 9, 63780 Jalisco-Nayarit (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    We measured the spectrum of photoneutrons at 100 cm isocenter linear accelerator (Linac) Varian ix operating at 15 MV Bremsstrahlung mode. In this process was used a radiation field of 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} at a depth of 5 cm in a solid water phantom with dimensions of 30 x 30 x 15 cm{sup 3}. The measurement was performed with a system using it Bonner Spheres spectrometric method Planetary mode. As neutron detector of the spectrometer is used thermoluminescent dosimeters pairs of type 600 and 700. (Author)

  13. Photoneutron spectrum measured with Bonner Spheres in Planetary method mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites R, J.; Vega C, H. R.; Velazquez F, J.

    2012-10-01

    We measured the spectrum of photoneutrons at 100 cm isocenter linear accelerator (Linac) Varian ix operating at 15 MV Bremsstrahlung mode. In this process was used a radiation field of 20 x 20 cm 2 at a depth of 5 cm in a solid water phantom with dimensions of 30 x 30 x 15 cm 3 . The measurement was performed with a system using it Bonner Spheres spectrometric method Planetary mode. As neutron detector of the spectrometer is used thermoluminescent dosimeters pairs of type 600 and 700. (Author)

  14. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  16. Atlas of photoneutron cross sections obtained with monoenergetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, S.S.; Berman, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Photoneutron cross-section and integrated cross-section data obtained with monoenergetic photons are presented in a uniform format. All of the measured partial photoneutron cross sections, the total photoneutron cross section, and the photoneutron yield cross section are plotted as functions of the incident photon energy, as are the integrated photoneutron cross sections and their first and second moments. The values of the integrated cross sections and the moments of the integrated total cross section up to the highest photon energy for which they were measured are tabulated, as are the parameters of Lorentz curves fitted to the total photoneutron cross-section data for medium and heavy nuclei (A>50). This compilation is current as of June 1987. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  17. A photoneutron production option for MCNP4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallmeier, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    A photoneutron production option was implemented in the MCNP4A code, mainly to supply a tool for reactor shielding calculations in beryllium and heavy water environments of complicated three dimensional geometries. Subroutines were developed to calculate the probability of the photoneutron production at the photon collision sites and the energy and flight direction of the created photoneutrons with the help of user supplied data. These subroutines are accessed through subroutine colidp which processes the photon collisions

  18. Note on field trials of a new prototype solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, S P

    1977-01-01

    Observations on field trials of a prototype still, of modified design, with respect to the quantity and quality of the fresh water obtained are reported. An average yield of 3.6 liters/m/sup 2//day of fresh water was obtained during the post-monsoon season and winter months. Traces of dissolved copper, zinc and iron were observed in the distilled water and the causes of metallic contamination are discussed. 10 references.

  19. On the threshold sensitivity of low background photoneutron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, G.M.; Ponomarchuk, V.A.; Filippov, E.M.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical substantiation is given of determining the sensitivity threshold for a number of photoneutron devices used in practice (Berill-2, Berill-4 etc.). It is shown that, considering various effects and a real time of measurements, the sensitivity threshold of the photoneutron devices waries within the range of 1.3x10 -3 % (Berill-3) to 2.2x10 -5 %

  20. Polarization of photoneutrons from the threshold region of 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine the parities of several resonances in 208 Pb, the polarization of photoneutrons from the 208 Pb(γ,n(pol)) 207 Pb reaction was measured. This represents the first measurement of the polarization of photoneutrons from resonances near threshold. The observations are tabulated. (SDF)

  1. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  2. Photoneutron Reaction Data for Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsunomiya Hiroaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the role of photoneutron reaction data in nuclear physics and astrophysics in conjunction with the Coordinated Research Project of the International Atomic Energy Agency with the code F41032 (IAEA-CRP F41032.

  3. Photoneutron Reaction Data for Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Hiroaki; Renstrøm, Therese; Tveten, Gry Merete; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan Mihai; Belyshev, Sergey; Stopani, Konstantin; Wang, Hongwei; Fan, Gongtao; Lui, Yiu-Wing; Symochko, Dmytro; Goriely, Stephane; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Siem, Sunniva; Varlamov, Vladimir; Ishkhanov, Boris; Glodariu, Tudor; Krzysiek, Mateusz; Takenaka, Daiki; Ari-izumi, Takashi; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the role of photoneutron reaction data in nuclear physics and astrophysics in conjunction with the Coordinated Research Project of the International Atomic Energy Agency with the code F41032 (IAEA-CRP F41032).

  4. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  5. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10 7 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF 3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies

  6. Study on the photoneutrons produced in 15 MV medical linear accelerators : Comparison of three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Oh Nam [Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Oh Nam; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Hanseo Univ., Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) have the ability to provide better dose conformity and sparing of critical normal tissues than three-dimensional radiotherapy(3DCRT). Especially, with the benefit of health insurance in 2011, its use now increasingly in many modern radiotherapy departments. Also the use of linear accelerator with high-energy photon beams over 10 MV is increasing. As is well known, these linacs have the capacity to produce photoneutrons due to photonuclear reactions in materials with a large atomic number such as the target, flattening filters, collimators, and multi-leaf collimators(MLC). MLC-based IMRT treatments increase the monitor units and the probability of production of photoneutrons from photon-induced nuclear reactions. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the dose of photoneutrons produced from 3DCRT and IMRT technique for Rando phantom in cervical cancer. We performed the treatment plans with 3DCRT and IMRT technique using Rando phantom for treatment of cervical cancer. An Rando phantom placed on the couch in the supine position was irradiated using 15 MV photon beams. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters(OSLD) were attached to 4 different locations (abdomen, chest, head and neck, eyes) and from center of field size and measured 5 times each of locations. Measured neutron dose from IMRT technique increased by 9.0, 8.6, 8.8, and 14 times than 3DCRT technique for abdomen, chest, head and neck, and eyes, respectively. When using IMRT with 15 MV photon beams, the photoneutrons contributed a significant portion on out-of-field. It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, it is need to provide the additional safe shielding on a linear accelerator and should therefore reduce the out-of-field dose.

  7. Study on the photoneutrons produced in 15 MV medical linear accelerators : Comparison of three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Oh Nam; Yang, Oh Nam; Lim, Cheong Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) have the ability to provide better dose conformity and sparing of critical normal tissues than three-dimensional radiotherapy(3DCRT). Especially, with the benefit of health insurance in 2011, its use now increasingly in many modern radiotherapy departments. Also the use of linear accelerator with high-energy photon beams over 10 MV is increasing. As is well known, these linacs have the capacity to produce photoneutrons due to photonuclear reactions in materials with a large atomic number such as the target, flattening filters, collimators, and multi-leaf collimators(MLC). MLC-based IMRT treatments increase the monitor units and the probability of production of photoneutrons from photon-induced nuclear reactions. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the dose of photoneutrons produced from 3DCRT and IMRT technique for Rando phantom in cervical cancer. We performed the treatment plans with 3DCRT and IMRT technique using Rando phantom for treatment of cervical cancer. An Rando phantom placed on the couch in the supine position was irradiated using 15 MV photon beams. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters(OSLD) were attached to 4 different locations (abdomen, chest, head and neck, eyes) and from center of field size and measured 5 times each of locations. Measured neutron dose from IMRT technique increased by 9.0, 8.6, 8.8, and 14 times than 3DCRT technique for abdomen, chest, head and neck, and eyes, respectively. When using IMRT with 15 MV photon beams, the photoneutrons contributed a significant portion on out-of-field. It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, it is need to provide the additional safe shielding on a linear accelerator and should therefore reduce the out-of-field dose

  8. Monitoring of MNSR operation by measuring subcritical photoneutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.; Alsomel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Passive nondestructive assay methods are used to monitor the reactor's operation. It is required for nuclear regulatory, calculation validation and safeguards purposes. So, it plays a vital role in the safety and security of the nuclear plants. The possibility of MNSR operation monitoring by measuring the subcritical state photoneutron flux were investigated in this work. The photoneutron flux is induced by the fuels hard gamma radiation in the beryllium reflector. Theoretical formulation and experimental tests were performed. The results show that within a specified cooling time range, the photoneutron flux is induced by a single dominant hard gamma emitter such as 117 Cd (activation product) and 140 Ba ( 140 La fission product). This phenomenon was utilized to monitor the cooling time and the operation neutron flux during the last campaign. Thus a passive nondestructive assay method is proposed with regard to the reactor operation's monitoring.

  9. The simulation of resonance photoneutron produced by dragon-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yanjun; Ma Jingfang

    2010-01-01

    The temperature measurement using neutron resonance spectroscopy has many advantages such as non-immerging, inside measurement and local temperature distribution measurement, but the deficiency of high intensity pulsed neutron source limits it's application.In order to study the feasibility of Dragon-I as the pulsed neutron source of temperature measurement, the photoneutron characteristic had been simulated by MCNP5, the photoneutron yield is 1.34 x 10 11 per electron pulse, pulse width is 90ns. the yield is as high as 7.47 x 10 12 per electron pulse when 8cm thick U target had been used, which is only one magnitude lower than the yield of spallation source. the moderation of photoneutron had been simulated using some moderator, the results displayed Dragon-I can be a high intensity,narrow pulse neutron source, it's necessary to study further about it's application to temperature measurement using neutron resonance spectroscopy. (authors)

  10. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of {delta}E/E prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices. (orig.)

  11. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of ΔE/E -4 . Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices. (orig.)

  12. MCNP5 evaluation of photoneutron production from the Alexandria University 15 MV Elekta Precise medical LINAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Taleb, W M; Hassan, M H; El Mallah, E A; Kotb, S M

    2018-05-01

    Photoneutron production, and the dose equivalent, in the head assembly of the 15 MV Elekta Precise medical linac; operating in the faculty of Medicine at Alexandria University were estimated with the MCNP5 code. Photoneutron spectra were calculated in air and inside a water phantom to different depths as a function of the radiation field sizes. The maximum neutron fluence is 3.346×10 -9 n/cm 2 -e for a 30×30 cm 2 field size to 2-4 cm-depth in the phantom. The dose equivalent due to fast neutron increases as the field size increases, being a maximum of 0.912 ± 0.05 mSv/Gy at depth between 2 and 4 cm in the water phantom for 40×40 cm 2 field size. Photoneutron fluence and dose equivalent are larger to 100 cm from the isocenter than to 35 cm from the treatment room wall. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. R&D on high-power dc reactor prototype for ITER poloidal field converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Song, Zhiquan; Fu, Peng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: zhangming@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Kexun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Qin, Xiuqi [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new prototype design structure of dry-type air-core water-cooling reactor with epoxy resin casting technique is presented. • Theoretical analysis, finite-element simulation and prototype test verification are applied on the design. • The results of temperature rise and transient fault current test of prototypes are introduced and analyzed. • The success of tests demonstrates that the proposed structure is of high reliability and availability. - Abstract: This paper mainly introduces the research and development (R&D) of the high-power dc reactor prototype, whose functions are to limit the circulating current and ripple current in the ITER poloidal field (PF) converter. It needs to operate at rated large direct current 27.5 kA and withstand peak fault current up to 175 kA. Therefore, in order to meet the special requirements of the dynamic and thermal stability, a new prototype design structure of dry-type air-core water-cooling reactor with epoxy resin casting technique is presented, which is based on the theoretical analysis, finite-element simulation calculation and small prototype test verification. Now the full prototype has been fabricated by China industry, and the dynamic and thermal stability tests of the prototype have also been accomplished successfully. The test results are in compliance with the design and it shows the availability and feasibility of the proposed design, which may be a reference for relevant applications.

  14. Delayed photoneutrons of the of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy; Ha Van Thong; Vu Hai Long; Ngo Phu Khang; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Pham Van Lam; Huynh Dong Phuong; Luong Ba Vien; Le Vinh Vinh

    1994-01-01

    Time spectrum of delayed neutrons of the Dalat nuclear research reactor is measured and analyzed. It corresponds to a shut-down neutron fluxes of about 10 5 /10 8 n/cm 2 /sec after 100 hours continuous reactor operation at steady power level of 500 kW. Data processing of experimental time neutron spectrum gives 16 exponents, of which 10, resulting from photoneutrons due to (γ,n) reactions on beryllium used inside the reactor core, are obtained by using successive exponential stripping fitting method. For the Dalat reactor, the effective delayed photoneutron fraction relative to the total effective delayed neutron fraction is β B e eff =0.49%β eff for a beryllium weight relative to U 235 fuel of m B e/m U = 8.5. This result is acceptable in comparison to those obtained for other Be-U 235 media. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Photons and photoneutrons spectra of a Linac of 15 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites R, J. L.; Carrillo C, A.; Vega C, H. R.; Velazquez F, J. B.

    2011-10-01

    Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5, the photons and photoneutrons spectra generated in the head stock of the lineal accelerator (Linac) Varian of 15 MV of the Cancerology State of Nayarit were determined. For the calculations a heterogeneous head stock was modeled, more compatible with the work conditions. In the center of the head stock a tungsten target was located on a copper support, followed by the flattened filter. The photons and photoneutrons spectra were obtained accelerating electrons and making them collide against the target to produce photons by Bremsstrahlung, these photons were transported inside the head stock and the photons and photoneutrons spectra were calculated in a punctual detector located under the flattened filter and in the isocenter. The spectra were evaluated in punctual detectors that were located in the plane from the isocenter to the long of the X and Y axes each 20 cm, in an equidistant way, up to 2 m, so much in the longitudinal and transversal axes. In the calculations were used histories 5E(6) with the purpose of obtaining smaller uncertainties to 1%. It was found that the photons spectrum in the punctual detector inside the head stock presents a pick of 1.25 MeV in the energy interval of 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, later suffers a filtration and diminishes in asymptote form. This spectrum modifies when the beam reaches the isocenter, diminishing the low energy photons. Inside the head stock the photoneutrons spectrum shows a structure with two picks, one before 1 MeV and other after 1 MeV; this is for effect of the collimators geometry and the distance. Finally an increment of the total neutrons flow to 60 cm of distance of the isocenter on the Y axis was observed, due to the design geometry of the modeling heterogeneous head stock. (Author)

  16. Ultra-low field MRI food inspection system prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, Satoshi, E-mail: s133413@edu.tut.ac.jp; Toyota, Hirotomo; Hatta, Junichi; Ariyoshi, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Saburo, E-mail: tanakas@ens.tut.ac.jp

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We have developed a ULF-MRI system using HTS-SQUID for food inspection. • We developed a compact magnetically shielded box to attenuate environmental noise. • The 2D-MR image was reconstructed from the grid processing data using 2D-FFT method. • The 2D-MR images of a disk-shaped and a multiple cell water sample were obtained. • The results showed the possibility of applying the ULF-MRI system to food inspection. - Abstract: We develop an ultra-low field (ULF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system using a high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID) for food inspection. A two-dimensional (2D)-MR image is reconstructed from the grid processing raw data using the 2D fast Fourier transform method. In a previous study, we combined an LC resonator with the ULF-MRI system to improve the detection area of the HTS-SQUID. The sensitivity was improved, but since the experiments were performed in a semi-open magnetically shielded room (MSR), external noise was a problem. In this study, we develop a compact magnetically shielded box (CMSB), which has a small open window for transfer of a pre-polarized sample. Experiments were performed in the CMSB and 2D-MR images were compared with images taken in the semi-open MSR. A clear image of a disk-shaped water sample is obtained, with an outer dimension closer to that of the real sample than in the image taken in the semi-open MSR. Furthermore, the 2D-MR image of a multiple cell water sample is clearly reconstructed. These results show the applicability of the ULF-MRI system in food inspection.

  17. Optimization studies of photo-neutron production in high-Z metallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed using MCNP code to study the optimization of photo-neutron yield for different electron beam energies impinging on Pb, W and Ta cylindrical targets of varying thickness. It is noticed that photo-neutron yield can be increased for electron beam energies ≥ 100 MeV for ...

  18. The spheromak as a prototype for ultra-high-field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1987-08-01

    In view of current progress in the development of superconductor materials, the ultimate high-field limit of superconducting magnets is likely to be set by mechanical stress problems. Maximum field strength should be attainable by means of approximately force-free magnet windings having favorable ''MHD'' stability properties (so that small winding errors will not grow). Since a low-beta finite-flux-hole spheromak configuration qualifies as a suitable prototype, the theoretical and experimental spheromak research effort of the past decade has served to create a substantial technical basis for the design of ultra-high-field superconducting coils. 11 refs

  19. Sensitization of the analytical methods for photoneutron calculations to the wall concrete composition in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiasi, Hosein; Mesbahi, Asghar

    2012-01-01

    The effect of wall material on photoneutron production in radiation therapy rooms was studied using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. An analytical formula was proposed to take into account the concrete composition in photoneutron dose calculations. Using the MCNPX MC code, the 18 MV photon beam of the Varian Clinac 2100 and a typical treatment room with concrete compositions according to report No. 144 of National Council of Radiation Protection (NCRP) were simulated. Number of room produced photoneutrons per Gray of X-ray at the isocenter was determined for different types of concrete and named as “Q W ”. This new factor was inserted in the used formula for photoneutron fluence calculations at the inner entrance of maze. The photoneutron fluence was calculated using new proposed formula at the inner entrance of maze for all studied concretes. The difference between conventional and proposed equations varied from 11% to 46% for studied concretes. It was found that room produced photoneutrons could be significant for high density concretes. Additionally, applying the new proposed formula can consider the effect of wall material composition on the photoneutron production in high energy radiation therapy rooms. Further studies to confirm the accuracy of newly developed method is recommended.

  20. Delayed photoneutrons of the of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huy, Ngo Quang [Centre for Nuclear Technique Application, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Thong, Ha Van; Long, Vu Hai; Khang, Ngo Phu; Dien, Nguyen Nhi; Lam, Pham Van; Phuong, Huynh Dong; Vien, Luong Ba; Vinh, Le Vinh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    Time spectrum of delayed neutrons of the Dalat nuclear research reactor is measured and analyzed. It corresponds to a shut-down neutron fluxes of about 10{sup 5}/10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/sec after 100 hours continuous reactor operation at steady power level of 500 kW. Data processing of experimental time neutron spectrum gives 16 exponents, of which 10, resulting from photoneutrons due to ({gamma},n) reactions on beryllium used inside the reactor core, are obtained by using successive exponential stripping fitting method. For the Dalat reactor, the effective delayed photoneutron fraction relative to the total effective delayed neutron fraction is {beta}{sup B}e{sub eff}=0.49%{beta}{sub eff} for a beryllium weight relative to U{sup 235} fuel of m{sub B}e/m{sub U} = 8.5. This result is acceptable in comparison to those obtained for other Be-U{sup 235} media. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F [Catharina-Hospital Eindhoven, PO Box 1350, 5602 ZA, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Faddegon, Bruce A [University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115-1708 (United States)], E-mail: rogier.janssen@mac.com

    2008-04-21

    The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm.

  2. Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F; Faddegon, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm 2 was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm 2 dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm

  3. ZT-P: an advanced air core reversed field pinch prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ZT-P experiment, with a major radius of 0.45 m and a minor radius of 0.07 m, was designed to prototype the next generation of reversed field pinch (RFP) machines at Los Alamos. ZT-P utilizes an air-core poloidal field system, with precisely wound and positioned rigid copper coils, to drive the plasma current and provide plasma equilibrium with intrinsically low magnetic field errors. ZT-P's compact configuration is adaptable to test various first wall and limiter designs at reactor-relevant current densities in the range of 5 to 20 MA/m 2 . In addition, the load assembly design allows for the installation of toroidal field divertors. Design of ZT-P began in October 1983, and assembly was completed in October 1984. This report describes the magnetic, electrical, mechanical, vacuum, diagnostic, data acquisition, and control aspects of the machine design. In addition, preliminary data from initial ZT-P operation are presented. Because of ZT-P's prototypical function, many of its design aspects and experimental results are directly applicable to the design of a next generation RFP. 17 refs., 47 figs

  4. Detector evaluation of a prototype amorphous selenium-based full field digital mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Saunders, Robert S.; Samei, Ehsan; Xia, Jessie Q.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the physical performance of a selenium-based direct full-field digital mammography prototype detector (Siemens Mammomat NovationDR), including the pixel value vs. exposure linearity, the modulation transfer function (MTF), the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The current detector is the same model which received an approvable letter from FDA for release to the US market. The results of the current prototype are compared to those of an earlier prototype. Two IEC standard beam qualities (RQA-M2: Mo/Mo, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al; RQA-M4: Mo/Mo, 35 kVp, 2 mm Al) and two additional beam qualities (MW2: W/Rh, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al; MW4: W/Rh, 35 kVp, 2 mm Al) were investigated. To calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF), a 0.1 mm Pt-Ir edge was imaged at each beam quality. Detector pixel values responded linearly against exposure values (R2 0.999). As before, above 6 cycles/mm Mo/Mo MTF was slightly higher along the chest-nipple axis compared to the left-right axis. MTF was comparable to the previously reported prototype, with slightly reduced resolution. The DQE peaks ranged from 0.71 for 3.31 μC/kg (12.83 mR) to 0.4 for 0.48 μC/kg (1.86 mR) at 1.75 cycles/mm for Mo/Mo at 28 kVp. The DQE range for W/Rh at 28 kVP was 0.81 at 2.03 μC/kg (7.87 mR) to 0.50 at 0.50 μC/kg (1.94 mR) at 1 cycle/mm. NNPS tended to increase with greater exposures, while all exposures had a significant low-frequency component. Bloom and detector edge artifacts observed previously were no longer present in this prototype. The new detector shows marked noise improvement, with slightly reduced resolution. There remain artifacts due to imperfect gain calibration, but at a reduced magnitude compared to a prototype detector.

  5. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation or demonstr......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...

  6. An MCNP-based model for the evaluation of the photoneutron dose in high energy medical electron accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinou, Eleutheria; Stamatelatos, Ion Evangelos; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Georgolopoulou, Paraskevi; Sandilos, Panayotis

    The development of a computational model for the treatment head of a medical electron accelerator (Elekta/Philips SL-18) by the Monte Carlo code mcnp-4C2 is discussed. The model includes the major components of the accelerator head and a pmma phantom representing the patient body. Calculations were performed for a 14 MeV electron beam impinging on the accelerator target and a 10 cmx10 cm beam area at the isocentre. The model was used in order to predict the neutron ambient dose equivalent at the isocentre level and moreover the neutron absorbed dose distribution within the phantom. Calculations were validated against experimental measurements performed by gold foil activation detectors. The results of this study indicated that the equivalent dose at tissues or organs adjacent to the treatment field due to photoneutrons could be up to 10% of the total peripheral dose, for the specific accelerator characteristics examined. Therefore, photoneutrons should be taken into account when accurate dose calculations are required to sensitive tissues that are adjacent to the therapeutic X-ray beam. The method described can be extended to other accelerators and collimation configurations as well, upon specification of treatment head component dimensions, composition and nominal accelerating potential.

  7. Effect of saturating ferrite on the field in a prototype kicker magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    The field rise for kicker magnets is often specified between 1% and 99% of full strength. Three-gap thyratrons are frequently used as switches for kicker magnet systems. These thyratrons turn on in three stages: the collapse of voltage across one gap causes a displacement current to flow in the parasitic capacitance of off-state gap(s). The displacement current flows in the external circuit and can thus increase the effective rise-time of the field in the kicker magnet. One promising method of decreasing the effect of the displacement current involves the use of saturating ferrites. Another method for achieving the specified rise-time and 'flatness' for the kick strength is to utilize speed-up networks in the electrical circuit. Measurements have been carried out on a prototype kicker magnet with a speed-up network and various geometries of saturating ferrite. Measurements and PSpice calculations are presented. (author)

  8. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Small-scale field experiments and first full-scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Iannolo, Roberto; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati Federica Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter 3 (REWEC3) is a device belonging to the family of Oscillating Water Columns (OWCs), that can convert the energy of incident waves into electrical energy via turbines. In contrast to classical OWCs, it incorporates a small vertical U-shaped duct to connect the water column to the open wave field. This article shows the results of a small-scale field experiment involving a REWEC3 designed for working with a 2 kW turbine. Then, the next experimental activity on a REWEC3 installed in the NOEL laboratory with the collaboration of ENEA, is presented. Finally, the first prototype of ReWEC3 under construction in Civitavecchia (Rome, Italy) is shown. The crucial features of the construction stage are discussed and some initial performances are provided. [it

  9. EMBRACE@Nançay: an ultra wide field of view prototype for the SKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchinsky, S.A.; Censier, B.; Serylak, M.; Renaud, P.; Taffoureau, C.; Olofsson, A.O.H.; Karastergiou, A.

    2015-01-01

    A revolution in radio receiving technology is underway with the development of densely packed phased arrays for radio astronomy. This technology can provide an exceptionally large field of view, while at the same time sampling the sky with high angular resolution. Such an instrument, with a field of view of over 100 square degrees, is ideal for performing fast, all-sky, surveys, such as the ''intensity mapping'' experiment to measure the signature of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations in the HI mass distribution at cosmological redshifts. The SKA, built with this technology, will be able to do a billion galaxy survey. I will present a very brief introduction to radio interferometry, as well as an overview of the Square Kilometre Array project. This will be followed by a description of the EMBRACE prototype and a discussion of results and future plans

  10. Design of Prototype Payment Application System With Near Field Communication (NFC Technology based on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Ubaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1990s, people have enjoyed a comfortable lifestyle. Mobile devices supported by the development of wireless networks have spread throughout the world. People can get information, order tickets, download songs and perform commercial transactions, called mobile commerce. Mobile commerce applications become the most popular application for mobile device users who want to do business and financial transactions easily and securely, anytime and anywhere they are. Today the use of physical cash is experiencing a decline in popularity in the business world, because it is being replaced by non-physical payments are often called electronic money (e-money. An important technology behind mobile payments is called Near Field Communication (NFC. As an indication that the NFC has tremendous business potential, leading companies like Nokia, Microsoft, Visa Inc., and MasterCard Worldwide and NXP Semiconductors, is actively engaged on them. Payment processing integrated with NFC technology based mobile operating system that is a trend today is Android that support NFC technology is version 2.3.3 Gingerbread. The prototype application is designed to pay for 2 on the user side of the user as consumer and the merchant side as a trader or seller by using the handset that already have NFC technology is Google Samsung Nexus S. Pay an application prototype also implements the concept of security in e-commerce transactions by using the protocol-to-Tag Tag so that the user needs for security and comfort during the financial transaction are met.

  11. Curved sensors for compact high-resolution wide-field designs: prototype demonstration and optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambion, Bertrand; Gaschet, Christophe; Behaghel, Thibault; Vandeneynde, Aurélie; Caplet, Stéphane; Gétin, Stéphane; Henry, David; Hugot, Emmanuel; Jahn, Wilfried; Lombardo, Simona; Ferrari, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Over the recent years, a huge interest has grown for curved electronics, particularly for opto-electronics systems. Curved sensors help the correction of off-axis aberrations, such as Petzval Field Curvature, astigmatism, and bring significant optical and size benefits for imaging systems. In this paper, we first describe advantages of curved sensor and associated packaging process applied on a 1/1.8'' format 1.3Mpx global shutter CMOS sensor (Teledyne EV76C560) into its standard ceramic package with a spherical radius of curvature Rc=65mm and 55mm. The mechanical limits of the die are discussed (Finite Element Modelling and experimental), and electro-optical performances are investigated. Then, based on the monocentric optical architecture, we proposed a new design, compact and with a high resolution, developed specifically for a curved image sensor including optical optimization, tolerances, assembly and optical tests. Finally, a functional prototype is presented through a benchmark approach and compared to an existing standard optical system with same performances and a x2.5 reduction of length. The finality of this work was a functional prototype demonstration on the CEA-LETI during Photonics West 2018 conference. All these experiments and optical results demonstrate the feasibility and high performances of systems with curved sensors.

  12. Accuracy of electromagnetic tracking with a prototype field generator in an interventional OR setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boe, Lars Eirik; Leira, Haakon Olav; Tangen, Geir Arne; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Amundsen, Tore; Langoe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have studied the accuracy and robustness of a prototype electromagnetic window field generator (WFG) in an interventional radiology suite with a robotic C-arm. The overall purpose is the development of guidance systems combining real-time imaging with tracking of flexible instruments for bronchoscopy, laparoscopic ultrasound, endoluminal surgery, endovascular therapy, and spinal surgery. Methods: The WFG has a torus shape, which facilitates x-ray imaging through its centre. The authors compared the performance of the WFG to that of a standard field generator (SFG) under the influence of the C-arm. Both accuracy and robustness measurements were performed with the C-arm in different positions and poses. Results: The system was deemed robust for both field generators, but the accuracy was notably influenced as the C-arm was moved into the electromagnetic field. The SFG provided a smaller root-mean-square position error but was more influenced by the C-arm than the WFG. The WFG also produced smaller maximum and variance of the error. Conclusions: Electromagnetic (EM) tracking with the new WFG during C-arm based fluoroscopy guidance seems to be a step forward, and with a correction scheme implemented it should be feasible.

  13. Field test and evaluation of the passive neutron coincidence collar for prototype fast reactor fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Keddar, A.

    1982-08-01

    The passive neutron Coincidence Collar, which was developed for the verification of plutonium content in fast reactor fuel subassemblies, has been field tested using Prototype Fast Reactor fuel. For passive applications, the system measures the 240 Pu-effective mass from the spontaneous fission rate, and in addition, a self-interrogation technique is used to determine the fissile content in the subassembly. Both the passive and active modes were evaluated at the Windscale Works in the United Kingdom. The results of the tests gave a standard deviation 0.75% for the passive count and 3 to 7% for the active measurement for a 1000-s counting time. The unit will be used in the future for the verification of plutonium in fresh fuel assemblies

  14. Magnetic field distribution inside the aperture of a steerer magnet prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriţă, Ionel; Dan, Daniel; Tănase, Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), an important part of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) international project [1], which will be set up in Darmstadt in the next years, contains, among other magnets, several corrector magnets used for vertical and horizontal beam deviation. A prototype of a 2mrad vertical steerer magnet was designed by National Institute for R and D in Electrical Engineering (ICPE-CA) Romania in close cooperation with Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany [2] and then manufactured and tested by ICPE-CA [3], Romanian Institute for Electrical Engineering—Advanced Research. Magnetic field measurements using a 3D Hall probe were performed. Measured data and their analysis are presented. The system used for Hall probe positioning and data acquisition is also described. (paper)

  15. Technical Note: Experimental results from a prototype high-field inline MRI-linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liney, G. P., E-mail: gary.liney@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); Dong, B.; Zhang, K. [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-linac system. This work describes results from a prototype experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of a high field inline MR-linac. Methods: The magnet is a 1.5 T MRI system (Sonata, Siemens Healthcare) was located in a purpose built radiofrequency (RF) cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline (and future perpendicular) orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multileaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-linac experiments was performed to investigate (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array; and (3) electron contamination effects measured using Gafchromic film and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Results: (1) Image quality was unaffected by the radiation beam with the macropodine phantom image with the beam on being almost identical to the image with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background intensity when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film and EPID measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring along the centerline of the magnet axis. Conclusions: A proof-of-concept high-field MRI-linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field inline MRI-linac and study a number of the technical

  16. Radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventory ampersand tracking system and prototype RSM field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1994-09-01

    Based on very preliminary information, it has been estimated that the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventories at DOE facilities amount to about 1.5 million tons and a much larger amount will be generated from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities. To implement a national DOE program for beneficial reuse of RSM, it will be necessary to known the location and characteristics of RSM inventories that are available and will be generated to match them with product demands. It is the intent of this task to provide a standardized methodology via a RSM database for recording, tracking, and reporting data on RSM inventories. A multiple relational database in dBASE IV was designed and a PC-based code was written in Clipper 5.0 syntax to expedite entry, editing, querying, and reporting of RSM survey data. The PC based-code, the multiple relational database files, and other external files used by the code to generate reports and queries constitute a customized software application called the RSM Inventory ampersand Tracking System (RSM I ampersand TS). A prototype RSM field survey was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to demonstrate the field use of the RSM I ampersand TS and logistics of conducting the survey. During the demonstration, about 50 tons of RSM were sized, characterized, sorted, and packaged in transport containers

  17. Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.

    2013-02-01

    Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.

