WorldWideScience

Sample records for field environment issledovanie

  1. Field Geology for Environment Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrez, Marilia

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this project is to show the scientific and educational potential of natural environment of Lisbon region through increase of excitement for plate tectonics subjects to high school students. It is expected the students be able to understand the main concepts of the plate tectonics, stratigraphy, paleontology and paleoenvironmental interpretations, explain in the field nearby Lisbon. The richness of Guincho beach geodiversity and "Sintra Syenite Complex" valuate the geological patrimony. Combining these entities and educational purposes will raise awareness to sustainable attitudes favoring the preservation of natural patrimony by the students. The subjects approached in the project are based on the inspection of several outcrops related to the evolution of the Iberian Plate at early Mesozoic period, at several places of geological interest. The landscape of Guincho is dominated by Mesozoic formations that show good conditions paleoenvironmental and geodynamic interpretations associated to the opening of the North Atlantic. Moreover it reveals the environment linked to the magmatic intrusion of the "Sintra Alcaline Complex" at the end of Cretaceous. It is believed the contact with field is crucial to the awareness of young people to subjects that are not daily matters, however important when presented in the light of an urgent society problem such as environment preservation, at all levels by all people.

  2. Electromagnetic fields, environment and health

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A good number of false ideas are circulating on the effects of non-ionizing radiations on our health, which can lead to an oversimplification of the issue, to potentially dangerous misconceptions or to misleading data analysis. Health effects may be exaggerated, or on the contrary underplayed. The authors of this work (doctors, engineers and researchers) have endeavored to supply validated and easily understandable scientific information on the electromagnetic fields and their biological and health effects. After a general review of the physics of the waves and a presentation of non-ionizing r

  3. Far-field environment working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearcy, E.C. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Cady, R.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.

  4. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wagner

    2000-11-14

    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  5. Environment server. Digital field information archival technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Nobuyuki; Kita, Yasuyo; Yang, Hai-quan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Intelligent Systems Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    For the safety operation of nuclear power plants, it is important to store various information about plants for a long period and visualize those stored information as desired. The system called Environment Server is developed for realizing it. In this paper, the general concepts of Environment Server is explained and its partial implementation for archiving the image information gathered by inspection mobile robots into virtual world and visualizing them is described. An extension of Environment Server for supporting attention sharing is also briefly introduced. (author)

  6. Utilizing Urban Environments for Effective Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2014-12-01

    Research surveys suggest that students are demanding more applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs. For geoscience educators at liberal arts colleges without field camps, university vehicles, or even geology departments, getting students into the field is especially rewarding - and especially challenging. Here, we present strategies that we have used in courses ranging from introductory environmental science for non-majors, to upper level environmental methods and geology classes. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Here we share detailed lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency, and provide student feedback about the classes and activities.

  7. Environment, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Field Organization Directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This directory was developed by the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) from an outgrowth of the Departments efforts to identify and establish the regulatory response lead persons in the Field Organizations. The directory was developed for intemal EH-231 use to identify both the DOE and DOE contractor Field Organizations in the Environment, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The Field Organization directory is divided into three substantive sections: (1) Environment; (2) Environmental Restoration; and (3) Waste Management which are organized to correspond to the management hierarchy at each Field Organization. The information provided includes the facility name and address, individual managers name, and telephone/fax numbers.

  8. Natural analogs for far-field environment/hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of natural-analog studies to characterize far-field conditions in the vicinity of geologic repository systems for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Conditions in the far field are determined by the natural state and evolution of the repository geosphere and its environment.

  9. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  10. FCJ-124 Interactive Environments as Fields of Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoph Brunner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a critical inquiry of interactive environments as fields of transduction. It is argued that Gilbert Simondon’s concepts of individuation, transduction, in-formation, the preindividual, and the associated milieu enable a processual thinking of the analysis and design of interactive technologies as technogenetic emergence. These concepts offer a way for interaction design to understand interactive environments through the dynamics between fields of transduction and fields of experience in relational and affective terms. The article analyses the way in which two technological assemblages, Voz Alta and the Impossible Room, provide different experiential fields experimenting with the transductive power of digital and interactive media. We emphasise the potential for creating new modes of experience. Our aim is to underline the necessary convergences between practices of design and thought; to enable affectively engaging fields of transduction.

  11. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  12. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning.

  13. The data platform of national special environment and disaster field observation stations based on grid environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Data Platform of Resource and Environment-whose data mainly come from field observation stations,spatial observations,and internet service institutions-is the base of data analysis and model simulation in geoscience research in China.Among this integrated data platform,the tasks of the data platform of field observation stations are principally data collection,management,assimilation,and share service.Taking into consideration the distributing characteristics of the data sources and the service objects,the authors formulated the framework of the field observation stations’ data platform based on the grid technology and designed its operating processes.The authors have further defined and analyzed the key functions and implementing techniques for each module.In a Linux operating system,validation tests for the data platform’s function on data replication,data synchronization,and unified data service have been conducted under an environment that of the simulating field stations.

  14. Indexes of Indoor Thermal Environment with Asymmetrical Radiant Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟珂; 刘加平; 亢燕铭

    2004-01-01

    The main features of top-floor rooms with natural ventilation are identified by investigating indoor thermal environment in summer season. One is high indoor air temperature, for this reason the indoor climate is far beyond the thermal comfort standard; the other is the inhomogeneous temperature distribution of the inner wall surfaces, and high temperature of the inner surface of the roof causes much scorching to the head of occupant. This is the characteristic of such rooms.Both features mentioned above should be considered comprehensively for thc evaluation of indoor thermal environment of the top-floor rooms with asymmetric radiant field. In order to characterize the indoor thermal environment of the rooms, the heat stress index, HSI and radiant heat flux reaching human head, QR should be introduced simultaneously as thermal indexes for the indoor climate evaluation. The application of the indexes to a topfloor room is presented and analyzed.

  15. Nonlinear optical field sensors in extreme electromagnetic and acoustic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzarella, Anthony; Wu, Dong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Sensors based on electro-optic (EO) and magneto-optic (MO) crystals measure external electric and magnetic fields through changes in birefringence which the fields induce on the nonlinear crystals. Due to their small size and all-dielectric structure, EO and MO sensors are ideal in environments involving very large electromagnetic powers. Conventional antennas and metallic probes not only present safety hazards, due to their metallic structure and the presence of large currents, but they can also perturb the very fields they intend to measure. In the case of railguns, the large electromagnetic signals are also accompanied by tremendous acoustic noise, which presents a noise background that the sensors must overcome. In this presentation, we describe extensive data obtained from fiber optic EO and MO sensors used in the railgun of the Naval Research Laboratory. Along with the field measurements obtained, we will describe the interactions between the acoustic noise and the nonlinear crystals (most notably, photoelastic effects), the noise equivalent fields they produce, and methods they could be suppressed through the optical and geometrical configurations of the sensor so that the signal to noise ratio can be maximized.

  16. Evaluation of field dental equipment in a deployment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, David G; Ehrlich, A Dale; Ragain, James C; Lyles, Mark B; Roberts, Howard W

    2006-03-01

    Dental officers and technicians must have reliable, durable, well-performing field dental equipment to enable them to provide dental care to deployed troops in operational environments. Unfortunately, no organized program exists to test such equipment before its purchase and use in the field. This article presents the results of a project conducted by the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research and the Air Force Dental Evaluation and Consultation Service to evaluate commercially available field dental equipment through laboratory testing and clinical-user evaluations in theater. The purpose of this 2-year project was to identify the best-performing and most cost-effective field dental equipment for possible future procurement. Initial laboratory testing was performed at the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, and the equipment was then shipped to Kuwait for in-theater environmental and clinical-user testing. A seven-member scientific team of military dental officers and technicians was deployed for 1 month to perform in-theater testing under regional environmental conditions and to coordinate clinical-user evaluations. The testing provided beneficial results by identifying equipment that performed properly and equipment that exhibited shortcomings serious enough to render it inadequate for operational use. It is recommended that the project serve as a model for future testing and evaluation of medical/dental equipment by all of the military services.

  17. Modelling studies of wind field on urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Radics

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing load of air pollution in urban environment emphasises the need for detailed evaluation of wind characteristics that significantly affect the air quality of urban areas, especially, in large agglomerations. This paper includes analysis of urban wind climatology and estimation of wind profiles based on measurements of the new urban climate station located at the Eötvös University, observations of the meteorological station network of the Budapest agglomeration area, and multi-level wind measurements near Hegyhátsál. Furthermore, wind field modelling (using the WAsP linear spectral wind flow model is presented over selected representative complex areas that demonstrates strong dependence between wind, height, topography, and roughness.

  18. Evaluation of occupational cold environments: field measurements and subjective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Raimundo, António M; Quintela, Divo A

    2014-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the study of occupational cold environments in food distribution industrial units. Field measurements and a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire were considered. The survey was carried out in 5 Portuguese companies. The field measurements include 26 workplaces, while a sample of 160 responses was considered for the subjective assessment. In order to characterize the level of cold exposure, the Required Clothing Insulation Index (IREQ) was adopted. The IREQ index highlights that in the majority of the workplaces the clothing ensembles worn are inadequate, namely in the freezing chambers where the protection provided by clothing is always insufficient. The questionnaires results show that the food distribution sector is characterized by a female population (70.6%), by a young work force (60.7% are less than 35 yr old) and by a population with a medium-length professional career (80.1% in this occupation for less than 10 yr). The incidence of health effects which is higher among women, the distribution of protective clothing (50.0% of the workers indicate one garment) and the significant percentage of workers (>75%) that has more difficulties in performing the activity during the winter represent other important results of the present study.

  19. Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liemohn, H.B.; Lessor, D.L.; Duane, B.H.

    1976-09-01

    A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic fields, and (7) magnetic field transients from tokamak malfunctions.

  20. Production technology for actual fields in severe corrosive environments; Fushoku kankyo jitsu field jisshoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, H.; Ihara, K.; Wasada, N. [Tech. Research Center, Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-10

    Tests and studies were started for the verification of the coated tubing developed using the element technology introduced in the special study `Production Technology in High-Temperature Corrosive Environments`, for the development of oil exploring equipment serviceable in corrosive environments, and for the development of programs for selecting materials for use in corrosive environments. In connection with verification tests, investigations were conducted into the operating fields of domestic oil exploring corporations and into technical literature relating to the deterioration of basic materials in their resistance to SSC, and basic data were accumulated. In the efforts to develop equipment, it was decided that drilling stabilizer blades be developed by plasma sintering, that information be collected concerning technologies relating to functionally gradient materials, and that technologies be developed for YAG-laser cladding of flange seal surfaces and elbow inner surfaces. As for the development of material selecting programs, various tests were conducted into the 13Cr steel and super 13Cr steel for their SSC, total corrosion, and local corrosion, their performance was evaluated, and the limit of their serviceability was determined by mathematical treatment. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. EMERGE: Engineered Materials that Create Environments for ReGenerationvia Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0542 TITLE: EMERGE: Engineered Materials that Create Environments for ReGeneration via Electric Field PRINCIPAL...23 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER EMERGE: Engineered Materials that Create Environments for ReGeneration via Electric Field ...Create Environments for ReGeneration via Electric Fields . The objective of the project is to develop a next-generation ocular implant material with

  2. Evaluations of Occupational Exposure and Magnetic Field Levels at Hospital Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Şükrü Özen; Selçuk Helhel; Gizem Kahya; Mehmet Çakır; Samet Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic field levels at the typical hospital environments analyzed with this study. Typical center laboratory has been selected for the research. There are a lot of devices at this center such as Centrifugal, biochemistry auto-analyzer, Hemogram units etc. Electromagnetic fields at the laboratory environment are the Extremely Low Frequency field. Therefore, occupants that they may be exposed to the electromagnetic field levels were measured, and the results are evaluated in the light ...

  3. Field study of the indoor environment in a Danish prison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogbeh, Audrey; Jomaas, Grunde; Bjarløv, Søren Peter

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... with their general indoor environment and all responding inmates expressed dissatisfaction with the thermal climate. Dissatisfaction was mostly caused by a lack of airflow and air movement in the space as well as excessive direct sunlight from the windows. Security is a leading factor in the design of prisons, so...