  18. Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR Magnet Development: Field Analysis and Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, John; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Ling, Jiayin; Kim, Youngjae; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2013-01-01

    We are currently working on a program to complete a 1.5 T/75 mm RT bore magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance magnet. The magic-angle-spinning magnet comprises a z-axis 0.866-T solenoid and an x-axis 1.225-T dipole, each to be wound with NbTi wire and operated at 4.2 K in persistent mode. A combination of the fields creates a 1.5-T field pointed at 54.74 degrees (magic angle) from the rotation (z) axis. In the first year of this 3-year program, we have completed magnetic analysis and design of both coils. Also, using a winding machine of our own design and fabrication, we have wound several prototype dipole coils with NbTi wire. As part of this development, we have repeatedly made successful persistent NbTi-NbTi joints with this multifilamentary NbTi wire. PMID:24058275

  19. Measurementof photo-neutron dose from an 18-MV medical linac using a foil activation method in view of radiation protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, Haluk; Kolbasi, Asuman; Yueksel, Alptug Oezer; Cobanbas, Ibrahim; Kaya, Vildan

    2016-01-01

    High-energy linear accelerators are increasingly used in the medical field. However, the unwanted photo-neutrons can also be contributed to the dose delivered to the patients during their treatments. In this study, neutron fluxes were measured in a solid water phantom placed at the isocenter 1-m distance from the head of an 18-MV linac using the foil activation method. The produced activities were measured with a calibrated well-type Ge detector. From the measured fluxes, the total neutron fluence was found to be (1.17 ± 0.06) X 10 7 n/cm 2 per Gy at the phantom surface in a 20 X 20 cm 2 X-ray field size. The maximum photo-neutron dose was measured to be 0.67 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy at d max = 5 cm depth in the phantom at isocenter. The present results are compared with those obtained for different field sizes of 10 X 10cm 2 , 15 X 15cm 2 , and 20 X 20cm 2 from 10-, 15-, and 18-MV linacs. Additionally, ambient neutron dose equivalents were determined at different locations in the room and they were found to be negligibly low. The results indicate that the photo-neutron dose at the patient position is not a negligible fraction of the therapeutic photon dose. Thus, there is a need for reduction of the contaminated neutron dose by taking some additional measures, for instance, neutron absorbing-protective materials might be used as aprons during the treatment

  20. A beam test of a prototype of the BESIII drift chamber in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.B.; Qin, Z.H.; Wu, L.H.; Chen, C.; Zhuang, B.A.; Chen, Y.B.; Jin, Y.; Liu, R.G.; Ma, X.Y.; Ma, Y.Y.; Tang, X.; Wang, L.; Xu, M.H.; Zhang, G.F.; Zhu, M.X.; Zhu, Q.M.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of the BESIII drift chamber was tested with He/C 3 H 8 (60/40) gas mixture in a 1T magnetic field at the π-2 beam line of KEK 12GeV PS. The drift distance-time relationship was extracted for various conditions. The performance of the chamber, such as the spatial resolution, the dE/dx resolution and the cell efficiency, was studied in detail. The dE/dx was measured as a function of βγ to calculate the particle separation power. Based on the test results, the operating voltage of the BESIII drift chamber is optimized to be 2200V, resulting in a spatial resolution better than 110μm, a cell efficiency over 98%, a dE/dx resolution better than 5% and the 3σπ/K separation at a momentum exceeding 700MeV/c. These results confirm the validation of the physics design of the BESIII drift chamber

  1. Study of an integral field spectrograph for the SNAP satellite. Prototype, simulation and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeunier, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The SNAP (Supernovae/Acceleration Probe) project plans to measure very precisely the cosmological parameters and to determine the nature of dark energy by observations of type Ia supernovae and weak lensing. The SNAP instrument consists in a 2-meter telescope with a one square-degree imager and a spectrograph in the visible and infrared range. A dedicated optimized integral field spectrograph based on an imager slicer technology has been developed. To test and validate the performances, two approaches have been developed: a complete simulation of the complete instrument at the pixel level and the manufacturing and test of a spectrograph prototype operating at room temperature and in cryogenic environment. In this thesis we will test the optical and functional performances of the SNAP spectrograph: especially diffraction losses, stray-light and spectro-photometric calibration. We present an original approach for the spectro-photometric calibration adapted for the slicer and the optical performances resulting from the first measurement campaign in the visible range. (author) [fr

  2. Fermi Surface Manipulation by External Magnetic Field Demonstrated for a Prototypical Ferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Młyńczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the details of the near-surface electronic band structure of a prototypical ferromagnet, Fe(001. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate openings of the spin-orbit-induced electronic band gaps near the Fermi level. The band gaps, and thus the Fermi surface, can be manipulated by changing the remanent magnetization direction. The effect is of the order of ΔE=100  meV and Δk=0.1  Å^{−1}. We show that the observed dispersions are dominated by the bulk band structure. First-principles calculations and one-step photoemission calculations suggest that the effect is related to changes in the electronic ground state and not caused by the photoemission process itself. The symmetry of the effect indicates that the observed electronic bulk states are influenced by the presence of the surface, which might be understood as related to a Rashba-type effect. By pinpointing the regions in the electronic band structure where the switchable band gaps occur, we demonstrate the significance of spin-orbit interaction even for elements as light as 3d ferromagnets. These results set a new paradigm for the investigations of spin-orbit effects in the spintronic materials. The same methodology could be used in the bottom-up design of the devices based on the switching of spin-orbit gaps such as electric-field control of magnetic anisotropy or tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance.

  3. Electric-field-induced paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiyang; Hinterstein, Manuel; Daniels, John E.; Webber, Kyle G.; Hudspeth, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    An electric-field-induced paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transformation has been directly observed in prototypical polycrystalline BaTiO 3 at temperatures above the Curie point (T C ) using in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The transformation persisted to a maximum temperature of 4 °C above T C . The nature of the observed field-induced transformation and the resulting development of domain texture within the induced phase were dependent on the proximity to the transition temperature, corresponding well to previous macroscopic measurements. The transition electric field increased with increasing temperature above T C , while the magnitude of the resultant tetragonal domain texture at the maximum electric field (4 kV mm −1 ) decreased at higher temperatures. These results provide insights into the phase transformation behavior of a prototypical ferroelectric and have important implications for the development of future large-strain phase-change actuator materials.

  4. Field Soil Water Retention of the Prototype Hanford Barrier and Its Variability with Space and Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-08-14

    Engineered surface barriers are used to isolate underlying contaminants from water, plants, animals, and humans. To understand the flow processes within a barrier and the barrier’s ability to store and release water, the field hydraulic properties of the barrier need to be known. In situ measurement of soil hydraulic properties and their variation over time is challenging because most measurement methods are destructive. A multiyear test of the Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) has yielded in situ soil water content and pressure data for a nine-year period. The upper 2 m layer of the PHB is a silt loam. Within this layer, water content and water pressure were monitored at multiple depths at 12 water balance stations using a neutron probe and heat dissipation units. Valid monitoring data from 1995 to 2003 for 4 depths at 12 monitoring stations were used to determine the field water retention of the silt loam layer. The data covered a wide range of wetness, from near saturation to the permanent wilt point, and each retention curve contained 51 to 96 data points. The data were described well with the commonly used van Genuchten water retention model. It was found that the spatial variation of the saturated and residual water content and the pore size distribution parameter were relatively small, while that of the van Genuchten alpha was relatively large. The effects of spatial variability of the retention properties appeared to be larger than the combined effects of added 15% w/w pea gravel and plant roots on the properties. Neither of the primary hydrological processes nor time had a detectible effect on the water retention of the silt loam barrier.

  5. Optimization aspects of the new nELBE photo-neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The nELBE beamline at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD provides intense neutron beams by stopping primary electrons in a liquid lead target, where neutrons are produced by bremsstrahlung photons via (γ,n reactions. With the aim to increase the neutron yield through the enhancement of the electron beam energy (from the current 40 MeV limit up to 50 MeV, as well as to minimize several sources of background that are presently affecting the measurements, a new neutron beam-line and a new, larger neutron experimental room have been designed. The optimization of the neutron/photon ratio, the minimization of the backscattered radiation from the walls and the possibility to have better experimental conditions are the main advantages of the new design. To optimize the beamline, extensive simulations with the particle interaction and transport code FLUKA have been performed. Starting from the primary electron beam, both the photon and neutron radiation fields have been fully characterized. To have a cross-check of the results, the calculated values of the neutron yields at different energies of the primary beam have been compared both with an independent simulation with the MCNP code and with analytical calculations, obtaining a very satisfactory agreement at the level of few percent. The evaluated radiation fields have been used to optimize the direction of the new neutron beamline, in order to minimize the photon flash contribution. A general overview of the new photo-neutron source, together with all the steps of the optimization study, is here presented and discussed.

  6. Photoneutrons from medical linear accelerators--radiobiological measurements and risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.; Martin, Stewart G.; Amols, Howard; Hei, Tom K.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the oncogenic potential of the photoneutrons produced by high energy medical linear accelerators. Methods and Materials: An established line of cells of rodent origin (C 3 H 10T1/2) was used to assess the oncogenic potential of the radiation dose received in the breast of an anthropomorphic 'randoman' phanton, while the cervix received a dose of 70 Gy. Experiments were performed at 6 MV, below the threshold for the production of photoneutrons, and at 20 MV where the dose includes about 0.01 Gy of photoneutrons as well as scattered x-rays. Results: A significantly higher transformation incidence was observed for the 20-MV machine, consistent with the measured neutron dose of about 0.01 Gy and a quality factor of 20. Conclusion: An estimate can be made of the additional deaths from second malignancies that might result from the photoneutrons generated by higher energy linear accelerators (Linacs), which must be offset against the possible improvements in survival that might result from the higher tumor doses made possible by the increased percentage depth doses

  7. Spectra of photoneutrons produced by high energy X-ray radiotherapy linacs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králík, M.; Turek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-17 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : photoneutrons * Bonner spectrometer * track detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.951, year: 2008

  8. Prototype development and field measurements of high etendue spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qisheng; Xiangli, Bin; Huang, Min; Han, Wei; Pei, Linlin; Bu, Meixia

    2018-03-01

    High etendue spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (HESHIS) is a new pushbroom Fourier transform hyperspectral imager with no moving parts. It is based on a Sagnac interferometer combined with a pair of parallel gratings. In this paper, the basic principle of HESHIS is reviewed and the first prototype of HESHIS is designed and developed. The spectral band of this prototype is designed at O2-A band (757 nm to 777 nm) and the average spectral resolution is 0.04 nm. Using the prototype, the pushbroom imaging experiments are carried out and the original interference images are obtained. The spectral data cube is generated using spectrum reconstruction method and high-resolution spectra are achieved.

  9. Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossier, S; Debuisschert, T; Diamanti, E; Villing, A; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype that implements a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on coherent states and reverse reconciliation. The system uses time and polarization multiplexing for optimal transmission and detection of the signal and phase reference, and employs sophisticated error-correction codes for reconciliation. The security of the system is guaranteed against general coherent eavesdropping attacks. The performance of the prototype was tested over preinstalled optical fibres as part of a quantum cryptography network combining different QKD technologies. The stable and automatic operation of the prototype over 57 h yielded an average secret key distribution rate of 8 kbit s -1 over a 3 dB loss optical fibre, including the key extraction process and all quantum and classical communication. This system is therefore ideal for securing communications in metropolitan size networks with high-speed requirements.

  10. Setup and taking into operation of a photoneutron source; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Photoneutronenquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschner, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics at the Technische Universitaet Dresden (TUD) has build a neutron physics laboratory at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD) to investigate nuclear processes in materials. The experiments are focused on materials relevant to nuclear fusion. The laboratory is equipped with three intensive neutron sources. The first is a 14 MeV monochromatic neutron source based on the DT reaction (owned by TUD); the other two are continuous and pulsed white photoneutron sources based on (γ,xn) reactions. One pulsed photoneutron source is realized by FZD in cooperation with the TUD. The continuous photoneutron source utilises a tungsten radiator (Tungsten Photoneutron Source) to produce neutrons with a wide energy spectra. The TPNS uses the ELBE-accelerator as a source of electrons for neutron production. This process involves an intermediate step, where slowed down electrons produce bremsstrahlung (γ-rays) absorbed by tungsten nuclei. Consecutively, the excited nuclei emit neutrons. The neutron flux of the photoneutron source is five orders of magnitude higher than the flux of the DT neutron sources with appropriate moderation. The neutron spectrum of TPNS can be modified by moderators, in such a way that the spectrum is comparable to that in the first wall of a Tokamak-Reactor. That allows investigations with the typical neutron spectrum of the fusion reactor. The technical solution, initial operation and the first experiment are described in this work. The neutron source is, in particular, dedicated to quantitative investigations in fusion neutronics. A fusion reactor produces radioactive isotopes as a nuclear waste. The main activity is accumulated in the structural materials. Carefully selected structural materials can significantly minimize the activity and thereby the amount of nuclear waste. The purpose of this project is to find constructional materials with half-lives shorter than several years, which can be recycled

  11. Field measurement of a Fermilab-built full scale prototype quadrupole magnet for the LHC interaction regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bossert, R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Glass, H; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Nobrega, A; Nicol, T H; Ogitsu, T; Orris, D; Page, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sabbi, G L; Schlabach, P; Strait, J B; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Velev, G V; Zlobin, A V

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider have been developed by the US- LHC Accelerator Project. These 70 mm bore 5.5 m long quadrupoles are intended to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m. Following a series of 2 m long models, a full scale cryostated cold mass has been fabricated and cold tested at Fermilab. Magnetic field measurements of the prototype, including determination of the field axis using a single stretched wire, have been performed. These measurements and comparisons with results from the model magnets as well as field quality and alignment requirements are reported in this paper. (8 refs).

  12. Performance of a prototype micro wind turbine in the manmade wind field from air conditioner of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Goh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing waste energy from the manmade air fields of buildings presents a new area of renewable energy to explore. Due to the unpredictability of the natural wind, this study is to evaluate the practicality for harnessing waste energy from the air conditioner exhaust units which are a more constant and predictable source available in the buildings. A prototype of the micro wind turbine has been designed to minimize the negative effect of the exhaust sources. After the micro wind turbine was manufactured, the performance of the turbine was tested in the selected air conditioner exhaust unit. Increasing the rotor solidity and decreasing the resistance of the generator contribute to improved starting torque and decreased generator break in torque respectively in the design. The power generation of the micro wind turbine increases with an increase of the rotor speed. The 24-hour operation of the prototype presents an observation for both exhaust performance and power generation prediction when the prototype is mounted on the exhaust unit.

  13. Detection of actinides with an electron accelerator by active photoneutron interrogation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, A.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M.; Laine, F.; Normand, S.; Lyoussi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The solution for management of a nuclear waste package is chosen according to its radiological characteristics. One of the most important of these features is the α-activity which is due to actinides ( 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, etc.) If non-destructive passive methods are not sufficient to quantify the latter, non-destructive active methods based on the fission process represent a solution of interest. First, these methods consist in irradiating a package in order to induce fission reactions on the actinides, and then, to detect the prompt and delayed particles which are emitted following these reactions. Our aim is to conduct neutron interrogation measurements on nuclear waste packages using an electron accelerator as a photoneutron generator. One of the main interests of this approach is that the intensity of the neutron flux can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the one delivered by a deuterium-tritium generator. With the objective of improving nuclear waste characterization, the development of this method could enable the integration of three complementary techniques on a single measurement cell (active neutron interrogation, active photon interrogation, and high-energy imaging). In this paper, simulation and experimental results are presented. A simulation study using MCNPX has been conducted in order to determine the characteristics of the photoneutron flux emitted by the electron accelerator of the SAPHIR facility owned by CEA LIST. Energy spectra, angular distribution and intensity of the photoneutron flux have been obtained. A photoneutron interrogation measurement cell based on this accelerator has been built and assessed by carrying out measurements on uranium samples. Delayed gamma-ray spectra have been acquired and enabled to confirm the experimental feasibility of our method. (authors)

  14. Calculations of the giant-dipole-resonance photoneutrons using a coupled EGS4-morse code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Nelson, W.R.; Kase, K.R.; Mao, X.S.

    1995-10-01

    The production and transport of the photoneutrons from the giant-dipoleresonance reaction have been implemented in a coupled EGS4-MORSE code. The total neutron yield (including both the direct neutron and evaporation neutron components) is calculated by folding the photoneutron yield cross sections with the photon track length distribution in the target. Empirical algorithms based on the measurements have been developed to estimate the fraction and energy of the direct neutron component for each photon. The statistical theory in the EVAP4 code, incorporated as a MORSE subroutine, is used to determine the energies of the evaporation neutrons. These represent major improvements over other calculations that assumed no direct neutrons, a constant fraction of direct neutrons, monoenergetic direct neutron, or a constant nuclear temperature for the evaporation neutrons. It was also assumed that the slow neutrons ( 2 θ, which have a peak emission at 900. Comparisons between the calculated and the measured photoneutron results (spectra of the direct, evaporation and total neutrons; nuclear temperatures; direct neutron fractions) for materials of lead, tungsten, tantalum and copper have been made. The results show that the empirical algorithms, albeit simple, can produce reasonable results over the interested photon energy range

  15. The photoneutron yield predictions by PICA and comparison with the measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, P.K.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The photoneutron yields at higher photon energies have become very important since the advent of high energy electron accelerators. Bremsstrahlung is produced when the particle beam interacts with the storage-ring components or residual-gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum. Bremsstrahlung thus produced interacts with the high-Z materials in the beamline like the beam dumps and collimators to produce photoneutrons. There are three modes of neutron production by bremsstrahlung. At low energies (≥525 MeV), photons are absorbed by the dipole interaction and the compound nucleus thus formed decays emitting protons and neutrons and other heavier particles. At higher energies (≥25 MeV), photon interacts with the nucleus through absorption on a quasi-deuteron, which subsequently decays producing a neutron and proton pair which can interact with the rest of the nucleus. At still higher energies the photopion production becomes possible and competes with the quasi-deuteron process. In this paper we have calculated the photoneutron yield from a thick copper target using the photonuclear interaction code PICA. Using this as the neutron source, we have calculated the dose rates through heavy concrete and compared it with the measurements made at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab

  16. Resultaat van 6 jaar Field Robot Event : studenten, netwerk en een prototype robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Bakker, T.; Evert, van F.K.; Hofstee, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 beleefde het Field Robot Event (FRE) in Wageningen zijn primeur. De FRE is een internationale wedstrijd, waarin field robots met elkaar de competitie aangaan om zo goed mogelijk autonoom door een perceel te navigeren en een landbouwkundige taak uit te voeren. Dit jaar wordt het Field Robot

  17. 3D field calculation of the GEM prototype magnet and comparison with measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lari, R.J.

    1983-10-28

    The proposed 4 GeV Electron Microtron (GEM) is designed to fill the existing buildings left vacant by the demise of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) accelerator. One of the six large dipole magnets is shown as well as the first 10 electron orbits. A 3-orbit prototype magnet has been built. The stepped edge of the magnet is to keep the beam exiting perpendicular to the pole. The end guards that wrap around the main coils are joined together by the 3 shield plates. The auxiliary coils are needed to keep the end guards and shield plates from saturating. A 0.3 cm Purcell filter air gap exists between the pole and the yoke. Can anyone question this being a truly three-dimensional magnetostatic problem. The computer program TOSCA, developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by the Computing Applications Group, was used to calculate this magnet and the results have been compared with measurements.

  18. 3D field calculation of the GEM prototype magnet and comparison with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The proposed 4 GeV Electron Microtron (GEM) is designed to fill the existing buildings left vacant by the demise of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) accelerator. One of the six large dipole magnets is shown as well as the first 10 electron orbits. A 3-orbit prototype magnet has been built. The stepped edge of the magnet is to keep the beam exiting perpendicular to the pole. The end guards that wrap around the main coils are joined together by the 3 shield plates. The auxiliary coils are needed to keep the end guards and shield plates from saturating. A 0.3 cm Purcell filter air gap exists between the pole and the yoke. Can anyone question this being a truly three-dimensional magnetostatic problem. The computer program TOSCA, developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by the Computing Applications Group, was used to calculate this magnet and the results have been compared with measurements

  19. Field testing of prototype systems for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Nucera, Claudio; Fateh, Mahmood; Choros, John

    2014-03-01

    In both high speed and freight rail systems, the modern construction method is Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). The purpose of the CWR method is to eliminate joints in order to reduce the maintenance costs for both the rails and the rolling stock. However the elimination of the joints increases the risk of rail breakage in cold weather and buckling in hot weather. In order to predict the temperature at which the rail will break or buckle, it is critical to have knowledge of the temperature at which the rail is stress free, namely, the Rail Neutral Temperature (Rail-NT).The University of California at San Diego has developed an innovative technique based on non-linear ultrasonic guided waves, under FRA research and development grants for the non-destructive measurement of the neutral temperature of railroad tracks. Through the licensing of this technology from the UCSD and under the sponsorship of the FRA Office of Research and Development, a field deployable prototype system has been developed and recently field tested at cooperating railroad properties. Three prototype systems have been deployed to the Union Pacific (UP), Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF), and AMTRAK railroads for field testing and related data acquisition for a comprehensive evaluation of the system, with respect to both performance and economy of operation. The results from these tests have been very encouraging. Based on the lessons learned from these field tests and the feedback from the railroads, it is planned develop a compact 2nd generation Rail-NT system to foster deployment and furtherance of FRA R&D grant purpose of potential contribution to the agency mission of US railroad safety. In this paper, the results of the field tests with the railroads in summer of 2013 are reported.

  20. Identification of High-Z Materials With Photoneutrons Driven by a Low-Energy Electron Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yigang; Zhang, Zhi; Chen, Huaibi; Li, Yulan; Li, Yuanjing

    2017-07-01

    Contraband-detection systems can use X-rays and photoneutrons delivered from the same 7-MeV electron linear accelerator (e-LINAC) to stimulate and extract information from inspected materials. The X-ray attenuation information is used to measure the mass thickness, which is combined with the photoneutron attenuation information to categorize inspected materials as common organic materials, metals, and heavy metals. Once a heavy metal is found, the beta-delayed neutrons stimulated by the (γ,fission) reaction are measured by a polyethylene-moderated 3He counter to clarify if the material is fissile. The presence of neutron events 2000 μs after the X-ray pulse confirms the existence of the fissile material. The isotopes in the material are then identified using the time-of-flight method to analyze the resonant attenuation of the fissile material to the 10-1-102 eV photoneutrons emitted from and thermalized by the D2O photonto-neutron convertor, which converts X-rays to photoneutrons. Eight high-Z simulants are tested to confirm the feasibility of identifying the isotopes from the photoneutron resonance. The underlying principles and experimental results are discussed.

  1. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER — RESULTS OF PROTOTYPE FIELD TESTS IN BANGLADESH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowolik, K; Addy, S.E.A.; Gadgil, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. Many methods of arsenic removal (mostly using chemical adsorbents) have been studied, but most of these are too expensive and impractical to be implemented in poor countries such as Bangladesh. This project investigates ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) as an affordable means of removing arsenic. Experiments were performed on site in Bangladesh using a prototype termed “sushi”. This device consists of carbon steel sheets that serve as electrodes wrapped into a cylinder, separated by plastic mesh and surrounded by a tube-like container that serves as a holding cell in which the water is treated electrochemically. During the electrochemical process, current is applied to both electrodes causing iron to oxidize to various forms of iron (hydr)oxides. These species bind to arsenic(V) with very high affi nity. ECAR also has the advantage that As(III), the more toxic form of arsenic, oxidizes to As(V) in situ. Only As(V) is known to complex with iron (hydr)oxides. One of the main objectives of this research is to demonstrate the ability of the new prototype to reduce arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater from >200 ppb to below the WHO limit of 10 ppb. In addition, varying fl ow rate and dosage and the effect on arsenic removal was investigated. Experiments showed that ECAR reduced Bangladeshi water with an initial arsenic concentration as high as 250 ppb to below 10 ppb. ECAR proved to be effective at dosages as high as 810 Coulombs/Liter (C/L) and as low as 386 C/L (current 1 A, voltage 12 V). These results are encouraging and provide great promise that ECAR is an effi cient method in the remediation of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. A preliminary investigation of arsenic removal trends with varying Coulombic dosage, complexation time and fi ltration methods is

  2. LOW-FREQUENCY IMAGING OF FIELDS AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDE WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 32 ELEMENT PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher L.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Levine, Alan M. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); De Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Hernquist, Lars L.; Bernardi, Gianni [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bowman, Judd D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Briggs, Frank H. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Sadler, Elaine M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Morales, Miguel F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sethi, Shiv K. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Arcus, Wayne; Crosse, Brian W. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Barnes, David G. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Bunton, John D. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping (Australia); Cappallo, Roger C.; Corey, Brian E., E-mail: clmw@mit.edu [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (United States); and others

    2012-08-10

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency, wide-field-of-view radio interferometer under development at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. We have used a 32 element MWA prototype interferometer (MWA-32T) to observe two 50 Degree-Sign diameter fields in the southern sky, covering a total of {approx}2700 deg{sup 2}, in order to evaluate the performance of the MWA-32T, to develop techniques for epoch of reionization experiments, and to make measurements of astronomical foregrounds. We developed a calibration and imaging pipeline for the MWA-32T, and used it to produce {approx}15' angular resolution maps of the two fields in the 110-200 MHz band. We perform a blind source extraction using these confusion-limited images, and detect 655 sources at high significance with an additional 871 lower significance source candidates. We compare these sources with existing low-frequency radio surveys in order to assess the MWA-32T system performance, wide-field analysis algorithms, and catalog quality. Our source catalog is found to agree well with existing low-frequency surveys in these regions of the sky and with statistical distributions of point sources derived from Northern Hemisphere surveys; it represents one of the deepest surveys to date of this sky field in the 110-200 MHz band.

  3. Microsurgical robotic system for the deep surgical field: development of a prototype and feasibility studies in animal and cadaveric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Warisawa, Shinichi; Suruman, Katopo; Asai, Daisuke; Arata, Junpei; Baba, Shoichi; Takahashi, Hidechika; Mochizuki, Ryo; Kirino, Takaaki

    2005-08-01

    To enhance the surgeon's dexterity and maneuverability in the deep surgical field, the authors developed a master-slave microsurgical robotic system. This concept and the results of preliminary experiments are reported in this paper. The system has a master control unit, which conveys motion commands in six degrees of freedom (X, Y, and Z directions; rotation; tip flexion; and grasping) to two arms. The slave manipulator has a hanging base with an additional six degrees of freedom; it holds a motorized operating unit with two manipulators (5 mm in diameter, 18 cm in length). The accuracy of the prototype in both shallow and deep surgical fields was compared with routine freehand microsurgery. Closure of a partial arteriotomy and complete end-to-end anastomosis of the carotid artery (CA) in the deep operative field were performed in 20 Wistar rats. Three routine surgical procedures were also performed in cadavers. The accuracy of pointing with the nondominant hand in the deep surgical field was significantly improved through the use of robotics. The authors successfully closed the partial arteriotomy and completely anastomosed the rat CAs in the deep surgical field. The time needed for stitching was significantly shortened over the course of the first 10 rat experiments. The robotic instruments also moved satisfactorily in cadavers, but the manipulators still need to be smaller to fit into the narrow intracranial space. Computer-controlled surgical manipulation will be an important tool for neurosurgery, and preliminary experiments involving this robotic system demonstrate its promising maneuverability.

  4. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  5. Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul; Oborn, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0 T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30 cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300 μT. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200 cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 × 0 to 20×20 cm 2 , to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B 0 of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B 0 .Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was

  6. A preclinical Talbot-Lau prototype for x-ray dark-field imaging of human-sized objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, C; Bartl, P; Leghissa, M; Ritschl, L; Sutter, S M; Weber, T; Zeidler, J; Freudenberger, J; Mertelmeier, T; Radicke, M; Michel, T; Anton, G; Meinel, F G; Baehr, A; Auweter, S; Bondesson, D; Gaass, T; Dinkel, J; Reiser, M; Hellbach, K

    2018-03-26

    Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry provides information about the scattering and refractive properties of an object - in addition to the object's attenuation features. Until recently, this method was ineligible for imaging human-sized objects as it is challenging to adapt Talbot-Lau interferometers (TLIs) to the relevant x-ray energy ranges. In this work, we present a preclinical Talbot-Lau prototype capable of imaging human-sized objects with proper image quality at clinically acceptable dose levels. The TLI is designed to match a setup of clinical relevance as closely as possible. The system provides a scan range of 120 × 30 cm 2 by using a scanning beam geometry. Its ultimate load is 100 kg. High aspect ratios and fine grid periods of the gratings ensure a reasonable setup length and clinically relevant image quality. The system is installed in a university hospital and is, therefore, exposed to the external influences of a clinical environment. To demonstrate the system's capabilities, a full-body scan of a euthanized pig was performed. In addition, freshly excised porcine lungs with an extrinsically provoked pneumothorax were mounted into a human thorax phantom and examined with the prototype. Both examination sequences resulted in clinically relevant image quality - even in the case of a skin entrance air kerma of only 0.3 mGy which is in the range of human thoracic imaging. The presented case of a pneumothorax and a reader study showed that the prototype's dark-field images provide added value for pulmonary diagnosis. We demonstrated that a dedicated design of a Talbot-Lau interferometer can be applied to medical imaging by constructing a preclinical Talbot-Lau prototype. We experienced that the system is feasible for imaging human-sized objects and the phase-stepping approach is suitable for clinical practice. Hence, we conclude that Talbot-Lau x-ray imaging has potential for clinical use and enhances the diagnostic power of medical x-ray imaging.

  7. Field Testing of a Prototype Heat Stress Monitor: System Performance and Applicability to Commercial Mining in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew, William

    1999-01-01

    .... Overall system performance of three prototype HSMs was evaluated at a commercial oil production facility at Barrow Island, Australia, and a single prototype was evaluated for potential use in deep...

  8. Detector tests in a high magnetic field and muon spectrometer triggering studies on a small prototype for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bergsma, F; Castro, H; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; De Pasquale, S; Gálvez, J; Gentile, S; Giusti, P; Laurent, G; Levi, G; Lin, Q; Maccarrone, G D; Mattern, D; Nania, R; Rivera, F; Schioppa, M; Sharma, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    The "Large Area Devices" group of the LAA project is working on R&D for muon detection at a future super-collider. New detectors are under development and the design of a muon spectrometer for an LHC experiment is under study. Our present choice is for a compact, high field, air-core toroidal muon spectrometer. Good momentum resolution is achievable in this compact solution, with at least one plane of detection elements inside the high field region. A new detector, the Blade Chamber, making use of blades instead of wires, has been developed for the forward and backward regions of the spectrometer, where polar coordinate readings are desirable.The assembling of a CERN high energy beam line, equipped with high resolution drift chambers and a strong field magnet could give us the opportunity to test our chambers in a high magnetic field and to study the muon trigger capabilities of a spectrometer, like the one proposed, on a small prototype.

  9. A deformable magnetizable worm in a magnetic field-A prototype of a mobile crawling robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Klaus [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany)]. E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de; Naletova, Vera A. [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Zeidis, Igor [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany); Turkov, Vladimir A. [Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Kolev, Emil [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany); Lukashevich, Mikhail V. [Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Stepanov, Gennadij V. [State Research Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 38, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow 111123 (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    The paper deals with the deformation and worm-like motion of a magnetizable elastic body in an alternate magnetic field from an experimental and a theoretically point of view. Theoretically (analytically and numerically) calculated results of the body velocity are compared with the experimental data.

  10. Prototype of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Field-Cage

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle tracking detector in ALICE. Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC knock electons out of their atoms, which then drift in in the electric field. By measuring the arrival of electrons at the end of the chamber, the TPC will reconstruct the paths of the original charged particles.

  11. New approach to analyzing and evaluating cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, V. V.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of substantial systematic discrepancies between the results of different experiments devoted to determining cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions—first of all, (γ, n), (γ, 2n), and (γ, 3n) reactions—is a strong motivation for studying the reliability and authenticity of these data and for developing methods for taking into account and removing the discrepancies in question. In order to solve the first problem, we introduce objective absolute criteria involving transitional photoneutron-multiplicity functions F 1 , F 2 , F 3 , …; by definition, their values cannot exceed 1.0, 0.5, 0.33, …, respectively. With the aim of solving the second problem, we propose a new experimental-theoretical approach. In this approach, reaction cross sections are evaluated by simultaneously employing experimental data on the cross section for the total photoneutron yield, σ expt (γ, xn) = σ expt (γ, n) + 2σ expt (γ, 2n) + 3σ expt (γ, 3n) + …, which are free from drawbacks plaguing experimental methods for sorting neutrons in multiplicity, and the results obtained by calculating the functions F theor 1 , F theor 2 , F theor 3 , … on the basis of the modern model of photonuclear reactions. The reliability and authenticity of data on the cross sections for (γ, n), (γ, 2n), and (γ, 3n) partial reactions—σ eval (γ, in) = F i theor σ expt (γ, xn)—were evaluated for the 90 Zr, 115 In, 112,114,116,117,118,119,120,122,124 Sn, 159 Tb, and 197 Au nuclei.

  12. Photoneutron source based on a compact 10 MeV betatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakhlov, V.L.; Bell, Z.W.; Golovkov, V.M.; Shtein, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator-based photoneutron sources have enjoyed wide use and offer the advantages of long term stability, ease of control and absence of radioactive materials. We report here measurements of the yield of photoneutrons from a neutron generator using a compact betatron. Electrons were accelerated to energies up to 10 MeV and produced a bremsstrahlung beam with a dose rate of 0.16 Gy/min (at 10 MeV, 1 m from the bremsstrahlung target) to irradiate LiD, Be, depleted U, and Pb neutron-producing targets. The angular distributions of photoneutrons produced by bremsstrahlung beams were measured with a 'long' counter and integrated to determine neutron yield. In addition, neutron time of flight spectra were recorded from all targets using a 15.5 m flight path perpendicular to the photon beam. The maximum observed yields were 4.6x10 7 n/s obtained with 1 kg of LiD, 5.7x10 7 n/s from a 3.3 kg Be block, 6.2x10 6 n/s from 1.5 kg of depleted U, and 7.0x10 6 n/s from 10.7 kg of Pb. Optimization of target dimensions, shape, and positioning is expected to increase the yield from the LiD target by a factor of 35, while optimization of the other targets is expected to yield at most a factor of 10. With the increased yield and a deuteride target, this compact betatron-based system could find application in the interrogation of waste containers for fissile material

  13. Photoneutron source based on a compact 10 MeV betatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Z.W.; Chaklov, V.L.; Golovkov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Accelerator-based photoneutron sources have enjoyed wide use and offer the advantages of long term stability, ease of control and absence of radioactive materials. The authors report here measurements of the yield of photoneutrons from a neutron generator using a compact betatron (466 kg total weight, 900 by 560 by 350 mm betatron dimensions) at the Institute of Introscopy of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Electrons were accelerated to energies up to 10 MeV and produced a bremsstrahlung beam with a dose rate of 0.16 Gy/min (at 10 MeV, 1 meter from the bremsstrahlung target) to irradiate LiD, Be, depleted U, and Pb neutron-producing targets. The angular distributions of photoneutrons produced by bremsstrahlung beams were measured with a long counter and integrated to determine neutron yield. In addition, neutron time of flight spectra were recorded from all targets using a 15 meter flight path perpendicular to the photon beam. The maximum observed yields were 5.2 x 10 4 n/rad/gram target obtained with LiD, 1.7 x 10 4 n/rad/gram from Be, 3.3 x 10 3 n/rad/gram from U, and 7.5 x 10 2 n/rad/gram from Pb. Optimization of target dimensions, shape, and positioning is expected to increase the yield from the LiD target by a factor of 35. With the increased yield, this compact betatron-based system could find application in the interrogation of waste containers for fissile material

  14. Evaluation of the exchange interaction and crystal fields in a prototype Dy2 SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Sarachik, Myriam; Baker, Michael; Chen, Yizhang; Kent, Andrew; Pineda, Eufemio; McInnes, Eric

    In order to gain an understanding of the INS and magnetization data obtained for Dy2, the simplest member of a newly synthesized family of dysprosium-based molecular magnets, we report on calculations of the magnetic behavior of a Dy2 cluster with the formula [hqH2][Dy2(hq)4(NO3)3].MeOH. The molecular complex contains one high symmetry Dy(III) ion and one low symmetry Dy(III) ion. Our calculations suggest that exchange coupling between the two ions controls the behavior of the magnetization at low temperature, while the crystal field of the low symmetry Dy(III) ion controls the behavior at higher temperature. A point charge electrostatic model, based on crystallographic coordinates, provides a starting point for the determination of the crystal field. Parameters in these calculations are adjusted to provide best fits to inelastic neutron scattering data (INS) and low temperature magnetometry: the INS measurements access crystal field energies and low temperature magnetization probes the Dy-Dy exchange interaction. Work supported by ARO W911NF-13-1-1025 (CCNY) and NSF-DMR-1309202 (NYU).

  15. Neutron total cross section measurements of gold and tantalum at the nELBE photoneutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaske, Roland; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd; Bemmerer, Daniel; Birgersson, Evert; Ferrari, Anna; Grosse, Eckart; Kempe, Mathias; Kögler, Toni; Marta, Michele; Massarczyk, Ralph; Matic, Andrija; Schramm, Georg; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 197 Au and nat Ta have been measured at the nELBE photoneutron source in the energy range from 0.1 - 10 MeV with a statistical uncertainty of up to 2 % and a total systematic uncertainty of 1 %. This facility is optimized for the fast neutron energy range and combines an excellent t ime structure of the neutron pulses (electron bunch width 5 ps) with a short flight path of 7 m. Because of the low instantaneous neutron flux transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections are possible, that exhibit very different beam and back ground conditions than found at other neutron sources.

  16. Photoneutron multiplicities of preactinide nuclei at energies above the pion threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Simionatto, S.; Likhachev, V.P.; Garcia, F.; Mesa, J.

    1998-01-01

    The average photoneutron multiplicities anti ν of Au, Ta and 182 W were deduced from their previously measured excitation energies anti E x , from 160 to 250 MeV. A combined analysis of these data and those measured at Saclay up to 140 MeV allowed the extraction of information on anti E x at the ''pure evaporation'' and quasideuteron energy regions. A theoretical approach for the study of anti ν above 140 MeV, which incorporates photopion reabsorption processes by two-body, was proposed, allowing a tentative delineation of the pion mean free path in the nucleus. (orig.)

  17. Mean-field potential approach for thermodynamic properties of lanthanide: Europium as a prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, a simple conjunction scheme [mean-field potential (MFP) + local pseudopotential] is used to study the thermodynamic properties of divalent lanthanide europium (Eu) at extreme environment. Present study has been carried out due to the fact that divalent nature of Eu arises because of stable half-filled 4f-shell at ambient condition, which has great influence on the thermodynamic properties at extreme environment. Due to such electronic structure, it is different from remaining lanthanides having incomplete 4f-shell. The presently computed results of thermodynamic properties of Eu are in good agreement with the experimental results. Looking to such success, it seems that the concept of MFP approach is successful to account contribution due to nuclear motion to the total Helmholtz free energy at finite temperatures and pressure-induced inter-band transfer of electrons for condensed state of matter. The local pseudopotential is used to evaluate cold energy and hence MFP accounts the s-p-d-f hybridization properly. Looking to the reliability and transferability along with its computational and conceptual simplicity, we would like to extend the present scheme for the study of thermodynamic properties of remaining lanthanides and actinides at extreme environment.

  18. Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 59}Co. Systematic uncertainties of data from various experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamov, V.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Davydov, A.I. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ishkhanov, B.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-15

    Data on partial photoneutron reaction cross sections (γ, 1n), (γ, 2n), and (γ, 3n) for {sup 59}Co obtained in two experiments carried out at Livermore (USA) were analyzed. The sources of radiation in both experiments were the monoenergetic photon beams from the annihilation in flight of relativistic positrons. The total yield was sorted by the neutron multiplicity, taking into account the difference in the neutron energy spectra for different multiplicity. The two quoted studies differ in the method of determining the neutron. Significant systematic disagreements between the results of the two experiments exist. They are considered to be caused by large systematic uncertainties in partial cross sections, since they do not satisfy physical criteria for reliability of the data. To obtain reliable cross sections of partial and total photoneutron reactions a new method combining experimental data and theoretical evaluation was used. It is based on the experimental neutron yield cross section which is rather independent of neutron multiplicity and the transitional neutron multiplicity functions of the combined photonucleon reaction model (CPNRM). The model transitional multiplicity functions were used for the decomposition of the neutron yield cross section into the contributions of partial reactions. The results of the new evaluation noticeably differ from the partial cross sections obtained in the two experimental studies are under discussion. (orig.)

  19. Photo-neutron yields from thin and thick targets irradiated by 2.0 GeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee-Seock, Lee; Syuichi, Ban; Toshiya, Sanami; Kazutoshi, Takahashi; Tatsuhiko, Sato; Kazuo, Shin

    2005-01-01

    The photo-neutron yields from thin and thick targets irradiated by high energy electrons were studied. The photo-neutron spectra at 90 deg C relative to the incident 2.0 GeV electrons were measured by the pulsed beam time-of-flight technique using the Pilot-U plastic scintillator and the NE213 liquid scintillator with 2 inches in length and 2 inches in diameter. Targets, from low-Z element (carbon) to high-Z element (bismuth) and with thin (0.5 Xo) and thick (10 Xo) thickness, were used in this study. The differential photo-neutron yields between 2 MeV (mainly 8 MeV) and 400 MeV were obtained. The systematics was studied to make empirical yield terms for shielding application. Recently, the study of the angular distributed yields was conducted at two other observing angles, 48 deg C and 140 deg C. The photo-neutron yields between 8 MeV and 250 MeV were obtained for thick targets. The experimental data were compared with results calculated using the EGS4+PICA3 or the MCNPX 2.5d code. (authors)

  20. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  1. Cyclopentadithiophene-Benzothiadiazole Donor-Acceptor Polymers as Prototypical Semiconductors for High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; An, Cunbin; Pisula, Wojciech; Müllen, Klaus

    2018-05-15

    Donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers are of great interest as organic semiconductors, because they offer a rational tailoring of the electronic properties by modification of the donor and acceptor units. Nowadays, D-A polymers exhibit field-effect mobilities on the order of 10 -2 -10 0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , while several examples showed a mobility over 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The development of cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CDT-BTZ) copolymers one decade ago represents an important step toward high-performance organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors. The significant rise in field-effect mobility of CDT-BTZ in comparison to the existing D-A polymers at that time opened the door to a new research field with a large number of novel D-A systems. From this point, the device performance of CDT-BTZ was gradually improved by a systematic optimization of the synthesis and polymer structure as well as by an efficient solution processing into long-range ordered thin films. The key aspect was a comprehensive understanding of the relation between polymer structure and solid-state organization. Due to their fundamental role for the field of D-A polymers in general, this Account will for the first time explicitly focus on prototypical CDT-BTZ polymers, while other reviews provide an excellent general overview on D-A polymers. The first part of this Account discusses strategies for improving the charge carrier transport, focusing on chemical aspects. Improved synthesis as an essential stage toward high purity, and high molecular weight is a prerequisite for molecular order. The modification of substituents is a further crucial feature to tune the CDT-BTZ packing and self-assembly. Linear alkyl side chains facilitate intermolecular π-stacking interactions, while branched ones increase solubility and alter the polymer packing. Additional control over the supramolecular organization of CDT-BTZ polymers is introduced by alkenyl substituents via their cis

  2. Field cooling of a MgB2 cylinder around a permanent magnet stack: prototype for superconductive magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, E; Giunchi, G

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of bulk superconductors as levitators of permanent magnets (PMs) has been extensively studied for the textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material, in the temperature range lower than 77 K, obtaining extremely high trapped fields but also experiencing limitations on the mechanical characteristics of the material and on the possibility to produce large objects. Alternatively, bulk MgB 2 , even if it is superconducting at lower temperatures, has fewer mechanical problems, when fully densified, and presents stable magnetization in the temperature range between 10 and 30 K. With the reactive Mg-liquid infiltration technique we have produced dense MgB 2 bulk cylinders of up to 65 mm diameter and 100 mm height. This kind of cylinder can be consider as a prototype of a passive magnetic bearing for flywheels or other rotating electrical machines. We have conductively cooled one of these superconducting cylinders inside a specially constructed cryostat, and the levitation forces and stiffness, with respect to axial movements of various arrangements of the PM, have been measured as a function of the temperature below T c . We verified the very stable characteristics of the induced magnetization after several cycles of relative movements of the PM and the superconducting cylinder.

  3. Development of a High Sensitivity Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device. Prototype Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device. Field test in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.D.; Gerwing, A.F.; Lewis, P.D.; Larsson, M.; Jansson, K.; Lindberg, B.; Sundkvist, E.; Ohlsson, M.

    2002-05-01

    The Swedish and Canadian Safeguards Support Programs have developed a prototype Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) to verify long-cooled spent fuel. The instrument consists of a camera system and a custom portable computer equipped with a liquid crystal and a wearable heads-up display. The camera was coupled to a hardware user interface (HUI) and was operated with a computer program designed to image spent fuel and store the images. Measurements were taken at the CLAB facility on pressurized-water reactor fuel and non-fuel assemblies, a number of boiling-water reactor fuel assemblies, and long-cooled Aagesta fuel assemblies. The camera head, attached to the HUI, a battery-operated computer carried in a backpack and the heads-up display were field tested for portability. The ergonomics of this system is presented in the report. For the examination of long-cooled spent fuel, the camera head was mounted on a bracket that rested on the railing of a moving bridge. The DCVD instrument is approximately 100 times higher in sensitivity than the Mark IVe CVD. The oldest fuel with the lowest burnup at the CLAB facility was positively verified. The measurement capability of this instrument greatly exceeds the verification criteria of 10,000 MWd/t U and 40 years cooling

  4. Influence of the configuration of the magnetic filter field on the discharge structure in the RF driven negative ion source prototype for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishev, S.; Schiesko, L.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    The study provides results for the influence of the filter field topology on the plasma parameters in the RF prototype negative ion source for ITER NBI. A previously developed 2D fluid plasma model of the prototype source was extended towards accounting for the particles and energy losses along the magnetic field lines and the presence of a magnetic field in the driver which is the case at the BATMAN and ELISE test-beds. The effect of the magnetic field in the driver is shown for the magnetic field configuration of the prototype source (i.e. a magnetic field produced by an external magnet frame) by comparison of plasma parameters without and with the magnetic field in the driver and for different axial positions of the filter. Since the ELISE-like magnetic field (i.e. a magnetic field produced by a current flowing through the plasma grid) is a new feature planned to be installed at the BATMAN test-bed, its effect on the discharge structure was studied for different strengths of the magnetic field. The obtained results show for both configurations of the magnetic filter the same main features in the patterns of the plasma parameters in the expansion chamber: a strong axial drop of the electron temperature and the formation of a groove accompanied with accumulation of electrons in front of the plasma grid. The presence of a magnetic field in the driver has a local impact on the plasma parameters: the formation of a second groove of the electron temperature in the case of BATMAN (due to the reversed direction of the filter field in the driver) and a strong asymmetry of the electron density. Accounting for the additional losses in the third dimension suppresses the drifts across the magnetic field and, thus, the variations of the electron density in the expansion chamber are less pronounced.

  5. Prototype road weather performance management (RW-PM) tool and Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    FHWAs Road Weather Management Program developed : a Prototype Road Weather Management (RW-PM) Tool : to help DOTs maximize the effectiveness of their maintenance : resources and efficiently adjust deployments dynamically, : as road conditions and ...

  6. Performance of a Highly Granular Scintillator-SiPM Based Hadron Calorimeter Prototype in Strong Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Christian; collaboration, for the CALICE

    2017-01-01

    Within the CALICE collaboration, several concepts for the hadronic calorimeter of a future linear collider detector are studied. After having demonstrated the capabilities of the measurement methods in "physics prototypes", the focus now lies on improving their implementation in "engineering prototypes", that are scalable to the full linear collider detector. The Analog Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL) concept is a sampling calorimeter of tungsten or steel absorber plates and plastic scintillator t...

  7. Prototypical anxiolytics do not reduce anxiety-like behavior in the open field in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trey; Grabowski-Boase, Laura; Tarantino, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding and effectively treating anxiety disorders are a challenge for both scientists and clinicians. Despite a variety of available therapies, the efficacy of current treatments is still not optimal and adverse side effects can result in non-compliance. Animal models have been useful for studying the underlying biology of anxiety and assessing the anxiolytic properties of potential therapeutics. The open field (OF) is a commonly used assay of anxiety-like behavior. The OF was developed and validated in rats and then transferred to use in the mouse with only limited validation. The present study tests the efficacy of prototypical benzodiazepine anxiolytics, chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and diazepam (DZ), for increasing center time in the OF in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Multiple doses of CDP and DZ did not change time spent in the center of the OF. Increasing illumination in the OF did not alter these results. The non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone (BUSP) also failed to increase center time in the OF while the anxiogenic meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) increased center time. Additional inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ (BALB) and DBA/2J (D2) did not show any change in center time in response to CDP. Moreover, evaluation of CDP in B6 mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM), elevated zero maze (EZM) and light dark assay (LD) did not reveal changes in anxiety-like behavior while stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was decreased by DZ. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies suggest that adequate CDP is present to induce anxiolysis. We conclude that the measure of center time in the OF does not show predictive validity for anxiolysis in these inbred mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on the photoneutron dose estimation in flattening filter mode and flattening filter free mode for medical linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Oh Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Mokpo Science University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, the generation of photoneutrons between the 10 MV FF mode and the FFF mode was evaluated and the amount of photoneutrons generated by the 10 MV and 15 MV energy changes in the FFF mode was evaluated. The generated neutrons were evaluated at 13 measurement points and the KTEPC was used to collect the generated neutrons. 10 MV FF mode was measured at 10 MV FF mode and FFF mode at all measurement points. In the superior direction, 0.455mSv and 0.152mSv were the largest, and more than 33% optical neutron was generated in FF. 10 MV in FFF mode, 15 MV in 15 MV, and 0.402 mSv in the direction of Superior, and 6.9% in the direction.

  9. A radiochemical separation of spallogenic 88Zr in the carrier-free state for radioisotopic photoneutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, R.E.; Grant, P.M.; Daniels, R.J.; Daniels, W.R.; O'Brien, H.A.Jr.

    1976-01-01

    As the precursor of its 88 Y daughter, 88 Zr could be advantageously included in the active component of the 88 Y-Be photoneutron source for several reasons. The spallation of Mo targets with medium-energy protons at LAMPF procedure has been developed to separate radiozirconium from the target material and various spallogenic impurities. 88 Zr can consequently be obtained carrier-free and in quantitative yield. (author)

  10. a new way to solve galloping on bundled lines. A concept, a prototype bytwo years field experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilien, Jean-Louis; pirotte, pol; smart, Tom; Wolfs, Marc

    1993-01-01

    that paper introduce a new concept to control galloping on bundle conductors using a dynamic device coupling detuning of frequencies together with some addition in torsional damping.The concept is explained, a prototype is tested on actual line and results are presented. Peer reviewed

  11. NDA technology for uranium resource evaluation. Progress report, January 1-June 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.

    1980-04-01

    Calculational effort has focused on gamma-ray cross-section conversions, feasibility studies of an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) probe, and simulation of the prototype photoneutron logging tool. Experimental effort has concentrated on the design and fabrication of a field prototype photoneutron-based logging probe, on two types of borehole water monitors, and on a commercial pulse-shape discrimination unit to be used with the photoneutron logging probe. 37 figures, 4 tables

  12. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  13. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis under field conditions in The Gambia and Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Harding-Esch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical signs of active trachoma are often present in the absence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in low prevalence and mass treated settings. Treatment decisions are currently based on the prevalence of clinical signs, and this may result in the unnecessary distribution of mass antibiotic treatment. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a prototype point-of-care (POC test, developed for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis, in low prevalence settings of The Gambia and Senegal.Three studies were conducted, two in The Gambia and one in Senegal. Children under the age of 10 years were screened for the clinical signs of trachoma. Two ocular swabs were taken from the right eye. The first swab was tested by the POC test in the field and the result independently graded by two readers. The second swab was tested for the presence of C. trachomatis by Amplicor Polymerase Chain Reaction. In Senegal, measurements of humidity and temperature in the field were taken. A total of 3734 children were screened, 950 in the first and 1171 in the second Gambian study, and 1613 in Senegal. The sensitivity of the prototype POC test ranged between 33.3-67.9%, the specificity between 92.4-99.0%, the positive predictive value between 4.3-21.0%, and the negative predictive value between 98.0-99.8%. The rate of false-positives increased markedly at temperatures above 31.4°C and relative humidities below 11.4%.In its present format, this prototype POC test is not suitable for field diagnosis of ocular C. trachomatis as its specificity decreases in hot and dry conditions: the environment in which trachoma is predominantly found. In the absence of a suitable test for infection, trachoma diagnosis remains dependent on clinical signs. Under current WHO recommendations, this is likely resulting in the continued mass treatment of non-infected communities.

  15. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  16. {sup 124}Sb–Be photo-neutron source for BNCT: Is it possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golshanian, Mohadeseh [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Yaser, E-mail: ykasesaz@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this research a computational feasibility study has been done on the use of {sup 124}SbBe photo-neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. For this purpose, a special beam shaping assembly has been designed to provide an appropriate epithermal neutron beam suitable for BNCT. The final result shows that using 150 kCi of {sup 124}Sb, the epithermal neutron flux at the designed beam exit is 0.23×10{sup 9} (n/cm{sup 2} s). In-phantom dose analysis indicates that treatment time for a brain tumor is about 40 min which is a reasonable time. This high activity {sup 124}Sb could be achieved using three 50 kCi rods of {sup 124}Sb which can be produced in a research reactor. It is clear, that as this activity is several hundred times the activity of a typical cobalt radiotherapy source, issues related to handling, safety and security must be addressed.

  17. A Field Assessment of a Prototype Meter for Measuring the Wet-Bulb Globe-Thermometer Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    A prototype electronic instrument for the direct measurement of the wet-bulb globe-thermometer index is described. An assessment is made of its accuracy, as compared with W.B.G.T. indices calculated from conventional thermometric data, and a comparison is made between W.B.G.T. values read from the meter and effective or corrected effective temperatures derived from separate thermometric and air velocity recording instruments in the same climates. The instrument proved to be reliable and accurate over a wide range of climates and is a useful self-contained device for use in habitability surveys and similar investigations. Images PMID:5663429

  18. Field testing the effectiveness of pumping to remove sulfur hexafluoride traced drilling air from a prototype borehole near superior, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.A.; Striffler, P.; Yang, I.C.; Ferarese, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior is conducting studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to provide hydrologic, hydrochemical, and geologic information to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for development as a high-level nuclear-waste repository. The USGS unsaturated-zone hydrochemistry study involves the collection of gas and water samples from the unsaturated zone for chemical and isotopic analyses. Results from these analyses will aid in the understanding of the movement of gas and water in the rock units at Yucca Mountain. A prototype borehole designated USW UZP5 was drilled by the US Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (DOE, YMSCPO) in June 1990 in the Apache Leap Tuff of southcentral Arizona. The hole was dry drilled with air using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) as a tracer. This drilling method simulated that which will be used to drill boreholes for the collection of gas and water samples at Yucca Mountain. The purpose of tracing the drilling air is to quantify its removal by pumping, prior to sampling of in situ gases. The objectives of our work in Arizona were to: (1) Determine the amount of time and the pumping rates required to remove the SF 6 -enriched drilling air without inducing additional atmospheric contamination; (2) collect core samples for uniaxial compression to determine the amount of SF 6 gas that penetrated the core during drilling; (3) test the effectiveness of the SF 6 injection and sampling system; (4) test the installation and effectiveness of the prototype packer system; and (5) test the effectiveness of several core sealing methods. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. A two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber array prototype for small-field verification: characterization and first clinical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brualla-González, Luis; Vicedo, Aurora; Roselló, Joan V; Gómez, Faustino; González-Castaño, Diego M; Gago-Arias, Araceli; Pazos, Antonio; Zapata, Martín; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the design, characterization and first clinical tests of an in-house developed two-dimensional liquid-filled ionization chamber prototype for the verification of small radiotherapy fields and treatments containing such small fields as in radiosurgery, which consists of 2 mm × 2 mm pixels arranged on a 16×8 rectangular grid. The ionization medium is isooctane. The characterization of the device included the study of depth, field-size and dose-rate dependences, which are sufficiently moderate for a good operation at therapy radiation levels. However, the detector presents an important anisotropic response, up to ≃ 12% for front versus near-lateral incidence, which can impact the verification of full treatments with different incidences. In such a case, an anisotropy correction factor can be applied. Output factors of small square fields measured with the device show a small systematic over-response, less than 1%, when compared to unshielded diode measurements. An IMRT radiosurgery treatment has been acquired with the liquid-filled ionization chamber device and compared with film dosimetry by using the gamma method, showing good agreement: over 99% passing rates for 1.2% and 1.2 mm for an incidence-per-incidence analysis; 100% passing rates for tolerances 1.8% and 1.8 mm when the whole treatment is analysed and the anisotropy correction factor is applied. The point dose verification for each incidence of the treatment performed with the liquid-filled ionization chamber agrees within 1% with a CC01 ionization chamber. This prototype has shown the utility of this kind of technology for the verification of small fields/treatments. Currently, a larger device covering a 5 cm × 5 cm area is under development. (paper)

  20. Test calculations of photoneutrons emission from surface of uranium sphere irradiated by 28 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Degtyarev, I.I.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the results of physical verification for the BOFOD photonuclear data files are reported, available for the uranium isotopes U 235 , U 238 . These results were compared with calculated data by the parameterization driven model of photonuclear reaction and experimental data. Experimental data of photoneutron yields from surface of uranium sphere irradiated by 28 MeV electrons are used for a verification. Both calculations have been carried out with the RTS and T general purpose Monte Carlo code with detailed electron-photon-nucleon transport simulation using the ENDF/B-VI and EPDL evaluated data libraries

  1. Spectra and absorbed dose by photo-neutrons in a solid water mannequin exposed to a Linac of 15 MV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites R, J.; Vega C, H. R.; Velazquez F, J.

    2012-10-01

    Using Monte Carlo methods was modeled a solid water mannequin; according to the ICRU 44 (1989), Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements, of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements; Report 44. This material Wt 1 is made of H (8.1%), C (67.2%), N (2.4%), O (19.9%), Cl (0.1%), Ca (2.3%) and its density is of 1.02 gr/cm 3 . The mannequin was put instead of the patient, inside the treatment room and the spectra and absorbed dose were determined by photo-neutrons exposed to a Linac of 15 MV. (Author)

  2. Electron accelerator-based production of molybdenum-99: Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron generation from molybdenum vs. tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsechanski, A. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bielajew, A.F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Archambault, J.P.; Mainegra-Hing, E. [National Research Council of Canada, Ionizing Radiation Standards Laboratory, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    A new “one-stage” approach for production of {sup 99}Mo and other radioisotopes by means of an electron linear accelerator is described. It is based on using a molybdenum target both as a bremsstrahlung converter and as a radioisotope producing target for the production of {sup 99}Mo via the photoneutron reaction {sup 100}Mo(γ,n){sup 99}Mo. Bremsstrahlung characteristics, such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, angular distribution, and energy deposition for molybdenum targets were obtained by means of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system. As a result of our simulations, it is concluded that a 60 MeV electron beam incident on a thick Mo target will have greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness (in units of r{sub 0}) W target, for target thickness z > 1.84r{sub 0}, where r{sub 0} is the electron range. A 50 MeV electron beam incident on a Mo target will result in greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness W target (in units of r{sub 0}) for target thickness case: z ⩾ 2.0r{sub 0}. It is shown for the one-stage approach with thicknesses of (1.84–2.0)r{sub 0}, that the {sup 99}Mo-production bremsstrahlung efficiency of a molybdenum target is greater by ∼100% at 30 MeV and by ∼70% at 60 MeV compared to the values for tungsten of the same thickness (in units of the appropriate r{sub 0}) in the traditional two-stage approach (W converter and separate {sup 99}Mo producing target). This advantage of the one-stage approach arises from the fact that the bremsstrahlung produced is attenuated only once from attenuation in the molybdenum converter/target. In the traditional, two-stage approach, the bremsstrahlung generated in the W-converter/target is attenuated both in the converter in the {sup 99}Mo-producing molybdenum target. The photoneutron production yield of molybdenum and tantalum (as a substitute for tungsten) target was calculated by means of the MCNP5 transport code. On the basis of these data, the specific activity

  3. A Non-Intrusive Cyber Physical Social Sensing Solution to People Behavior Tracking: Mechanism, Prototype, and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunjian; Zhou, Zhenyu; Chen, Fei; Duan, Peng; Guo, Zhen; Mumtaz, Shahid

    2017-01-13

    Tracking people's behaviors is a main category of cyber physical social sensing (CPSS)-related people-centric applications. Most tracking methods utilize camera networks or sensors built into mobile devices such as global positioning system (GPS) and Bluetooth. In this article, we propose a non-intrusive wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)-based tracking method. To show the feasibility, we target tracking people's access behaviors in Wi-Fi networks, which has drawn a lot of interest from the academy and industry recently. Existing methods used for acquiring access traces either provide very limited visibility into media access control (MAC)-level transmission dynamics or sometimes are inflexible and costly. In this article, we present a passive CPSS system operating in a non-intrusive, flexible, and simplified manner to overcome above limitations. We have implemented the prototype on the off-the-shelf personal computer, and performed real-world deployment experiments. The experimental results show that the method is feasible, and people's access behaviors can be correctly tracked within a one-second delay.

  4. Electronics for a prototype variable field of view PET camera using the PMT-quadrant-sharing detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Wong, Wai-Hoi; Zhang, N.; Wang, J.; Uribe, J.; Baghaei, H.; Yokoyama, S.

    1999-06-01

    Electronics for a prototype high-resolution PET camera with eight position-sensitive detector modules has been developed. Each module has 16 BGO (Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/) blocks (each block is composed of 49 crystals). The design goals are component and space reduction. The electronics is composed of five parts: front-end analog processing, digital position decoding, fast timing, coincidence processing and master data acquisition. The front-end analog circuit is a zone-based structure (each zone has 3/spl times/3 PMTs). Nine ADCs digitize integration signals of an active zone identified by eight trigger clusters; each cluster is composed of six photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A trigger corresponding to a gamma ray is sent to a fast timing board to obtain a time-mark, and the nine digitized signals are passed to the position decoding board, where a real block (four PMTs) can be picked out from the zone for position decoding. Lookup tables are used for energy discrimination and to identify the gamma-hit crystal location. The coincidence board opens a 70-ns initial timing window, followed by two 20-ns true/accidental time-mark lookup table windows. The data output from the coincidence board can be acquired either in sinogram mode or in list mode with a Motorola/IRONICS VME-based system.

  5. Development of a prototype apparatus visualizing on a screen the gamma sources superimposed on the image of the vision field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbard, G.; Lemaire, J.E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Carcreff, H.; Marchand, L.; Thellier, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Reacteurs Experimentaux

    1994-12-31

    Mapping the gamma activity of irradiating zones is often an important prerequisite in dismantling nuclear facilities. The operation is necessary to define a suitable decommissioning strategy before any work begins; it is also required during the procedure to measure the residual activity wherever dose rates are too high to allow human intervention. This report summarizes the work carried out under CEC contract FIED-0055, covering a prototype imaging system designed to display radioactive sources superimposed in real time over a visible light image on a video monitor. This project was developed from an earlier off-line system. The gamma photons are collimated by a double cone system. The imaging system comprises a transparent scintillator bonded to the fiber-optic window of an ultrasensitive camera. The camera was miniaturized to meet specification requirements: with its radiological shielding, the gamma camera weighs 40 kg and is 120 mm in diameter. The processing system is compatible with a realtime camera, and small enough for use at any nuclear. The point-source angular resolution is 1.4 deg. for {sup 60} Co and 0.8 deg. for {sup 137} Cs. The dose rate sensitivity limit is approximately 0.01 mGy.h{sup -1}. Process reliability was confirmed by tests in a high-level radio-metallurgy cell at actual decommissioning site. (authors). 7 figs.

  6. A Non-Intrusive Cyber Physical Social Sensing Solution to People Behavior Tracking: Mechanism, Prototype, and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjian Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking people’s behaviors is a main category of cyber physical social sensing (CPSS-related people-centric applications. Most tracking methods utilize camera networks or sensors built into mobile devices such as global positioning system (GPS and Bluetooth. In this article, we propose a non-intrusive wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi-based tracking method. To show the feasibility, we target tracking people’s access behaviors in Wi-Fi networks, which has drawn a lot of interest from the academy and industry recently. Existing methods used for acquiring access traces either provide very limited visibility into media access control (MAC-level transmission dynamics or sometimes are inflexible and costly. In this article, we present a passive CPSS system operating in a non-intrusive, flexible, and simplified manner to overcome above limitations. We have implemented the prototype on the off-the-shelf personal computer, and performed real-world deployment experiments. The experimental results show that the method is feasible, and people’s access behaviors can be correctly tracked within a one-second delay.

  7. Photoneutron Flux Measurement via Neutron Activation Analysis in a Radiotherapy Bunker with an 18 MV Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeçen, Yiğit; Gülümser, Tuğçe; Yazgan, Çağrı; Dapo, Haris; Üstün, Mahmut; Boztosun, Ismail

    2017-09-01

    In cancer treatment, high energy X-rays are used which are produced by linear accelerators (LINACs). If the energy of these beams is over 8 MeV, photonuclear reactions occur between the bremsstrahlung photons and the metallic parts of the LINAC. As a result of these interactions, neutrons are also produced as secondary radiation products (γ,n) which are called photoneutrons. The study aims to map the photoneutron flux distribution within the LINAC bunker via neutron activation analysis (NAA) using indium-cadmium foils. Irradiations made at different gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) with a total of 91 positions in the Philips SLI-25 linear accelerator treatment room and location-based distribution of thermal neutron flux was obtained. Gamma spectrum analysis was carried out with high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Results of the analysis showed that the maximum neutron flux in the room occurred at just above of the LINAC head (1.2x105 neutrons/cm2.s) which is compatible with an americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron source. There was a 90% decrease of flux at the walls and at the start of the maze with respect to the maximum neutron flux. And, just in front of the LINAC door, inside the room, neutron flux was measured less than 1% of the maximum.

  8. Improvement of photoneutron spectrum measurement produced by bombardment of 2 GeV electrons above giant dipole resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Park, J. S.; Choi, H. D.; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Shin, Kasuo; Ban, Syuichi

    2000-01-01

    Above the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) region, high energy photoneutron spectra produced by irradiation of 2.04 GeV electrons into Pb target were measured by Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. The differential photoneutron yields were obtained at a fixed angle of 90 degrees to the electron beam direction. The TOF system consists of Pilot-U plastic scintillation detector, which has fast response time, and the high speed multiscaler or CAMAC TDC. In the improvement of experimental setup to extend the flight distance to 10.4 m lead to make the measurable energy to 500 MeV from 300 MeV. And using the TDC based electronics lead to use a veto counter. The results were compared with the calculated one by using EGS4 and Modified PICA95. The characteristics of this TOF system was introduced in this paper and the results for several measuring conditions, which are flight distance, TOF electronics, and type of neutron detector, were discussed to improve the accuracy of this measurement

  9. Photoneutron Flux Measurement via Neutron Activation Analysis in a Radiotherapy Bunker with an 18 MV Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çeçen Yiğit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, high energy X-rays are used which are produced by linear accelerators (LINACs. If the energy of these beams is over 8 MeV, photonuclear reactions occur between the bremsstrahlung photons and the metallic parts of the LINAC. As a result of these interactions, neutrons are also produced as secondary radiation products (γ,n which are called photoneutrons. The study aims to map the photoneutron flux distribution within the LINAC bunker via neutron activation analysis (NAA using indium-cadmium foils. Irradiations made at different gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180° and 270° with a total of 91 positions in the Philips SLI-25 linear accelerator treatment room and location-based distribution of thermal neutron flux was obtained. Gamma spectrum analysis was carried out with high purity germanium (HPGe detector. Results of the analysis showed that the maximum neutron flux in the room occurred at just above of the LINAC head (1.2x105 neutrons/cm2.s which is compatible with an americium-beryllium (Am-Be neutron source. There was a 90% decrease of flux at the walls and at the start of the maze with respect to the maximum neutron flux. And, just in front of the LINAC door, inside the room, neutron flux was measured less than 1% of the maximum.