  4. Environment Impact Assesment for the Heidrun Field Development

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, J.; Follestad, A.; Gulbrandsen, R.; Martinsen, E. A.; Næs, K.; Pedersen, A.; Rygg, B.; Skei, J.; Øritland, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The report reviews the potential sources of impact from the oil and gas exploration and production in the Heidrun field, and the current environmental status in the areas predicted to be influenced by an oil spill or other activities related to the field development. An assessment of the potential impact on offshore and coastal ecosystems and populations, fishery resources, aquaculture and other human activities on the coast is made.

  5. Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most air quality studies in agricultural environments typically use thermal desorption analysis for quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with odor. Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) are popular sorbent materials used in these studies. However, there is little information on the effe...

  6. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Langkilde, Gunnar; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University...

  7. Broadband matched-field inversion for shallow water environment parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, broadband multi-frequencies matched-field inversion method is used to determine the environmental parameters in shallow water. According to different conditions, several broadband objective functions are presented. Using ASIAEX2001 experiment data and genetic algorithms, environmental parameters are obtained, especially in sediment.

  8. MAGNETIC FIELDS AND POLARIZED EMISSION FROM SELECTED ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Hildebrand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of polarized emission from molecular clouds have provided maps of magnetic elds as projected on the sky. The polarization spectrum has given evidence for multiple cloud components in which dust grains at di erent temperatures have di erent polarizing effciencies. With improvements in angular resolution and with additional choices of wavelength, it is becoming possible to make observations in selected environments such as dense clumps, clusters of embedded stars, and regions of high column densities. These observations provide improved cloud models and also provide tests of grain alignment mechanisms such as alignment by radiative torques. Measurements of eld dispersion, as applied to studies of eld strengths or turbulence, require high angular resolution, and accurate position angle measurements at very many points. The possibilities for such measurements, especially in the range ~ 50 -200 um, will be greatly enhanced when SOFIA is equipped with a high-performance far-infrared polarimeter.

  9. Environment-Assisted Speed-up of the Field Evolution in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmarusti, A D; Yan, Z; Patterson, B D; Corcos, L P; Orozco, L A; Deffner, S

    2015-06-12

    We measure the quantum speed of the state evolution of the field in a weakly driven optical cavity QED system. To this end, the mode of the electromagnetic field is considered as a quantum system of interest with a preferential coupling to a tunable environment: the atoms. By controlling the environment, i.e., changing the number of atoms coupled to the optical cavity mode, an environment-assisted speed-up is realized: the quantum speed of the state repopulation in the optical cavity increases with the coupling strength between the optical cavity mode and this non-Markovian environment (the number of atoms).

  10. Tls Field Data Based Intensity Correction for Forest Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, J.; Huber, M. O.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is increasingly used for forestry applications. Besides the three dimensional point coordinates, the 'intensity' of the reflected signal plays an important role in forestry and vegetation studies. The benefit of the signal intensity is caused by the wavelength of the laser that is within the near infrared (NIR) for most scanners. The NIR is highly indicative for various vegetation characteristics. However, the intensity as recorded by most terrestrial scanners is distorted by both external and scanner specific factors. Since details about system internal alteration of the signal are often unknown to the user, model driven approaches are impractical. On the other hand, existing data driven calibration procedures require laborious acquisition of separate reference datasets or areas of homogenous reflection characteristics from the field data. In order to fill this gap, the present study introduces an approach to correct unwanted intensity variations directly from the point cloud of the field data. The focus is on the variation over range and sensor specific distortions. Instead of an absolute calibration of the values, a relative correction within the dataset is sufficient for most forestry applications. Finally, a method similar to time series detrending is presented with the only pre-condition of a relative equal distribution of forest objects and materials over range. Our test data covers 50 terrestrial scans captured with a FARO Focus 3D S120 scanner using a laser wavelength of 905 nm. Practical tests demonstrate that our correction method removes range and scanner based alterations of the intensity.

  11. Robot Tracking of Human Subjects in Field Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Shillcutt, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    Future planetary exploration will involve both humans and robots. Understanding and improving their interaction is a main focus of research in the Intelligent Systems Branch at NASA's Johnson Space Center. By teaming intelligent robots with astronauts on surface extra-vehicular activities (EVAs), safety and productivity can be improved. The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project was established to study the issues of human-robot teams, to develop a testbed robot to assist space-suited humans in exploration tasks, and to experimentally determine the effectiveness of an EVA assistant robot. A companion paper discusses the ERA project in general, its history starting with ASRO (Astronaut-Rover project), and the results of recent field tests in Arizona. This paper focuses on one aspect of the research, robot tracking, in greater detail: the software architecture and algorithms. The ERA robot is capable of moving towards and/or continuously following mobile or stationary targets or sequences of targets. The contributions made by this research include how the low-level pose data is assembled, normalized and communicated, how the tracking algorithm was generalized and implemented, and qualitative performance reports from recent field tests.

  12. Field and data analysis studies related to the atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Stanley; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeff; Stewart, Michael; Slaton, Dave; Buechler, Dennis; Botts, Michael; Collins, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes work on a broad array of projects including: (1) applications of meteorological and/or oceanographic satellites; (2) improvement of the current set of NASA/USAF lightning related launch commit criteria rules; (3) the design, building, testing and deployment of a set of cylindrical field mills for aircraft use; (4) the study of marginal electrification storm conditions in relationship to the current launch commit rules for the space shuttle and various other launch vehicles using an instrumented aircraft; (5) support of the DC-8 and ER-2 lightning instrument package as part of both the Tropical Ocean - Global Atmospheric/Coupled Ocean-Atmospheric Response Experiment and the Convection and Moisture Experiment; (6) design of electronic circuitry and microprocessor firmware for the NASA Advanced Ground Based Field Mill; (7) design and testing of electronic and computer instrumentation for atmospheric electricity measurements; (8) simulating observations from a lightning imaging sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring satellite; and (9) supporting scientific visualization and the development of computer software tools.

  13. Local electric fields and molecular properties in heterogeneous environments through polarizable embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    (1PA and 2PA, respectively) properties of PRODAN-methanol clusters as well as the fluorescent protein DsRed. Our results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for both the dynamical reaction field and effective external field contributions to the local field in order to reproduce full quantum......In spectroscopies, the local field experienced by a molecule embedded in an environment will be different from the externally applied electromagnetic field, and this difference may significantly alter the response and transition properties of the molecule. The polarizable embedding (PE) model has...... previously been developed to model the local field contribution stemming from the direct molecule-environment coupling of the electromagnetic response properties of molecules in solution as well as in heterogeneous environments, such as proteins. Here we present an extension of this approach to address...

  14. Environment of MAMBO galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris L; Schinnerer, Eva; McCracken, Henry J; Salvato, Mara; Riechers, Dominik; Sheth, Kartik; Smolcic, Vernesa; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Menten, Karl M

    2009-01-01

    Submillimeter galaxies (SMG) represent a dust-obscured high-redshift population undergoing massive star formation activity. Their properties and space density have suggested that they may evolve into spheroidal galaxies residing in galaxy clusters. In this paper, we report the discovery of compact (~10"-20") galaxy overdensities centered at the position of three SMGs detected with the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer camera (MAMBO) in the COSMOS field. These associations are statistically significant. The photometric redshifts of galaxies in these structures are consistent with their associated SMGs; all of them are between z=1.4-2.5, implying projected physical sizes of ~170 kpc for the overdensities. Our results suggest that about 30% of the radio-identified bright SMGs in that redshift range form in galaxy density peaks in the crucial epoch when most stars formed.

  15. Wide Field Multiband Imaging of Low Redshift Quasar Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Jennifer E; Bechtold, Jill; Ellingson, Erica; Thibodeau, Christopher; Richmond, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present photometry of the large scale environments of a sample of twelve broad line AGN with $0.06 < z < 0.37$ from deep images in the SDSS $u$, $g$, $r$, and $i$ filters taken with the 90Prime prime focus camera on the Steward Observatory Bok Telescope. We measure galaxy clustering around these AGN using two standard techniques: correlation amplitude (B$_{gq}$) and the two point correlation function. We find average correlation amplitudes for the 10 radio quiet objects in the sample equal to (9$\\pm$18, 144$\\pm$114, -39$\\pm$56, 295$\\pm$260) Mpc$^{1.77}$ in ($u$, $g$, $r$, $i$), all consistent with the expectation from galaxy clustering. Using a ratio of the galaxy-quasar cross-correlation function to the galaxy autocorrelation function, we calculate the relative bias of galaxies and AGN, $b_{gq}$. The bias in the $u$ band, $b_{gq}=3.08\\pm0.51$ is larger compared to that calculated in the other bands, but it does not correlate with AGN luminosity, black hole mass, or AGN activity via the luminosity of...

  16. Designing Mobile Learning Environments to Support Teacher-Led Field Trips within Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly more visible within classrooms and informal learning spaces. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of mobile learning (m-learning) tools to support student learning during teacher-led field trips. Specifically, the research questions for this study are: (a) What conditions affect student…

  17. Static field influences on transcranial magnetic stimulation: considerations for TMS in the scanner environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Jalinous, Reza; Cantarero, Gabriela L; Desmond, John E

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to simultaneously manipulate and monitor human cortical responses. Although tremendous efforts have been directed at characterizing the impact of TMS on image acquisition, the influence of the scanner's static field on the TMS coil has received limited attention. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the scanner's static field on TMS. We hypothesized that spatial variations in the static field could account for TMS field variations in the scanner environment. Using an MRI-compatible TMS coil, we estimated TMS field strengths based on TMS-induced voltage changes measured in a search coil. We compared peak field strengths obtained with the TMS coil positioned at different locations (B0 field vs fringe field) and orientations in the static field. We also measured the scanner's static field to derive a field map to account for TMS field variations. TMS field strength scaled depending on coil location and orientation with respect to the static field. Larger TMS field variations were observed in fringe field regions near the gantry as compared to regions inside the bore or further removed from the bore. The scanner's static field also exhibited the greatest spatial variations in fringe field regions near the gantry. The scanner's static field influences TMS fields and spatial variations in the static field correlate with TMS field variations. Coil orientation changes in the B0 field did not result in substantial TMS field variations. TMS field variations can be minimized by delivering TMS in the bore or outside of the 0-70 cm region from the bore entrance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR Free-Field Environment (ACRR-FF-CC-32-CL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity free-field reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  19. Method and program product for determining a radiance field in an optical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersman, Phillip N. (Inventor); Carder, Kendall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid method is presented by which Monte Carlo techniques are combined with iterative relaxation techniques to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation in arbitrary one-, two- or three-dimensional optical environments. The optical environments are first divided into contiguous regions, or elements, with Monte Carlo techniques then being employed to determine the optical response function of each type of element. The elements are combined, and the iterative relaxation techniques are used to determine simultaneously the radiance field on the boundary and throughout the interior of the modeled environment. This hybrid model is capable of providing estimates of the under-water light field needed to expedite inspection of ship hulls and port facilities. It is also capable of providing estimates of the subaerial light field for structured, absorbing or non-absorbing environments such as shadows of mountain ranges within and without absorption spectral bands such as water vapor or CO.sub.2 bands.

  20. Effect of Antenna Parameters on the Field Coverage in Tunnel Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation in confined spaces is consequent upon the reflections of boundaries; thus, the radiation characteristics of the antenna have significant influence on the field coverage in the confined space. This paper investigates the effects of antenna parameters on field coverage characteristics in a tunnel environment. A modified modal method is proposed to analyse the wave propagation properties along the tunnel. The relationships between the amplitudes of modes and the antenna parameters, including the beam width, beam direction, and antenna location, are analysed. The results indicate that by properly selecting the antenna parameters, optimum field coverage in tunnel environments can be realized.

  1. Temperature Field-Wind Velocity Field Optimum Control of Greenhouse Environment Based on CFD Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational fluid dynamics technology is applied as the environmental control model, which can include the greenhouse space. Basic environmental factors are set to be the control objects, the field information is achieved via the division of layers by height, and numerical characteristics of each layer are used to describe the field information. Under the natural ventilation condition, real-time requirements, energy consumption, and distribution difference are selected as index functions. The optimization algorithm of adaptive simulated annealing is used to obtain optimal control outputs. A comparison with full-open ventilation shows that the whole index can be reduced at 44.21% and found that a certain mutual exclusiveness exists between the temperature and velocity field in the optimal course. All the results indicate that the application of CFD model has great advantages to improve the control accuracy of greenhouse.