  10. Analysis of the design and engineering-process towards a first prototype in the field of sports and vitalit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.A.; van den Heuvel, R.; Megens, C.J.P.G.; Levy, P.D.; Vos, S.B.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of technology has expanded towards areas such as sports and vitality, offering significant challenges for engineering designers. However, only little is known about the underlying design and engineering processes used within these fields. Therefore, this paper aims to get an in- depth

  11. Combined Photoneutron And X Ray Interrogation Of Containers For Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael J.; Stevenson, John; Elsalim, Mashal; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie

    2011-06-01

    Effective cargo inspection systems for nuclear material detection require good penetration by the interrogating radiation, generation of a sufficient number of fissions, and strong and penetrating detection signatures. Inspection systems need also to be sensitive over a wide range of cargo types and densities encountered in daily commerce. Thus they need to be effective with highly hydrogenous cargo, where neutron attenuation is a major limitation, as well as with dense metallic cargo, where x-ray penetration is low. A system that interrogates cargo with both neutrons and x-rays can, in principle, achieve high performance over the widest range of cargos. Moreover, utilizing strong prompt-neutron (˜3 per fission) and delayed-gamma ray (˜7 per fission) signatures further strengthens the detection sensitivity across all cargo types. The complementary nature of x-rays and neutrons, used as both probing radiation and detection signatures, alleviates the need to employ exceedingly strong sources, which would otherwise be required to achieve adequate performance across all cargo types, if only one type of radiation probe were employed. A system based on the above principles, employing a commercially-available 9 MV linac was developed and designed. Neutrons are produced simultaneously with x-rays by the photonuclear interaction of the x-ray beam with a suitable converter. A total neutron yield on the order of 1011 n/s is achieved with an average electron beam current of 100 μA. If fissionable material is present, fissions are produced both by the high-energy x-ray beam and by the photoneutrons. Photofission and neutron fission dominate in hydrogenous and metallic cargos, respectively. Neutron-capture gamma rays provide information on the cargo composition. The prompt neutrons resulting from fission are detected by two independent detector systems: by very efficient Differential Die Away Analysis (DDAA) detectors, and by direct detection of neutrons with energies higher

  12. Breast imaging using an amorphous silicon-based full-field digital mammographic system: stability of a clinical prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, S; Karellas, A; Suryanarayanan, S; D'Orsi, C J; Hendrick, R E

    2000-11-01

    An amorphous silicon-based full-breast imager for digital mammography was evaluated for detector stability over a period of 1 year. This imager uses a structured CsI:TI scintillator coupled to an amorphous silicon layer with a 100-micron pixel pitch and read out by special purpose electronics. The stability of the system was characterized using the following quantifiable metrics: conversion factor (mean number of electrons generated per incident x-ray), presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), detector linearity and sensitivity, detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom scores. Qualitative metrics such as flat field uniformity, geometric distortion, and Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) test pattern image quality were also used to study the stability of the system. Observations made over this 1-year period indicated that the maximum variation from the average of the measurements were less than 0.5% for conversion factor, 3% for presampling MTF over all spatial frequencies, 5% for signal response, linearity and sensitivity, 12% for SNR over seven locations for all 3 target-filter combinations, and 0% for ACR accreditation phantom scores. ACR mammographic accreditation phantom images indicated the ability to resolve 5 fibers, 4 speck groups, and 5 masses at a mean glandular dose of 1.23 mGy. The SMPTE pattern image quality test for the display monitors used for image viewing indicated ability to discern all contrast steps and ability to distinguish line-pair images at the center and corners of the image. No bleeding effects were observed in the image. Flat field uniformity for all 3 target-filter combinations displayed no artifacts such as gridlines, bad detector rows or columns, horizontal or vertical streaks, or bad pixels. Wire mesh screen images indicated uniform resolution and no geometric distortion.

  13. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  14. Challenges in planning and performing the retrieval of the prototype repository at Aespoe HRL- Project management's reflections and practical experiences from field work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahm, Paer; Hagman, Patrik; Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Since 2001 the Prototype Repository at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been carried out as a large-scale experimental installation of the KBS-3 Swedish/Finnish concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The overall objective of the trial 'Prototype Repository' is to test and demonstrate the integrated function of sub-components in a final repository under realistic full-scale conditions. Data from the experiment shall also be compared to results from modelling based on site conditions. Opening of the outer section for the Prototype Repository was recognized as substantial operation. No trial of this size has been made earlier with regard to removal of buffer and backfilling. Experience was available only from retrieval of the buffer in Canister Retrieval Test at Aespoe HRL where samples of the buffer were taken, down to the mid-height of the canister. It was expected that sampling of the buffer in the deposition holes of the Prototype Repository would be very difficult, especially deep down in the holes. No significant experience regarding the breaching of such a concrete plug or removing backfill was available. The lack of experience together with the size of the project made extensive planning essential before the opening and removal could begin. It was decided that SKB (Sweden) and Posiva Oy (Finland) should run the project in a co-operation, where SKB is responsible for managing the project. In addition, a wide international interest was observed and accordingly waste management organisations were invited by SKB and Posiva to be a party to the Retrieval of the Prototype Repository. Six individual project agreements were signed with Andra (France), NUMO (Japan), NDA (United Kingdom), NAGRA (Switzerland), BMWi (Germany) and NWMO (Canada). The planning of the Retrieval of the Prototype Repository (section II) started at the beginning of 2010. The planning phase was successful meaning that the breaching of

  15. Techniques for processing remote field eddy current signals from bend regions of steam generator tubes of prototype fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirunavukkarasu, S. [Non Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India); Rao, B.P.C., E-mail: bpcrao@igcar.gov.in [Non Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India); Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev [Non Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, TN 603 102 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Steam generator (SG) is one of the most critical components of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. Remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has been chosen for in-service inspection (ISI) of these ferromagnetic SG tubes made of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91). Expansion bends are provided in the SGs to accommodate differential thermal expansion. During ISI using RFEC technique, in expansion bend regions, exciter-receiver coil misalignment, bending stresses, probe wobble and magnetic permeability variations produce disturbing noise hindering detection of defects. Fourier filtering, cross-correlation and wavelet transform techniques have been studied for noise reduction as well as enhancement of RFEC signals of defects in bend regions, having machined grooves and localized defects. Performance of these three techniques has been compared using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Fourier filtering technique has shown better performance for noise reduction while cross-correlation technique has resulted in significant enhancement of signals. Wavelet transform technique has shown the combined capability of noise reduction and signal enhancement and resulted in unambiguous detection of 10% of wall loss grooves and localized defects in the bend regions with SNR better than 7 dB.

  16. FieldSpec: A field portable mass spectrometer prototype for high frequency measurements of δ (2) H and δ (18) O ratios in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Días, Veneranda; Quang Hoang, Hung; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Barnich, François; Wirtz, Tom; Pfister, Laurent; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological studies relying on stable water isotopes to better understand water sources, flowpaths and transit times are currently limited by the coarse temporal resolution of sampling and analysis protocols. At present, two kinds of lab-based instruments are used : (i) the standard isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) [1] and (ii) the laser-based instruments [2, 3]. In both cases, samples need to be collected in the field and then transferred to the laboratory for the water isotopic ratio measurements (even further complex sample preparation is required for the IRMS). Hence, past and ongoing research targets the development of field deployable instruments for measuring stable water isotopes at high temporal frequencies. While recent studies have demonstrated that laser-based instruments may be taken to the field [4, 5], their size and power consumption still restrict their use to sites equipped with mains power or generators. Here, we present progress on the development of a field portable mass spectrometer (FieldSpec) for direct high frequency measurements of δ2H and δ18O ratios in water. The FieldSpec instrument is based upon the use of a double focusing magnetic sector mass spectrometer in combination with an electron impact ion source and a membrane dual inlet system. The instrument directly collects liquid water samples in the field, which are then converted into water vapour before being injected into the mass spectrometer for the stable isotope analysis. δ2H and δ18O are derived from the measured mass spectra. All the components are arranged in a vacuum case having a suit case type dimension with portable electronics and battery. Proof-of-concept experiments have been carried out to characterize the instrument. The results show that the FieldSpec instrument has good linearity (R2 = 0.99). The reproducibility of the instrument ranges between 1 and 4 ‰ for δ2H and between 0.1 and 0.4 ‰ for δ18O isotopic ratio measurements. A measurement

  17. Photons and photoneutrons spectra of a Linac of 15 MV; Espectros de fotones y fotoneutrones de un LINAC de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. L.; Carrillo C, A. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Av. Enfermeria, Fracc. Fray Junipero Serra, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Velazquez F, J. B., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Posgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5, the photons and photoneutrons spectra generated in the head stock of the lineal accelerator (Linac) Varian of 15 MV of the Cancerology State of Nayarit were determined. For the calculations a heterogeneous head stock was modeled, more compatible with the work conditions. In the center of the head stock a tungsten target was located on a copper support, followed by the flattened filter. The photons and photoneutrons spectra were obtained accelerating electrons and making them collide against the target to produce photons by Bremsstrahlung, these photons were transported inside the head stock and the photons and photoneutrons spectra were calculated in a punctual detector located under the flattened filter and in the isocenter. The spectra were evaluated in punctual detectors that were located in the plane from the isocenter to the long of the X and Y axes each 20 cm, in an equidistant way, up to 2 m, so much in the longitudinal and transversal axes. In the calculations were used histories 5E(6) with the purpose of obtaining smaller uncertainties to 1%. It was found that the photons spectrum in the punctual detector inside the head stock presents a pick of 1.25 MeV in the energy interval of 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, later suffers a filtration and diminishes in asymptote form. This spectrum modifies when the beam reaches the isocenter, diminishing the low energy photons. Inside the head stock the photoneutrons spectrum shows a structure with two picks, one before 1 MeV and other after 1 MeV; this is for effect of the collimators geometry and the distance. Finally an increment of the total neutrons flow to 60 cm of distance of the isocenter on the Y axis was observed, due to the design geometry of the modeling heterogeneous head stock. (Author)

  18. Angular distribution measurements of photo-neutron yields produced by 2.0 GeV electrons incident on thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Ban, S.; Sanami, T.; Takahashi, K.; Sato, T.; Shin, K.; Chung, C.

    2005-01-01

    A study of differential photo-neutron yields by irradiation with 2 GeV electrons has been carried out. In this extension of a previous study in which measurements were made at an angle of 90 deg. relative to incident electrons, the differential photo-neutron yield was obtained at two other angles, 48 deg. and 140 deg., to study its angular characteristics. Photo-neutron spectra were measured using a pulsed beam time-of-flight method and a BC418 plastic scintillator. The reliable range of neutron energy measurement was 8-250 MeV. The neutron spectra were measured for 10 Xo-thick Cu, Sn, W and Pb targets. The angular distribution characteristics, together with the previous results for 90 deg., are presented in the study. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo calculation results. The yields predicted by MCNPX 2.5 tend to underestimate the measured ones. The same trend holds for the comparison results using the EGS4 and PICA3 codes. (authors)

  19. Angular distribution measurements of photo-neutron yields produced by 2.0 GeV electrons incident on thick targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Seock; Ban, Syuichi; Sanami, Toshiya; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Shin, Kazuo; Chung, Chinwha

    2005-01-01

    A study of differential photo-neutron yields by irradiation with 2 GeV electrons has been carried out. In this extension of a previous study in which measurements were made at an angle of 90 degrees relative to incident electrons, the differential photo-neutron yield was obtained at two other angles, 48 degrees and 140 degrees, to study its angular characteristics. Photo-neutron spectra were measured using a pulsed beam time-of-flight method and a BC418 plastic scintillator. The reliable range of neutron energy measurement was 8-250 MeV. The neutron spectra were measured for 10 Xo-thick Cu, Sn, W and Pb targets. The angular distribution characteristics, together with the previous results for 90 degrees, are presented in the study. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo calculation results. The yields predicted by MCNPX 2.5 tend to underestimate the measured ones. The same trend holds for the comparison results using the EGS4 and PICA3 codes.

  20. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  1. Prototype and proposed ISABELLE dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Sampson, W.B.; Robins, K.E.; Dahl, P.F.; Damm, R.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the latest dipole prototypes to update the operational parameters possible for ISABELLE. This data base will constantly expand until the start of construction of the storage rings. The data will include field quality, stray field magnitudes, quench temperature and propagation times, protection capabilities singly and in multiple units, maximum central fields obtained and training behavior. Performance of the dipoles versus temperature and mode of refrigeration will be discussed. The single layer cosine theta turns distribution coils' parameters are better than those required for the operation of the 200 x 200 GeV version of ISABELLE. The double layer prototype has exceeded the magnetic field performance and two dimensional quality of field needed for the 400 x 400 GeV version of ISABELLE

  2. MCNP6 unstructured mesh application to estimate the photoneutron distribution and induced activity inside a linac bunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, B.; Morató, S.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Díez, S.

    2017-08-01

    Unwanted neutrons in radiation therapy treatments are typically generated by photonuclear reactions. High-energy beams emitted by medical Linear Accelerators (LinAcs) interact with high atomic number materials situated in the accelerator head and release neutrons. Since neutrons have a high relative biological effectiveness, even low neutron doses may imply significant exposure of patients. It is also important to study radioactivity induced by these photoneutrons when interacting with the different materials and components of the treatment head facility and the shielding room walls, since persons not present during irradiation (e.g. medical staff) may be exposed to them even when the accelerator is not operating. These problems are studied in this work in order to contribute to challenge the radiation protection in these treatment locations. The work has been performed by simulation using the latest state of the art of Monte-Carlo computer code MCNP6. To that, a detailed model of particles transport inside the bunker and treatment head has been carried out using a meshed geometry model. The LinAc studied is an Elekta Precise accelerator with a treatment photon energy of 15 MeV used at the Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia, Spain.

  3. Photoneutron cross sections measurements in 9Be, 13C e 17O with thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Photoneutron cross sections measurements of 9 Be, 13 C and 17 O have been obtained in the energy interval between 1,6 and 10,8 MeV, using neutron capture gamma-rays with high resolution in energy (3 a 21 eV), produced by 21 target materials, placed inside a tangential beam port, near the core of the IPEN/CNEN-SP IEA-R1 (5 MW) research reactor. The samples have been irradiated inside a 4π geometry neutron detector system 'Long Counter', 520,5 cm away from the capture target. The capture gamma-ray flux was determined by means of the analysis of the gamma spectrum obtained by using a Ge(Li) solid-state detector (EG and G ORTEC, 25 cm 3 , 5%), previously calibrated with capture gamma-rays from a standard target of Nitrogen (Melamine). The neutron photoproduction cross section has been measured for each target capture gamma-ray spectrum (compound cross section). A inversion matrix methodology to solve inversion problems for unfolding the set of experimental compound cross sections, was used in order to obtain the cross sections at specific excitation energy values (principal gamma line energies of the capture targets). The cross sections obtained at the energy values of the principal gamma lines were compared with experimental data reported by other authors, with have employed different gamma-ray sources. A good agreement was observed among the experimental data in this work with reported in the literature. (author)

  4. Analysis of the Photoneutron Yield and Thermal Neutron Flux in an Unreflected Electron Accelerator-Driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Gahl, John M.

    2005-01-01

    There are several potential uses for a high-flux thermal neutron source in both industrial and clinical applications. The viable commercial implementation of these applications requires a low-cost, high-flux thermal neutron generator suitable for installation in industrial and clinical environments. This paper describes the Monte Carlo for N-Particle modeling results of a high-flux thermal neutron source driven with an electron accelerator. An electron linear accelerator (linac), fitted with a standard X-ray converter, can produce high neutron yields in materials with low photonuclear threshold energies, such as D and 9 Be. Results indicate that a 10-MeV, 10-kW electron linac can produce on the order of 10 12 n/s in a heavy water photoneutron target. The thermal neutron flux in an unreflected heavy water target is calculated to be on the order of 10 10 n.cm -2 .s. The sensitivity of these answers to heavy water purity is also investigated, specifically the dilution of heavy water with light water. It is shown that the peak thermal neutron flux is not adversely effected by dilution up to a light water weight fraction of 35%

  5. Responses of conventional and extended-range neutron detectors in mixed radiation fields around a 150-MeV electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Chen, Ang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the responses of two types of neutron detector in mixed gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields around a 150-MeV electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The detectors were self-assembled, high efficiency, and designed in two configurations: (1) a conventional moderated-type neutron detector based on a large cylindrical He-3 proportional counter; and (2) an extended-range version with an embedded layer of lead in the moderator to increase the detector’s sensitivity to high-energy neutrons. Two sets of the detectors were used to measure neutrons at the downstream and lateral locations simultaneously, where the radiation fields differed considerably in intensities and spectra of gamma rays and neutrons. Analyzing the detector responses through a comparison between calculations and measurements indicated that not only neutrons but also high-energy gamma rays (>5 MeV) triggered the detectors because of photoneutrons produced in the detector materials. In the lateral direction, the contribution of photoneutrons to both detectors was negligible. Downstream of the LINAC, where high-energy photons were abundant, photoneutrons contributed approximately 6% of the response of the conventional neutron detector; however, almost 50% of the registered counts of the extended-range neutron detector were from photoneutrons because of the presence of the detector rather than the effect of the neutron field. Dose readings delivered by extended-range neutron detectors should be interpreted cautiously when used in radiation fields containing a mixture of neutrons and high-energy gamma rays

  6. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  7. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  8. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  9. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  10. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : technical report on prototype development and field testing of R.E.S.C.U.M.E. applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This document is the final project technical report for the development and field testing of the Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) application bundle, with a focus on the Incident Zone (I...

  11. CERN LHC dipole prototype success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In a crash programme, the first prototype superconducting dipole magnet for CERN's LHC protonproton collider was successfully powered for the first time at CERN on 14 April, eventually sailing to 9T, above the 8.65T nominal LHC field, before quenching for the third time. The next stage is to install the delicate measuring system for making comprehensive magnetic field maps in the 10 m long, 50 mm diameter twin-apertures of the magnet. These measurements will check that the required LHC field quality has been achieved at both the nominal and injection fields

  12. Micropole Undulators In Synchrotron Radiation Technology: Design And Construction Of A Submillimeter Period Prototype With A 3 Kilogauss Peak Field At SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchyn, Roman; Csonka, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The availability of undulators with submillimeter periods will profoundly affect the future development of soft x-ray sources and their attendant instrumentation. Outputs comparable to those of present-day conventional undulators, obtainable with much lower energy storage rings, is only one promising aspect of such devices. This paper critically examines some of the future prospects of such devices and describes the design and practical construction of a 1" long prototype consisting of 35 periods. A proposed experiment to test this device on a linac is described.

  13. Micropole undulators in synchrotron radiation technology: Design and construction of a submillimeter period prototype with a 3 kilogauss peak field at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Csonka, P.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of undulators with submillimeter periods profoundly affects the future development of soft x-ray sources and their attendant instrumentation. Outputs comparable to those of present-day conventional undulators, obtainable with much lower energy storage rings, is only one promising aspect of such devices. This paper critically examines some of the future prospects of such devices and describes the design and practical construction of a 1'' long prototype consisting of 35 periods. A proposed experiment to test this device on a linac is described

  14. The quasi-monochromatic photon beam used in photoneutron experiments from 20-120 MeV at the 600 MeV Saclay Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyssiere, A.; Beil, H.; Bergere, R.; Carlos, P.; Fagot, J.; Lepretre, A.; Ahrens, J.

    1979-01-01

    A beam of 20-130 MeV positrons, with average intensities between 10 nA and 50 nA, is used at the 600 MeV Saclay Linac to create a quasi-monochromatic photon beam with a continuously variable energy. This beam was used to measure photoneutron cross sections and the corresponding photonuclear facility is first described. The computer-controlled methods, implemented to measure the energy spectrum and the emittance of the positron beam are described. The quasi-monochromatic photon lines are produced by the annihilation in flight of monoenergetic positrons in two annihilation radiators with different Z successively. The photon beam emission angle theta is shown to be the most critical parameter in the search for an optimum overall signal to background ratio for a specific photoneutron experiment. The choice of an angle theta approximately 4 0 is explained for absolute measurements of sigma(γ, xn) cross-sections, for which the used average intensities of monochromatic photons were thus purposely reduced to approximately 5 X 10 3 s -1 , with an energy resolution approximately 12%. (Auth.)

  15. Imagining the prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten, M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the participants with the prototype and how they explicate the points they make in the discussion with or without making use of the prototype. Three techniques for explicating design issues that exploit the proto...

  16. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  17. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  18. Comparative study originated photoneutrons different energy linear accelerators, manufacturer and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposito, M. R.; Terron, J. A.; Domingo, C.; Amgarou, K.; Garcia-Fuente, M. J.; Gonzalez-Soto, J.; Legares, J. I.; Gomez, F.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pollution neutron radiotherapy with photon beams of energy greater than 10 MV represents a major inconvenience for patients in treatment, given the increased likelihood of developing a second radiation-induced cancer. Most of these neutrons are generated in the accelerator head as a result of the interaction of photons with heavy metals. As a result, knowledge of the effect on patients in the fields of neutrons from the accelerator should lead to improvements in design and selection of components from manufacturers. For this purpose, we have performed comparative measurements of the neutron fields present in both the patient (represented by an anthropomorphic phantom) and in the treatment room, considering almost all types of machines currently operating in the world.

  19. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisconti, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.bisconti@kit.edu

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  20. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  1. Remanent radiation fields around medical linear accelerators due to the induced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.; Khalifa, O.; Berka, Z.; Stankus, P.; Frencl, L.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation fields around two linear accelerators, Saturn 43 and a Saturn 2 Plus, installed at radiotherapy department is Prague, were measured and interpreted. The measurements included the determination of the dose equivalent rate resulting from photons emitted by induced radionuclides produced in reactions of high-energy photons with certain elements present in air and accelerator components as well as in the shielding and building materials in the treatment rooms, which are irradiated by high-energy X-rays, and due to radionuclides formed by capture of photoneutrons. While scattered photons and photoneutrons are only present during the accelerator operation, residual radioactivity creates a remanent radiation field persisting for some time after the instrument shutdown. The activity induced in the accessories is also an important source of exposure. (P.A.)

  2. Designing and testing prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.; Wijnands, F.; Stol, W.

    1995-01-01

    This second progress report focuses on designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. The report focuses also on testing and improving the prototype in general and the methods in particular until

  3. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  4. Specifications in software prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Chang, Carl K.; Zhu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    We explore the use of software speci®cations for software prototyping. This paper describes a process model for software prototyping, and shows how specifications can be used to support such a process via a cellular mobile phone switch example.

  5. EPCiR prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage.......A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage....

  6. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  7. Study of the Effect of Transport Current and Combined Transverse and Longitudinal Fields on the AC Loss in NET Prototype Conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    1994-01-01

    AC losses in cables carrying DC as well as AC transport currents at different DC background fields up to 2T have been measured on three types of Nb3Sn subcables in a new test facility. In this facility it is possible to apply sinusoidal transverse AC fields up to dB/dt=5T/s and longitudinal AC

  8. Prototype superconducting magnet for the FFAG accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.; Mori, Y.; Fujii, T.; Iwasa, M.; Orikasa, T.

    2006-01-01

    A study of a superconducting magnet for the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator has been performed. The FFAG accelerator requires static magnetic field, and it is suitable for superconducting magnet applications, because problems associated with time varying magnetic field such as eddy current loss can be eliminated. The superconducting magnet, which can generate high magnetic field, is possible to realize a higher beam energy with a given accelerator size or the size to be smaller for a given beam energy. The FFAG accelerator magnet is demanded to have a complicated nonlinear magnetic field with high accuracy. As a first prototype superconducting coil, the coil configuration which consists of left-right asymmetric cross-section and large aperture has been designed. The prototype coil has been successfully developed by using a 6-axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC) winding machine. The magnetic field of the prototype coil has been demonstrated in warm measurement. As a consequence, the technical feasibility has been verified with the prototype coil development and the performance test. In addition, the technology components developed in the prototype coil have a possibility to transfer to a fusion magnet

  9. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  10. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  11. The analysis and evaluation by the method of reduction of total photoneutron reaction cross sections in the range of giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, V.V.; Efimkin, N.G.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Sapunenko, V.V.; Stepanov, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The method based on the method of reduction is proposed for the evaluation of photonuclear reaction cross sections have been obtained at significant systematic uncertainties (different apparatus functions, calibration and normalization uncertainties). The evaluation method consists of using the real apparatus function (photon spectrum) of each individual experiment to reduce the data to a representation generated by an apparatus function of better quality. The task is to find the most reasonably achievable monoenergetic representation (MRAMR) of the information about cross section contained in different experiment observables and to take into account the experimental uncertainties of calibration and normalization procedures. The method was used to obtain the evaluated total photoneutron (γ, xn) reaction cross sections for 16 O, 28 Si, nat Cu, 141 Pr, and 208 Pb are presented. 79 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  13. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  14. Yucca Mountain project prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.T.; Girdley, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is responsible for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada to determine its suitability for development as a geologic repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 years. This unprecedented task relies in part on measurements made with relatively new methods or applications, such as dry coring and overcoring for studies to be conducted from the land surface and in an underground facility. The Yucca Mountain Project has, since 1988, implemented a program of equipment development and methods development for a broad spectrum of hydrologic, geologic, rock mechanics, and thermomechanical tests planned for use in an Exploratory Shaft during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. A second major program was fielded beginning in April 1989 to develop and test methods and equipment for surface drilling to obtain core samples from depth using only air as a circulating medium. The third major area of prototype testing has been during the ongoing development of the Instrumentation/ Data Acquisition System (IDAS), designed to collect and monitor data from down-hole instrumentation in the unsaturated zone, and store and transmit the data to a central archiving computer. Future prototype work is planned for several programs including the application of vertical seismic profiling methods and flume design to characterizing the geology at Yucca Mountain. The major objectives of this prototype testing are to assure that planned Site Characterization testing can be carried out effectively at Yucca Mountain, both in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and from the surface, and to avoid potential major failures or delays that could result from the need to re-design testing concepts or equipment. This paper will describe the scope of the Yucca Mountain Project prototype testing programs and summarize results to date. 3 figs

  15. Cross sections of photoneutron reactions on /sup 64/,/sup 66/,/sup 68/n, /sup 70/,/sup 72/,/sup 74/,/sup 76/Ge, /sup 76/,/sup 78/,/sup 80/,/sup 82/Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, A M; Zalesnyi, G N [Saratovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (USSR); Tulupov, B A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanii

    1975-01-01

    Photoneutron cross-sections for /sup 64/,/sup 66/,/sup 68/Zn, /sup 70/,/sup 72/,/sup 74/,/sup 76/Ge, and /sup 76/,/sup 78/,/sup 80/,/sup 82/Se nuclei from the threshold energy to 24 MeV with 0.2 MeV step have been measured. Results of the experiment are compared to predictions of the collective dynamical model of a giant resonance.

  16. SU-E-T-242: Monte Carlo Simulations Used to Test the Perturbation of a Reference Ion Chamber Prototype Used for Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Quino, L; Calvo, O; Huerta, C; DeWeese, M [Midsouth Radation Physics, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the perturbation due to the use of a novel Reference Ion Chamber designed to measure small field dosimetry (KermaX Plus C by IBA). Methods: Using the Phase-space files for TrueBeam photon beams available by Varian in IAEA-compliant format for 6 and 15 MV. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc to investigate the perturbation introduced by a reference chamber into the PDDs and profiles measured in water tank. Field sizes ranging from 1×1, 2×2,3×3, 5×5 cm2 were simulated for both energies with and without a 0.5 mm foil of Aluminum which is equivalent to the attenuation equivalent of the reference chamber specifications in a water phantom of 30×30×30 cm3 and a pixel resolution of 2 mm. The PDDs, profiles, and gamma analysis of the simulations were performed as well as a energy spectrum analysis of the phase-space files generated during the simulation. Results: Examination of the energy spectrum analysis performed shown a very small increment of the energy spectrum at the build-up region but no difference is appreciated after dmax. The PDD, profiles and gamma analysis had shown a very good agreement among the simulations with and without the Al foil, with a gamma analysis with a criterion of 2% and 2mm resulting in 99.9% of the points passing this criterion. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential benefits of using the KermaX Plus C as reference chamber in the measurement of PDD and Profiles for small fields since the perturbation due to in the presence of the chamber the perturbation is minimal and the chamber can be considered transparent to the photon beam.

  17. From prototype to product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particu......This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product....... In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information...... Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned....

  18. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, Victor; Alexeev, Gennady; Alexeev, Maxim; Frolov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Georgy; Kutuzov, Sergey; Piskun, Alexei; Samartsev, Alexander; Tokmenin, Valeri; Verkheev, Alexander; Vertogradov, Leonid; Zhuravlev, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  19. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  20. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazov Victor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype stereoscopic a-Si:H-based X-ray imaging system for full-field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darambara, D.G.; Speller, R.D.; Horrocks, J.A.; Godber, S.; Wilson, R.; Hanby, A.

    2001-01-01

    In a pre-clinical study, we have been investigating the potential of a-Si:H active matrix, flat panel imagers for X-ray full-field digital mammography through the development of an advanced 3D X-ray imaging system and have measured a number of their important imaging characteristics. To enhance the information embodied into the digital images produced by the a-Si array, stereoscopic images, created by viewing the object under examination from two angles and recombining the images, were obtained. This method provided us with a full 3D X-ray image of the test object as well as left and right perspective 2D images all at the same time. Within this scope, images of fresh, small human breast tissue specimens--normal and diseased--were obtained at ±2 deg., processed and stereoscopically displayed for a pre-clinical evaluation by radiologists. It was demonstrated that the stereoscopic presentation of the images provides important additional information and has potential benefits over the more traditional 2D data

  2. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Colditz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare.

  3. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  4. Imagining the prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the

  5. MIND performance and prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of MIND (Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector) at a neutrino factory has been revisited in a new analysis. In particular, the low neutrino energy region is studied, obtaining an efficiency plateau around 5 GeV for a background level below 10 -3 . A first look has been given into the detector optimisation and prototyping

  6. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  8. AGS booster prototype magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10 0 . The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz

  9. Cockroft Walton accelerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, Sumihar.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of a Cockroft Walton generator using ceramic and plastic capacitors is discussed. Compared to the previous generator, the construction and components are much more improved. Pralon is used for the high voltage insulation column and plastic is used as a dielectric material for the high voltage capacitor. Cockroft Walton generator is used as a high tension supply for an accelerator. (author)

  10. Surrogates-based prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Bois, E.; Horvath, I.

    2014-01-01

    The research is situated in the system development phase of interactive software products. In this detailed design phase, we found a need for fast testable prototyping to achieve qualitative change proposals on the system design. In this paper, we discuss a literature study on current software

  11. Z Andromedae: the prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viotti, R.; Giangrande, A.; Ricciardi, O.; Cassatella, A.

    1982-01-01

    Z And is considered as the ''prototype'' of the symbiotic stars. Besides its symbiotic spectrum, the star is also known for its characteristic light curve (and for the related spectral variations). Since many theoretical speculations on Z And and similar objects have been based on the luminosity and spectral variations of this star, the authors critically analyse the observational data concerning it. (Auth.)

  12. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  13. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  14. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  15. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G.; Ferguson, Drewe M.; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Benchmarking is a tool widely used in agricultural industries that harnesses the experience of farmers to generate knowledge of practices that lead to better on-farm productivity and performance. We propose, by analogy with production performance, a method for measuring the animal welfare performance of an enterprise and describe a tool for farmers to monitor and improve the animal welfare performance of their business. A general framework is outlined for assessing and monitoring risks to animal welfare based on measures of animals, the environment they are kept in and how they are managed. The tool would enable farmers to continually improve animal welfare. Abstract Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of

  16. Prototyping for surgical and prosthetic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Murillo Rezende; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Haddad, Marcela Filié

    2011-05-01

    Techniques of rapid prototyping were introduced in the 1980s in the field of engineering for the fabrication of a solid model based on a computed file. After its introduction in the biomedical field, several applications were raised for the fabrication of models to ease surgical planning and simulation in implantology, neurosurgery, and orthopedics, as well as for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. Hence, the literature has described the evolution of rapid prototyping technique in health care, which allowed easier technique, improved surgical results, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. Accordingly, a literature review on MEDLINE (PubMed) database was conducted using the keywords rapid prototyping, surgical planning, and maxillofacial prostheses and based on articles published from 1981 to 2010. After reading the titles and abstracts of the articles, 50 studies were selected owing to their correlations with the aim of the current study. Several studies show that the prototypes have been used in different dental-medical areas such as maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery; implantology; neurosurgery; orthopedics; scaffolds of ceramic, polymeric, and metallic materials; and fabrication of personalized maxillofacial prostheses. Therefore, prototyping has been an indispensable tool in several studies and helpful for surgical planning and fabrication of prostheses and implants.

  17. Diagnostics of the BIOMASS feed array prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...

  18. Performance evaluation of prototype mechanical cassava harvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale cassava harvesting, especially during the dry season, is a major constraint to its industrial demand and commercial production. Manual harvesting is slow and ... Results from field trials showed prototype harvesters weighing 268 – 310 kg can achieve optimum performance on ridged landforms. When harvested ...

  19. SIMS Prototype System 4: performance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-09

    The results obtained during testing of a self-contained, preassembled air type solar system, designed for installation remote from the dwelling, to provide space heating and hot water are presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 4 for field installation.

  20. Mixed reality for neurosurgery: a novel prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz Raya, Mariano; Varvaro Marcinek, Hugo; Martinez Saez, José Miguel; Torres Sanchez, Roque; Juan Lizandra, M Carmen; Monserrat Aranda, Carlos; Gil Gomez, José Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Microscopes and neuronavigators are often used in neurosurgical procedures. Our Mixed Reality prototype proposes to show neuronavigator imaging overlayed onto the surgical field of view. The proposal is to replace the traditional optical microscope with a digital one. The system is presented in this article. Firsts trials have been performed at the laboratory with satisfactory results.

  1. Database Replication Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewall, R.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Replication Framework that facilitates the implementation and com-parison of database replication techniques. Furthermore, it discusses the implementation of a Database Replication Prototype and compares the performance measurements of two replication techniques based on the Atomic Broadcast communication primitive: pessimistic active replication and optimistic active replication. The main contributions of this report can be split into four parts....

  2. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus....

  3. A beam test of prototype time projection chamber using micro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We conducted a series of beam tests of prototype TPCs for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment, equipped with an MWPC, a MicroMEGAS, or GEMs as a readout device. The prototype operated successfully in a test beam at KEK under an axial magnetic field of up to 1 T. The analysis of data is now in progress ...

  4. The building of a prototype steering magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, J.L.; Cornell, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The report deals with the building of a prototype magnet. The magnet is completely symmetrical, and consists of 4 identical pieces of iron, 167 X 80 X 15 mm each. Magnetic flux density for 4 different magnet coils is given. Information is also given on the magnetic fields and the bending ability of the field through which the particles are supposed to move. The magnet coils and the form of the yoke are described

  5. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  6. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  7. A prototype analysis of vengeance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Maartje; Nelissen, Rob; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the concept of vengeance from a prototype perspective. In 6 studies, the prototype structure of vengeance was mapped. Sixty-nine features of vengeance were identified (Study 1), and rated on centrality (Study 2). Further studies confirmed the prototype structure. Compared to

  8. Mobile Prototyping Platforms for Remote Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a low-cost mobile communication platform as a universal rapid-prototyping system, which is based on the Quadrocopter concept. At the Integrated Hardware and Software Systems Group at the Ilmenau University of Technology these mobile platforms are used to motivate bachelor and master students to study Computer Engineering sciences. This could be done by increasing their interest in technical issues, using this platform as integral part of a new ad-hoc lab to demonstrate different aspects in the area of Mobile Communication as well as universal rapid prototyping nodes to investigate different mechanisms for self-organized mobile communication systems within the International Graduate School on Mobile Communications. Beside the three fields of application, the paper describes the current architecture concept of the mobile prototyping platform as well as the chosen control mechanism and the assigned sensor systems to fulfill all the required tasks.

  9. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  10. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  11. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  12. DataCollection Prototyping

    CERN Multimedia

    Beck, H.P.

    DataCollection is a subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project responsible for the movement of event data from the ROS to the High Level Triggers. This includes data from Regions of Interest (RoIs) for Level 2, building complete events for the Event Filter and finally transferring accepted events to Mass Storage. It also handles passing the LVL1 RoI pointers and the allocation of Level 2 processors and load balancing of Event Building. During the last 18 months DataCollection has developed a common architecture for the hardware and software required. This involved a radical redesign integrating ideas from separate parts of earlier TDAQ work. An important milestone for this work, now achieved, has been to demonstrate this subsystem in the so-called Phase 2A Integrated Prototype. This prototype comprises the various TDAQ hardware and software components (ROSs, LVL2, etc.) under the control of the TDAQ Online software. The basic functionality has been demonstrated on small testbeds (~8-10 processing nodes)...

  13. OMS FDIR: Initial prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric W.; Hanson, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Operations Management System (OMS) will automate major management functions which coordinate the operations of onboard systems, elements and payloads. The objectives of OMS are to improve safety, reliability and productivity while reducing maintenance and operations cost. This will be accomplished by using advanced automation techniques to automate much of the activity currently performed by the flight crew and ground personnel. OMS requirements have been organized into five task groups: (1) Planning, Execution and Replanning; (2) Data Gathering, Preprocessing and Storage; (3) Testing and Training; (4) Resource Management; and (5) Caution and Warning and Fault Management for onboard subsystems. The scope of this prototyping effort falls within the Fault Management requirements group. The prototyping will be performed in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of an onboard communications network fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) system. Phase 2 will incorporate global FDIR for onboard systems. Research into the applicability of expert systems, object-oriented programming, fuzzy sets, neural networks and other advanced techniques will be conducted. The goals and technical approach for this new SSFP research project are discussed here.

  14. Live Piloting and Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current trends in service design research concerning large scale projects aimed at generating changes at a local scale. The strategy adopted to achieve this, is to co-design solutions including future users in the development process, prototyping and testing system of products and services before their actual implementation. On the basis of experience achieved in the European Project Life 2.0, this paper discusses which methods and competencies are applied in the development of these projects, eliciting the lessons learnt especially from the piloting phase in which the participatory design (PD approach plays a major role. In the first part, the topic is introduced jointly with the theoretical background where the user center design and participatory design methods are presented; then the Life 2.0 project development is described; finally the experience is discussed from a service design perspective, eliciting guidelines for piloting and prototyping services in a real context of use. The paper concludes reflecting on the designers’ role and competencies needed in this process.

  15. Spectra and absorbed dose by photo-neutrons in a solid water mannequin exposed to a Linac of 15 MV; Espectros y dosis absorbida por fotoneutrones en un maniqui de agua solida expuesta a una Linac de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Velazquez F, J., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Posgrado en Ciencias Biologico Agropecuarias, Carretera Tepic-Compostela Km 9, 63780 Jalisco-Nayarit (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Using Monte Carlo methods was modeled a solid water mannequin; according to the ICRU 44 (1989), Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements, of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements; Report 44. This material Wt 1 is made of H (8.1%), C (67.2%), N (2.4%), O (19.9%), Cl (0.1%), Ca (2.3%) and its density is of 1.02 gr/cm{sup 3}. The mannequin was put instead of the patient, inside the treatment room and the spectra and absorbed dose were determined by photo-neutrons exposed to a Linac of 15 MV. (Author)

  16. Experimental apparatus with {sup 3}He detectors for photoneutron measurements greater than 8 MV; Aparato experimental de detector {sup 3}He, para medida fotonêutrons em acelerador com energia acima 8 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Vilela da; Fontes, Gladson Silva; Cardoso, Domingos D’Oliveira, E-mail: marcelovilelasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Particle technology has a profound impact on society. Its applications are well established mainly in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The objective of this work was to develop an experimental apparatus with {sup 3}He detectors for photoneutron measurements greater than 8 MV. The apparatus allowed to obtain a multi energetic neutron measurements with detector and changing the different thicknesses of shields and for different dose rates. Additionally, an analytical model was developed, based on the approximation of the diffusion, for two groups of energy. The results indicated an increasing and linear behavior in the detector response. (author)

  17. Prototypes as Platforms for Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Willem

    developers, and design it accordingly. Designing a flexible prototype in combination with supportive tools to be used by both interaction designers and non-designers during development is introduced as a way to open up the prototyping process to these users. Furthermore I demonstrate how such a flexible...... on prototyping, by bringing to attention that the prototype itself is an object of design, with its users and use context, which deserves further attention. Moreover, in this work I present concrete tools and methods that can be used by interaction designers in practice. As such this work addresses both......The development of interactive products in industry is an activity involving different disciplines – such as different kinds of designers, engineers, marketers and managers – in which prototypes play an important role. On the one hand, prototypes can be powerful boundary objects and an effective...

  18. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  19. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus. Using action-research techniques, with this simulator it was possible to validate that the human nerve response can be replicated, which will aid the training of health professionals, reducing possible risks in a surgical environment.

  20. Photo-neutron reaction cross-section for 93Nb in the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12–16 and 45–70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G.N.; Schwengner, R.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Tatari, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.C.; John, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Junghans, A.; Shin, S.G.; Key, Y.; Wagner, A.; Lee, M.W.; Goswami, A.; Cho, M.-H.

    2013-01-01

    The photo-neutron cross-sections of 93 Nb at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12, 14 and 16 MeV as well as 45, 50, 55, 60 and 70 MeV have been determined by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric techniques using the 20 MeV electron linac (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany, and 100 MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The 93 Nb(γ, xn, x=1–4) reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated using computer code TALYS 1.4. The flux-weighted average values were obtained from the experimental and the theoretical (TALYS) values based on mono-energetic photons. The experimental values of present work are in good agreement with the flux-weighted theoretical values of TALYS 1.4 but are slightly higher than the flux-weighted experimental data of mono-energetic photons. It was also found that the theoretical and the experimental values of present work and literature data for the 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections increase from the threshold values to a certain energy, where other reaction channels opens. However, the increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections are sharper compared to 93 Nb(γ, 3n) and 93 Nb(γ, 4n) reaction cross-sections. The sharp increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections from the threshold value up to 17–22 MeV is due to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) effect besides the role of excitation energy. After a certain values, the individual 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections decrease with increase of bremsstrahlung energy due to opening of other reaction channels

  1. Video prototype of the interactive operating theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Building capture and access (C&A) applications for use in the operation theatre differs greatly from C&A applications built to support other settings e.g. meeting rooms or classrooms. Based on field studies of surgical operations, this paper explores how to design C&A applications for the operation...... theatre. Based on the findings from our field work, we have built the ActiveTheatre, a C&A prototype. ActiveTheatre is built to support collaboration in and around the operating theatre, to capture events instead of automatically capturing eve- rything, and to be integrated with existing applications...... already present in the operation theatre. The ActiveTheatre prototype has been developed in close co- operation with surgeons and nurses at a local hospital. The work on the proto- type and our initial evaluations have provided an insight into how to design, capture and access applications that are going...

  2. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  3. Mobile prototyping with Axure 7

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, Will

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial which includes hands-on examples and downloadable Axure files to get you started with mobile prototyping immediately. You will learn how to develop an application from scratch, and will be guided through each and every step.If you are a mobile-centric developer/designer, or someone who would like to take their Axure prototyping skills to the next level and start designing and testing mobile prototypes, this book is ideal for you. You should be familiar with prototyping and Axure specifically, before you read this book.

  4. Rapid prototyping for biomedical engineering: current capabilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantada, Andrés Díaz; Morgado, Pilar Lafont

    2012-01-01

    A new set of manufacturing technologies has emerged in the past decades to address market requirements in a customized way and to provide support for research tasks that require prototypes. These new techniques and technologies are usually referred to as rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies, and they allow prototypes to be produced in a wide range of materials with remarkable precision in a couple of hours. Although they have been rapidly incorporated into product development methodologies, they are still under development, and their applications in bioengineering are continuously evolving. Rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies can be of assistance in every stage of the development process of novel biodevices, to address various problems that can arise in the devices' interactions with biological systems and the fact that the design decisions must be tested carefully. This review focuses on the main fields of application for rapid prototyping in biomedical engineering and health sciences, as well as on the most remarkable challenges and research trends.

  5. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  6. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  7. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  8. Virtual Prototyping at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Silvano De

    The VENUS (Virtual Environment Navigation in the Underground Sites) project is probably the largest Virtual Reality application to Engineering design in the world. VENUS is just over one year old and offers a fully immersive and stereoscopic "flythru" of the LHC pits for the proposed experiments, including the experimental area equipment and the surface models that are being prepared for a territorial impact study. VENUS' Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for the wooden models traditionally build for the past CERN machines, as they are generated directly from the EUCLID CAD files, therefore they are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, in a one-to-one scale. Navigation can be performed on the computer screen, on a stereoscopic large projection screen, or in immersive conditions, with an helmet and 3D mouse. By using specialised collision detection software, the computer can find optimal paths to lower each detector part into the pits and position it to destination, letting us visualize the whole assembly probess. During construction, these paths can be fed to a robot controller, which can operate the bridge cranes and build LHC almost without human intervention. VENUS is currently developing a multiplatform VR browser that will let the whole HEP community access LHC's Virtual Protoypes over the web. Many interesting things took place during the conference on Virtual Reality. For more information please refer to the Virtual Reality section.

  9. Prototype for dS/CFT correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueijosa, Alberto; Lowe, David A.; Murugan, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    We consider dS 2 /CFT 1 where the asymptotic symmetry group of the de Sitter spacetime contains the Virasoro algebra. We construct representations of the Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space of a massive scalar field in de Sitter space, built as excitations of the Euclidean vacuum state. These representations are unitary, without highest weight, and have vanishing central charge. They provide a prototype for a new class of conformal field theories dual to de Sitter backgrounds in string theory. The mapping of operators in the CFT to bulk quantities is described in detail. We comment on the extension to dS 3 /CFT 2

  10. Evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters for nuclear ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Biermann, A.H.; Johnson, J.S.; Lum, B.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. These prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposable prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life

  11. Evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters for nuclear-ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Biermann, A.H.; Johnson, J.S.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Two prototypes electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. These prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposable prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life

  12. Controls and interlocks for a prototype 1MHz beam chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, G.; Bishop, D.; Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1991-05-01

    A prototype 1 MHz beam chopper for the proposed KAON Factory at TRIUMF has been constructed. The chopper is an electric field device, driven by a tetrode based pulser, for deflecting a charged particle beam. Associated with the tetrode used in the prototype design are high voltage power supplies for the electrodes. We use an FET based grid pulser and a sequencer capable of accurate digital control of pulse timing to 0.4 ns. A safety interlock and control system using a programmable controller with fibre optic links has been built. This has given us the versatility required in a prototype system. (Author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  13. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeba Quadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.

  14. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  15. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  16. Improving The Prototyping Process In Department Of Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    assessing program feasibility is to objectively and rationally determine the strengths and weakness of a technology. This functional requirement also...prototypes created for the purpose of maturing technology will not be ready for fielding and cannot be deployed ( Plato 1995). Second, there is a risk...pressure to reduce cost and schedule estimates (Weinberg 1991; Plato 1995). The first few iterations of a prototype typically result in immediate high

  17. SIMS prototype system 1 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The space and domestic water solar heating system designated SIMS Prototype Systems 1 was evaluated. The test system used 720 ft (gross) of Solar Energy Products Air Collectors, a Solar Control Corporation SAM 20 Air Handler with Model 75-175 control unit, a Jackson Solar Storage tank with Rho Sigma Mod 106 controller, and 20 tons of rack storage. The test data analysis performed evaluates the system performance and documents the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 1 hardware for field installation.

  18. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work was to design a prototype fusion reactor based on fusion plasmas confined as ''Compact Toruses.' Six major criteria guided the prototype design. The prototype must: (1) produce net electricity decisively (P/sub net/ >70% of P/sub gross/), with P/sub net/ approximately 100 MW(e); (2) have small physical size (low project cost) but commercial plant; (3) have all features required of commerical plants; (4) avoid unreasonable extrapolation of technology; (5) minimize nuclear issues substantially, i.e. accident and waste issues of public concern, and (6) be modular (to permit repetitive fabrication of parts) and be maintainable with low occupational radiological exposures

  19. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  20. Learning Axure RP interactive prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Krahenbuhl, John Henry

    2015-01-01

    If you are a user experience professional, designer, information architect, or business analyst who wants to gain interactive prototyping skills with Axure, then this book is ideal for you. Some familiarity with Axure is preferred but not essential.

  1. Architectural Prototyping in Industrial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2008-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is the process of using executable code to investigate stakeholders’ software architecture concerns with respect to a system under development. Previous work has established this as a useful and cost-effective way of exploration and learning of the design space of a system......, in addressing issues regarding quality attributes, in addressing architectural risks, and in addressing the problem of knowledge transfer and conformance. Little work has been reported so far on the actual industrial use of architectural prototyping. In this paper, we report from an ethnographical study...... and focus group involving architects from four companies in which we have focused on architectural prototypes. Our findings conclude that architectural prototypes play an important role in resolving problems experimentally, but less so in exploring alternative solutions. Furthermore, architectural...

  2. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  3. Tangiplay: prototyping tangible electronic games

    OpenAIRE

    Boileau, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Tangible electronic games currently exist in research laboratories around the world but have yet to transition to the commercial sector. The development process of a tangible electronic game is one of the factors preventing progression, as it requires much time and money. Prototyping tools for tangible hardware and software development are becoming more available but are targeted to programmers and technically trained developers. Paper prototyping board and video games is a proven and rapid m...

  4. NDA technology for uranium resource evaluation. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.

    1979-11-01

    The calculational work has focused on gamma-ray calculations, code improvements, and cross-section conversions. The experimental effort has concentrated on the design of a field prototype photoneutron logging probe and on uranium-fission neutron pulse-shape discrimination. The GAMRES code has been modified to provide the facility for computing gamma-ray response functions for different types of detectors. Calculations to identify the physical processes of importance in the operation of the disequilibrium probe have been completed. A field prototype photoneutron-based logging probe and associated radiation shielding cask are currently being designed. Feasibility studies have been initiated to investigate the use of (α,n) source for direct uranium ore-grade determination. Pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD) techniques are being investigated for use with photoneutron probes having liquid scintillation fast-neutron detectors

  5. Fast-prototyping of VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucier, G.; Read, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fast-prototyping will be a reality in the very near future if both straightforward design methods and fast manufacturing facilities are available. This book focuses, first, on the motivation for fast-prototyping. Economic aspects and market considerations are analysed by European and Japanese companies. In the second chapter, new design methods are identified, mainly for full custom circuits. Of course, silicon compilers play a key role and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques sheds a new light on the subject. At present, fast-prototyping on gate arrays or on standard cells is the most conventional technique and the third chapter updates the state-of-the art in this area. The fourth chapter concentrates specifically on the e-beam direct-writing for submicron IC technologies. In the fifth chapter, a strategic point in fast-prototyping, namely the test problem is addressed. The design for testability and the interface to the test equipment are mandatory to fulfill the test requirement for fast-prototyping. Finally, the last chapter deals with the subject of education when many people complain about the lack of use of fast-prototyping in higher education for VLSI

  6. A study on optimization of photoneutron shielding in a medical accelerator room by using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Nam; Jeong, Kyoungkeun; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Chang Geol; Seong, Jinsil; Choi, Sang Hyun; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2008-01-01

    Medical linear accelerators operating above 10 MV require door shielding for neutrons in addition to photons. A criterion for choice of optimal configuration of lamination of BPE (Borated Polyethylene) and lead is not clear. Moreover, optimal configuration cannot be determined by the conventional method using an analytical formula and simple measurement. This study performs Monte Carlo simulation of radiation field in a commercial LINAC room with 15 MV X-ray sources. Considering two configuration of lamination such as 'lead-BPE' and 'lead-BPE-lead', dose equivalents are calculated by using the MCNPX code and comparative analyses are performed with each other. The obtained results show that there is no significant difference in neuron shielding between both configurations, whereas lead-BPE-lead is more effective for photon shielding. It is also noted that the absolute values of neutron doses are much greater than that of photon doses outside as well as inside the door, by three orders of magnitude. As a conclusion, the laminating of lead-BPE is suggested as the optimal configuration from the viewpoint of simplicity in fabrication and handling, even though it has no significant difference from lead-BPE-lead in terms of total dose equivalent. (author)

  7. Stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Watanabe, S.

    2005-01-01

    A pure electron plasma has been produced in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap (Proto-RT). The temporal evolution of the electron plasma was investigated by the measurement of electrostatic fluctuations. Stable confinement was realized when the potential profile adjusted to match the magnetic surfaces. The confinement time varies as a function of the magnetic field strength and the neutral gas pressure, and is comparable to the diffusion time of electrons determined by the classical collisions with neutral gas. Although the addition of a toroidal magnetic field stabilized the electrostatic fluctuation of the plasma, the effects of the magnetic shear shortened the stable confinement time, possibly because of the obstacles of coil support structures

  8. Current Sharing Analysis of Arm Prototype for ITER PF Converter Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinchao; Song Zhiquan; Xu Liuwei; Fu Peng; Guo Bin; Li Sen; Dong Lin; Wang Min

    2014-01-01

    A bridge arm prototype of ITER poloidal field (PF) converter modules has been designed and fabricated. Non-cophase counter parallel connection is chosen as the arm structure of the prototype. Among all factors affecting current sharing, arm structure is the main one. During the design of the arm prototype, a novel method based on inductance matrixes is employed to improve the current sharing of the bridge arm. The test results on the prototype show that the current sharing performance of the arm prototype is much better than relevant design requirement, and that the matrix method is very effective to analyze and solve the current sharing problems of thyristor converters

  9. Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.; Dimmock, M.R.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Nolan, P.J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A 137 Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented

  10. Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ln@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mrd@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajb@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)

    2007-04-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A {sup 137}Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented.

  11. Prototype implementation of segment assembling software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Đorđe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IT education is very important and a lot of effort is put into the development of tools for helping students to acquire programming knowledge and for helping teachers in automating the examination process. This paper describes a prototype of the program segment assembling software used in the context of making tests in the field of algorithmic complexity. The proposed new program segment assembling model uses rules and templates. A template is a simple program segment. A rule defines combining method and data dependencies if they exist. One example of program segment assembling by the proposed system is given. Graphical user interface is also described.

  12. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  13. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  14. Prototypes in engineering design: Definitions and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    By reviewing literature, we investigate types, purposes and definitions of prototypes. There is no overarching definition of a prototype, but we identify five categories of prototypes in litterature. We further synthesize and reference previous work to create an overview of aspects in prototyping...

  15. Prototyping in theory and in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Brem, Alexander; Pasinell, Michele

    2018-01-01

    and functions of a prototype and needed to meet specific goals in order to push the process forward. Designers, on the other hand, used prototypes to investigate the design space for new possibilities, and were more open to a variety of prototyping materials and tools, especially for low-fidelity prototypes...

  16. Rapid Prototyping of Formally Modelled Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Didier; Buffo, Mathieu; Titsworth, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents various kinds of prototypes, used in the prototyping of formally modelled distributed systems. It presents the notions of prototyping techniques and prototype evolution, and shows how to relate them to the software life-cycle. It is illustrated through the use of the formal modelling language for distributed systems CO-OPN/2.

  17. Towards an Operational Framework for Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes.......We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes....

  18. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  19. Engineering prototypes for theta-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hammer, C.F.; Hanks, K.W.; McDonald, T.E.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Past, present, and future engineering prototypes for theta-pinch plasma-physics devices at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are discussed. Engineering prototypes are designed to test and evaluate all components under system conditions expected on actual plasma-physics experimental devices. The importance of engineering prototype development increases as the size and complexity of the plasma-physics device increases. Past experiences with the Scyllac prototype and the Staged Theta-Pinch prototype are discussed and evaluated. The design of the proposed Staged Scyllac prototype and the Large Staged Scyllac implosion prototype assembly are discussed

  20. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  1. Science with the ASTRI prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a “Flagship Project” financed by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. It represents the Italian proposal for the development of the Small Size Telescope system of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, the next generation observatory for Very High Energy gamma-rays (20 GeV - 100 TeV). The ASTRI end-to-end prototype will be installed at Serra La Nave (Catania, Italy) and it will see the first light at the beginning of 2014. We describe the expected performance of the prototype on few selected test cases of the northern emisphere. The aim of the prototype is to probe the technological solutions and the nominal performance of the various telescope's subsystems

  2. Flight Telerobotic Servicer prototype simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Rob; Krauze, Linda; Hartley, Craig; Dickenson, Alan; Lavecchia, Tom; Working, Bob

    A prototype simulator for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) system is described for use in the design development of the FTS, emphasizing the hand controller and user interface. The simulator utilizes a graphics workstation based on rapid prototyping tools for systems analyses of the use of the user interface and the hand controller. Kinematic modeling, manipulator-control algorithms, and communications programs are contained in the software for the simulator. The hardwired FTS panels and operator interface for use on the STS Orbiter are represented graphically, and the simulated controls function as the final FTS system configuration does. The robotic arm moves based on the user hand-controller interface, and the joint angles and other data are given on the prototype of the user interface. This graphics simulation tool provides the means for familiarizing crewmembers with the FTS system operation, displays, and controls.

  3. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  4. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Stephen; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production (ship effect), (a, n) reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  5. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  6. Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Ezra

    2012-01-01

    Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials is a detailed, practical primer on the leading rapid prototyping tool. Short on jargon and high on concepts, real-life scenarios and step-by-step guidance through hands-on examples, this book will show you how to integrate Axure into your UX workflow. This book is written for UX practitioners, business analysts, product managers, and anyone else who is involved in UX projects. The book assumes that you have no or very little familiarity with Axure. It will help you if you are evaluating the tool for an upcoming project or are required to quickly get up to spee

  7. VO for Education: Archive Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella, M.; Iafrate, G.; De Marco, M.; Molinaro, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Cepparo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The number of remote control telescopes dedicated to education is increasing in many countries, leading to correspondingly larger and larger amount of stored educational data that are usually available only to local observers. Here we present the project for a new infrastructure that will allow teachers using educational telescopes to archive their data and easily publish them within the Virtual Observatory (VO) avoiding the complexity of professional tools. Students and teachers anywhere will be able to access these data with obvious benefits for the realization of grander scale collaborative projects. Educational VO data will also be an important resource for teachers not having direct access to any educational telescopes. We will use the educational telescope at our observatory in Trieste as a prototype for the future VO educational data archive resource. The publishing infrastructure will include: user authentication, content and curation validation, data validation and ingestion, VO compliant resource generation. All of these parts will be performed by means of server side applications accessible through a web graphical user interface (web GUI). Apart from user registration, that will be validated by a natural person responsible for the archive (after having verified the reliability of the user and inspected one or more test files), all the subsequent steps will be automated. This means that at the very first data submission through the webGUI, a complete resource including archive and published VO service will be generated, ready to be registered to the VO. The efforts required to the registered user will consist only in describing herself/himself at registration step and submitting the data she/he selects for publishing after each observation sessions. The infrastructure will be file format independent and the underlying data model will use a minimal set of standard VO keywords, some of which will be specific for outreach and education, possibly including VO

  8. Characterization of Prototype LSST CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OCONNOR,P.; FRANK, J.; GEARY, J.C.; GILMORE, D.K.; KOTOV, I.; RADEKA, V.; TAKACS, P.; TYSON, J.A.

    2008-06-23

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be achieved in part by a wide-field imager that will achieve a new level of performance in terms of area, speed, and sensitivity. The instrument performance is dominated by the focal plane sensors, which are now in development. These new-generation sensors will make use of advanced semiconductor technology and will be complemented by a highly integrated electronics package located inside the cryostat. A test laboratory has been set up at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to characterize prototype sensors and to develop test and assembly techniques for eventual integration of production sensors and electronics into modules that will form the final focal plane. As described in [1], the key requirements for LSST sensors are wideband quantum efficiency (QE) extending beyond lpm in the red, control of point spread function (PSF), and fast readout using multiple amplifiers per chip operated in parallel. In addition, LSST's fast optical system (f71.25) places severe constraints on focal plane flatness. At the chip level this involves packaging techniques to minimize warpage of the silicon die, and at the mosaic level careful assembly and metrology to achieve a high coplanarity of the sensor tiles. In view of the long lead time to develop the needed sensor technology, LSST undertook a study program with several vendors to fabricate and test devices which address the most critical performance features [2]. The remainder of this paper presents key results of this study program. Section 2 summarizes the sensor requirements and the results of design optimization studies, and Section 3 presents the sensor development plan. In Section 4 we describe the test bench at BNL. Section 5 reports measurement results obtained to date oh devices fabricated by several vendors. Section 6 presents a summary of the paper and an outlook for the future work. We present characterization methods and results on

  9. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Li, Quan; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery. (paper)

  10. Construction of crystal structure prototype database: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuanxun; Lv, Jian; Li, Quan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2017-04-26

    Crystal structure prototype data have become a useful source of information for materials discovery in the fields of crystallography, chemistry, physics, and materials science. This work reports the development of a robust and efficient method for assessing the similarity of structures on the basis of their interatomic distances. Using this method, we proposed a simple and unambiguous definition of crystal structure prototype based on hierarchical clustering theory, and constructed the crystal structure prototype database (CSPD) by filtering the known crystallographic structures in a database. With similar method, a program structure prototype analysis package (SPAP) was developed to remove similar structures in CALYPSO prediction results and extract predicted low energy structures for a separate theoretical structure database. A series of statistics describing the distribution of crystal structure prototypes in the CSPD was compiled to provide an important insight for structure prediction and high-throughput calculations. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed database are given, including the generation of initial structures for structure prediction and determination of the prototype structure in databases. These examples demonstrate the CSPD to be a generally applicable and useful tool for materials discovery.

  11. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, M. T., E-mail: mariate9590@gmail.com; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simón Bolívar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Sartenejas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dávila, J. [Física Médica C. A. and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-07-23

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (∼1.6 10{sup 4} neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  12. NMS Prototype development final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetich, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Program for development of NMS prototype for LAMPF consisted of 5 tasks: crystal procurement specification, inspection/evaluation of CsI crystals, design/fabrication of crystal housing, design/fabrication of PMT shields, and packaging of crystals in the housing

  13. The OPAL vertex detector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, J.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Giles, G.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; McPherson, A.C.; Pinfold, J.L.; Waterhouse, J.; Godfrey, L.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The prototype test results of a high resolution charged particle tracking detector are reported. The detector is designed to measure vertex topologies of particles produced in the e + e - collisions of the OPAL experiment at LEP. The OPAL vertex detector is a 1 m long, 0.46 m diameter cylindrical drift chamber consisting of an axial and stereo layer each of which is divided into 36 jet cells. A prototype chamber containing four axial and two stereo cells was studied using a pion test beam at CERN. The studies examined the prototype under a variety of operating conditions. An r-Φ resolution of 60 μm was obtained when the chamber was operated with argon (50%)-ethane (50%) at 3.75 bar, and when CO 2 (80%)-isobutane (20%) at 2.5 bar was used a 25 μm resolution was achieved. A z measurement using end-to-end time difference has a resolution of 3.5 cm. The details of these prototype studies are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  15. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  16. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  17. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    The method of diagnosing patients used since the early 1980s in psychiatry, which involves evaluating each of several hundred symptoms for their presence or absence and then applying idiosyncratic rules for combining them for each of several hundred disorders, has led to great advances in research over the last 30 years. However, its problems have become increasingly apparent, particularly for clinical practice. An alternative approach, designed to maximize clinical utility, is prototype matching. Instead of counting symptoms of a disorder and determining whether they cross an arbitrary cutoff, the task of the diagnostician is to gauge the extent to which a patient’s clinical presentation matches a paragraph-length description of the disorder using a simple 5-point scale, from 1 (“little or no match”) to 5 (“very good match”). The result is both a dimensional diagnosis that captures the extent to which the patient “has” the disorder and a categorical diagnosis, with ratings of 4 and 5 corresponding to presence of the disorder and a rating of 3 indicating “subthreshold” or “clinically significant features”. The disorders and criteria woven into the prototypes can be identified empirically, so that the prototypes are both scientifically grounded and clinically useful. Prototype diagnosis has a number of advantages: it better captures the way humans naturally classify novel and complex stimuli; is clinically helpful, reliable, and easy to use in everyday practice; facilitates both dimensional and categorical diagnosis and dramatically reduces the number of categories required for classification; allows for clinically richer, empirically derived, and culturally relevant classification; reduces the gap between research criteria and clinical knowledge, by allowing clinicians in training to learn a small set of standardized prototypes and to develop richer mental representations of the disorders over time through clinical experience; and can help

  18. Prototype Effect and the Persuasiveness of Generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually has. This prototype effect increases the persuasiveness of the argument in situations where the audience finds the judgment more warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (positive prototype effect), but decreases persuasiveness in situations where the audience finds the judgment less warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (negative prototype effect).

  19. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  20. Prototyping of user interfaces for mobile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates processes for the prototyping of user interfaces for mobile apps, and describes the development of new concepts and tools that can improve the prototype driven app development in the early stages. It presents the development and evaluation of a new requirements catalogue for prototyping mobile app tools that identifies the most important criteria such tools should meet at different prototype-development stages. This catalogue is not just a good point of orientation for designing new prototyping approaches, but also provides a set of metrics for a comparing the performance of alternative prototyping tools. In addition, the book discusses the development of Blended Prototyping, a new approach for prototyping user interfaces for mobile applications in the early and middle development stages, and presents the results of an evaluation of its performance, showing that it provides a tool for teamwork-oriented, creative prototyping of mobile apps in the early design stages.

  1. Design in action: From prototyping by demonstration to cooperative prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1991-01-01

    ... the development of any computer-based system will have to proceed in a cycle from design to experience and back again. It is impossible to anticipate all of the relevant breakdown and their domains. They emerge gradually in practice. Winograd and Flores, 1986. p.171 Some time ago we worked wi...... with a group of dental assistants, designing a prototype case record system to explore the possibility of using computer support in public dental clinics. ...

  2. Developing novel extensions to support prototyping for interactive social robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhömer, ten M.; Bartneck, C.; Hu, J.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Tuyls, K.P.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Lego Mindstorms NXT is a platform highly suitable for prototyping in the field of interactive social robotics. During a technology masterclass at Eindhoven University of Technology students from the department of Industrial Design have developed five novel extensions (sensors and actuators) for the

  3. ISR Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype:preparing the first test

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows the first prototype quadrupole (still with an adjustable stainless steel shrinking cylinder) being lifted to be inserted in a vertical cryostat for testing. It attained the design field gradient without any quench.The persons are Pierre Rey and Michel Bouvier. See also 7702690X.

  4. Prototypes Are Key Heuristic Information in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjing; Dietrich, Arne; Liu, Peiduo; Ming, Dan; Jin, Yule; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from a range of fields indicates that inventions are often inspired by drawing a parallel to solutions found in nature. However, the cognitive mechanism of this process is not well understood. The cognitive mechanism of heuristic prototype in scientific innovation was tested with 3 experiments. First, 84 historical accounts of important…

  5. SIMS prototype System 3 test results: engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The results obtained during testing of a closed hydronic drain down solar system designed for space and hot water heating are presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 3 for field installation.

  6. SIMS prototype system 3 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained during testing of a closed hydronic drain down solar system designed for space and hot water heating is presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 3 for field installation.

  7. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  8. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  9. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  10. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  11. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  12. Prototypical Rod Construction Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 3 discusses the following topics: Downender Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report; Fuel Assembly Handling Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; and Fuel Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report

  13. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  14. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  15. Modeling and prototyping of a flux concentrator for positron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Gai, W.; Wang, H.; Wong, T.

    2008-01-01

    An adiabatic matching device (AMD) generates a tapered high-strength magnetic field to capture positrons emitted from a positron target to a downstream accelerating structure. The AMD is a key component of a positron source and represents a technical challenge. The International Linear Collider collaboration is proposing to employ a pulsed, normal-conducting, flux-concentrator to generate a 5 Tesla initial magnetic field. The flux-concentrator structure itself and the interactions between the flux-concentrator and the external power supply circuits give rise to a nontrivial system. In this paper, we present a recently developed equivalent circuit model for a flux concentrator, along with the characteristics of a prototype fabricated for validating the model. Using the model, we can obtain the transient response of the pulsed magnetic field and the field profile. Calculations based on the model and the results of measurements made on the prototype are in good agreement.

  16. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  17. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [The Danish Polymer Centre, RISOE National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows for transporting oxygen and water sensitive devices outside a glove box environment after sealing and enables sharing of devices between research groups such that efficiency and stability can be evaluated in different laboratories. (author)

  18. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  19. Using prototyping in software development

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, Miha

    2010-01-01

    Today the business system changers faster than the usual conventional cascade life cycle. Because of that, we can conclude, that today's programming system will no longer be presented as the answer to this topic in the developing age of ever changing user requirements. Neither increased performance or higher productivity will decrease the problem. The appropriate solution to this stated problem is prototyping. Instead of building and developing the whole system, we build a module that can...