  2. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and guides, and administered questionnaires. We found different levels of teacher involvement, ranging from mainly supervising and giving technical help, to high involvement especially in the cognitive domain and sometimes in the social domain. Analysis of students' self-reported outcomes showed that the more students believe their teachers are involved, the higher the self-reported learning outcomes.

  3. IMPACT OF OIL FIELD EXPLOITATION ON ECO-ENVIRONMENT OF THE DAQING LAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shao-peng; LU Jin-fu; SUN Guang-you

    2003-01-01

    The Daqing lakes are located in the region with sub-humid continental monsoon climate. Through histori-cal comparison of the environment before and after oil field exploitation in the area, the paper analyses the impact of oilfield exploitation on the eco-environment of the lakes, including the impact of diversion works, drainage works, exploita-tion and utilization of groundwater, dropped crude oil and petrochemical wastewater on the lakes water body. The analy-sis shows that oil field exploitation caused serious pollution to soil in the lakes area and deterioration of the e-co-environment. The impact became more evident with passage of time, and the intensity varied with areas, gettingmore serious from west to east, which meant that the eastern part of the lakes were influenced much more seriously by thehuman activities. To improve the eco-environment of the Daqing lakes and make them sustainable utilization, the effec-tive protection measures should be taken.

  4. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study were resolute in their models and that field trips did not impact the types of models students adhered to. Twenty-three seventh-grade students who self-selected to participate in a Family Science Club with their parents did demonstrate a shift in their mental models and developed significantly more sophisticated models over time. A critical implication of the study is that unless transformation of mental models of the environment is an explicit goal of instruction, simple exposure to the environment (even within the context of life science instruction) will not transform understandings of how organisms within an environment act and interact interdependently.

  5. Field experience in science for fifth grade students---a mixed methods study of learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara E.

    The purpose of this research is to compare students' perceptions of the learning environment in a traditional science classroom and a field study classroom. This mixed methods study used a sequential explanatory design. Phase one was the quantitative phase using two survey tools. A modified version of the "What is happening in this Classroom Survey" (WIHIC) (Fraser et al., 1996) and the "Test of Science Related Attitudes" (TOSRA) (Fraser, 1982) was administered to 60 fifth grade students from one school. Data was then disaggregated by socioeconomic class and ethnicity. Results from Phase one showed that students prefer the classroom for investigation and prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Differences in ethnicity and class were small but Hispanic students prefer the field for investigation and equity. Students that are low socio-economic class rank cooperation in the field higher than the classroom and students that do not qualify for free or reduced lunch prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Finally, there are strong correlations for the variables of cooperation, investigation, equity and enjoyment of science in both the classroom and the field environment. Questions raised from the analysis of the survey data were further explored through qualitative data collection methods in phase two. Student responses to three questions were coded using template analysis to provide answers to the "how and why" field experience effects students' attitudes toward science. Three themes emerged from the coding of the results. These results showed that students are physically engaged, develop a sense of place and learn skills in the field that reinforce concepts learned in the classroom. This information will help teachers in developing quality and meaningful experiences for all students. "Closing the gaps among minority groups while improving achievement of all students constitutes the dual goals of education in the nation" (Lee et al., 2004

  6. AMUSE-Field II. Nucleation of early-type galaxies in the field vs. cluster environment

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassare, Vivienne F; Miller, Brendan P; Plotkin, Richard M; Treu, Tommaso; Valluri, Monica; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2014-01-01

    The optical light profiles of nearby early type galaxies are known to exhibit a smooth transition from nuclear light deficits to nuclear light excesses with decreasing galaxy mass, with as much as 80 per cent of the galaxies with stellar masses below 10^10 Msun hosting a massive nuclear star cluster. At the same time, while all massive galaxies are thought to harbor nuclear super-massive black holes (SMBHs), observational evidence for SMBHs is slim at the low end of the mass function. Here, we explore the environmental dependence of the nucleation fraction by comparing two homogeneous samples of nearby field vs. cluster early type galaxies with uniform Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage. Existing Chandra X-ray Telescope data for both samples yield complementary information on low-level accretion onto nuclear SMBHs. Specifically, we report on dual-band (F475W & F850LP) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data for 28 out of the 103 field early type galaxies that compose the AMUSE-Field Chandra surv...

  7. A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model basing on geomagnetic environment simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chunsheng; Zhou, Jian-jun; Yang, Zhen-yu

    2015-06-15

    In aeromagnetic survey, it is difficult to solve the aircraft magnetic field model by flying for some unman controlled or disposable aircrafts. So a model solving method on the ground is proposed. The method simulates the geomagnetic environment where the aircraft is flying and creates the background magnetic field samples which is the same as the magnetic field arose by aircraft’s maneuvering. Then the aircraft magnetic field model can be solved by collecting the magnetic field samples. The method to simulate the magnetic environment and the method to control the errors are presented as well. Finally, an experiment is done for verification. The result shows that the model solving precision and stability by the method is well. The calculated model parameters by the method in one district can be used in worldwide districts as well. - Highlights: • A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model on the ground is proposed. • The method solves the model by simulating dynamic geomagnetic environment as in the real flying. • The way to control the error of the method was analyzed. • An experiment is done for verification.

  8. Field Experience in Science for Fifth Grade Students--A Mixed Methods Study of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to compare students' perceptions of the learning environment in a traditional science classroom and a field study classroom. This mixed methods study used a sequential explanatory design. Phase one was the quantitative phase using two survey tools. A modified version of the "What is happening in this Classroom…

  9. System Thinking Scales and Learning Environment of Family Planning Field Workers in East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari

    2016-01-01

    Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…

  10. Quantitative genetic analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in maize in the field environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Domagojimi; Hrvoje Lepedu; Vlatka Jurkovi; Jasenka Antunovi; Vera Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyl fluorescence transient from initial to maximum fluorescence (“P”step) throughout two intermedi-ate steps (“J”and“I”) (JIP-test) is considered a reliable early quantitative indicator of stress in plants. The JIP-test is particularly useful for crop plants when applied in variable field environments. The aim of the present study was to conduct a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for nine JIP-test parameters in maize during flowering in four field environ-ments differing in weather conditions. QTL analysis and identification of putative candidate genes might help to explain the genetic relationship between photosynthesis and different field scenarios in maize plants. The JIP-test param-eters were analyzed in the intermated B73 ? Mo17 (IBM) maize population of 205 recombinant inbred lines. A set of 2,178 molecular markers across the whole maize genome was used for QTL analysis revealing 10 significant QTLs for seven JIP-test parameters, of which five were co-localized when combined over the four environments indicating polygenic inheritance and pleiotropy. Our results demonstrate that QTL analysis of chlorophyl fluorescence parameters was capable of detecting one pleiotropic locus on chromosome 7, coinciding with the gene gst23 that may be associated with efficient photosynthe-sis under different field scenarios.

  11. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  12. Electromagnetic field strength prediction in an urban environment: A useful tool for the planning of LMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandooren, G. A. J.; Herben, M. H. A. J.; Brussaard, G.; Sforza, M.; Poiaresbaptista, J. P. V.

    1993-01-01

    A model for the prediction of the electromagnetic field strength in an urban environment is presented. The ray model, that is based on the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD), includes effects of the non-perfect conductivity of the obstacles and their surface roughness. The urban environment is transformed into a list of standardized obstacles that have various shapes and material properties. The model is capable of accurately predicting the field strength in the urban environment by calculating different types of wave contributions such as reflected, edge and corner diffracted waves, and combinations thereof. Also, antenna weight functions are introduced to simulate the spatial filtering by the mobile antenna. Communication channel parameters such as signal fading, time delay profiles, Doppler shifts and delay-Doppler spectra can be derived from the ray-tracing procedure using post-processing routines. The model has been tested against results from scaled measurements at 50 GHz and proves to be accurate.

  13. Exposure to chemicals in consumer products: The role of the near-field environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, S.A.; Huang, L.;

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products during product use and environmental releases with inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake as typical exposure routes. Nevertheless, chemical exposure modeling has traditionally focused on the far-field with near-field indoor models only......F, the fraction of the chemical in a product that is taken in by humans via each exposure pathway, considering specific compartments of entry into the near-field environment (releases of chemicals encapsulated in articles, indoor air spray, etc.). To est imate PiFs, we combined far-field environmental...... compartments with near -field compartments and exposure pathways in a multimedia matrix of transfer fractions, with columns and rows for each compartment and exposure pathway. The multiple transfers and PiFs (e.g. from chemicals encapsulated in articles to inhalation of indoor air and dermal uptake via skin...

  14. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopfmacher, Oren; Hammock, Mallory L; Appleton, Anthony L; Schwartz, Gregor; Mei, Jianguo; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the susceptibility to degradation in both ambient and aqueous environments has prevented organic electronics from gaining rapid traction for sensing applications. Here we report an organic field-effect transistor sensor that overcomes this barrier using a solution-processable isoindigo-based polymer semiconductor. More importantly, these organic field-effect transistor sensors are stable in both freshwater and seawater environments over extended periods of time. The organic field-effect transistor sensors are further capable of selectively sensing heavy-metal ions in seawater. This discovery has potential for inexpensive, ink-jet printed, and large-scale environmental monitoring devices that can be deployed in areas once thought of as beyond the scope of organic materials.

  15. Acute effects of visits to urban green environments on cardiovascular physiology in women: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanki, Timo; Siponen, Taina; Ojala, Ann; Korpela, Kalevi; Pennanen, Arto; Tiittanen, Pekka; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Kagawa, Takahide; Tyrväinen, Liisa

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between the amount of green space in the living environment and mental and cardiovascular human health. In a search for effect mechanisms, field studies have found short-term visits to green environments to be associated with psychological stress relief. Less evidence is available on the effect of visits on cardiovascular physiology. To evaluate whether visits to urban green environments, in comparison to visits to a built-up environment, lead to beneficial short-term changes in indicators of cardiovascular health. Thirty-six adult female volunteers visited three different types of urban environments: an urban forest, an urban park, and a built-up city centre, in Helsinki, Finland. The visits consisted of 15min of sedentary viewing, and 30min of walking. During the visits, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and electrocardiogram recorded for the determination of indicators of heart rate variability. In addition, levels of respirable ambient particles and environmental noise were monitored. Visits to the green environments were associated with lower blood pressure (viewing period only), lower heart rate, and higher indices of heart rate variability [standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), high frequency power] than visits to the city centre. In the green environments, heart rate decreased and SDNN increased during the visit. Associations between environment and indicators of cardiovascular health weakened slightly after inclusion of particulate air pollution and noise in the models. Visits to urban green environments are associated with beneficial short-term changes in cardiovascular risk factors. This can be explained by psychological stress relief with contribution from reduced air pollution and noise exposure during the visits. Future research should evaluate the amount of exposure to green environments needed for longer-term benefits for cardiovascular health. Copyright

  16. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  17. A Bayesian approach to matched field processing in uncertain ocean environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianlong; PAN Xiang

    2008-01-01

    An approach of Bayesian Matched Field Processing(MFP)was discussed in the uncertain ocean environment.In this approach,uncertainty knowledge is modeled and spatial and temporal data Received by the array are fully used.Therefore,a mechanism for MFP is found.which well combines model-based and data-driven methods of uncertain field processing.By theoretical derivation,simulation analysis and the validation of the experimental array data at sea,we find that(1)the basic components of Bayesian matched field processors are the corresponding sets of Bartlett matched field processor,MVDR(minimum variance distortionless response)matched field processor,etc.;(2)Bayesian MVDR/Bartlett MFP are the weighted sum of the MVDR/Bartlett MFP,where the weighted coefficients are the values of the a posteriori probability;(3)with the uncertain ocean environment,Bayesian MFP can more correctly locate the source than MVDR MFP or Bartlett MFP;(4)Bayesian MFP call better suppress sidelobes of the ambiguity surfaces.

  18. Diagnostic techniques for measurement of aerodynamic noise in free field and reverberant environment of wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sum, H. M. A.; Mawardi, O. K.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques for studying aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms without disturbing the flow in a free field, and in the reverberation environment of the ARC wind tunnel were investigated along with the design and testing of an acoustic antenna with an electronic steering control. The acoustic characteristics of turbojet as a noise source, detection of direct sound from a source in a reverberant background, optical diagnostic methods, and the design characteristics of a high directivity acoustic antenna. Recommendations for further studies are included.