  20. Iteration and Prototyping in Creating Technical Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, John P.

    1994-01-01

    Claims that the development process for computer software can be greatly aided by the writers of specifications if they employ basic iteration and prototyping techniques. Asserts that computer software configuration management practices provide ready models for iteration and prototyping. (HB)

  1. Printing of Titanium implant prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Shyan, John Yong Ming; Lim, Poon Nian; Wen, Francis Goh Chung; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant plays an important role as a conduit of force and stress to flow from the tooth to the related bone. In the load sharing between an implant and its related bone, the amount of stress carried by each of them directly related to their stiffness or modulus. Hence, it is a crucial issue for the implant to have matching mechanical properties, in particular modulus, between the implant and its related bone. Titanium is a metallic material that has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Whilst the modulus of the bulk material is still higher than that of bone, it is the lowest among all other commonly used metallic implant materials, such as stainless steel or cobalt alloy. Hence it is potential to further reduce the modulus of pure Titanium by engineering its processing method to obtain porous structure. In this project, porous Titanium implant prototype is fabricated using 3-dimensional printing. This technique allows the flexibility of design customization, which is beneficial for implant fabrication as tailoring of implant size and shape helps to ensure the implant would fit nicely to the patient. The fabricated Titanium prototype had a modulus of 4.8-13.2 GPa, which is in the range of natural bone modulus. The compressive strength achieved was between 167 to 455 MPa. Subsequent cell culture study indicated that the porous Titanium prototype had good biocompatibility and is suitable for bone cell attachment and proliferation.

  2. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-01-01

    The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  3. Prototype effect and the persuasiveness of generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually ...

  4. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Scintillator Tile Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A high granularity scintillator hadronic calorimeter prototype is described. The calorimeter is based on a novel photodetector - Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM). The main parameters of SiPM are discussed as well as readout cell construction and optimization. The experience with a small prototype production and testing is described. A new 8 k channel prototype is being manufactured now

  6. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  7. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  8. Cell-free synthetic biology for in vitro prototype engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; MacDonald, James T; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-06-15

    Cell-free transcription-translation is an expanding field in synthetic biology as a rapid prototyping platform for blueprinting the design of synthetic biological devices. Exemplar efforts include translation of prototype designs into medical test kits for on-site identification of viruses (Zika and Ebola), while gene circuit cascades can be tested, debugged and re-designed within rapid turnover times. Coupled with mathematical modelling, this discipline lends itself towards the precision engineering of new synthetic life. The next stages of cell-free look set to unlock new microbial hosts that remain slow to engineer and unsuited to rapid iterative design cycles. It is hoped that the development of such systems will provide new tools to aid the transition from cell-free prototype designs to functioning synthetic genetic circuits and engineered natural product pathways in living cells. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Open-Ended Interaction in Cooperative Pro-to-typing: A Video-based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj; Trigg, Randal

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative Prototyping can be characterized as the use and development of prototypes as catalysts during discussions between designers and potential users – the overall intention being one of mutual learning. On the one hand, the designers learn more about the work practices of the users in ways...... that are tied concretely to some current version of the prototype. On the other hand, the users learn more about the potential for change in their work practice, whether computer-based or otherwise. This paper presents the results of a field study of the cooperative prototyping process. The study is based...... on a fine-grained video-based analysis of a single prototyping session, and focuses on the effects of an open-ended style of interaction between users and designers around a prototype. An analysis of focus shifts, initiative and storytelling during the session is brought to bear on the question of whether...

  10. Rapid prototyping-assisted maxillofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Tang, Zhangui; Liu, Ousheng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-05-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have found many uses in dentistry, and especially oral and maxillofacial surgery, due to its ability to promote product development while at the same time reducing cost and depositing a part of any degree of complexity theoretically. This paper provides an overview of RP technologies for maxillofacial reconstruction covering both fundamentals and applications of the technologies. Key fundamentals of RP technologies involving the history, characteristics, and principles are reviewed. A number of RP applications to the main fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including restoration of maxillofacial deformities and defects, reduction of functional bone tissues, correction of dento-maxillofacial deformities, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses, are discussed. The most remarkable challenges for development of RP-assisted maxillofacial surgery and promising solutions are also elaborated.

  11. Progress toward NLC / GLC prototype accelerator structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J W; Arkan, T; Baboi, N; Boffo, C; Bowden, G B; Burke, D L; Carter, H; Chan, J; Cornuelle, J; Döbert, Steffen; Dolgashev, Valery A; Finley, D; Gonin, I; Higashi, Y; Higo, T; Jones, R M; Khabiboulline, T; Kume, T; Lewandowski, J; Li, Z; Miller, R H; Mishra, S; Morozumi, Y; Nantista, C; Pearson, C; Romanov, G; Ruth, Ronald D; Solyak, N; Tantawi, S; Toge, N; Ueno, K; Wilson, P B; Xiao, L

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator structure groups for NLC (Next Linear Collider) and GLC (Global Linear Colliders) have successfully collaborated on the research and development of a major series of advanced accelerator structures based on room-temperature technology at X-band frequency. The progress in design, simulation, microwave measurement and high gradient tests are summarized in this paper. The recent effort in design and fabrication of the accelerator structure prototype for the main linac is presented in detail including HOM (High Order Mode) suppression and couplers, fundamental mode couplers, optimized accelerator cavities as well as plans for future structures. We emphasize techniques to reduce the field on the surface of the copper structures (in order to achieve high accelerating gradients), limit the dipole wakefields (to relax alignment tolerance and prevent a beam break up instability) and improve shunt impedance (to reduce the RF power required).

  12. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognet, S.A.I., E-mail: mognet@astro.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aramaki, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bando, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mori, K.; Okazaki, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ong, R.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Yoshida, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Zweerink, J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  13. Structural behaviour of the GAMMA 60 prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchetta, M.; Matano, F. [ENEA C.R.E., Rome (Italy); Botta, G.; Cavaliere, M. [ENEL C.R.E.,Milano (Italy); Doman, G.S.; Golinelli, S. [West V., Rome (Italy); Viani, S. [ISMES (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    A joint test campaign started in April 1993 on the GAMMA 60 broad range variable speed, yaw controlled, 1500 kW wind turbine prototype, operating at the ENEL test field of Alta Nurra - Sardinia. As part of the test campaign the structural behaviour of the machine has been investigated and the aeroelastic simulation of the machine using GAROS code has been improved and verified with available data. The experimental loads, measured with a number of strain gages at various locations in the rotor, yaw actuator and tower have been compared, as far as possible, with the design loads. No major structural problems have been detected during operation, while measured loads and stress levels are generally comparable with the design assumptions. In addition, substantial experience in the use of the code has been gained, increasing confidence level of predictions. (author)

  14. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mognet, S.A.I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R.A.; Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  15. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    Each year, civilian accidental injury results in 150,000 deaths and 400,000 permanent disabilities in the United States alone. The timely creation of and access to dynamically updated trauma patient information at the point of injury is critical to improving the state of care. Such information is often non-existent, incomplete, or inaccurate, resulting in less than adequate treatment by medics and the loss of precious time by medical personnel at the hospital or battalion aid station as they attempt to reassess and treat the patient. The Trauma Care Information Management System (TCIMS) is a prototype system for facilitating information flow and patient processing decisions in the difficult circumstances of civilian and military trauma care activities. The program is jointly supported by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and a consortium of universities, medical centers, and private companies. The authors' focus has been the human-computer interface for the system. We are attempting to make TCIMS powerful in the functions it delivers to its users in the field while also making it easy to understand and operate. To develop such a usable system, an approach known as user-centered design is being followed. Medical personnel themselves are collaborating with the authors in its needs analysis, design, and evaluation. Specifically, the prototype being demonstrated was designed through observation of actual civilian trauma care episodes, military trauma care exercises onboard a hospital ship, interviews with civilian and military trauma care providers, repeated evaluation of evolving prototypes by potential users, and study of the literature on trauma care and human factors engineering. This presentation at MedInfo '95 is still another avenue for soliciting guidance from medical information system experts and users. The outcome of this process is a system that provides the functions trauma care personnel desire in a manner that can be easily and

  16. Pressure pulsation in Kaplan turbines: Prototype-CFD comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetti, A; Lucino, C; Liscia, S; Muguerza, D; Avellan, F

    2012-01-01

    Pressure pulsation phenomena in a large Kaplan turbine are investigated by means of numerical simulations (CFD) and prototype measurements in order to study the dynamic behavior of flow due to the blade passage and its interaction with other components of the turbine. Numerical simulations are performed with the commercial software Ansys CFX code, solving the incompressible Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes equations under a finite volume scheme. The computational domain involves the entire machine at prototype scale. Special care is taken in the discretization of the wicket gate overhang and runner blade gap. Prototype measurements are performed using pressure transducers at different locations among the wicket gate outlet and the draft tube inlet. Then, CFD results are compared with temporary signals of prototype measurements at identical locations to validate the numerical model. A detailed analysis was focused on the tip gap flow and the pressure field at the discharge ring. From a rotating reference frame perspective, it is found that the mean pressure fluctuates accordingly the wicket gate passage. Moreover, in prototype measurements the pressure frequency that reveals the presence of modulated cavitation at the discharge ring is distinguished, as also verified from the shape of erosion patches in concordance with the number of wicket gates.

  17. Pressure pulsation in Kaplan turbines: Prototype-CFD comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, A.; Lucino1, C.; Liscia, S.; Muguerza, D.; Avellan, F.

    2012-11-01

    Pressure pulsation phenomena in a large Kaplan turbine are investigated by means of numerical simulations (CFD) and prototype measurements in order to study the dynamic behavior of flow due to the blade passage and its interaction with other components of the turbine. Numerical simulations are performed with the commercial software Ansys CFX code, solving the incompressible Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes equations under a finite volume scheme. The computational domain involves the entire machine at prototype scale. Special care is taken in the discretization of the wicket gate overhang and runner blade gap. Prototype measurements are performed using pressure transducers at different locations among the wicket gate outlet and the draft tube inlet. Then, CFD results are compared with temporary signals of prototype measurements at identical locations to validate the numerical model. A detailed analysis was focused on the tip gap flow and the pressure field at the discharge ring. From a rotating reference frame perspective, it is found that the mean pressure fluctuates accordingly the wicket gate passage. Moreover, in prototype measurements the pressure frequency that reveals the presence of modulated cavitation at the discharge ring is distinguished, as also verified from the shape of erosion patches in concordance with the number of wicket gates.

  18. Advanced ASON prototyping research activities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, WeiSheng; Jin, Yaohui; Guo, Wei; Su, Yikai; He, Hao; Sun, Weiqiang

    2005-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of prototyping research activities of automatically switched optical networks and transport networks (ASONs/ASTNs) in China. In recent years, China has recognized the importance and benefits of the emerging ASON/ASTN techniques. During the period of 2001 and 2002, the national 863 Program of China started the preliminary ASON research projects with the main objectives to build preliminary ASON testbeds, develop control plane protocols and test their performance in the testbeds. During the period of 2003 and 2004, the 863 program started ASTN prototyping equipment projects for more practical applications. Totally 12 ASTN equipments are being developed by three groups led by Chinese venders: ZTE with Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Wuhan Research Institute of Posts and Telecommunication (WRI) with Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), and Huawei Inc. Meanwhile, as the ASTN is maturing, some of the China"s carries are participating in the OIF"s World Interoperability Demonstration, carrying out ASTN test, or deploying ASTN backbone networks. Finally, several ASTN backbone networks being tested or deployed now will be operated by the carries in 2005. The 863 Program will carry out an ASTN field trail in Yangtse River Delta, and finally deploy the 3TNET. 3TNET stands for Tbps transmission, Tbps switching, and Tbps routing, as well as a network integrating the above techniques. A task force under the "863" program is responsible for ASTN equipment specifications and interoperation agreements, technical coordination among all the participants, schedule of the whole project during the project undergoing, and organization of internetworking of all the equipments in the laboratories and field trials.

  19. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  20. Results from the FDIRC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A., E-mail: roberts@umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Arnaud, N. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Dey, B. [University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Borsato, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Leith, D.W.G.S.; Nishimura, K.; Ratcliff, B.N. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States); Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Va’vra, J. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). This detector was designed as a prototype of the particle identification system for the SuperB experiment, and comprises 1/12 of the SuperB barrel azimuthal coverage with partial electronics implementation. The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking with an angular resolution of ∼1.5 mrad, track position resolution of 5–6 mm, start time resolution of 70 ps, and a muon low-energy cutoff of ∼2 GeV provided by an iron range stack. The quartz focusing photon camera couples to a full-size BaBar DIRC bar box and is read out by 12 Hamamatsu H8500 MaPMTs providing 768 pixels. We used IRS2 waveform digitizing electronics to read out the MaPMTs. We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that the new optics design works very well, including: (a) single photon Cherenkov angle resolutions with and without chromatic corrections, (b) S/N ratio between the Cherenkov peak and background, which consists primarily of ambiguities in possible photon paths to a given pixel, (c) dTOP=TOP{sub measured}–TOP{sub expected} resolutions, and (d) performance of the detector in the presence of high-rate backgrounds. We also describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance. - Highlights: • We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). • The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking. • We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that new optics design works very well. • We describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance.

  1. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...... prototyping of milk products such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during gelation of milk to yogurt. The influence of the colloidal aggregation on the optical properties is described by the static structure factor. As our method is noninvasive, we can use our setup for monitoring...

  2. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  3. Prototype system of secure VOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Harumi; Yamaguchi, Tomohisa

    1997-12-01

    Secure digital contents delivery systems are to realize copyright protection and charging mechanism, and aim at secure delivery service of digital contents. Encrypted contents delivery and history (log) management are means to accomplish this purpose. Our final target is to realize a video-on-demand (VOD) system that can prevent illegal usage of video data and manage user history data to achieve a secure video delivery system on the Internet or Intranet. By now, mainly targeting client-server systems connected with enterprise LAN, we have implemented and evaluated a prototype system based on the investigation into the delivery method of encrypted video contents.

  4. Prototype plutonium-storage monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Sunberg, D.S.; Warner, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate scintillating fibers via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have an operational transmission length (e -1 length) of greater than 2 meters. This permits the fabrication of devices that, hitherto, were not possible to consider. A prototype neutron monitor for scrap Pu-storage containers was fabricated and tested for 70 days, taking data with a variety of sources in a high-background environment. These data and their implication in the context of a storage-monitor situation are discussed

  5. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-01-01

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year''s prototypes, the application functionality needed for test will be provided by sample maintenance controls. These are early precursors of controls that can be used for low level device control. Since the devices under test will be represented by

  6. Rapid prototyping of robotic platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ronde, Willis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of thickness up to 200mm can be cut to create prototype chassis/ bodies or even the final product. One of the few limitations is the cutting of certain laminated materials, as this tends to produce delaminated cutting edges or even fractures in the case... mine inspection robot (Shongololo). Shongololo’s frame is made from engineering plastics while the chassis of Dassie was made from aluminium and cut using abrasive waterjet machining. The advantage of using abrasive waterjet machining is the speed...

  7. A Prototype Ionization Profile Monitor for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cameron, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ryan, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shea, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sikora, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-03-17

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab will accelerate and store beams of ions ranging from protons to gold nuclei. Transverse beam profiles will be obtained by measuring the distribution of free electrons formed by beam ionization of the residual gas. The electrons are swept from the beamline by a transverse electric field, amplified by a microchannel plate (MCP), and collected on a circuit board with strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. A uniform magnetic field,parallel to the sweep electric field, counters the defocusing effects of space charge and recoil momentum. A single-plane prototype ionization profile montor (IPM) was installed near the end of the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line (ATR) and tested during the sextant commissioning rung. It measured vertical profiles of single bunches of Au nuclei with intensities of 0.6-1.0 x 108 particles. These profiles are compared to profiles on a fluorescent screen (WF3) located 2m downstream from the IPM. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam test.

  8. Low-friction nanojoint prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassov, Sergei; Oras, Sven; Antsov, Mikk; Butikova, Jelena; Lõhmus, Rünno; Polyakov, Boris

    2018-05-01

    High surface energy of individual nanostructures leads to high adhesion and static friction that can completely hinder the operation of nanoscale systems with movable parts. For instance, silver or gold nanowires cannot be moved on silicon substrate without plastic deformation. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an operational prototype of a low-friction nanojoint. The movable part of the prototype is made either from a gold or silver nano-pin produced by laser-induced partial melting of silver and gold nanowires resulting in the formation of rounded bulbs on their ends. The nano-pin is then manipulated into the inverted pyramid (i-pyramids) specially etched in a Si wafer. Due to the small contact area, the nano-pin can be repeatedly tilted inside an i-pyramid as a rigid object without noticeable deformation. At the same time in the absence of external force the nanojoint is stable and preserves its position and tilt angle. Experiments are performed inside a scanning electron microscope and are supported by finite element method simulations.

  9. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report

  10. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 5 discusses the following topics: Lower Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Robotic Bridge Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report; RM-10A Remotec Manipulator Test Results and Analysis Report; and Manipulator Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report

  11. Experimental investigations of the neutron contamination in high-energy photon fields at medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunckhorst, Elin

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to develop a device for the detection of the photoneutron dose inside the high-energy photon field. The photoneutron contamination of a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator was investigated in detail in its 15 MV photon mode. The experimental examinations were performed with three ionisation chambers (a tissue equivalent chamber, a magnesium chamber and a 10 B-coated magnesium chamber) and two types of thermoluminescence detectors (enriched with 6 Li and 7 Li, respectively). The detectors have different sensitivities to photons and neutrons and their combination allows the dose separation in a mixed neutron/photon field. The application of the ionisation chamber system, as well as the present TLD system for photoneutron detection in high-energy photon beams is a new approach. The TLD neutron sensitivity was found to be too low for a measurement inside the open photon field and the further investigation focused on the ionisation chambers. The three ionisation chambers were calibrated at different photon and neutron sources and a the borated magnesium chamber showed a very high response to thermal neutrons. For a cross check of the calibration, the three chambers were also used for dose separation of a boron neutron capture therapy beam where the exact determination of the thermal neutron dose is essential. Very accurate results were achieved for the thermal neutron dose component. At the linear accelerator the chamber system was reduced to a paired chamber system utilising the two magnesium chambers, since the fast neutron component was to small to be separated. The neutron calibration of the three chambers could not be applied, instead a conversion of measured thermal neutron signal by the borated chamber to Monte Carlo simulated total neutron dose was performed. Measurements for open fields in solid water and liquid water were performed with the paired chamber system. In larger depths the neutron dose could be determined with an

  12. Experimental investigations of the neutron contamination in high-energy photon fields at medical linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunckhorst, Elin

    2009-02-26

    The scope of this thesis was to develop a device for the detection of the photoneutron dose inside the high-energy photon field. The photoneutron contamination of a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator was investigated in detail in its 15 MV photon mode. The experimental examinations were performed with three ionisation chambers (a tissue equivalent chamber, a magnesium chamber and a {sup 10}B-coated magnesium chamber) and two types of thermoluminescence detectors (enriched with {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li, respectively). The detectors have different sensitivities to photons and neutrons and their combination allows the dose separation in a mixed neutron/photon field. The application of the ionisation chamber system, as well as the present TLD system for photoneutron detection in high-energy photon beams is a new approach. The TLD neutron sensitivity was found to be too low for a measurement inside the open photon field and the further investigation focused on the ionisation chambers. The three ionisation chambers were calibrated at different photon and neutron sources and a the borated magnesium chamber showed a very high response to thermal neutrons. For a cross check of the calibration, the three chambers were also used for dose separation of a boron neutron capture therapy beam where the exact determination of the thermal neutron dose is essential. Very accurate results were achieved for the thermal neutron dose component. At the linear accelerator the chamber system was reduced to a paired chamber system utilising the two magnesium chambers, since the fast neutron component was to small to be separated. The neutron calibration of the three chambers could not be applied, instead a conversion of measured thermal neutron signal by the borated chamber to Monte Carlo simulated total neutron dose was performed. Measurements for open fields in solid water and liquid water were performed with the paired chamber system. In larger depths the neutron dose could be determined

  13. Prototype international quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadway, J.A.; Chambless, D.A.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The international community presently lacks the ability to determine the quality and credibility of environmental measurements that is required to make sound decisions in matters related to international security, public health, and investment-related considerations. The ultimate goal of the work described in this article is to develop a credible information base including measurement capability for determination of environmental contamination and the potential for proliferation of material components of chemical or nuclear weapons. This study compared the accuracy obtained by six Russian and six U.S. laboratories for samples representative of classes of trace metals, dioxing-furans, and radioactive substances. The results obtained in this work indicate that current estimates for laboratory accuracy are likely overly optimistic. The weaknesses discovered by this prototype U.S. - Russia study also exist within the broader international community of laboratories. Further work is proposed to address the urgent need for the international community to improve performance evaluations for analytical measurements. (author)

  14. Prototype of industrial electrons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, V.H.; Valdovinos, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interest and the necessity of Mexico's industry in the use of irradiation process has been increased in the last years. As examples are the irradiation of combustion gases (elimination of NO x and SO 2 ) and the polymer cross-linking between others. At present time at least twelve enterprises require immediately of them which have been contacted by electron accelerators suppliers of foreign countries. The first project step consisted in to identify the electrons accelerator type that in can be constructed in Mexico with the major number of possible equipment, instruments, components and acquisition materials local and useful for the major number of users. the characteristics of the accelerator prototype are: accelerator type transformer with multiple secondary insulated and rectifier circuits with a potential of 0.8 MV of voltage, the second step it consisted in an economic study that permitted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of its construction. (Author)

  15. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  16. PEP-II prototype klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability

  17. The Yucca Mountain Project Prototype Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is conducting a Prototype Testing Program to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the prototype tests and their status and location and emphasizes prototype ESF and surface tests, which are required in the early stages of the ESF site characterization tests. 14 figs

  18. Test case preparation using a prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Treharne, Helen; Draper, J.; Schneider, Steve A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the preparation of test cases using a prototype within the context of a formal development. It describes an approach to building a prototype using an example. It discusses how a prototype contributes to the testing activity as part of a lifecycle based on the use of formal methods. The results of applying the approach to an embedded avionics case study are also presented.

  19. A prototype for JDEM science data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E

    2011-01-01

    Fermilab is developing a prototype science data processing and data quality monitoring system for dark energy science. The purpose of the prototype is to demonstrate distributed data processing capabilities for astrophysics applications, and to evaluate candidate technologies for trade-off studies. We present the architecture and technical aspects of the prototype, including an open source scientific execution and application development framework, distributed data processing, and publish/subscribe message passing for quality control.

  20. Rapid prototyping using CBCT: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovchev, D.; Deliverska, E.; Indjova, J.; Ugrinov, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case of fibrous dysplasia in the left lower jaw of a 12-year-old girl, scanned with CBCT. On the basis of CBCT scan a model of affected jaw was produced using a rapid-prototyping three-dimensional printer. The case demonstrates the possibility to get a prototype by CBCT data. Prototypes can be used to support the diagnosis, planning, training (students and postgraduates) and to obtain informed consent from the patient.

  1. Prototype calorimeters for the NA3 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The NA3 Experiment was set-up on the North Area of the SPS by the CERN/ Ecole Polytechnique/College de France/ Orsay/Saclay Collaboration, to study high transverse momentum leptons and hadrons from hadron collisions. The calorimeters measured the energy of hadrons (prototype on the right) and leptons (prototype on the left). They used a new type of plastic scintillator (plexipop). (see CERN Courier of November 1975) energy (prototype on the right)

  2. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  3. Magnetic design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlot, Mona, E-mail: mona_gehlot@yahoo.com [Insertion Device Development Laboratory, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Mishra, G. [Insertion Device Development Laboratory, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Institute of Engineering, UNAM (Mexico); Soleil, Paris (France); Trillaud, Frederic [Institute of Engineering, UNAM (Mexico); Sharma, Geetanjali [Soleil, Paris (France)

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we report the design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator that is under fabrication at Insertion Device Development Laboratory (IDDL) at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, India. The field computations are made in RADIA and results are presented in an analytical form for computation of the on axis field and the field on the surface of the coil. On the basis of the findings, a best fit is presented for the model to calculate the field dependence on the gap and the current density. The fit is compared with Moser-Rossmanith formula proposed earlier to predict the magnetic flux density of a superconducting undulator. The field mapping is used to calculate the field integrals and its dependence on gap and current densities as well.

  4. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations. (paper)

  5. Enhancing experience prototyping by the help of mixed-fidelity prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque

    2007-01-01

    In this research review I undertook the problem related to the usage of a new concept known as the Mixed- Fidelity Prototype which is a mixture of its predecessors Low- and High- Fidelity Prototypes in Experience Prototyping. Experience Prototyping is a good way to explore, communicate and interact with the designs we develop like experiencing cycling on the ice, although the mood, snow conditions, bicycle type and many other factors really matter and tend to change with time. Experience Prot...

  6. Ambient dose equivalent and personal points due to photoneutrons outside a facility that houses a linear accelerator of 18 MV varian; Equivalente de dosis ambiental y personal debida a fotoneutrones en puntos externos a una instalacion que alberga un acelerador lineal varian de 18 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S. A.; Barquero, R.; Gomez-Ros, J. M.; Lallena, A. M.; Ponzano, P. E.

    2011-07-01

    The use of linear accelerators (linacs) with energies above 10 MV radiotherapy treatments RT and IMRT, can improve the distribution of the absorbed dose in the treated area, increasing the effectiveness of radiation treatments. However and as shown in the scientific literature, the production of photoneutrons for energies above 10 MeV can contribute to exposure of both patient and occupationally exposed workers and the public in the vicinity of the installation. It is therefore necessary to determine the value of ambient dose equivalent and staff both inside and outside the facilities that house these accelerators, especially for energies of 15 and 18 MV.

  7. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: prototype technologies goals and strategies for the future SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Folla, Ivan; Valsecchi, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; Conconi, Paolo; Fiorini, Mauro; Giro, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sironi, Giorgia; Stringhetti, Luca; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Pellicciari, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will represent the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. Using a combination of large-, medium-, and small-scale telescopes (LST, MST, SST, respectively), it will explore the Very High Energy domain from a few tens of GeVup to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) developed a 4-meter class telescope, which will adopt an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild- Couder configuration. Within this program INAF assigned to the consortium between Galbiati Group and EIE Group the construction, assembly and tests activities of the prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. On the basis of the lesson learnt from the prototype, other telescopes will be produced, starting from a re-design phase, in order to optimize performances and the overall costs and production schedule for the CTA-SST telescope. This paper will firstly give an overview of the concept for the SST prototype mount structure. In this contest, the technologies adopted for the design, manufacturing and tests of the entire system will be presented. Moreover, a specific focus on the challenges of the prototype and the strategies associated with it will be provided, in order to outline the near future performance goals for this type of Cherenkov telescopes employed for Gamma ray science.

  8. The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.; Chester, N.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Harfoush, F.; Holmes, S.; Humbert, J.; Kerby, J.; Knauf, A.; Kobliska, G.; Lipski, A.; Martin, P.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Ostiguy, J.; Peggs, S.; Pachnik, J.; Pewitt, E.; Satti, J.; Schmidt, E.; Sim, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walbridge, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  10. Prototyping SOS meta-theory in Maude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Reniers, M.A.; Mosses, P.D.; Ulidowski, I.

    2006-01-01

    We present a prototype implementation of SOS meta-theory in the Maude term rewriting language. The prototype defines the basic concepts of SOS meta-theory (e.g., transition formulae, deduction rules and transition system specifications) in Maude. Besides the basic definitions, we implement methods

  11. OPAL jet chamber full-scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  12. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  13. Dissipative Prototyping Methods: A Manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, P.

    Taking a designer's unique perspective using examples of practice in experimental installation and digital protoyping, this manifesto acts as provocation for change and unlocking new potential by encouraging changes of perspective about the material realm. Diffusive form-language is proposed as a paradigm for architectural design. This method of design is applied through 3D printing and related digital fabrication methods, offering new qualities that can be implemented in design of realms including present earth and future interplanetary environments. A paradigm shift is encouraged by questioning conventional notions of geometry that minimize interfaces and by proposing the alternatives of maximized interfaces formed by effusive kinds of formal composition. A series of projects from the Canadian research studio of the Hylozoic Architecture group are described, providing examples of component design methods employing diffusive forms within combinations of tension-integrity structural systems integrated with hybrid metabolisms employing synthetic biology. Cultural implications are also discussed, drawing from architectural theory and natural philosophy. The conclusion of this paper suggests that the practice of diffusive prototyping can offer formative strategies contributing to design of future living systems.

  14. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  15. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  16. Rapid control prototyping - new technologies and tools; Rapid Control Prototyping - neue Moeglichkeiten und Werkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterbach, R.; Eckmann, M.; Mertens, F. [dSPACE GmbH, Paderborn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    The paper presents the status quo in rapid control prototyping (RCP) and discusses further developments of this technology. The complete functional chain, from sensors to data preprocessing and the real-time processor, right through to control of the actuators, is created as an integrated hardware and software solution. The greatest flexibility and configurability are achieved with a modular platform concept that includes signal conditioning and power stages. The architecture of modern microcontrollers and electronic control units (ECUs) result in new requirements in the field of bypassing. These are fulfilled by appropriate solutions based on on-chip debug interfaces and standardized data protocols on serial busses. RCP support for developing networked, time-triggered vehicle systems, and the particular requirements for the tool environment, are described using FlexRay as an example. (orig.)

  17. Virtual Video Prototyping of Pervasive Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Madsen, Kim Halskov

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  18. Virtual Video Prototyping for Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  19. High confidence in falsely recognizing prototypical faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina; Reinke, Victoria; Mathews, Jeffrey; Swart, Alexandra; Wallinger, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes; thus, it was contingent on the nature of the items used. The data have implications for lineups that employ match-to-suspect strategies.

  20. Experimental validation of prototype high voltage bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Tyagi, H.; Sharma, D.; Parmar, D.; M. N., Vishnudev; Joshi, K.; Patel, K.; Yadav, A.; Patel, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    Prototype High voltage bushing (PHVB) is a scaled down configuration of DNB High Voltage Bushing (HVB) of ITER. It is designed for operation at 50 kV DC to ensure operational performance and thereby confirming the design configuration of DNB HVB. Two concentric insulators viz. Ceramic and Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rings are used as double layered vacuum boundary for 50 kV isolation between grounded and high voltage flanges. Stress shields are designed for smooth electric field distribution. During ceramic to Kovar brazing, spilling cannot be controlled which may lead to high localized electrostatic stress. To understand spilling phenomenon and precise stress calculation, quantitative analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of brazed sample and similar configuration modeled while performing the Finite Element (FE) analysis. FE analysis of PHVB is performed to find out electrical stresses on different areas of PHVB and are maintained similar to DNB HV Bushing. With this configuration, the experiment is performed considering ITER like vacuum and electrical parameters. Initial HV test is performed by temporary vacuum sealing arrangements using gaskets/O-rings at both ends in order to achieve desired vacuum and keep the system maintainable. During validation test, 50 kV voltage withstand is performed for one hour. Voltage withstand test for 60 kV DC (20% higher rated voltage) have also been performed without any breakdown. Successful operation of PHVB confirms the design of DNB HV Bushing. In this paper, configuration of PHVB with experimental validation data is presented.

  1. Empirical evaluation of augmented prototyping effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a scientific field well known for more than twenty years. Although there is a huge number of projects that present promising results, the real usage of augmented reality applications for fulfilling common tasks is almost negligible. We believe that one of the principal reasons is insufficient usability of these applications. The situation is analogous to the desktop, mobile or cloud application development or even to the web pages design. The first phase of a technology adoption is the exploration of its potential. As soon as the technical problems are overcome and the technology is widely accepted, the usability is a principal issue. The usability is utmost important also from the business point of view. The cost of augmented reality implementation into the production process is substantial, therefore, the usability that is directly responsible for the implemented solution effectiveness must be appropriately tested. Consequently, the benefit of the implemented solution can be measured.This article briefly outlines common techniques used for usability evaluation. Discussed techniques were designed especially for evaluation of desktop applications, mobile solutions and web pages. In spite of this drawback, their application on augmented reality products is usually possible. Further, a review of existing augmented reality project evaluations is presented.Based on this review, a usability evaluation method for our augmented prototyping application is proposed. This method must overcome the fact that the design is a creative process. Therefore, it is not possible to take into account common criteria such as time consumption.

  2. Hypervapotron flow testing with rapid prototype models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemeyer, D.; Hellwig, T.; Kubik, D.; Langenderfer, E.; Mantz, H.; McSmith, M.; Jones, B.; Butler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A flow test model of the inlet section of a three channel hypervapotron plate that has been proposed as a heat sink in the ITER divertor was prepared using a rapid prototyping stereolithography process that is widely used for component development in US industry. An existing water flow loop at the University of Illinois is being used for isothermal flow tests to collect pressure drop data for comparison with proposed vapotron friction factor correlations. Differential pressure measurements are taken, across the test section inlet manifold, the vapotron channel (about a seven inch length), the outlet manifold and the inlet-to-outlet. The differential pressures are currently measured with manometers. Tests were conducted at flow velocities from 1--10 m/s to cover the full range of ITER interest. A tap was also added for a small hypodermic needle to inject dye into the flow channel at several positions to examine the nature of the developing flow field at the entrance to the vapotron section. Follow-on flow tests are planned using a model with adjustable flow channel dimensions to permit more extensive pressure drop data to be collected. This information will be used to update vapotron design correlations for ITER

  3. Preliminary experimental results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliafico, Luca Antonio; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico; Tagliafico, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype was designed and built with the aid of an industrial partner. The refrigerator is based on the Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle, and exploits two regenerators working in parallel. The active material is Gadolinium in plates, 0.8 mm thick, for a total mass of 0.36 kg. The device is described and results about magnetic field and temperature span measurements are presented. The designed permanent magnet structure, based on an improved cross-type arrangement, generates a maximum magnetic field intensity of 1.55 T in air, over a gap of (13 × 50 × 100) mm 3 . The maximum temperature span achieved is 5.0 K, in a free run condition. -- Highlights: ► We give preliminary results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype. ► The design is intended to process visualization and investigation. ► The prototype behavior gives us various suggestions to improve its general performance

  4. INTRODUCTION OF INTERNET OF THING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON PROTOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sutera Genadiarto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of thing has been able to attract people compete to create various devices. Devices developed have various benefits, but the point is to make life easier. So many vendors create products related to the internet of things, so the user gets confused to determine which is good and appropriate for the needs. To simplify the user in choosing IoT product, this research will discuss about technology that is widely used in IoT, the advantages of each technology, in terms of security, operating system, microcontroller, IoT platform, tools and communication technology. This research makes prototype with one of existing technology. The results of this research provide knowledge, skills and experience in the field of IoT as well as information related to IoT technology, which is widely in the market. Furthermore, the prototype also has the expected functionalities, but it does not close the opportunity for further improvements. The results of this research provide knowledge, skills and experience in the field of IoT as well as information related to IoT technology, which is widely in the market. Furthermore, the prototype also has the expected functionalities, but it does not close the opportunity for further improvements.

  5. Methodology for neural networks prototyping. Application to traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belegan, I.C.

    1998-07-01

    The work described in this report was carried out in the context of the European project ASTORIA (Advanced Simulation Toolbox for Real-World Industrial Application in Passenger Management and Adaptive Control), and concerns the development of an advanced toolbox for complex transportation systems. Our work was focused on the methodology for prototyping a set of neural networks corresponding to specific strategies for traffic control and congestion management. The tool used for prototyping is SNNS (Stuggart Neural Network Simulator), developed at the University of Stuggart, Institute for Parallel and Distributed High Performance Systems, and the real data from the field were provided by ZELT. This report is structured into six parts. The introduction gives some insights about traffic control and its approaches. The second chapter discusses the various control strategies existing. The third chapter is an introduction to the field of neural networks. The data analysis and pre-processing is described in the fourth chapter. In the fifth chapter, the methodology for prototyping the neural networks is presented. Finally, conclusions and further work are presented. (author) 14 refs.

  6. Mechanical design and fabrication of a prototype undulator for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerabhadhraiah, T.; Sinha, Gautam; Prabhu, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    An Apple II type undulator is proposed for 2.5 GeV SRS. For initial studies of magnetic parameters and manufacturing feasibilities, a 6 periods prototype undulator of period length 72 mm and pole gap 20 mm is under development. Mechanical structure with stringent tolerances is required to achieve the required field quality. Stress analysis has been done to study the deflection under the magnetic forces. The prototype structure along with the magnet block holders has been made and mechanical dimensions and geometric tolerances have been measured. In this paper we present the preliminary mechanical design and assembly of static parts of prototype undulator structure. (author)

  7. Design and Implementation of a Prototype with a Standardized Interface for Transducers in Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dorronzoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL do not generally use standards to implement a communication interface between sensors and actuators. This makes these applications isolated solutions because it is so difficult to integrate them into new or existing systems. The objective of this research was to design and implement a prototype with a standardized interface for sensors and actuators to facilitate the integration of different solutions in the field of AAL. Our work is based on the roadmap defined by AALIANCE, using motes with TinyOS telosb, 6LoWPAN, sensors, and the IEEE 21451 standard protocol. This prototype allows one to upgrade sensors to a smart status for easy integration with new applications and already existing ones. The prototype has been evaluated for autonomy and performance. As a use case, the prototype has been tested in a serious game previously designed for people with mobility problems, and its advantages and disadvantages have been analysed.

  8. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  10. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  11. Customization of gaming technology and prototyping of rehabilitation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Ciger, Jan; Lewis Brooks, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The field of rehabilitation has recently seen various experimentations with games using interfaces that require physical activity. In order to establish the basis for developments and experimentations with those interactive systems, we propose a rapid prototyping approach using various commercial...... and to elaborate on the use of such systems. In other words, the availability of a simple prototyping platform with free games and new interfaces already opens the discussion on the design of original rehabilitation applications....... devices and open source software. To demonstrate this idea, we first show how a simple free game can be adapted to specific needs − for training or use by disabled people − by using different sensors and control modes. Similarly, we show that an open on-line virtual world such as Second Life, although...

  12. Prototype-Incorporated Emotional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ''engineering'' prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So far, two important learning theories that have been subject of active research are the prototype and adaptive learning theories. The learning rules employed for ANNs can be related to adaptive learning theory, where several examples of the different classes in a task are supplied to the network for adjusting internal parameters. Conversely, the prototype-learning theory uses prototypes (representative examples); usually, one prototype per class of the different classes contained in the task. These prototypes are supplied for systematic matching with new examples so that class association can be achieved. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel neural network algorithm based on modifying the emotional neural network (EmNN) model to unify the prototype- and adaptive-learning theories. We refer to our new model as ``prototype-incorporated EmNN''. Furthermore, we apply the proposed model to two real-life challenging tasks, namely, static hand-gesture recognition and face recognition, and compare the result to those obtained using the popular back-propagation neural network (BPNN), emotional BPNN (EmNN), deep networks, an exemplar classification model, and k-nearest neighbor.

  13. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Nafis O Z; Nafrizuan M Y; Munira M A; Kartina J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  14. Development of a new prototype system for measuring the permittivity of dielectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple prototype for measuring the properties of dielectric materials is introduced in this Letter. A homogeneous dielectric sample placed in a field produced by a nearby antenna will affect the input impedance of the antenna. The permittivity and the loss of the dielectric sample can then be determined from the change of the input impedance of the antenna. The prototype has been validated by experiments.

  15. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  16. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  17. Evaluation of a prototype infrasound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, R.; Sandoval, T.; Breding, D.; Kromer, D.

    1997-01-01

    Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory cooperated to develop a prototype infrasonic array, with associated documentation, that could be used as part of the International Monitoring System. The United States Government or foreign countries could procure commercially available systems based on this prototype to fulfill their Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) obligations. The prototype is a four-element array in a triangular layout as recommended in CD/NTB/WP.224 with an element at each corner and one in the center. The prototype test configuration utilize an array spacing of 1 km. The prototype infrasound system has the following objectives: (1) Provide a prototype that reliably acquires and transmits near real-time infrasonic data to facilitate the rapid location and identification of atmospheric events. (2) Provide documentation that could be used by the United States and foreign countries to procure infrasound systems commercially to fulfill their CTBT responsibilities. Infrasonic monitoring is an effective, low cost technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. The low frequency components of explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors. Los Alamos National Laboratory's expertise in infrasound systems and phenomenology when combined with Sandia's expertise in providing verification quality system for treaty monitoring make an excellent team to provide the prototype infrasound sensor system. By September 1997, the prototype infrasound system will have been procured, integrated, evaluated and documented. Final documentation will include a system requirements document, an evaluation report and a hardware design document. The hardware design document will describe the various hardware components used in the infrasound prototype and their interrelationships

  18. Eight years' operation of the SGHWR prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience gained of the SGHWR system during the first eight years of operation of the UKAEA's 100 MW(e) prototype at AEE Winfrith is discussed. Modifications and additions have been made to the plant to overcome problems which only operation of a prototype unit can reveal. No problems have arisen which could not be overcome by the application of normal engineering resources, and there is no reason why the commercial successor to the prototype should be other than a fully viable proposition. (author)

  19. NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1996-10-01

    Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations

  20. Rapid prototyping using robot welding : process description

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Norrish, John

    1997-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping is a relatively recent technique to produce component prototypes for industry in a much shorter period of time, since the time to market a product is essential to its success. A new Rapid Prototyping process which uses metal as the raw material had been under development at Cranfield University in the last few years. The process uses a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. Firstly, a CAD s...

  1. Initial performance of the PIGMI prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program at LASL is an accelerator development program aimed at completing the design of an accelerator suitable for use as a pion generator in a hospital-based radiotherapy program. The major thrust of the program has been the design of a 7 MeV prototype accelerator which emphasizes compactness, economy of construction, and operation and reliability. To achieve these goals the design of the prototype has exploited a number of innovations in proton linac technology. An overview of the program discussing the major innovative features of the prototype is presented. The initial operating experience is discussed and initial performance measurements are presented

  2. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  3. A spatially based field specific crop recordkeeping system prototype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These spatial data were prepared using ArcGIS 9.3. A database was created in Microsoft Access 2007. The database contained information on crops, fertilizers and past management. The information was linked to the spatial data table and maintained in the database. An application was developed using Visual Basic 6 in ...

  4. Validation of a station-prototype designed to integrate temporally soil N2O fluxes: IPNOA Station prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laville, Patricia; Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Virgili, Giorgio; Neri, Simone; Continanza, Davide; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux measurements from agricultural soil surface still accounts for the scientific community as major challenge. The evaluations of integrated soil N2O fluxes are difficult because these emissions are lower than for the other greenhouse gases sources (CO2, CH4). They are also sporadic, because highly dependent on few environmental conditions acting as limiting factors. Within a LIFE project (IPNOA: LIFE11 ENV/IT/00032) a station prototype was developed to integrate annually N2O and CO2 emissions using automatically chamber technique. Main challenge was to develop a device enough durable to be able of measuring in continuous way CO2 and N2O fluxes with sufficient sensitivity to allow make reliable assessments of soil GHG measurements with minimal technical field interventions. The IPNOA station prototype was developed by West System SRL and was set up during 2 years (2014 -2015) in an experimental maize field in Tuscan. The prototype involved six automatic chambers; the complete measurement cycle was of 2 hours. Each chamber was closing during 20 min and biogas accumulations were monitoring in line with IR spectrometers. Auxiliary's measurements including soil temperatures and water contents as weather data were also monitoring. All data were managed remotely with the same acquisition software installed in the prototype control unit. The operation of the prototype during the two cropping years allowed testing its major features: its ability to evaluate the temporal variation of N2O soil fluxes during a long period with weather conditions and agricultural managements and to prove the interest to have continuous measurements of fluxes. The temporal distribution of N2O fluxes indicated that emissions can be very large and discontinuous over short periods less ten days and that during about 70% of the time N2O fluxes were around detection limit of the instrumentation, evaluated to 2 ng N ha-1 day-1. N2O emission factor assessments were 1.9% in 2014

  5. The performance of a superconducting micro-undulator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Jiang, Z.Y.; Ingold, G.; Yu, L.H.; Sampson, W.B.

    1990-05-01

    We report on the performance of a prototype of a super-ferric micro-undulator. The micro-undulator consists of a continuous winding of niobium-titanium wire wound on a low carbon steel yoke. It is about 3 periods long with a period of 8.8 mm and a gap of 4.4 mm. The undulator achieves the a peak magnetic field on axis of over 0.5 Tesla. Asymmetry of the field pattern due to a dipole component was identified, analyzed and a correction has been applied to the undulator ends to produce a symmetric field distribution. Within the precision of the measurement the field pattern produced by the super-ferric undulator needed no correction. 4 refs., 7 figs

  6. User prototypes as partly unconscious communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasemann, Marie; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce user prototypes as a technique that supports users’ articulation of emotions relevant for design: dreams, fears, motivations – their feelings and aspirations. Following Bateson’s writings about communication through art, we consider user prototypes as “partly unconscious...... communication” and propose to analyze them by focusing on the emotional articulations integrated in the users’ design language. We illustrate this with an example from a design research project on designing learning technology for young diabetics. The example shows how young people with diabetes can express...... emotional themes related to youth identity, the burden of being young with a chronic illness, and the need to be connected and feel safe through design of prototypes. The new conceptual space that arises from user prototypes shows potential for addressing emotions when designing for health and for further...

  7. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  8. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  9. Gesture recognition for an exergame prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gacem, Brahim; Vergouw, Robert; Verbiest, Harm; Cicek, Emrullah; Kröse, Ben; van Oosterhout, Tim; Bakkes, S.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    We will demonstrate a prototype exergame aimed at the serious domain of elderly fitness. The exergame incorporates straightforward means to gesture recognition, and utilises a Kinect camera to obtain 2.5D sensory data of the human user.

  10. System design document for the INFLO prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report documents the high level System Design Document (SDD) for the prototype development and : demonstration of the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) application bundle, with a focus on the Speed : Harmonization (SPD-HARM) and Queu...

  11. Power test for first prototype LIBO module

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Linac Booster (LIBO) is a prototype machine for producing particle beams for cancer therapy. Hadron therapy techniques are able to reach deep tumours with less damage to surrounding tissue than with conventional radiotherapy.

  12. An Empirical Investigation of Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2010-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is the process of using executable code to investigate stakeholders’ software architecture concerns with respect to a system under development. Previous work has established this as a useful and cost-effective way of exploration and learning of the design space of a system...... and in addressing issues regarding quality attributes, architectural risks, and the problem of knowledge transfer and conformance. However, the actual industrial use of architectural prototyping has not been thoroughly researched so far. In this article, we report from three studies of architectural prototyping...... in practice. First, we report findings from an ethnographic study of practicing software architects. Secondly, we report from a focus group on architectural prototyping involving architects from four companies. And, thirdly, we report from a survey study of 20 practicing software architects and software...

  13. Presentation Trainer Prototype 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch comprises the first prototype of the presentation trainer. The application uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor and was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  14. Development of prototype digital LLRF system at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Nitesh; Bagduwal, Pritam S.; Sharma, Dheeraj; Chakraborty, Shoubhik; Lad, Mahendra; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    RF field is used in accelerator to accelerate the charge particles. The beam parameters depend highly on the stability of the RF field. Due to dynamic beam loading conditions the variations in RF parameters of accelerating structures needs to be controlled precisely, hence low level RF feedback control system plays vital role. Considering revolutionary development in the field of digital electronics and inherent advantages of digital systems, digital LLRF control system work was taken up. The digital LLRF system consists of two major units namely RF processing and digital processing. RF processing unit uses I/Q modulator for amplitude and phase control. This unit provides synchronized clock using ÷16 pre-scalar and also performs up conversion and down conversion for synchronized LO and IF generation respectively, along with required amplification and filtering. Digital processing unit takes down converted IF signal with appropriate sampling rate for I/Q detection. To extract the amplitude and phase information I/Q data is digitally filtered and processed using CORDIC algorithm in FPGA. I/Q modulator is used for controlling the amplitude and phase of RF field. Prototype development of digital LLRF control system for 325 MHz, 650 MHz is in progress. Digital LLRF system at 505 MHz has been installed in one RF station of Indus-2 RF system. In this paper development of prototype Digital LLRF system at RFSD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and results are presented. (author)

  15. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  16. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstreom, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-05-22

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. The operating experience gathered since the summer of 1984 and the chamber performance as measured by its spatial resolution and ability to identify particles are also given.

  17. Light Guide Collector Prototype: Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka - Mohelnikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the potential of light guide system equipped by a concentrator device capturing daylight applicable for illumination of building interiors and presents results of experiments on performance of its prototype. The main goal is focused on the comparison of traditional solutions and newly developed prototype of the light guide system and presents examination of its light transmission efficiency based on the laboratory experiments.

  18. Light Guide Collector Prototype: Laboratory Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka - Mohelnikova; Stanislav Darula; Ayodeji Omishore; Petr Mohelnik; Denis Micek

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the potential of light guide system equipped by a concentrator device capturing daylight applicable for illumination of building interiors and presents results of experiments on performance of its prototype. The main goal is focused on the comparison of traditional solutions and newly developed prototype of the light guide system and presents examination of its light transmission efficiency based on the laboratory experiments.

  19. Software testing for evolutionary iterative rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Edward V., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Rapid prototyping is emerging as a promising software development paradigm. It provides a systematic and automatable means of developing a software system under circumstances where initial requirements are not well known or where requirements change frequently during development. To provide high software quality assurance requires sufficient software testing. The unique nature of evolutionary iterative prototyping is not well-suited for ...

  20. Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada, Nader; Shing, M.; Berzins, V.; Luqi

    2002-01-01

    Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT) is an integrated set of software tools that generate source programs directly from real-time requirements. The APT system uses a fifth-generation prototyping language to model the communication structure, timing constraints, 1/0 control, and data buffering that comprise the requirements for an embedded software system. The language supports the specification of hard real-time systems with reusable components from domain specific component libraries. APT ha...

  1. Prototype_Matematikforløb_Sct-Hans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Helle Munkholm; Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde; Klitø, Nanna Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    Forløbet udgør en prototype på et matematikforløb til 8. klasse, som er udviklet til at styrke og fastholde elevers motivation for læring. Formålet med denne prototype er at styrke motivationen for læring gennem synlige læringsmål, faglig differentiering og elevernes medbestemmelse. Didaktisk mål...

  2. Prototype_Danskforløb_Sct.Hans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Helle Munkholm; Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde; Klitø, Nanna Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    Forløbet udgør en prototype på et danskforløb til 4. klasse, som er udviklet til at styrke og fastholde elevers motivation for læring. Formålet med denne prototype er at styrke motivationen for læring gennem synlige læringsmål, faglig differentiering og elevernes medbestemmelse. Didaktisk mål: at...

  3. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  4. Investigating the role of implicit prototypes in the prototype willingness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Ratliff, Kate A

    2017-06-01

    One useful theory to predict health behavior is the prototype-willingness model (PWM), which posits that people are more willing to engage in behavior to the extent that they have a positive view of the prototypical person who performs that behavior. The goal of the present research is to test whether adding an implicit measure of prototype favorability might improve explanatory power in the PWM. Two studies examined whether implicit prototype favorability uniquely predicted White women's intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior over the next 3-6 months, and their willingness to engage in risky sun behavior, should the opportunity arise. The results suggested that implicit prototype favorability, particularly implicit prototypes of those who engage in risky UV-related behaviors, uniquely predicted intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior and willingness to engage in risky sun behavior in the PWM.

  5. A Prototype for Passive Gamma Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkamaa, T.; Levai, F.; Berndt, R.; Schwalbach, P.; Vaccaro, S.; ); Turunen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Combined efforts of multiple stakeholders of the IAEA Support Programme task JNT 1510: ''Prototype of passive gamma emission tomograph (PGET)'', resulted in the design, manufacturing and extensive testing of an advanced verification tool for partial defect testing on light water reactor spent fuel. The PGET has now reached a proven capability of detecting a single missing or substituted pin inside a BWR and VVER-440 fuel assemblies. The task started in 2004 and it is planned to be finished this year. The PGET head consists of two banks of 104 CdTe detectors each with integrated data acquisition electronics. The CdTe detectors are embedded in tungsten collimators which can be rotated around the fuel element using an integrated stepping motor mounted on a rotating table. All components are packed inside a toroid watertight enclosure. Control, data acquisition and image reconstruction analysis is fully computerized and automated. The design of the system is transportable and suitable for safeguards verifications in spent fuel ponds anywhere. Four test campaigns have been conducted. In 2009, the first test in Ringhals NPP failed collecting data but demonstrated suitability of the PGET for field deployments. Subsequent tests on fuel with increasing complexity were all successful (Ispra, Italy (2012), Olkiluoto, Finland (2013) and Loviisa, Finland (2014)). The paper will present the PGET design, results obtained from the test campaigns and mention also drawbacks that were experienced in the project. The paper also describes further tests which would allow evaluating the capabilities and limitations of the method and the algorithm used. Currently, the main technical shortcoming is long acquisition time, due to serial control and readout of detectors. With redesigned electronics it can be expected that the system would be able to verify a VVER-440 assembly in five minutes, which meets the IAEA user requirements. (author)

  6. Novice designers’ use of prototypes in engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Michael; Daly, Shanna R.; Sienko, Kathleen H.; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2017-01-01

    Prototypes are essential tools in product design processes, but are often underutilized by novice designers. To help novice designers use prototypes more effectively, we must first determine how they currently use prototypes. In this paper, we describe how novice designers conceptualized prototypes and reported using them throughout a design project, and compare reported prototyping use to prototyping best practices. We found that some of the reported prototyping practices by novice designers, such as using inexpensive prototypes early and using prototypes to define user requirements, occurred infrequently and lacked intentionality. Participants’ initial descriptions of prototypes were less sophisticated than how they later described using them and only upon prompted reflection did participants recognize more specific benefits of using prototypes. PMID:29398740

  7. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...... conduction compared to a shaft. The HTS machine was successfully cooled to 77K and tests have been performed. The IV curves of the HTS field winding employing 6 HTS coils indicate that two of the coils had been damaged. The maximal value of the torque during experiments of 78Nm was recorded. Loaded with 33...

  8. Analysis of quench in the NHMFL REBCO prototype coils for the 32 T Magnet Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breschi, M; Cavallucci, L; Ribani, P L; Gavrilin, A V; Weijers, H W

    2016-01-01

    A 32 T all-superconductive magnet with high field REBCO inner coils is under development at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida, USA. As part of the development activity, two prototype coils with full scale radial dimensions and final design features, but with reduced axial length were constructed. The prototype coils consist of six dry-wound double pancakes modules with uninsulated conductor and insulated stainless steel cowind. Quench studies on one of the prototype coils at 4.2 K in self-field and in a background magnetic field of 15 T were performed by activating a set of quench protection heaters. In this paper, we present a numerical analysis of the experimental results of the quench tests of one of the prototype coils. The numerical analysis was carried out through a coupled electro-thermal FEM model developed at the University of Bologna. The model is based on the coupling with distributed contact resistances of the coil pancakes described as 2D elements. A homogenization procedure of the REBCO tape and other coil materials is presented, which allows reducing the number of degrees of freedom and the computational effort. The model is applied to the analysis of the current and voltage evolutions during the experimental quench tests on the prototype coil. (paper)

  9. Design and development of a prototype hot spot identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amit; Thakur, Vaishali M.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Sawant, Pravin; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    The proper assessment of radiological environments inside nuclear facilities require accurate spatial mapping of the gamma ray field. A prototype Hotspot Identification System has been designed and developed in-house for gamma ray imaging by combining a gamma spectrometer with a pinhole collimator and a digital camera. The system can rapidly determine the location, distribution and intensity of gamma ray sources by carrying a scan of the suspected locations. The measured data was compared with simulated values for NaI(Tl) response, generated using the MCNP 4B Transport code. The data obtained by experimental and theoretical method are in good agreement. (author)

  10. The Linac4 DTL Prototype: Low and High Power Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Marques-Balula, J; Ramberger, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) has undergone low power measurements in order to verify the RF coupling and to adjust the post-coupler lengths based on bead-pull and spectrum measurements. Following the installation at the test stand, the cavity has been subjected to high power operation at Linac4 and SPL duty cycles. Saturation effects and multipacting have been observed and linked to X-ray emission. Voltage holding is reported in the presence of magnetic fields from permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) installed in the first drift tubes.

  11. Tuning of Clic accelerating structure prototypes at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, J; Olyunin, A; Wuensch, W

    2010-01-01

    An RF measurement system has been set up at CERN for use in the X-band accelerating structure development program of the CLIC study. Using the system, S-parameters are measured and the field distribution is obtained automatically using a bead-pull technique. The corrections for tuning the structure are calculated from an initial measurement and cell-by-cell tuning is applied to obtain the correct phase advance and minimum reflection at the operation frequency. The detailed tuning procedure is presented and explained along with an example of measurement and tuning of CLIC accelerating structure prototypes.

  12. A prototype of programmable associative memory for track finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Dell'Orso, M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a device, based on the concept of associative memory for pattern recognition, dedicated to on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. A large pattern bank, describing all possible tracks, can be organized into Field Programmable Gate Arrays where all patterns are compared in parallel to data coming from the detector during readout. Patterns, recognized among 2 66 possible combinations, are output in a few 30 MHz clock cycles. Programmability results in a flexible, simple architecture and it allows them to keep up smoothly with technology improvements. A 64 PAM array has been assembled on a prototype VME board and fully tested up to 30 MHz

  13. Performance of a parallel plate volume calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Bizzeti, A.; Choumilov, E.; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M.C.; Iglesias, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Josa, M.I.; Malinin, A.; Meschini, M.; Misyura, S.; Pojidaev, V.; Salicio, J.M.; Sikler, F.

    1995-01-01

    An iron/gas parallel plate volume calorimeter prototype, working in the avalanche mode, has been tested using electrons of 20 to 150 GeV/c momentum with high voltages varying from 5400 to 5600 V (electric fields ranging from 36 to 37 KV/cm), and a gas mixture of CF4/CO, (80/20%). The collected charge was measured as a function of the high voltage and of the electron energy. The energy resolution was also measured. Comparisons are made with Monte-Carlo predictions. Agreement between data and simulation allows the calculation of the expected performance of a full size calorimeter. (Author)

  14. Performance of a parallel plate volume calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Bencze, G.L.; Bizzeti, A.

    1995-09-01

    An iron/gas parallel plate volume calorimeter prototype, working in the avalanche mode, has been tested using electrons of 20 to 150 GeV/c momentum with high voltages varying from 5400 to 5600 V (electric fields ranging from 36 to 37 KV/cm), and a gas mixture of CF 4 /CO 2 (80/20%). The collected charge was measured as a function of the high voltage and of the electron energy. The energy resolution was also measured. Comparisons are made with Monte-Carlo predictions. Agreement between data and simulation allows the calculation of the expected performance of a full size calorimeter

  15. Prototype test of Energy Doubler/Saver bending magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, R.; Ishimoto, H.; Price, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    An improved full scale bending magnet for the Energy Doubler was cooled down with a prototype satellite refrigerator and its characteristics were measured. Quenches were intentionally induced on this magnet below 40 kG using a heater, and the quench behavior was investigated from the viewpoint of system safety. The first self-induced quench of this horizontal magnet system occurred at about 41.7 kG. Due to high single phase pressure, the magnet was not trained to any higher field. The measurement of ac loss was done, and the data showed some wire movement at about 20 kG. Transfer function was measured to be 9.81 (G/A). The magnetic field was measured using a harmonic coil. The field quality was found to be improved over the first full scale magnet

  16. Prototyping manufacturing in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper attempts a theoretical approach to cloud systems with impacts on production systems. I call systems as cloud computing because form a relatively new concept in the field of informatics, representing an overall distributed computing services, applications, access to information and data storage without the user to know the physical location and configuration of systems. The advantages of this approach are especially computing speed and storage capacity without investment in additional configurations, synchronizing user data, data processing using web applications. The disadvantage is that it wants to identify a solution for data security, leading to mistrust users. The case study is applied to a module of the system of production, because the system is complex.

  17. Wind - Prototypes on the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. L.

    1981-12-01

    Large wind turbines are shown to be attractive to utilities because of the potential for decreasing gas and oil consumption, the relatively low costs for entry into the field, and the wide distribution of wind energy. The total generating capacity can be increased in incremental steps, experience in construction and operation of large turbines have been gained from the NASA Mod O, OA, 1, and 2 models, and advances in manufacturing processes will make the large turbines competitive as replacement power for oil and gas burning utility generators. The 300 ft rotor Mod 2 machines are described, along with designs for the Mod 5A and Mod 5B wind turbines, with 400 and 422 ft, 6.2 and 7.2 MW rotors and outputs, respectively. Current plans for multi-MW windfarms are reviewed, and the option of using the land around large wind turbines for other purposes is stressed.

  18. Refrigerating liquid prototype for LED's thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faranda, Roberto; Guzzetti, Stefania; Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Leva, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The heat management is the critical factor for high performance operation of LED. A new heat management application of refrigerating liquid integrated within a fabricated prototype is proposed and investigated. A series of experiments considering different heights of liquid level were performed to evaluate the heat dissipation performance and optical characteristics of the refrigerating liquid based prototype. The results reveal that the junction temperature decreases as the level of refrigerating liquid increases. The experimental results report that the refrigerating liquid reduces the junction temperature, and can positively influence the luminous radiation performances. An optimization investigation of the proposed solution was carried out to find an optimum thermal performance. The experiments indicated that refrigerating liquid cooling is a powerful way for heat dissipation of high power LEDs, and the fabrication of prototype was feasible and useful. - Highlights: ► New heat management application of refrigerating liquid on a fabricated LED prototype. ► Thermal models setup and comparison between the classical and the new solutions. ► The impact of refrigerating liquid level on LED thermal and luminous performances. ► The relationship between different levels of liquid with LED prototype performances.

  19. Close encounters of the prototype kind

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. Close encounters of the prototype kind CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. The prototype of the control consoles that will be at the heart of the future CERN Control Centre (CCC) has just been installed in the Roy Billinge Room in Building 354. Until now, there have been four separate control rooms for the CERN accelerators and technical infrastructure. The CCC, which will be located on the Prévessin site, will bring them all together in a single room. The Centre will consist of 40 consoles for four different areas (LHC, SPS, PS complex and technical infrastructure). The prototype was tested by the technicians for a month. Following installation and con...

  20. Application of rapid prototyping technology in the prototype manufacturing for evaluation of NPP components and equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Shon, H. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yang, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview of rapid prototyping technology in which a part with complex shape can be produced easily and rapidly in a layer-by-layer additive manner is given in this article. In addition, a prototype model of a complex fan is manufactured using three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), a rapid prototyping technology. This enables designers to verify and modify design rapidly at an early stage of product development; and the prototype model of a fan can be used as a pattern for various secondary casting process such as vacumm casting, lost-paper casting to make prototypes of a fan. It has been shown that the combination of three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and rapid prototyping technology can reduce greatly the cost and time of prototyping of fans and turbine blades in comparison with conventional CNC machining. It should also be noted that rapid prototyping technology enables the visualization of various physical and chemical defects at a nuclear power plant so that it can help engineers understand those defects in an effective way

  1. The Prototype as Mediator of Embodied Experience in Fashion Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Ræbild, Ulla

    . It is based on photographic material obtained in design studios during prototype development. The prototype is considered a core fashion design competence. Yet, companies increasingly cut costs by reducing or omitting prototype development. We intend to show, how the garment prototype acts as an important...

  2. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  3. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  4. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  5. Iterative Prototyping of Strategy Implementation Workshop Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a strategy implementation workshop design can be developed and tested while minimizing the time spent on developing the design. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study at a diesel engine company shows how iterative prototyping...... can be used to structure the design process of a strategy implementation workshop. Findings: Strategy implementation workshop design can be developed in resource-constrained environments through iterative prototyping of the workshop design. Each workshop iteration can generate value in its own right...... draw on his/her experience as well as add to his/her knowledge base. Originality/value: Introducing iterative prototyping in an organizational context can facilitate fast yet structured development of a rigorous workshop design. Strategy consultants are provided with empirical examples of how...

  6. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  7. Licensing management system prototype system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immerman, W.H.; Arcuni, A.A.; Elliott, J.M.; Chapman, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a design document for a prototype implementation of a licensing management system (LMS) as defined in SAND83-7080. It describes the concept of operations for full implementation of an LMS in accordance with the previously defined functional requirements. It defines a subset of a full LMS suitable for meeting prototype implementation goals, and proposes a system design for this subset. The report describes overall system design considerations consistent with, but more explicit than the general characteristics required by the LMS functional definition. A high level design is presented for just those functions selected for prototype implementation. The report also provides a data element dictionary describing the structured logical data elements required to implement the selected functions

  8. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  9. Modelling and Control of the Wavestar Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Kramer, Morten M.

    2011-01-01

    Algorithm (WPEA), applied to the full-scale Wavestar Prototype for maximizing energy extraction. The WPEA is optimized based on simulations of the point absorbers in different sea states. Hence, a presentation of a hydrodynamic model of the Wavestar is included in the paper. A simplified Power Take-Off (PTO......) is also added to the model, enabling the optimization of the WPEA to take into account the PTO constraints of PTO bandwidth and force limitations. The predicted results of the optimized WPEA are compared to real measurements from theWavestar Prototype, showing good compliance....

  10. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  11. RK-TBA prototype RF source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, T.; Anderson, D.; Giordano, G.

    1996-01-01

    A prototype rf power source based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is being constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study physics, engineering, and costing issues. The prototype is described and compared to a full scale design appropriate for driving the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Specific details of the induction core tests and pulsed power system are presented. The 1-MeV, 1.2-kA induction gun currently under construction is also described in detail

  12. The prototype of radioactive ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A V; Kot, N K; Andrighetto, A; Stroe, L

    2001-01-01

    The design and experimental results of the RIB source prototype are presented.A source will have the container of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U compounds heated up to 2200-2500 degree C. Vapors of uranium fission obtained when the ion source is irradiated by the high-energy neutron flux, are then ionized and extracted from the source. In the experiments with the prototype loaded by sup 1 sup 2 C the source working temperature 2700 degree C was reached, the carbon ion current 10 nA was obtained. The total operation time of more than 100 hours with no performance degradation was demonstrated.

  13. Prototype of an excimer laser for microprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Leszek; Pokora, Ludwik J.; Wolinski, Wieslaw L.

    1991-08-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a prototype of a XeC1 excimer laser for micraprocessing of materials. The planned main parameters of the laserare as follows: wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 nm -''energyofapulse. . . . . . . . . . . . . lOOmJ -pulseduration (FWHM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Ons repetition frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1O Hz peak power of a pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 MW With respect to currently carrried works with the prototype we show only preliminary results of testing of a laser head. The obtained maximum laser pulse energy exceeded 90 ml. However it should be pointed out that this value was obtained without any opt i mi z at i on of the 1 aser.

  14. Prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors has been fabricated and tested. Here, we review the construction of the prototype ion source and report the experimental results about the source characteristics that has been obtained at this time. The prototype ion source is now installed at the prototype unit of JT-60 neutral beam injection units and the demonstration of the performances of the ion source and the prototype unit has just started

  15. ABOUT MODERN TECHNICAL GRAPHICS USING IN THE VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING

    OpenAIRE

    GHERGHINA George; POPA Dragos; BOGDAN Mihaela; GLUGA Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents aspects concerning the using of modern technical graphics elements in the virtual prototyping. The virtual prototyping is a process which uses a virtual prototype in place of physical prototype for the testing and the evaluation of specific features of designed product. The virtual prototype is created by computer such as it could assign the specific features as close as possible to the real conditions which permit its function simulation in the conditions for which is desi...

  16. Force and stiffness characteristics of superconducting bearing prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.; Nizhelskiy, N.; Poluschenko, O.