  19. SKB studies of the periglacial environment - report from field studies in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland 2008 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarhaell, Anders

    2011-03-15

    In order to reduce uncertainties in safety assessments of the planned repository of spent nuclear fuel, SKB identified the need to increase the understanding of glacial and periglacial environments. In collaboration with Posiva OY (Finland) and NWMO (Canada), SKB started the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) in order to study the effect of climate cooling and glaciation on repository safety. GAP chose an area northeast of Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, to be studied as a present-day analogue of a future glacial environment in both Scandinavia and Canada. The GAP, planned to run from 2009 until 2012, conducts in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository. In addition, the GAP will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios /SKB 2011/. Issues regarding the periglacial surface environment are not included in GAP's primary focus, which has led SKB to initiate parallel activities in the same area. This new project is named The Greenland Analogue Surface Project (GRASP), and will conduct conceptual and numerical modelling of ecosystems, hydrology and near surface hydrogeology. Choosing the same investigation area for the two projects will facilitate common usage of base-line data and logistics in the field. Information from the GRASP will be applied for a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes in a future periglacial environment in Forsmark. Annual and long-term dynamics of the permafrost are of special interest, as well as the impact of taliks on the transport of matter from the bedrock up towards the surface. This report primarily describes findings from the field season of 2010, but does also report on field work conducted by SKB in 2008. The report provides some background information on the area, describes preliminary results and set-up for

  20. Distance estimation in a dynamic simulated environment: a visual field dependence problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianin, Pascal; Baumberger, Bernard; Flückiger, Michelangelo

    2004-01-01

    Egocentric distance estimation implies that the subject perceives his own location in the environment. In a simulated environment, subjects have to transpose perceptively their own observation point in order to assume their virtual body position. As only visual information specifies this position, their ability to perceive the camera viewpoint should be linked to the field dependence independence factor (FDI). Field-independent subjects underestimated the mid-distance between their own virtual body position and a far-located target; their bisection was located between the projective (2-D) and the simulated (3-D) mid-distance which indicates their difficulty in considering the in-depth simulated spatial references. High correlations between the vertical estimation in the rod-and-frame test and the egocentric-distance-estimation task (with shifted camera) suggest a similar perceptive process in both tasks. This result is confirmed by the better performances of the field-dependent subjects in this condition. In conclusion, we discuss the relationship between FDI and the sense of presence in virtual environments.

  1. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  2. Urban Field Experiences for Undergraduate Liberal Arts Students: Using Compromised Environments as Living Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2015-12-01

    While urban environments may lack the beauty of relatively pristine field sites, they can be used to deliver an effective demonstration of actual environmental damage. Students demanding applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs can be well served in urban settings. Here, we present strategies for integrating degraded urban systems into the undergraduate field experience. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Students spend labs immersed in streams and wetlands heavily impacted by the urban runoff their city generates. Here we share lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency.

  3. Wearable sensors for skin heating and electric field strength in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jay; Klem, Ethan; Cunningham, Garry; Dummer, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Two novel sensor technologies have been developed for the measurement of skin surface temperature and RF field strength in an RF environment. Such a sensor system would be particularly useful in the test and evaluation of directed energy systems. The sensors operate without being affected by the presence of RF fields and with minimal perturbation of the fields, therefore having a minimal effect on a test. The sensors are designed to be wearable and interface with a portable, battery powered electronics pack by optical fibers. The temperature sensor is based on the variation in fluorescence intensity of a sensor layer with temperature. The RF field sensors operate using a passive circuit that converts the RF field into an optical signal that is measured remotely. Both sensors have been demonstrated in high power microwave lab tests. RF sensor operability has been demonstrated for fields in the range of 0.4 - 8.9 W/cm2, while the temperature sensor has been demonstrated over the 30 - 60°C temperature range.

  4. Successful talent development in track and field: considering the role of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, K; Stambulova, N; Roessler, K K

    2010-10-01

    Track and field includes a number of high-intensity disciplines with many demanding practices and represents a motivational challenge for talented athletes aiming to make a successful transition to the senior elite level. Based on a holistic ecological approach, this study presents an analysis of a particular athletic talent development environment, the IFK Växjö track and field club, and examines key factors behind its successful history of creating top-level athletes. The research takes the form of a case study. Data were collected from multiple perspectives (in-depth interviews with administrators, coaches and athletes), from multiple situations (observation of training, competitions and meetings) and from the analysis of documents. The environment was characterized by a high degree of cohesion, by the organization of athletes and coaches into groups and teams, and by the important role given to elite athletes. A strong organizational culture, characterized by values of open co-operation, by a focus on performance process and by a whole-person approach, provided an important basis for the environment's success. The holistic ecological approach encourages practitioners to broaden their focus beyond the individual in their efforts to help talented junior athletes make a successful transition to the elite senior level. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Artificial coordinating field and its application to motion planning of robots in uncertain dynamic environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING; Xingjian; WANG; Yuechao; TAN; Dalong

    2004-01-01

    Artificial coordinating fields (ACF) are proposed to deal with the motion planning problems of mobile robots in uncertain dynamic environments. An ACF around an obstacle can generate two orthogonal force vectors to a robot: one is called the coordinating force vector which is purposively designed in this paper, and the other is the repulsive force vector which is the same as that in a conventional artificial potential field.The ACF is designed according to the updated motion purpose and the relative states of the robot with respect to its local environment, and it also satisfies the robot's dynamic constraints. The direction of the coordinating force can be determined on line according to an optimal evaluation function. The ACF can effectively remove the local minima, and reduce the oscillation of the planned trajectory between multiple obstacles. Only local knowledge of the environments is needed in the ACF-based motion planning. The properties of the ACF such as controllability, adaptability, safety and reachability are studied and discussed in detail in this paper. Theoretical analysis and simulations are given to illustrate our main results.

  6. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity at moderate energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toftum, J.; Langkilde, G.; Fanger, P.O. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy

    2004-09-01

    This article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health, productivity at moderate energy demands. [Author].

  7. Reproductive characteristics of citrus rootstocks grown under greenhouse and field environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of environmental factors on meiosis, meiotic index, pollenviability and in vitro germination of pollen from stock plants of the rootstocks Trifoliate, ‘Swingle’, ‘Troyer’, ‘Fepagro C13’, ‘FepagroC37’ and ‘Fepagro C41’ grown in a protected environment in comparison with stock plants grown in the field. The results showed thatvalues for the characteristics analyzed in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were always higher in the field than in the greenhouse conditions. Inthe field, the average of normal meiotic cells was 60.05%, 44.44% and 60.12%, respectively, and in the greenhouse, 52.75%, 30.95%and 52.82%, respectively. Mean pollen viability in the field was 90.28%, 56.23% and 74.74%, and, in the greenhouse, 64.25%, 41.41%and 66.71%, respectively. As temperature oscillations were higher in the greenhouse than in the field, we suggest that this negativelyaffects the reproductive characteristics analyzed.

  8. Electric field variability and classifications of Titan's magnetoplasma environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Arridge

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan is driven by photochemistry, charged particle precipitation from Saturn's upstream magnetosphere, and presumably by the diffusion of the magnetospheric field into the outer ionosphere, amongst other processes. Ion pickup, controlled by the upstream convection electric field, plays a role in the loss of this atmosphere. The interaction of Titan with Saturn's magnetosphere results in the formation of a flow-induced magnetosphere. The upstream magnetoplasma environment of Titan is a complex and highly variable system and significant quasi-periodic modulations of the plasma in this region of Saturn's magnetosphere have been reported. In this paper we quantitatively investigate the effect of these quasi-periodic modulations on the convection electric field at Titan. We show that the electric field can be significantly perturbed away from the nominal radial orientation inferred from Voyager 1 observations, and demonstrate that upstream categorisation schemes must be used with care when undertaking quantitative studies of Titan's magnetospheric interaction, particularly where assumptions regarding the orientation of the convection electric field are made.

  9. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic fields on people and the environment; Wirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder auf Mensch und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werhahn, R.

    1997-06-01

    The TUeV-Akademie Rheinland, in cooperation with the public health office of the city of Cologne and the federal radiation protection office, on 26 and 27 April 1995 held a meeting on ``Effects of electromagnetic fields in the human being and the environment`` under the auspices of Erhard Jauck, under-secretary at the federal ministry of environment, nature conservancy and reactor safety. But what are electromagnetic fields and what causes them? What is their effect on the human organism? Are adverse effects on health to be feared, or are the protection measures taken on the part of the authorities sufficient? It is around these and similar questions that the ``Forum Electrosmog`` revolved, where experts presented the most recent research findings and reported experience in the sector of electromagnetic fields. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter der Schirmherrschaft von Staatssekretaer Erhard Jauck beim Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit veranstaltete die TUeV-Akademie Rheinland in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Koeln und dem Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz am 26. und 27. April 1995 eine Tagung zum Thema `Wirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder auf Mensch und Umwelt`. Doch was sind elektromagnetische Felder und wie entstehen sie? Welche Wirkungen haben sie auf den menschlichen Organismus? Sind gesundheitsschaedigende Auswirkungen zu befuerchten oder reichen die von offizieller Seite ergriffenen Schutzmassnahmen aus? Diese und aehnliche Fragen standen im Mittelpunkt des `Forums Elektrosmog`, auf dem Experten neueste Forschungsergebnisse und Erfahrungen zum Thema elektromagnetische Felder vorstellten. (orig.)

  11. The dissipation of field emitting carbon nanotubes in an oxygen environment as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Gidcumb, Emily; Zhou, Otto; Sinclair, Robert

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we report the first direct experimental observations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) field emitting in an oxygen environment, using aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy in combination with an electrical biasing specimen holder under low-dose, field-free imaging conditions. Our studies show that while the CNTs remain stable during high vacuum field emission, they experience abrupt decreases in length, also termed "burn-back", when field-emitting in an oxygen environment at around 30 Pa pressure. Furthermore, we perform correlative field-free and aberration-corrected, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging to understand how the structure of the CNTs - particularly the opening of the nanotube caps - is influenced by its gas environment during field emission. This work provides significant insight into the mechanism of carbon nanotube behavior under non-ideal field emission conditions.

  12. Entanglement dynamics of high-dimensional bipartite field states inside the cavities in dissipative environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Zubairy, M Suhail [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bougouffa, Smail [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, PO Box 30002, Madinah (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-02-14

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden death of entanglement in a high-dimensional bipartite system subjected to dissipative environments with an arbitrary initial pure entangled state between two fields in the cavities. We find that in a vacuum reservoir, the presence of the state where one or more than one (two) photons in each cavity are present is a necessary condition for the sudden death of entanglement. Otherwise entanglement remains for infinite time and decays asymptotically with the decay of individual qubits. For pure two-qubit entangled states in a thermal environment, we observe that sudden death of entanglement always occurs. The sudden death time of the entangled states is related to the number of photons in the cavities, the temperature of the reservoir and the initial preparation of the entangled states.

  13. Validation of a novel fiber optic strain gauge in a cryogenic and high magnetic field environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Scott; Lakrimi, M.'hamed; Thomas, Adrian M.; Gao, Yunxin; Blakes, Hugh; Gibbens, Paul; Looi, Mengche

    2010-10-01

    We report on the first operation of an easy to use low cost novel fiber optic strain gauge (FOSG) in cryogenic and magnetic field environments. The FOSGs were mounted on a superconducting coil and resin impregnated. The gauges detected resin shrinkage upon curing. On cooldown, the FOSG monitored the thermal contraction strains of the coil and the electromagnetic strain during energization. The coil was deliberately quenched, in excess of 175 times, and again the FOSG detected the quenches and measured the thermal expansion-induced strains and subsequent re-cooling of the coil after a quench. Agreement with FEA predictions was very good.

  14. Selection of chemical products for oil field applications in arctic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.E.; VanderWende, E. [ARCO, Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Kuparuk Oil Field is located on the North Slope of Alaska, well above the Arctic Circle. Kuparuk uses chemicals for a variety of different oil production needs, including corrosion inhibition, emulsion breaking, defoaming, biofouling control, and scale inhibition. The North Slope`s isolated location demands unique logistical support, but it is otherwise accessible by unpaved road and has extensive air service. The Arctic climate provides difficult challenges and requirements for any chemical selection. This paper describes some criteria and practical experiences related to selecting the proper chemical products to be used in the Arctic environment.

  15. Adjusting thresholds of satellite-based convective initiation interest fields based on the cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Christopher P.; Mecikalski, John R.

    2013-11-01

    The Time-Space Exchangeability (TSE) concept states that similar characteristics of a given property are closely related statistically for objects or features within close proximity. In this exercise, the objects considered are growing cumulus clouds, and the data sets to be considered in a statistical sense are geostationary satellite infrared (IR) fields that help describe cloud growth rates, cloud top heights, and whether cloud tops contain significant amounts of frozen hydrometeors. In this exercise, the TSE concept is applied to alter otherwise static thresholds of IR fields of interest used within a satellite-based convective initiation (CI) nowcasting algorithm. The convective environment in which the clouds develop dictate growth rate and precipitation processes, and cumuli growing within similar mesoscale environments should have similar growth characteristics. Using environmental information provided by regional statistics of the interest fields, the thresholds are examined for adjustment toward improving the accuracy of 0-1 h CI nowcasts. Growing cumulus clouds are observed within a CI algorithm through IR fields for many 1000 s of cumulus cloud objects, from which statistics are generated on mesoscales. Initial results show a reduction in the number of false alarms of ~50%, yet at the cost of eliminating approximately ~20% of the correct CI forecasts. For comparison, static thresholds (i.e., with the same threshold values applied across the entire satellite domain) within the CI algorithm often produce a relatively high probability of detection, with false alarms being a significant problem. In addition to increased algorithm performance, a benefit of using a method like TSE is that a variety of unknown variables that influence cumulus cloud growth can be accounted for without need for explicit near-cloud observations that can be difficult to obtain.

  16. Method for Signal Processing of Electric Field Modulation Sensor in a Conductive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Miseyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In investigating the large waters and deep oceans the most promising are modulation sensors for measuring electric field in a conducting environment in a very low frequency range in devices of autonomous or non-autonomous vertical sounding. When using sensors of this type it is necessary to solve the problem of enhancement and measurement of the modulated signal from the baseband noise.The work analyses hydrodynamic and electromagnetic noise at the input of transducer with "rotating" sensitive axis. By virtue of matching the measuring electrodes with the signal processing circuit a conclusion has been drawn that the proposed basic model of a transducer with "rotating” sensitive axis is the most efficient in terms of enhancement and measurement of modulated signal from the baseband noise. It has been shown that it is undesirable for transducers to have the rotation of electrodes resulting, in this case, in arising noise to be synchronously changed with transducer rotation frequency (modulation frequency. This will complicate the further signal-noise enhancement later in their processing.The paper justifies the choice of demodulation output signal, called synchronous demodulation using a low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency much lower than the carrier frequency to provide an output signal in the range of very low frequency and dc electric fields.The paper offers an original circuit to process the signals taken from the modulation sensor with "rotating" measurement base. This circuit has advantages over the earlier known circuits for measuring electric fields in a conducting (marine environment in the ultralow frequency range of these fields in terms of sensitivity and measuring accuracy of modulation sensors.

  17. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  18. Analysis of exposure to electromagnetic fields in a healthcare environment: simulation and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Martín, Miguel Angel; Del Pozo, Alejandro; Febles, Victor; Hernández, José A; de Aldecoa, José C Fernández; Ramos, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in wireless technologies have lead to an increase in wireless instrumentation present in healthcare centers. This paper presents an analytical method for characterizing electric field (E-field) exposure within these environments. The E-field levels of the different wireless communications systems have been measured in two floors of the Canary University Hospital Consortium (CUHC). The electromagnetic (EM) conditions detected with the experimental measures have been estimated using the software EFC-400-Telecommunications (Narda Safety Test Solutions, Sandwiesenstrasse 7, 72793 Pfullingen, Germany). The experimental and simulated results are represented through 2D contour maps, and have been compared with the recommended safety and exposure thresholds. The maximum value obtained is much lower than the 3 V m(-1) that is established in the International Electrotechnical Commission Standard of Electromedical Devices. Results show a high correlation in terms of E-field cumulative distribution function (CDF) between the experimental and simulation results. In general, the CDFs of each pair of experimental and simulated samples follow a lognormal distribution with the same mean.

  19. Field Learning as a powerful tool of Education for geoscience, environment and disaster prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.; LI, W.

    2015-12-01

    Field learning in through elementary school to University is very important for cultivation of science, environment and disaster prevention literacy. In Japan, we have various natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes based on its geological settings ( Island-arc with subduction zone settings). And, it is a challenge environmental problem such as global warming prevention and energy problem to be solved by a human. For the above problem solving, it said that science education plays very important role. Especially learning with direct experience in the field is not only to get the only knowledge, we believe that greater development of science literacy, environmental literacy and disaster prevention literacy. In this presentation, we propose the new teaching method of field learning not only provided by school but also provided by outside school. We show following four studies that are (1) function of running water and origin of the land (science education and disaster prevention), (2) environmental consciousness of student (environmental education), (3) radiation education (scientific technology and its utilization) and (4) astronomical observation (acquisition of time and space concept). We were led to the preliminary conclusion of above four categories in practice research in and out of school. That is, the teacher is teaching the essence and phenomena of science to focus on science learning of school, in addition to environmental awareness, disaster prevention awareness, use of scientific technology are also important to teach at the same time. To do this, it is to make effective use of field learning. It can be said that the field study is a perfect and power place to perform learning such simultaneity. Because, natural field is originally the place can learn along with the feeling through the five senses of human. It is important especially for the growth stage of the student.

  20. Robust computation of dipole electromagnetic fields in arbitrarily anisotropic, planar-stratified environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-01-01

    We develop a general-purpose formulation, based on two-dimensional spectral integrals, for computing electromagnetic fields produced by arbitrarily oriented dipoles in planar-stratified environments, where each layer may exhibit arbitrary and independent anisotropy in both its (complex) permittivity and permeability tensors. Among the salient features of our formulation are (i) computation of eigenmodes (characteristic plane waves) supported in arbitrarily anisotropic media in a numerically robust fashion, (ii) implementation of an hp-adaptive refinement for the numerical integration to evaluate the radiation and weakly evanescent spectra contributions, and (iii) development of an adaptive extension of an integral convergence acceleration technique to compute the strongly evanescent spectrum contribution. While other semianalytic techniques exist to solve this problem, none have full applicability to media exhibiting arbitrary double anisotropies in each layer, where one must account for the whole range of possible phenomena (e.g., mode coupling at interfaces and nonreciprocal mode propagation). Brute-force numerical methods can tackle this problem but only at a much higher computational cost. The present formulation provides an efficient and robust technique for field computation in arbitrary planar-stratified environments. We demonstrate the formulation for a number of problems related to geophysical exploration.

  1. The challenge of social networking in the field of environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hazel, Peter; Keune, Hans; Randall, Scott; Yang, Aileen; Ludlow, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2012-06-28

    The fields of environment and health are both interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary, and until recently had little engagement in social networking designed to cross disciplinary boundaries. The EU FP6 project HENVINET aimed to establish integrated social network and networking facilities for multiple stakeholders in environment and health. The underlying assumption is that increased social networking across disciplines and sectors will enhance the quality of both problem knowledge and problem solving, by facilitating interactions. Inter- and trans-disciplinary networks are considered useful for this purpose. This does not mean that such networks are easily organized, as openness to such cooperation and exchange is often difficult to ascertain. Different methods may enhance network building. Using a mixed method approach, a diversity of actions were used in order to investigate the main research question: which kind of social networking activities and structures can best support the objective of enhanced inter- and trans-disciplinary cooperation and exchange in the fields of environment and health. HENVINET applied interviews, a role playing session, a personal response system, a stakeholder workshop and a social networking portal as part of the process of building an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The interviews provided support for the specification of requirements for an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The role playing session, the personal response system and the stakeholder workshop were assessed as useful tools in forming such network, by increasing the awareness by different disciplines of other's positions. The social networking portal was particularly useful in delivering knowledge, but the role of the scientist in social networking is not yet clear. The main challenge in the field of environment and health is not so much a lack of scientific problem knowledge, but rather the ability to effectively communicate, share

  2. The Environments of Active Galactic Nuclei within the zCOSMOS Density Field

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Knobel, C; Lilly, S; Bolzonella, M; Lamareille, F; Mainieri, V; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Peng, Y; Hasinger, G; Zamorani, G; Scodeggio, M; Contini, T; Carollo, C M; Jahnke, K; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Brunner, H; Caputi, K; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Elvis, M; Finoguenov, A; Fiore, F; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gilli, R; Griffiths, R; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Vignali, C; Zucca, E; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Fumana, M; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Salvato, M

    2008-01-01

    The impact of environment on AGN activity up to z~1 is assessed by utilizing a mass-selected sample of galaxies from the 10k catalog of the zCOSMOS spectroscopic redshift survey. We identify 147 AGN by their X-ray emission as detected by XMM-Newton from a parent sample of 7234 galaxies. We measure the fraction of galaxies with stellar mass M_*>2.5x10^10 Msun that host an AGN as a function of local overdensity using the 5th, 10th and 20th nearest neighbors that cover a range of physical scales (~1-4 Mpc). Overall, we find that AGNs prefer to reside in environments equivalent to massive galaxies with substantial levels of star formation. Specifically, AGNs with host masses between 0.25-1x10^11 Msun span the full range of environments (i.e., field-to-group) exhibited by galaxies of the same mass and rest-frame color or specific star formation rate. Host galaxies having M_*>10^11 Msun clearly illustrate the association with star formation since they are predominantly bluer than the underlying galaxy population an...

  3. Simulation of three-phase induction motor drives using indirect field oriented control in PSIM environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziri, Hasif; Patakor, Fizatul Aini; Sulaiman, Marizan; Salleh, Zulhisyam

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the simulation of three-phase induction motor drives using Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) in PSIM environment. The asynchronous machine is well known about natural limitations fact of highly nonlinearity and complexity of motor model. In order to resolve these problems, the IFOC is applied to control the instantaneous electrical quantities such as torque and flux component. As FOC is controlling the stator current that represented by a vector, the torque component is aligned with d coordinate while the flux component is aligned with q coordinate. There are five levels of the incremental system are gradually built up to verify and testing the software module in the system. Indeed, all of system build levels are verified and successfully tested in PSIM environment. Moreover, the corresponding system of five build levels are simulated in PSIM environment which is user-friendly for simulation studies in order to explore the performance of speed responses based on IFOC algorithm for three-phase induction motor drives.

  4. Maternal environment alters social interactive traits but not open-field behavior in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2008-10-01

    Although it is recognized that the genetic background governs behavioral phenotypes, environmental factors also play a critical role in the development of various behavioral processes. The maternal environment has a major impact on pups, and the cross-fostering procedure is used to determine the influence of early life experiences. The present study examined the influence of maternal environment on behavioral traits in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. F344/DuCrlCrlj and Wistar (Crlj:WI) pups were fostered from postnatal day 1 as follows: Wistar pups raised by Wistar dams, F344 raised by Wistar, Wistar raised by F344, and F344 raised by F344. At 10 weeks of age, rats were randomly assigned to an open-field test and social interaction test. In the open-field test, irrespective of the rearing conditions, the activity during the first 1 min was significantly lower in F344 rats than in Wistar rats. Latency to the onset of movement showed no difference between groups. In the social interaction test, the recognition performance during the first 1 min in F344 raised by F344 was significantly shorter than that in the other groups. The onset of recognition to a novel social partner in F344 raised by F344 was significantly delayed, and the delay disappeared upon cross-fostering by Wistar dams. These results raise the possibility that the behavioral phenotype of F344 rats results from the interplay of genetic factors and maternal environment during early life, and that F344 rats are a strain with high susceptibility to rearing conditions for the formation of their emotionality.

  5. Extremely environment-hard and low work function transfer-mold field emitter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Masayuki, E-mail: m-nakamoto@rie.shizuoka.ac.jp [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan); Moon, Jonghyun [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Extremely environment-hard and low work function field-emitter arrays (FEAs) were fabricated by a transfer-mold emitter fabrication method to produce highly reliable vacuum nanoelectronic devices able to operate stably at low voltage in highly oxidizing atmospheres. Amorphous carbon (a-C) having a work function of 3.6 eV and sp{sup 3} fraction of 85.6% prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used as the emitter material. The field-emission characteristics of the obtained transfer-mold FEAs strongly depended on their work function and morphology. The environment-hard characteristics of the transfer-mold a-C FEAs were compared with those of the transfer-mold titanium nitride FEAs and nickel FEAs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to confirm the stable chemical states of the FEAs after oxygen radical treatment. The small amount of material oxidized (6.3%) at the surface of the a-C FEAs compared with 11.8% for the TiN-FEAs and 39.0% for Ni FEAs after oxygen radical treatment explained their almost constant work function in oxidizing atmospheres. The emission fluctuation rates of transfer-mold a-C FEAs without resistive layers under in situ radical treatment were as low as ±5.0%, compared with 5–100% for conventional FEAs with resistive layers not under highly oxidizing atmospheres. Therefore, the present environment-hard and low work function transfer-mold a-C FEAs are expected to be useful for reliable vacuum nanoelectronic devices.

  6. A technical platform for environments for ageing--lessons learned from three field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberg, Marco; Büsching, Felix; Steen, Enno-Edzard; Helmer, Axel; Thiel, Andreas; Hein, Andreas; Wolf, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Lower Saxony Research Network "Design of Environments for Ageing" (GAL) studied possible applications of assistive technology for enabling older adults to live longer and independent in their own home. As part of this work, a technical platform was developed as a common technical basis for all assistive systems in the project. This article presents an overview of the architecture and core functionality of the technical platform, which in the first generation was developed for use in a laboratory setting, and in a second generation was extended for use in the project's field studies, i.e. prototype installations in end-users homes. The field studies' primary objective was the evaluation of the assistive technologies, that were developed within the overall project. However, these studies also confirmed that the fundamental concept of the technical platform is valid, and the prototypes continuously worked 24 h a day for several months. However, there were some problems related to lack of infrastructure in the older adults' homes and human factors such as inadvertent placement of objects across sensors' field of view, acceptance problems due to aesthetical reasons or simply communication problems, which show that making complex technologies work for users with little technical experience is well possible, but requires a careful consideration of the complete service chain and related "soft factors".

  7. A compact field fluorometer and its application to dye tracing in karst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Amaël; Rochez, Gaëtan; Van Roy, Jean-Pierre; Dewaide, Lorraine; Hallet, Vincent; De Sadelaer, Geert

    2017-03-01

    Dye tracing is a classic technique in hydrogeology to investigate surface-water or groundwater flow characteristics, and it is useful for many applications including natural or industrial issues. The Fluo-Green field fluorometer has been successfully tested in a karst environment and is specifically suitable for in-cave karst water monitoring. Karst research often uses dyes to obtain information about groundwater flow in unexplored cave passages. The compact device, alternatively named Fluo-G, meets the requirements of cave media: small (10 × 16 × 21 cm), lightweight (0.75 kg without ballast) and simple in conception. It is easy for cavers to set up and handle compared to other sampling methods. The fluorometer records uranine, turbidity and temperature with a user-defined time-step (1 min - 1 day). Very low energy consumption allows 9,000 measurements with six AA batteries. The device was calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in field conditions in Belgian karst systems. Results are in good fit with other sampling methods: in-situ fluorometers and automatic water sampling plus laboratory analysis. Recording high quality data (breakthrough curves) in karst with in-cave monitoring is valuable to improve knowledge of karst systems. Many hydrological and hydrogeological applications can benefit from such a low-cost and compact device, and finding the best compromise between resources and quality data is essential. Several improvements are possible but preliminary field tests are very promising.

  8. A compact field fluorometer and its application to dye tracing in karst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Amaël; Rochez, Gaëtan; Van Roy, Jean-Pierre; Dewaide, Lorraine; Hallet, Vincent; De Sadelaer, Geert

    2017-08-01

    Dye tracing is a classic technique in hydrogeology to investigate surface-water or groundwater flow characteristics, and it is useful for many applications including natural or industrial issues. The Fluo-Green field fluorometer has been successfully tested in a karst environment and is specifically suitable for in-cave karst water monitoring. Karst research often uses dyes to obtain information about groundwater flow in unexplored cave passages. The compact device, alternatively named Fluo-G, meets the requirements of cave media: small (10 × 16 × 21 cm), lightweight (0.75 kg without ballast) and simple in conception. It is easy for cavers to set up and handle compared to other sampling methods. The fluorometer records uranine, turbidity and temperature with a user-defined time-step (1 min - 1 day). Very low energy consumption allows 9,000 measurements with six AA batteries. The device was calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in field conditions in Belgian karst systems. Results are in good fit with other sampling methods: in-situ fluorometers and automatic water sampling plus laboratory analysis. Recording high quality data (breakthrough curves) in karst with in-cave monitoring is valuable to improve knowledge of karst systems. Many hydrological and hydrogeological applications can benefit from such a low-cost and compact device, and finding the best compromise between resources and quality data is essential. Several improvements are possible but preliminary field tests are very promising.

  9. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  10. iVFTs - immersive virtual field trips for interactive learning about Earth's environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.; Buxner, S.

    2014-12-01

    Innovations in immersive interactive technologies are changing the way students explore Earth and its environment. State-of-the-art hardware has given developers the tools needed to capture high-resolution spherical content, 360° panoramic video, giga-pixel imagery, and unique viewpoints via unmanned aerial vehicles as they explore remote and physically challenging regions of our planet. Advanced software enables integration of these data into seamless, dynamic, immersive, interactive, content-rich, and learner-driven virtual field explorations, experienced online via HTML5. These surpass conventional online exercises that use 2-D static imagery and enable the student to engage in these virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures. Grounded in the active learning of exploration, inquiry, and application of knowledge as it is acquired, users interact non-linearly in conjunction with an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The integration of this system allows the educational experience to be adapted to each individual student as they interact within the program. Such explorations, which we term "immersive virtual field trips" (iVFTs), are being integrated into cyber-learning allowing science teachers to take students to scientifically significant but inaccessible environments. Our team and collaborators are producing a diverse suite of freely accessible, iVFTs to teach key concepts in geology, astrobiology, ecology, and anthropology. Topics include Early Life, Biodiversity, Impact craters, Photosynthesis, Geologic Time, Stratigraphy, Tectonics, Volcanism, Surface Processes, The Rise of Oxygen, Origin of Water, Early Civilizations, Early Multicellular Organisms, and Bioarcheology. These diverse topics allow students to experience field sites all over the world, including, Grand Canyon (USA), Flinders Ranges (Australia), Shark Bay (Australia), Rainforests (Panama), Teotihuacan (Mexico), Upheaval Dome (USA), Pilbara (Australia), Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  11. THE ACTIONS PROGRAMMES IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENT AND THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategies to achieve the objectives of sustainable development is to promote a coherent legal system in the European Union. The trends and priorities are mapped and monitored under the Programme of Action on the environment. The environmental Action Programmes are documents underpinning EU environmental policy. The first of these programs was adopted by the European Council in 1972 and was followed by five others. These action programs are actually a combination of medium-term programs, coupled with a strategic approach and is characterized by a vertical and sectoral environmental problems. Since 1973, the European Community action program in the field of environment have become an increasingly important role. The European Community Treaty of 1986 is the legal basis of EU environmental policy. The Article 174 outlines environmental policy objectives and defines its purpose - ensuring a high level of environmental protection taking into account the diversity of situations in different regions of the European Union. The underlying objectives of EU environmental policy, under Article 174, are: • the preserve, protect and improve the environment; • the protection of human health; •the rational use of natural resources; •a promoting measures at international level to treat regional environmental issues. The Article 175 identifies the appropriate legislative procedures to this end and establishes the decisionmaking in environmental policy. The Article 176 allows Member States to adopt and stricter standards if it is deemed important and if it is justified. The "Sustainable development" is mentioned early in Art. 2 of the Treaty of Amsterdam Treaty which underlies the formation of the European Community. The Article 6 promotes sustainable development as a cross-cutting policy of the European Union, highlighting the need to integrate environmental protection requirements into the definition and implementation of EU

  12. Nuclear Radiation Fields on the Mars Surface: Risk Analysis for Long-term Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brooke M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Nealy, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Mars, our nearest planet outward from the sun, has been targeted for several decades as a prospective site for expanded human habitation. Background space radiation exposures on Mars are expected to be orders of magnitude higher than on Earth. Recent risk analysis procedures based on detailed dosimetric techniques applicable to sensitive human organs have been developed along with experimental data regarding cell mutation rates resulting from exposures to a broad range of particle types and energy spectra. In this context, simulated exposure and subsequent risk for humans in residence on Mars are examined. A conceptual habitat structure, CAD-modeled with duly considered inherent shielding properties, has been implemented. Body self-shielding is evaluated using NASA standard computerized male and female models. The background environment is taken to consist not only of exposure from incident cosmic ray ions and their secondaries, but also include the contribution from secondary neutron fields produced in the tenuous atmosphere and the underlying regolith.

  13. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats.

  14. Robust Computation of Dipole Electromagnetic Fields in Arbitrarily-Anisotropic, Planar-Stratified Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Sainath, K; Donderici, B

    2013-01-01

    We develop a general-purpose formulation, based on two-dimensional spectral integrals, for computing electromagnetic fields produced by arbitrarily-oriented dipoles in planar-stratified environments, where each layer may exhibit arbitrary and independent anisotropy in both the (complex) permittivity and permeability. Among the salient features of our formulation are (1) computation of eigenmodes (characteristic plane waves) supported in arbitrarily anisotropic media in a numerically robust fashion, (2) implementation of an hp-adaptive refinement for the numerical integration to evaluate the radiation and weakly-evanescent spectra contributions, and (3) development of an adaptive extension of an integral convergence acceleration technique to compute the strongly-evanescent spectrum contribution. While other semianalytic techniques exist to solve this problem, none have full applicability to media exhibiting arbitrary double anisotropies in each layer, where one must account for the whole range of possible phen...

  15. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  16. Indoor environment and energy consumption optimization using field measurements and building energy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Chasapis, Kleanthis; Gazovic, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Modern buildings are usually equipped with advanced climate conditioning systems to ensure comfort of their occupants. However, analysis of their actual operation usually identifies large potential for improvements with respect to their efficiency. Present study investigated potential...... for improvements in an existing office building – a Town Hall of Viborg, Denmark. Thorough field measurements of indoor environment and occupant satisfaction survey were conducted to identify and describe indoor environmental quality problems. Collected data were also used to calibrate computer simulation model......, which was used for optimization of building’s performance. Proposed optimization scenarios bring 21-37% reduction on heating consumption and thermal comfort improvement by 7-12%. The approach (procedure) can help to optimize building operation and shorten the adjustment period....

  17. Adaptive patterns of phenotypic plasticity in laboratory and field environments in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Vinayak; Schmidt, Paul S

    2017-02-01

    Identifying mechanisms of adaptation to variable environments is essential in developing a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary dynamics in natural populations. Phenotypic plasticity allows for phenotypic change in response to changes in the environment, and as such may play a major role in adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. Here, the plasticity of stress response in Drosophila melanogaster originating from two distinct geographic regions and ecological habitats was examined. Adults were given a short-term, 5-day exposure to combinations of temperature and photoperiod to elicit a plastic response for three fundamental aspects of stress tolerance that vary adaptively with geography. This was replicated both in the laboratory and in outdoor enclosures in the field. In the laboratory, geographic origin was the primary determinant of the stress response. Temperature and the interaction between temperature and photoperiod also significantly affected stress resistance. In the outdoor enclosures, plasticity was distinct among traits and between geographic regions. These results demonstrate that short-term exposure of adults to ecologically relevant environmental cues results in predictable effects on multiple aspects of fitness. These patterns of plasticity vary among traits and are highly distinct between the two examined geographic regions, consistent with patterns of local adaptation to climate and associated environmental parameters.

  18. Adaptation of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms to environment shift of paddy field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiubin; Lu, Yahai

    2012-04-01

    Adaptation of microorganisms to the environment is a central theme in microbial ecology. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to a soil medium shift. We employed two rice field soils collected from Beijing and Hangzhou, China. These soils contained distinct AOB communities dominated by Nitrosomonas in Beijing rice soil and Nitrosospira in Hangzhou rice soil. Three mixtures were generated by mixing equal quantities of Beijing soil and Hangzhou soil (BH), Beijing soil with sterilized Hangzhou soil (BSH), and Hangzhou soil with sterilized Beijing soil (HSB). Pure and mixed soils were permanently flooded, and the surface-layer soil where ammonia oxidation occurred was collected to determine the response of AOB and AOA to the soil medium shift. AOB populations increased during the incubation, and the rates were initially faster in Beijing soil than in Hangzhou soil. Nitrosospira (cluster 3a) and Nitrosomonas (communis cluster) increased with time in correspondence with ammonia oxidation in the Hangzhou and Beijing soils, respectively. The 'BH' mixture exhibited a shift from Nitrosomonas at day 0 to Nitrosospira at days 21 and 60 when ammonia oxidation became most active. In 'HSB' and 'BSH' mixtures, Nitrosospira showed greater stimulation than Nitrosomonas, both with and without N amendment. These results suggest that Nitrosospira spp. were better adapted to soil environment shifts than Nitrosomonas. Analysis of the AOA community revealed that the composition of AOA community was not responsive to the soil environment shifts or to nitrogen amendment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distance dependence of magnetic field effect inside confined environment of reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Basu, Samita

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we emphasize on the distance dependence of the magnetic field effect (MFE) on the donoracceptor (D-A) pair inside the confined environment of AOT/H2O/n-heptane reverse micellar (RMs) system. For this study N, N-dimethyl aniline (DMA) is used as an electron donor while the protonated form of Acr is treated as an electron acceptor. We report of the occurrence of an associated excited state proton transfer with the photoinduced electron transfer between Acr and DMA forming corresponding radical pair (RP) and radical ion pairs (RIP). The fate of these reaction products has been tested in the presence of an external magnetic field (˜0.08T) by varying the size of the RMs. The MFE between Acr and DMA has been compared to the results with the earlier reported interactions between Acr and TEA (Chemical Physics Letters, 2011, 506, 205-210). We accentuate the importance of the localization of the D and A inside the RMs, and the intervening distance between the pair to be the critical component for observing substantial MFE.

  20. Atmospheric electric field measurements in urban environment and the pollutant aerosol weekly dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H. G.; Conceição, R.; Melgão, M.; Nicoll, K.; Mendes, P. B.; Tlemçani, M.; Reis, A. H.; Harrison, R. G.

    2014-11-01

    The weekly dependence of pollutant aerosols in the urban environment of Lisbon (Portugal) is inferred from the records of atmospheric electric field at Portela meteorological station (38°47‧N, 9°08‧W). Measurements were made with a Bendorf electrograph. The data set exists from 1955 to 1990, but due to the contaminating effect of the radioactive fallout during 1960 and 1970s, only the period between 1980 and 1990 is considered here. Using a relative difference method a weekly dependence of the atmospheric electric field is found in these records, which shows an increasing trend between 1980 and 1990. This is consistent with a growth of population in the Lisbon metropolitan area and consequently urban activity, mainly traffic. Complementarily, using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique the presence of a daily and weekly cycle is also found. Moreover, to follow the evolution of theses cycles, in the period considered, a simple representation in a colour surface plot representation of the annual periodograms is presented. Further, a noise analysis of the periodograms is made, which validates the results found. Two datasets were considered: all days in the period, and fair-weather days only.

  1. Stress field evolution law of mining environment reconstructing structure with change of filling height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; WANG Li-li

    2010-01-01

    For improving global stability of mining environment reconstructing structure,the stress field evolution law of the structure with the filling height change of low-grade backfill was studied by ADINA finite element analysis code.Three kinds of filling schemes were designed and calculated,in which the filling heights were 2,4,and 7 m,separately.The results show that there are some rules in the stress field with the increase of the filling height as follows:(1)the maximum value of tension stress of the roof decreases gradually,and stress conditions are improved gradually;(2)the tension stress status in the vertical pillar is transformed into the compressive stress status,and the carrying capacity is improved gradually; however,when the filling height is beyond 2.8 m,the carrying capacity of the vertical pillar grows very slowly,so,there is little significance to continue to fill the low-grade backfill;(3)the bottom pillar suffers the squeezing action from the vertical pillars at first and then the gravity action of the low-grade backfill,and the maximum value of tension stress of the bottom pillar firstly increases and then decreases.Considering the economic factor,security and other factors,the low-grade backfill has the most reasonable height(2.8 m)in the scope of all filling height.

  2. ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ROMANIAN ECONOMIC FIELD AND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: A NECESSITY OR A FAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Condruz-Bacescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to analyse the influence of anglicisms in the Romanian economic field and business environment. English influence in Romanian, very pronounced in the current European languages, is accomplished both by taking massive lexical elements and by assigning meanings of English borrowings to Romanian words. The emergence of English words’ borrowings in our country is due to the current socio-political conditions and widening of economic-financial relations with the Western world, the English words being used by specialists for communication and information in all fields, as well as speakers who tend to practice English as the international language of communication. Major transformations in the international social-economic organization imposed the development of modern disciplines: finance, statistics, management, marketing, business administration, whose languages are subordinated to the economic field. The research is intended to provide examples of English borrowings used in the economic language. English terms, specialized or not, especially in the form of a borrowing, penetrate directly in all economic subdomains, by virtue of an interference trend (manifested internationally concerning terminologies and the relations of specialized vocabulary with the usual one. One way of English terms entering the Romanian language is the specialised texts. The article also points out terminology concerning conditions of delivery and international business transactions. The written or spoken media contributes greatly to the spread of anglicisms that inform the public on various issues and developments in the social, political, cultural and economic aspects, nationally and internationally, having an important role in English vocabulary’ modernization by borrowing from English. The conclusion of the article is that with all the difficulties of adapting to the linguistic system of the Romanian language, the English

  3. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  4. Are current atomistic force fields accurate enough to study proteins in crowded environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Petrov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of macromolecules in the crowded cellular interior influences different thermodynamic and kinetic properties of proteins, including their structural stabilities, intermolecular binding affinities and enzymatic rates. Moreover, various structural biology methods, such as NMR or different spectroscopies, typically involve samples with relatively high protein concentration. Due to large sampling requirements, however, the accuracy of classical molecular dynamics (MD simulations in capturing protein behavior at high concentration still remains largely untested. Here, we use explicit-solvent MD simulations and a total of 6.4 µs of simulated time to study wild-type (folded and oxidatively damaged (unfolded forms of villin headpiece at 6 mM and 9.2 mM protein concentration. We first perform an exhaustive set of simulations with multiple protein molecules in the simulation box using GROMOS 45a3 and 54a7 force fields together with different types of electrostatics treatment and solution ionic strengths. Surprisingly, the two villin headpiece variants exhibit similar aggregation behavior, despite the fact that their estimated aggregation propensities markedly differ. Importantly, regardless of the simulation protocol applied, wild-type villin headpiece consistently aggregates even under conditions at which it is experimentally known to be soluble. We demonstrate that aggregation is accompanied by a large decrease in the total potential energy, with not only hydrophobic, but also polar residues and backbone contributing substantially. The same effect is directly observed for two other major atomistic force fields (AMBER99SB-ILDN and CHARMM22-CMAP as well as indirectly shown for additional two (AMBER94, OPLS-AAL, and is possibly due to a general overestimation of the potential energy of protein-protein interactions at the expense of water-water and water-protein interactions. Overall, our results suggest that current MD force fields

  5. Geology of East Egypt greenstone field in Neoproterozoic isoand arc: Reconstruction of Iron formation sedimentary environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geology of East Egypt greenstone-granit belt which is northern part of Nubia shield was identified neoproterozoic island arc amalgamated sections. There are several iron formation within these greenstone belt. Age data shows this iron formation may be overlaped during 700 Ma Snowball period, how ever, there is no detail report of well preserved ice related evidences. We now started detail field work for identified tectonic reconstruction, original stratigraphy around Iron formation and sedimentary environment during the iron formation sedimentation area. East Egyptian shield was divided three geology, Proterozoic greenstone complex, 700-600 Granitic domes and cover sequence (Hammamet Group). We focus three area to identified sedimentary environment of iron sedimentation. Along the north-south trend of Wadi EL Dabban area are, we named Wadi branch as West site is RW-0 ~ 12, East site is RE-0 ~ 12 from north to south. Northern area is structurally moderate, southern portion is north dipping. Southern portion was intruded by granite and several place contain granitic dikes. Northeast to eastern area are identified younger sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group) which is unconformablly overlay on the other iron formation bearing greenstone belt. Structurally these area is divided four units. Wadi was divided by right-lateral strike-ship fault. The displacement are more than 3 km. Also north dipping faults are identified.East-West trend fault are divided two units. It is divided NE, SE, NW and NS units.SW unit is most well preserved thick sequence of the Iron formation. SW unit is well preserved iron formation sequence within thick volcaniclastics. This unit mostly north dipping around 40-60 degree. Structural repetition in not well understand. Reconstract stratigraphy in this unit is at least 4000m in thickness. 5 member is identified in this sequence. Several thin iron formations are observed with in pillow lava and volcaniclastic sequence. These very thick

  6. Aspects of the competition between atom-field and field-environment couplings under the influence of an external source in dispersive Jaynes-Cummings model

    CERN Document Server

    De Faria, J G P

    2002-01-01

    We give a fully description of the dynamics of an atom dispersively coupled to a field mode in a dissipative environment fed by an external source. The competition between the unitary atom-field (which leads to entanglement) and the dissipative field-environment couplings are investigated in detail. We find the time evolution of the global atom-field system for any initial state and we show that atom-field steady state is at most classically correlated. For an initial state chosen, we evaluate the purity loss of the global system and of atomic and field subsystems as a function of time. We find that the source will tend to compensate for the dissipation of the field intensity and to accelerate decoherence of the global and atomic states. Moreover, we show that the degree of entanglement of the atom-field state, for the particular initial state chosen, can be completely quantified by concurrence. Analytical expression for time evolution of the concurrence is given.

  7. Acute Effects of Exposure to a Traditional Rural Environment on Urban Dwellers: A Crossover Field Study in Terraced Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyoung Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing attention and public preference for rural amenities, little evidence is available on the health benefits of a rural environment. In this study, we identified physiological and psychological benefits of exposure to a rural environment using multiparametric methods. Twelve young male adults participated in a 3-day field experiment (mean ± standard deviation age, 22.3 ± 1.3 years. Sleeping environment, diet program, physical activities, and other factors possibly affecting physiological responses were controlled during experiment period. For all participants, salivary cortisol concentration, heart rate variability, and blood pressure were measured at rural and urban field sites. Self-evaluation questionnaires were administered to analyze the psychological states in two different environments. Volatile compounds in the air were also analyzed to investigate air quality. The data were compared between rural and urban environments. The data showed that exposure to a rural environment reduced stress hormone secretion and sympathetic nervous activity and increased parasympathetic nervous activity. Short-term exposure to a rural environment also improved mood states. Our findings indicate that exposure to a rural environment effectively reduced physiological stress and enhanced psychological well-being.

  8. The close environment of 24 micron galaxies at 0.6field

    CERN Document Server

    Caputi, K I; Bolzonella, M; Lilly, S J; Zamorani, G; Aussel, H; Sanders, D; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Contini, T; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Frayer, D; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; Le Floc'h, E; Leauthaud, A; Maier, C; Mainieri, V; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Pérez-Montero, E; Ricciardelli, E; Salvato, M; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N; Silverman, Joseph; Surace, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Capak, P; Cappi, A; Carollo, C M; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Oesch, P; Porciani, C; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Scaramella, R; Scarlata, C

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the close environment of 203 Spitzer 24 micron-selected sources at 0.61.4. We find that LIRGs at 0.61.4 within 1 Mpc and +/- 500 km/s). The contrast between the activities of the close environments of LIRGs and ULIRGs appears especially enhanced in the COSMOS field density peak at z~0.67, because LIRGs on this peak have a larger fraction of passive neighbours, while ULIRGs have as active close environments as those outside the large-scale structure. The differential environmental activity is related to the differences in the distributions of stellar mass ratios between LIRGs/ULIRGs and their close neighbours, as well as in the general local density fields. At 0.8environment densities of ULIRGs and other similarly massive galaxies, in spite of the differential activities. We discuss a possible scenario to explain these findings.

  9. Effect of local environment in resonant domains of polydisperse plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates on optodynamic processes in pulsed laser fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. E. Ershov; A. P. Gavrilyuk; S. V. Karpov; P. N. Semina

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of pulsed laser radiation with resonance domains of multiparticle colloidal aggregates having an increas-ingly complex local environment are studied via an optodynamic model. The model is applied to the simplest configurations, such as single particles, dimers, and trimers consisting of mono-and polydisperse Ag nanoparticles. We analyze how the local environment and the associated local field enhancement by surrounding particles affect the optodynamic processes in domains, including their photomodification and optical properties.

  10. Field scale simulation of axial hydrokinetic turbines in a natural marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawdhary, Saurabh; Angelidis, Dionysios; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Commercialization of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy technologies is still in the development stage. Existing technologies need fundamental research to enable efficient energy extraction from identified MHK sites. We propose a large eddy simulation (LES)-based framework to investigate the site-specific flow dynamics past MHK arrays in a real-life marine environment. To this end, we use advanced computational tools developed at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) to resolve the vast range of scales present in the flow. The new generation unstructured Cartesian flow solver, coupled with a sharp interface immersed boundary method for 3D incompressible flows, is used to numerically investigate New York City's East River, where an array of MHK turbines is to be deployed as part of the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project. Multi-resolution simulations on locally refined grids are used to simulate the flow in a section of the East River with detailed river bathymetry and inset turbines at field scale. The results are analyzed in terms of the wake recovery, overall wake dynamics, and the power produced by the turbines. These results will help develop design guidelines for the site-specific turbine array configuration. This work was supported by NSF Grant IIP-1318201.

  11. Production technology for actual fields in severe corrosive environments; Fushoku kankyo jitsu fuirudo jisshoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takai, T.; Kaneda, E.; Shoda, S.; Tochikawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    Joc has been developing the hardware and software, in corrosion and protection research project which has tree subthema as follows with collaborators. 1. From 1985 JNOC and JRCM have been developing the Coated TBG. Last year, we selected a gas well for the evaluation in Astrakhan Gas Field in Russia where production gas contains 25 % H{sub 2}S, and started the verification test of the corrosion resistance of the Coated TBG. 2. Two new coating technologies (Plasma sintering and YAG-laser cladding technology) are tried to apply for coating of well equipment. The former technology aims at improving erosion-resistance of drilling tools, for instance, blade stabilizer. The later aims to improve erosion-resistance and corrosion-resistance of production equipment which have complex curved surface or narrow sections. 3. JNOC and Nippon Steel have been developing the Material Selection Program for Tubing Strings. The prototype program has been produced, which includes some new items, galvanic corrosion effect in combination strings, corrosion properties of new material (modified 13Cr), reflection on the environments in actual well, and including the material cost. The influence of fluid velocity, WOR and dew point upon the corrosion-rate will be estimated. (author)

  12. Toxaphene residues from cotton fields in soils and in the coastal environment of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Villeneuve, J P; Cattini, C; Tolosa, I; Bartocci, J; Lacayo-Romero, M; Cruz-Granja, A

    2003-11-01

    Toxaphene (camphechlor) was intensively used in the cotton growing fields of Nicaragua for decades with application rates as high as 31 kg ha(-1) in 1985. Although the use of this compound has recently been discontinued in the country, its intensive use in the past and its long persistence in soil allowed for the build up of large reservoirs of toxaphene in agriculture soils and a wide dispersal of residues in the environment. Measurements of toxaphene in coastal areas on the coast of the Pacific Ocean show that environmental concentrations are particularly high in the district of Chinandega, the traditional cotton growing region. Toxaphene residues measured in soils attained 44 microg g(-1) (dry weight) while concentrations in lagoon sediments attained 6.9 microg g(-1) (dry weight) near the mouth of the rivers flowing across the agricultural region. Measurements in aquatic biota showed concentrations as high as 1.6 microg g(-1) (dry weight) in the soft tissues of clams. The toxaphene reservoir in soils combined with the obvious persistence of this compound in soils and lagoon sediments allows predicting that toxaphene will remain in the coastal ecosystem at relatively high concentrations for many years. Toxic effects in lagoon fauna are likely to be observed especially in benthic species that may recycle this compound from sediments. Consumption of seafood, in particular of clams (Anadara spp.) from the more contaminated areas, may expose the population to unacceptably high intake of toxaphene, 30 microg d(-1) per person, with the diet.

  13. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  14. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun

    2005-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  15. Does constraining field of view prevent extraction of geometric cues for humans during virtual-environment reorientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, Bradley R; Kilday, Zachary A; Bodily, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Environment size has been shown to influence the reliance on local and global geometric cues during reorientation. Unless changes in environment size are produced by manipulating length and width proportionally, changes in environment size are confounded by the amount of the environment that is visible from a single vantage point. Yet, the influence of the amount of the environment that is visible from any single vantage point on the use of local and global geometric cues remains unknown. We manipulated the amount of an environment that was visually available to participants by manipulating field of view (FOV) in a virtual environment orientation task. Two groups of participants were trained in a trapezoid-shaped enclosure to find a location that was uniquely specified by both local and global geometric cues. One group (FOV 50°) had visually less of the environment available to them from any one perspective compared to another group (FOV 100°). Following training, we presented both groups with a control test along with three novel-shaped environments. Testing assessed the use of global geometry in isolation, in alignment with local geometry, or in conflict with local geometry. Results (confirmed by a follow-up experiment) indicated that constraining FOV prevented extraction of geometric properties and relationships of space and resulted in an inability to use either global or local geometric cues for reorientation.

  16. A crawling and drilling microrobot driven by an external oscillating or precessional magnetic field in tubular environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Jang, G. H.; Jeon, S. M.; Nam, J. K.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a crawling and drilling microrobot actuated by an external precessional magnetic field (EPMF) to effectively unclog obstructed blood vessels. Conventional crawling microrobots can only generate crawling motions using an external oscillating magnetic field. The proposed microrobot can generate navigating (crawling) and drilling motions selectively or simultaneously by controlling the EPMFs. We prototyped the proposed microrobot, and conducted several experiments to verify the efficacy of the crawling and drilling ability of the microrobot in a tubular environment.

  17. The effects of learning goals on learning performance of field-dependent and field-independent late adolescents in a hypertext environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Soulier, J Steve

    2009-01-01

    To provide better instruction for the "Digital Native," it is important to understand the information processing behavior of adolescents using Internet programs and the potential impact of that behavior on learning. This study asks whether the use of general or specific learning goals in a hypertext environment affects learning performance. It also examines whether general versus specific learning goals have a different effect on adolescents with different cognitive styles (field dependent/field). One hundred eighty college freshmen were classified as field dependent or field independent and randomly assigned to one of two treatments: "specific preset learning goal" and "general preset learning goal." Participants provided with either specific or general learning goals navigated identical hypertext instructional programs and then completed an achievement test. Results indicate that field-dependent adolescents perform significantly better when they have specific rather than general learning goals. This study suggests that providing appropriate direction or guidance may mitigate the drawbacks of a field-dependent learning style of adolescents in a hypertext environment. Other related issues are also discussed.

  18. Laboratory and Field Evidence for Long-Term Starvation Survival of Microorganisms in Subsurface Terrestrial Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, T.L. [Biology Dept., New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Murphy, E.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Amy, P.S.; Haldeman, D.L. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringelberg, D. B. [Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND NUTRIENT FLUX IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS INDICATES THAT INHABITANT MICROORGANISMS EXPERIENCE SEVERE NUTRIENT LIMITATION. USING LABORATORY AND FIELD METHODS, WE HAVE BEEN TESTING STARVATION SURVIVAL IN SUBSURFACE MICROORGANISMS. IN MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS, WE HAVE SHOWN THAT STRAINS OF TWO COMMONLY ISOLATED SUBSURFACE GENERA, ARTHROBACTER AND PSEUDOMONAS, ARE ABLE TO MAINTAIN VIABILITY IN LOW-NUTRIENT, NATURAL SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FOR OVER ONE YEAR. THESE NON-SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA UNDERGO RAPID INITIAL MINIATURIZATION FOLLOWED BY A STABILIZATION OF CELL SIZE. MEMBRANE LIPID PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID (PLFA) PROFILES OF THE PSEUDOMONAS ARE CONSISTENT WITH ADAPTATION TO NUTRIENT STRESS; ARTHROBACTER APPARENTLY RESPONDS TO NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION WITHOUT ALTERING MEMBRANE PLFA. TO TEST SURVIVABILITY OF MICROORGANISMS OVER A GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE, WE CHARACTERIZED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN A SEQUENCE OF UNSATURATED SEDIMENTS RANGING IN AGE FROM MODEM TO {gt}780,000 years. Sediments were relatively uniform silts in Eastern Washington State. Porewater ages at depth (measured by the chloride mass-balance approach) were as old as 3,600 years. Microbial abundance, biomass, and activities (measured by direct counts, culture counts, total PLFAs, and radiorespirometry) declined with sediment age. The pattern is consistent with laboratory microcosm studies of Microbial survival: rapid short-term change followed by long-term survival of a proportion of cells. Even the oldest sediments evinced a small but viable Microbial community. Microbial survival appeared to be a function of sediment age. Porewater age appeared to influence the markup of surviving communities, as indicated by PLFA profiles. Sites with different Porewater recharge rates and patterns of Pleistocene flooding had different communities.

  19. Partitioning of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in the marine environment: Field samplings vs laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Brownawell, Bruce J. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); González-Mazo, Eduardo [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Lara-Martín, Pablo A., E-mail: pablo.lara@uca.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) constitute the most important group of non-ionic surfactants, used in a wide range of applications such as household cleaners and detergents. Significant amounts of these compounds and their degradation products (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) reach aquatic environments, and are eliminated from the water column by degradation and sorption processes. This work deals with the environmental distribution of AEOs and PEGs in the Long Island Sound Estuary, a setting impacted by sewage discharges from New York City (NYC). The distribution of target compounds in seawater was influenced by tides, consistent with salinity differences, and concentrations in suspended solid samples ranged from 1.5 to 20.5 μg/g. The more hydrophobic AEOs were mostly attached to the particulate matter whereas the more polar PEGs were predominant in the dissolved form. Later, the sorption of these chemicals was characterized in the laboratory. Experimental and environmental sorption coefficients for AEOs and PEGs showed average values from 3607 to 164,994 L/kg and from 74 to 32,862 L/kg, respectively. The sorption data were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model with parameters n and log K{sub F} between 0.8–1.2 and 1.46–4.39 L/kg, respectively. AEO and PEG sorptions on marine sediment were also found to be mostly not affected by changes in salinity. - Highlights: • AEO and PEG levels in estuaries are influenced by tides and suspended solids. • Sediment–water partition coefficients in the lab and in the field are comparable. • Sorption is depending on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. • Sorption data fits Freundlich isotherms, showing K{sub F} values from 29 to 24,892 L/kg. • Sorption is very weakly influenced by salinity changes.

  20. Designing and Using Virtual Field Environments to Enhance and Extend Field Experience in Professional Development Programs in Geology for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granshaw, Frank Douglas

    2011-12-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly used to acquaint geoscience novices with some of the observation, data gathering, and problem solving done in actual field situations by geoscientists. VR environments in a variety of forms are used to prepare students for doing geologic fieldwork, as well as to provide proxies for such experience when venturing into the field is not possible. However, despite increased use of VR for these purposes, there is little research on how students learn using these environments, how using them impacts student field experience, or what constitutes effective design in light of emerging theories of geocognition. To address these questions, I investigated the design and use of a virtual reality environment in a professional development program for middle school Earth science teachers called Teachers on the Leading Edge (TOTLE). This environment, called a virtual field environment, or VFE, was based largely on the field sites visited by the participants during summer workshops. It was designed as a tool to prepare the participants for workshop field activities and as a vehicle for taking elements of that experience back to their students. I assessed how effectively the VFE accomplished these goals using a quasi-experimental, mixed method study that involved a series of teaching experiments, interviews, participant surveys, and focus groups. The principle conclusions reached in this study are as follows: 1. In a field trip orientation experiment involving 35 middle school teachers, 90.6% of the participants stated a preference for VFE enhanced orientation over an alternative orientation that used photographs and static maps to complete a practice field activity. When asked about how the VFE prepared them for their field experience, the participants ranked it as most helpful for visualize the location and geography of the field sites. They ranked it lower for helping them visualize structural and geomorphic patterns, and ranked it as least

  1. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-12-08

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model

  2. Modeling Electrostatic Fields Generated by Internal Charging of Materials in Space Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2011-01-01

    Internal charging is a risk to spacecraft in energetic electron environments. DICTAT, NU MIT computational codes are the most widely used engineering tools for evaluating internal charging of insulator materials exposed to these environments. Engineering tools are designed for rapid evaluation of ESD threats, but there is a need for more physics based models for investigating the science of materials interactions with energetic electron environments. Current