    2004-01-01

    The radial-axial superconducting bearing prototype was designed, fabricated and tested. The YBaCuO high-temperature superconducting (HTS) monodomain disks diameter 28 mm and thickness of h = 4; 6; 8; 10 mm, capable to trap magnetic field 1 T, were fabricated to be employed in bearing prototype. Force interaction of single field cooled HTS disks with NdFeB magnets depending on disk thickness under 1 mm magnet air gap was studied. It was found that the increase in disk thickness results in reducing radial stiffness and in growing axial one. The results obtained were used for optimization of HTS-PM arrangement, and for developing the bearing design. The designed bearing incorporates a rotor with 7 HTS disks of 4 mm thickness, total mass 90 g, and stator with two pairs of permanent annular magnets of NdFeB. It is established that the force-displacement dependencies of the bearing have three zones: non-hysteresis (elastic) zone with high stiffness up to 560 N/mm; zone of elastic interaction with stiffness 190 N/mm; hysteretic zone with stiffness 150 N/mm in which a rotor residual displacement being observed after unloading. The outer bearing diameter is 130 mm, thickness 30 mm, and mass 1.8 kg. The maximal radial load capacity of the bearing is 190 N at the rotor displacement of 1.3 mm, and the maximal axial load capacity is 85 N at the displacement of 1 mm

  17. Do Gender Differences in Perceived Prototypical Computer Scientists and Engineers Contribute to Gender Gaps in Computer Science and Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlinger, Joyce; Plant, E Ashby; Hartwig, Marissa K; Vossen, Jordan J; Columb, Corey J; Brewer, Lauren E

    2018-01-01

    Women are vastly underrepresented in the fields of computer science and engineering (CS&E). We examined whether women might view the intellectual characteristics of prototypical individuals in CS&E in more stereotype-consistent ways than men might and, consequently, show less interest in CS&E. We asked 269 U.S. college students (187, 69.5% women) to describe the prototypical computer scientist (Study 1) or engineer (Study 2) through open-ended descriptions as well as through a set of trait ratings. Participants also rated themselves on the same set of traits and rated their similarity to the prototype. Finally, participants in both studies were asked to describe their likelihood of pursuing future college courses and careers in computer science (Study 1) or engineering (Study 2). Across both studies, we found that women offered more stereotype-consistent ratings than did men of the intellectual characteristics of prototypes in CS (Study 1) and engineering (Study 2). Women also perceived themselves as less similar to the prototype than men did. Further, the observed gender differences in prototype perceptions mediated the tendency for women to report lower interest in CS&E fields relative to men. Our work highlights the importance of prototype perceptions for understanding the gender gap in CS&E and suggests avenues for interventions that may increase women's representation in these vital fields.

  18. Performance of 1m long/100 mm bore superconducting dipole prototypes for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlitz, G; Wolff, S.

    1983-01-01

    Three 1 m long superconducting dipole prototypes with 100 mm inner coil diameter for the proposed HERA electron-proton storage ring have been built and tested. Main design principles are a two layer coil clamped with stainless steel collars inside a cryostat with warm beam tube and surrounded by a warm iron yoke. All prototypes have been tested without yoke and one of them with yoke. The design induction of 4.73 Tesla at 4.6 K has been easily surpassed up to short sample fields with negligible training. The quench behaviour has been investigated between temperatures of 3.8 K and 5.0 K. The field quality has been found well within the specified limits given by the requirements of the storage ring optics. The reproducibility found in this sample of magnets gives great confidence for the production of dipole prototypes of full length

  19. Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ceramic microfabrication by rapid prototyping process chains ... is nearly impossible, shaping has to be done by a replication step in the green, unfired state. ... This process chain combines the fast and inexpensive supply of master models by ...

  20. Pancultural nostalgia : Prototypical conceptions across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepper, Erica G.; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Ritchie, Timothy D.; Yung, Yiu-Fai; Hansen, Nina; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Arikan, Gizem; Cisek, Sylwia Z.; Demassosso, Didier B.; Gebauer, Jochen E.; Gerber, J. P.; Gonzalez, Roberto; Kusumi, Takashi; Misra, Girishwar; Rusu, Mihaela; Ryan, Oisin; Stephan, Elena; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J.; Zhou, Xinyue

    2014-01-01

    Nostalgia is a frequently experienced complex emotion, understood by laypersons in the United Kingdom and United States of America to (a) refer prototypically to fond, self-relevant, social memories and (b) be more pleasant (e.g., happy, warm) than unpleasant (e.g., sad, regretful). This research

  1. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  2. ALICE TRD results from prototype tests

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A; Blume, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bucher, D; Catanescu, G; Ciobanu, M; Daues, H W; Devismes, A; Finck, C; Herrmann, N; Lister, T A; Mahmoud, Tariq; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petrovici, M; Reygers, K; Santo, R; Schicker, R; Sedykha, S; Simon, R S; Stachel, J; Stelzer, H; Wessels, J P; Winkelmann, O; Windelband, B; Xu, C

    2002-01-01

    We present results from tests of a prototype of the TRD for the ALICE experiment at LHC. We investigate the performance-of different radiator types, composed of foils, fibres and foams. The pion rejection performance for different methods of analysis over a momentum range from 0.7 to 2 GeV/c is presented. (8 refs).

  3. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  4. Design of railway obstacle detection prototype

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xungu, Sipho A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Survey Inspection Device (SID) test prototype platform to serve as an early warning system for locomotives and was to travel 2km ahead of a locomotive in order to inspect the railway for possible obstacles such as human beings, livestock and collisions...

  5. Modelling cloud data for prototype manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.H.; Wong, Y.S.; Zhang, Y.F.; Loh, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have developed a novel method to integrate reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP). Unorganised cloud data are directly sliced and modelled with two-dimensional (2D) cross-sections. Based on such a 2D CAD model, the data points are directly converted into RP

  6. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  7. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  8. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  9. SONG - getting ready for the prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundahl, F.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Jørgensen, Uffe Gråe

    2011-01-01

    . At each of the network nodes a 1 m telescope with a high-resolution spectrograph and two lucky-imaging cameras is placed. The instruments and telescope, for the prototype node, are currently being built and installation at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain is foreseen for early 2011....

  10. Prototype-based models in machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of prototype-based models in machine learning. In this framework, observations, i.e., data, are stored in terms of typical representatives. Together with a suitable measure of similarity, the systems can be employed in the context of unsupervised and supervised analysis of

  11. Installation package - SIMS prototype system 1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This report consists of details for the installation, operation and maintenance of a prototype heating and hot water system, designed for residential or light commercial applications. This system consists of the following subsystems: air type collectors, pebble bed thermal storage, air handling unit, air to water heat exchanger, hot water preheat tank, auxiliary energy, ducting system.

  12. Prototype HL-LHC magnet undergoes testing

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary short prototype of the quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC has passed its first tests.   The first short prototype of the quadrupole magnet for the High Luminosity LHC. (Photo: G. Ambrosio (US-LARP and Fermilab), P. Ferracin and E. Todesco (CERN TE-MSC)) Momentum is gathering behind the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. In laboratories on either side of the Atlantic, a host of tests are being carried out on the various magnet models. In mid-March, a short prototype of the quadrupole magnet underwent its first testing phase at the Fermilab laboratory in the United States. This magnet is a pre-prototype of the quadrupole magnets that will be installed near to the ATLAS and CMS detectors to squeeze the beams before collisions. Six quadrupole magnets will be installed on each side of each experiment, giving a total of 24 magnets, and will replace the LHC's triplet magnets. Made of superconducting niobium-tin, the magnets will be more powerful than their p...

  13. Virtual Reality for Prototyping Service Journeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Boletsis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of virtual elements for developing new service prototyping environments and more realistic simulations has been suggested as a way to optimise the service prototyping process. This work examines the application of virtual reality (VR in prototyping service journeys and it hypothesises that VR can recreate service journeys in a highly immersive, agile, and inexpensive manner, thus allowing users to have a representative service experience and enabling service designers to extract high-quality user feedback. To that end, a new service prototyping method, called VR service walkthrough, is presented and evaluated through an empirical comparative study. A VR service walkthrough is a virtual simulation of a service journey, representing how the service unfolds over space and time. A comparative study between the VR service walkthrough method and an adapted service walkthrough method evaluates the application of both methods using a location-based audio tour guide service as a case study. Two user groups (each with 21 users were used to evaluate both methods based on two factors: the user experience they offered and the subjective meaningfulness and quality of feedback they produced. Results show that the VR service walkthrough method gave a performance similar to that of the service walkthrough method. It was also able to communicate the service concept in an immersive way and foster constructive feedback.

  14. Classroom Evaluation of a Rapid Prototyping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Stephen A.; Krueger, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces rapid prototyping which creates virtual models through a variety of automated material additive processes. Relates experiences using JP System 5 in freshman and sophomore engineering design graphics courses. Analyzes strengths and limitations of the JP System 5 and discusses how to use it effectively. (Contains 15 references.)…

  15. Systems Prototyping with Fourth Generation Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtys, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The development of information systems using an engineering approach that uses both traditional programing techniques and fourth generation software tools is described. Fourth generation applications tools are used to quickly develop a prototype system that is revised as the user clarifies requirements. (MLW)

  16. A prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.; Bretz, N.L.

    1997-01-01

    We have built a prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer, which is intended to test critical elements of a design for a tangential array interferometer on C-Mod 6 . The prototype uses a pulsed, 35 mJ, 10 Hz multimode, Nd:YAG laser, LiB 3 O 5 doublers, a fan beam created by a cylindrical lens, four retroreflector elements, and a CCD camera as a detector. The prototype also uses a polarization scheme in which the interference information is eventually carried by two second harmonic beams with crossed polarization. These are vector summed and differenced, and separated, by a Wollaston prism, to give two spots on the CCD. There is a pair of these spots for each retroreflector used. The phase information is directly available as the ratio of the difference to sum the intensities of the two spots. We have tested a single channel configuration of this prototype, varying the phase by changing the pressure in an air cell, and we have obtained a 5:1 light to dark ratio, and a clear sinusoidal variation of the ratio as a function of pressure change. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  18. WorldSID Prototype Dummy Biomechanical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D; Compigne, S; Scherer, R; Xu, L; Takahashi, N; Page, M; Asakawa, K; Kostyniuk, G; Hautmann, E; Bortenschlager, K; Sakurai, M; Harigae, T

    2001-11-01

    The results of biomechanical testing of the WorldSID prototype dummy are presented in this paper. The WorldSID dummy is a new, advanced Worldwide Side Impact Dummy that has the anthropometry of a mid-sized adult male. The first prototype of this dummy has been evaluated by the WorldSID Task Group against previously established corridors for its critical body regions. The response corridors are defined in the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) Technical Report 9790. The prototype is the first version of the WorldSID dummy to be built and tested. This dummy has been subjected to a rigorous program of testing to evaluate, first and foremost its biofidelity, but also its repeatability. Following this initial evaluation, any required modifications will be incorporated into a pre-production version of the WorldSID dummy so that it rates "good" to "excellent" on the ISO dummy biofidelity scale - a rating exceeding that of all current side impact dummies. Also, the overall WorldSID repeatability must not exceed a coefficient of variation of 7% at injury assessment level and this has to be verified for the different body regions. The dummy's head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were evaluated against the ISO technical report requirements. Testing included drop tests, pendulum impacts, and sled tests. The biofidelity rating of the WorldSID prototype was calculated using the weighted biomechanical test response procedure developed by ISO. The paper presents the results of the testing, which give a very positive indication of the dummy's potential. Based on this evaluation of the dummy biofidelity, the WorldSID prototype dummy exhibits a biofidelity rating of 6.15 that corresponds to an ISO biofidelity classification of "fair". In addition, the dummy shows good repeatability with a global coefficient of variation of 3.30% for the pendulum and rigid sled tests.

  19. GRID Prototype for imagery processing in scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, Ionel; Zgura, Ion Sorin; Haiduc, Maria; Valeanu, Vlad; Giurgiu, Liviu

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of our study which is part of the InGRID project. This project is supported by ROSA (ROmanian Space Agency). In this paper we will show the possibility to take images from the optical microscope through web camera. The images are then stored on the PC in Linux operating system and distributed to other clusters through GRID technology (using http, php, MySQL, Globus or AliEn systems). The images are provided from nuclear emulsions in the frame of Becquerel Collaboration. The main goal of the project InGRID is to actuate developing and deploying GRID technology for images technique taken from space, different application fields and telemedicine. Also it will create links with the same international projects which use advanced Grid technology and scalable storage solutions. The main topics proposed to be solved in the frame of InGRID project are: - Implementation of two GRID clusters, minimum level Tier 3; - Adapting and updating the common storage and processing computing facility; - Testing the middelware packages developed in the frame of this project; - Testbed production of the prototype; - Build-up and advertise the InGRID prototype in scientific community through current dissemination. InGRID Prototype developed in the frame of this project, will be used by partner institutes as deploying environment of the imaging applications the dynamical features of which will be defined by conditions of contract. Subsequent applications will be deployed by the partners of this project with governmental, nongovernmental and private institutions. (authors)

  20. Indoor Free Space Optic: a new prototype, realization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Olivier; Besnard, Pascal; Mihaescu, Adrian

    2008-08-01

    The Free Space Optic (FSO) communication is a daily reality used by an increasing number of companies. For indoor environment, optical wireless communication becomes a good alternative with respect to radio proposals. For both technologies, the architecture is similar: emission/reception base station (Gateway or Bridge) are installed to cover zones, which are defined to ensure a quality of service. The customers may be connected to the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) with an adapter or module that emits and receives on this network. But due to its specific characteristics, wireless optical technology could present important advantages such as: Transmitted data security, medical immunity, high data rate, etc... Nevertheless, the optical system may have a limit on the network management aspect and link budget. The scope of this paper is to present a proposal at crossroads between optical fibre telecom system and data processing. In this document, we will present a prototype developed in Brittany during a regional collaborative project (Techim@ges). In order to answer to the management aspect and the link budget, this prototype uses an optical multiplexing technique in 1550 nm band: the Wavelength Division Multiple Access (WDMA). Moreover it also proposes a new class 1 high power emission solution. This full duplex system transmits these various wavelengths in free space, by using optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and optical modules. Each module has a defined and personal wavelength associated to the terminal identification (addresses MAC or IP). This approach permits a data rate at a minimum of a ten's Mbit/s per customer and potentially hundred Mbps for a line of sight system. The application field for the achieved and proposed prototype is potentially investigated from WLAN to WPAN.

  1. "Check Your Smile", Prototype of a Collaborative LSP Website for Technical Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine-Diab, Nadia; Alazard-Guiu, Charlotte; Loiseau, Mathieu; Sorin, Laurent; Orliac, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In a design-based research approach (Barab & Squire, 2004), we are currently developing the first prototype of a collaborative Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) website. It focuses on technical vocabulary to help students master any field of LSP better. "Check Your Smile" is a platform aggregating various types of gameplays for…

  2. Measurements of the Optical Performance of Prototype TES Bolometers for SAFARI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.; Ranjan, M.; Gao, J.-R.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Morozov, D.; Doherty, S.; Trappe, N.; Withington, S.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays, coupled with a Fourier transform spectrometer, will provide images of a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the

  3. Rapid prototyping of outdoor games for children in an iterative design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.A.C.; Lagerström, S.; Markopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the design process of games that are played by multiple players, involving high pace activity and embodied interaction. More specifically it argues that user testing with low fidelity prototypes, which is recommended in mainstream literature on methodology in the fields of

  4. Development of a 3D CZT detector prototype for Laue Lens telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Ezio; Auricchio, Natalia; Del Sordo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a 3D position sensitive prototype suitable as focal plane detector for Laue lens telescope. The basic sensitive unit is a drift strip detector based on a CZT crystal, (~19×8 mm2 area, 2.4 mm thick), irradiated transversally to the electric field direction. The anode...

  5. Prototype sector magnets for the GeV electron microtron (GEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrle, R.B.; Norem, J.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Swanstrom, R.H.; Thompson, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    Three prototypes of the sector magnets for GeV Electon Microtron accelerators have been designed. One has been built and two are being constructed. The first is a full scale, 168 ton prototype for one-half of a 2 GeV Double Sided Microtron (DSM) sector magnet. The successful fabrication and testing of the pole pieces for this prototype has demonstrated that their required close tolerances for flatness and parallelism can be met. The second magnet is an approximate two-thirds scale model of one step at the low energy end of the hexatron sector magnet designed for the 4 GeV Electron Microtron (GEM). The measured fields demonstrate that the field falls off faster than an Enge-short-tail and error fields are at low levels and are controllable. A third prototype magnet exactly duplicates the full scale geometry of the first three full orbits of the GEM sector magnet from entrance to exit points. It will permit high precision measurements and corrections of field errors and verify the 3-D computer program, TOSCA

  6. PEAR: Prototyping Expressive Animated Robots - A framework for social robot prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Balit , Etienne; Vaufreydaz , Dominique; Reignier , Patrick

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Social robots are transitioning from lab experiments to commercial products, creating new needs for proto-typing and design tools. In this paper, we present a framework to facilitate the prototyping of expressive animated robots. For this, we start by reviewing the design of existing social robots in order to define a set of basic components of social robots. We then show how to extend an existing 3D animation software to enable the animation of these components. By co...

  7. Divertor cassette movers prototypes for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Batz, R.; Bieber, O.; Gottfried, R.; Cerdan, G.

    1998-01-01

    Following competitive tendering, in October 1996 Siemens was contracted by the European Commission to design and supply an assembly of four Divertor Cassette Movers Prototypes including the control and command systems for the movers proper. The assembly consisting of one Cassette Toroidal Mover (CTM), one Radial Mover Tractor (TRC), one Second Cassette Carrier (SCC), and one Radial Cassette Carrier (RCC) represents key components of the Divertor Test Platform at Brasimone, one of the seven large R+D projects for ITER. By detailed design, high-precision manufacturing and testing of these devices, Siemens contributed to the verification of an important task within the European R and D program towards ITER construction. Replacement of the divertor cassettes is a scheduled maintenance operation throughout the life of ITER. The successful fabrication and testing of the Divertor Cassette Movers Prototypes is all important milestone to verify this delicate operation. (authors)

  8. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellucci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators. Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1 programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2 implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3 building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems, a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  9. Performance of the NIF prototype beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Murray, J.R.; Speck, D.R.; Campbell, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Beamlet is a full scale single beam prototype laser system, built to demonstrate the laser technology and performance of the 192 beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) fusion laser driver. Both laser systems apply multipass amplifier architectures. By passing the beam four times through the large aperture amplifier sections, the small signal gain during the first few passes is used efficiently to reduce expensive staged amplifier chains. The beamlet prototype laser integrates results of development programs for large aperture components: large aperture optical switch, polarizers, 2 x 2 multisegment amplifiers and new pulse generation and pre-amplification techniques. The authors report on performance test results of the recently completed 1 ω-laser section of Beamlet

  10. Cultural prototypes and dimensions of honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Susan E; Uskul, Ayse K; Gerçek-Swing, Berna; Sunbay, Zeynep; Alözkan, Cansu; Günsoy, Ceren; Ataca, Bilge; Karakitapoglu-Aygün, Zahide

    2014-02-01

    Research evidence and theoretical accounts of honor point to differing definitions of the construct in differing cultural contexts. The current studies address the question "What is honor?" using a prototype approach in Turkey and the Northern United States. Studies 1a/1b revealed substantial differences in the specific features generated by members of the two groups, but Studies 2 and 3 revealed cultural similarities in the underlying dimensions of self-respect, moral behavior, and social status/respect. Ratings of the centrality and personal importance of these factors were similar across the two groups, but their association with other relevant constructs differed. The tripartite nature of honor uncovered in these studies helps observers and researchers alike understand how diverse responses to situations can be attributed to honor. Inclusion of a prototype analysis into the literature on honor cultures can provide enhanced coverage of the concept that may lead to testable hypotheses and new theoretical developments.

  11. The PIAA Coronagraph Prototype: First Laboratory Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnik, Eugene; Guyon, O.; Colley, S.; Gallet, B.; Ridgway, S.; Woodruff, R.; Tanaka, S.; Warren, M.

    2006-12-01

    The phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraph combines the main advantages of classical pupil apodization with high throughput ( 100%), high angular resolution ( 2λ/D) and low chromaticity. These advantages can allow direct imaging of nearby extrasolar planets with a 4-meter telescope. The PIAA coronagraph laboratory prototype has been successfully manufactured and starts to operate at the Subary Telescope facility. We present here our first laboratory results with this prototype where we have achieved 2x10-6 contrast within 2 λ/D. We also discuss the main constrains limiting the contrast and describe our future efforts. This work was carried out under JPL contract numbers 1254445 and 1257767 for Development of Technologies for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission, with the support and hospitality of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  12. Prototype-based models in machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of prototype-based models in machine learning. In this framework, observations, i.e., data, are stored in terms of typical representatives. Together with a suitable measure of similarity, the systems can be employed in the context of unsupervised and supervised analysis of potentially high-dimensional, complex datasets. We discuss basic schemes of competitive vector quantization as well as the so-called neural gas approach and Kohonen's topology-preserving self-organizing map. Supervised learning in prototype systems is exemplified in terms of learning vector quantization. Most frequently, the familiar Euclidean distance serves as a dissimilarity measure. We present extensions of the framework to nonstandard measures and give an introduction to the use of adaptive distances in relevance learning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. SIMS prototype system 4: Design data brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A pre-package prototype unit having domestic hot water and room solar heating capability that uses air as the collector fluid is described. This system is designed to be used with a small single-family dwelling where a roof mounted collector array is not feasible. The prototype unit is an assemble containing 203 square feet of effective collector surface with 113 cubic feet of rock storage. The design of structure and storage is modular, which permits expansion and reduction of the collector array and storage bed in 68 square feet and 37 cubic feet increments respectively. The system is designed to be transportable. This permitted assemble and certification testing in one area and installation in another area without tear down and reassemble. Design, installation, operation, performance and maintenance of this system are described.

  14. SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MI, J.L.; SANDBERG, J.; SANDERS, R.; SOUKAS, A.; ZHANG, W.

    2000-01-01

    The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted

  15. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  16. Linear time relational prototype based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbrecht, Andrej; Mokbel, Bassam; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Zhu, Xibin; Hammer, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Prototype based learning offers an intuitive interface to inspect large quantities of electronic data in supervised or unsupervised settings. Recently, many techniques have been extended to data described by general dissimilarities rather than Euclidean vectors, so-called relational data settings. Unlike the Euclidean counterparts, the techniques have quadratic time complexity due to the underlying quadratic dissimilarity matrix. Thus, they are infeasible already for medium sized data sets. The contribution of this article is twofold: On the one hand we propose a novel supervised prototype based classification technique for dissimilarity data based on popular learning vector quantization (LVQ), on the other hand we transfer a linear time approximation technique, the Nyström approximation, to this algorithm and an unsupervised counterpart, the relational generative topographic mapping (GTM). This way, linear time and space methods result. We evaluate the techniques on three examples from the biomedical domain.

  17. Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, J.A.; Poston, V.K.

    1993-11-01

    This is the final report of the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project, which was funded by the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The project had two objectives: (a) to develop and demonstrate a prototype of production-scale equipment for the dry, horizontal consolidation and packaging of spent nuclear fuel rods from commercial boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies, and (b) to report the development and demonstration results to the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. This report summarizes the activities and conclusions of the project management contractor, EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., and the fabrication and testing contractor, NUS Corporation (NUS). The report also presents EG ampersand G Idaho's assessments of the equipment and procedures developed by NUS

  18. Personnel hazards from medical electron accelerator photoneutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.; Jenkins, T.M.; Shore, R.A.; LaRiviere, P.D.

    1979-12-01

    For medical accelerators, neutron penetration through the room entry door is the major personnel hazard. Most therapy accelerator rooms are designed with at least a rudimentary maze to avoid the use of massive doors. Often, however, the maze may be similar to those shown in scale outline drawings of some medical electron accelerator rooms where the authors have made neutron measurements outside the doors which were of different thicknesses and compositions. The results are tabulated. It should be noted that there can be significant dose equivalents (H) at the door when a maze is inadequate, and that all three components - fast neutron, thermal neutron, and neutron capture γ rays - can be equally important

  19. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Performance of a Microgap Chamber Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Plo, M.; Santamaria, C.; Vazquez, P.; Navarro, Z.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a novel type of detector concept for ionizing particles, the Microgap Gas Chamber (MGC). A prototype was a built on a SiO 2 substrate with Aluminium electrodes by a collaboration between the C.N.M. (Centro nacional de Microelectronica) in Barcelona and the Grupo de Altas Energias of the University of Santiago de Compostela. Some of the operation characteristics are discussed. (Author) 8 refs

  1. An Introduction to Rapid System Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Kordon, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 817–821. The implementation and maintenance of industrial applications have continuously become more and more difficult. In this context, one problem is the evaluation of complex systems. The IEEE defines Prototyping as a development approach promoting the implementation of a pilot version of the intended product. This approach is a potential solution to the early evaluation of a system. It can also be used to avoid th...

  2. Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation,...

  3. Reusable Rapid Prototyped Blunt Impact Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    of a few weeks instead of the months it would have taken to prototype and pursue a conventionally manufactured solution. 3. Future Work In the...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas A Petrick 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...impact area geometries were manufactured using selective laser sintering RP technology. These projectiles were launched with a compressed air cannon

  4. The ZEUS vertex detector: Design and prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvisi, C.; Anzivino, G.; Arzarello, F.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Camerini, U.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; Costa, M.; D'Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; De Pasquale, S.; Fiori, F.; Forte, A.; Frasconi, F.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lisowski, B.; Maccarrone, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; O'Shea, V.; Palmonari, F.; Pelfer, P.; Pilastrini, R.; Qian, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Timellini, R.; Zichichi, A.; Bologna Univ.; Cosenza Univ.; Florence Univ.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence

    1991-01-01

    A gas vertex detector, operated with dimethylether (DME) at atmospheric pressure, is presently being built for the ZEUS experiment at HERA. Its main design features, together with the performances of a prototype measured at various operating voltages, particle rates and geometrical conditions on a CERN Proton Synchrotron test beam, are presented. A spatial resolution down to 35 μm and an average wire efficiency of 96% have been achieved, for a 3 mm gas gap relative to each sense wire. (orig.)

  5. Maritime Analytics Prototype: Final Development Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    includes all of the source code required to connect to a Postgres database and manipulate persistent MVAP data objects. 2.2.1 MVAP Data Import Scripts...The MVAP project includes a simple browser based user interface which can be used to populate the Postgres database. To use the DB interface, open a... Postgres ) is the database management system used by the prototype. 5. Download the one-click installer of PostgreSQL: 99 http

  6. Building a parabolic solar concentrator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar-Romero, J F M; Montiel, S Vazquez y; Granados-AgustIn, F; Rodriguez-Rivera, E; Martinez-Yanez, L; Cruz-Martinez, V M

    2011-01-01

    In order to not further degrade the environment, people have been seeking to replace non-renewable natural resources such as fossil fuels by developing technologies that are based on renewable resources. An example of these technologies is solar energy. In this paper, we show the building and test of a solar parabolic concentrator as a prototype for the production of steam that can be coupled to a turbine to generate electricity or a steam engine in any particular industrial process.

  7. Prototype ALICE front-end card

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This circuit board is a prototype 48-channel front end digitizer card for the ALICE time projection chamber (TPC), which takes electrical signals from the wire sensors in the TPC and shapes the data before converting the analogue signal to digital data. A total of 4356 cards will be required to process the data from the ALICE TPC, the largest of this type of detector in the world.

  8. Design of a decade scaler prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rill Isaris; Widodo Priyodiprojo.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a simple decade scaler made of devices and components available in the local market, is described. The constituents of the system, consisting of an amplifier, pulse shaper, counting system, low voltage and high voltage supply, are also described. The number of pulses counted are indicated on six digits, varying to a maximum of 999999 counts, using LED device. This apparatus may be interconnected with scintillation and Geiger Muller detectors. (author)

  9. Test results for three prototype models of a linear induction launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabar, Z.; Lu, X.N.; He, J.L.; Birenbaum, L.; Levi, E.; Kuznetsov, S.B.; Nahemow, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the work on the linear induction launcher (LIL) started with an analytical study tht was followed by computer simulations and then was tested by laboratory models. Two mathematical representations have been developed to describe the launcher. The first, based on the field approach with sinusoidal excitation, has been validated by static tests on a small scale prototype fed at constant current and variable frequency. The second, a transient representation using computer simulation allows consideration of energization by means of a capacitor bank and a power conditioner. Tests performed on three small-scale prototypes up to 100 m/s muzzle velocities show good agreement with predicted performance

  10. The test facility for the short prototypes of the LHC superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsolaro, W. Venturini; Arn, A.; Bottura, L.; Giloux, C.; Mompo, R.; Siemko, A.; Walckiers, L.

    2002-01-01

    The LHC development program relies on cryogenic tests of prototype and model magnets. This vigorous program is pursued in a dedicated test facility based on several vertical cryostats working at superfluid helium temperatures. The performance of the facility is detailed. Goals and test equipment for currently performed studies are reviewed: quench analysis and magnet protection studies, measurement of the field quality, test of ancillary electrical equipment like diodes and busbars. The paper covers the equipment available for tests of prototypes and some special series of LHC magnets to come

  11. The test facility for the short prototypes of the LHC superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsolaro, W. Venturini; Arn, A.; Bottura, L.; Giloux, C.; Mompo, R.; Siemko, A.; Walckiers, L.

    2002-05-01

    The LHC development program relies on cryogenic tests of prototype and model magnets. This vigorous program is pursued in a dedicated test facility based on several vertical cryostats working at superfluid helium temperatures. The performance of the facility is detailed. Goals and test equipment for currently performed studies are reviewed: quench analysis and magnet protection studies, measurement of the field quality, test of ancillary electrical equipment like diodes and busbars. The paper covers the equipment available for tests of prototypes and some special series of LHC magnets to come.

  12. CCSDS SM and C Mission Operations Interoperability Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucord, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the prototype of the Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) Operations for interoperability among other space agencies. This particular prototype uses the German Space Agency (DLR) to test the ideas for interagency coordination.

  13. Prototype development and demonstration for integrated dynamic transit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the Final Report specific to the Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO) Prototype Development and Deployment Project, hereafter referred to as IDTO Prototype Deployment or IDTO PD project. This project was performed unde...

  14. Developing IEC prototypes for adolescents. IEC workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Participants of the IEC Workshop for the Production of OHP Material on Reproductive Health for Adolescents and Young Adults held November 25-30 in Japan developed innovative, visually appealing overhead projector (OHP) transparencies to serve as prototype information, education, and communication (IEC) materials for the Asian Region. The materials cover a wide range of topics from early marriage to unwanted pregnancy. This paper briefly describes the prototypes. One group focused upon early marriage, an issue of considerable importance to the health and welfare of young women in countries such as Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Participants from China, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand focused upon the issue of gender equality, while a third group developed OHP material to teach a range of issues related to young people's sexual and reproductive health. Finally, the fourth group, drawn from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, focused upon the topic of menstruation with a prototype targeted to boys and girls aged 9-14 years. Boys were included to foster their understanding of menstruation as a natural phenomenon.

  15. Pancultural nostalgia: prototypical conceptions across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, Erica G; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Ritchie, Timothy D; Yung, Yiu-Fai; Hansen, Nina; Abakoumkin, Georgios; Arikan, Gizem; Cisek, Sylwia Z; Demassosso, Didier B; Gebauer, Jochen E; Gerber, J P; González, Roberto; Kusumi, Takashi; Misra, Girishwar; Rusu, Mihaela; Ryan, Oisín; Stephan, Elena; Vingerhoets, Ad J J; Zhou, Xinyue

    2014-08-01

    Nostalgia is a frequently experienced complex emotion, understood by laypersons in the United Kingdom and United States of America to (a) refer prototypically to fond, self-relevant, social memories and (b) be more pleasant (e.g., happy, warm) than unpleasant (e.g., sad, regretful). This research examined whether people across cultures conceive of nostalgia in the same way. Students in 18 countries across 5 continents (N = 1,704) rated the prototypicality of 35 features of nostalgia. The samples showed high levels of agreement on the rank-order of features. In all countries, participants rated previously identified central (vs. peripheral) features as more prototypical of nostalgia, and showed greater interindividual agreement regarding central (vs. peripheral) features. Cluster analyses revealed subtle variation among groups of countries with respect to the strength of these pancultural patterns. All except African countries manifested the same factor structure of nostalgia features. Additional exemplars generated by participants in an open-ended format did not entail elaboration of the existing set of 35 features. Findings identified key points of cross-cultural agreement regarding conceptions of nostalgia, supporting the notion that nostalgia is a pancultural emotion.

  16. Rapid prototyping model for percutaneous nephrolithotomy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, Franck; Leroux, Cecile; Brunereau, Laurent; Lermusiaux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a technique used for creating computer images in three dimensions more efficiently than classic techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a popular method to remove kidney stones; however, broader use by the urologic community has been hampered by the morbidity associated with needle puncture to gain access to the renal calix (bleeding, pneumothorax, hydrothorax, inadvertent colon injury). A training model to improve technique and understanding of renal anatomy could improve complications related to renal puncture; however, no model currently exists for resident training. We created a training model using the rapid prototyping technique based on abdominal CT images of a patient scheduled to undergo PCNL. This allowed our staff and residents to train on the model before performing the operation. This model allowed anticipation of particular difficulties inherent to the patient's anatomy. After training, the procedure proceeded without complication, and the patient was discharged at postoperative day 1 without problems. We hypothesize that rapid prototyping could be useful for resident education, allowing the creation of numerous models for research and surgical training. In addition, we anticipate that experienced urologists could find this technique helpful in preparation for difficult PCNL operations.

  17. Fabrication and tests of prototype quadrupole magnets for the storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Thompson, K.M.; Black, E.L.; Jagger, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Prototype quadrupole magnets for the APS storage ring have been fabricated and tested. Mechanical stability of the magnet poles and acceptable field quality have been achieved. Geometries of the pole-end bevels have been studied in order to simplify the design of the magnet end-plate. The field saturation at different segments of the magnet has been measured to evaluate the magnet efficiency

  18. Multichannel prototype of coordinate detector based on segmented straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakov, Yu.V.; Davkov, V.I.; Davkov, K.I.; Zhukov, I.A.; Lutsenko, V.M.; Myalkovskij, V.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Savenkov, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The design and assembly technology of a detector prototype based on segmented straws is considered. The granularity of the prototype is 4 cm 2 . The prototype has a sensitive area of 400 x 200 mm, and contains two straw planes displaced against each other by 2 mm. The number of registration channels is 360. Preliminary results of the bench study of the prototype are presented

  19. Prototype Theory Based Feature Representation for PolSAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Xiaojing; Yang Xiangli; Huang Pingping; Yang Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new feature representation approach for Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) image based on prototype theory. First, multiple prototype sets are generated using prototype theory. Then, regularized logistic regression is used to predict similarities between a test sample and each prototype set. Finally, the PolSAR image feature representation is obtained by ensemble projection. Experimental results of an unsupervised classification of PolSAR images show that our...

  20. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping . Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping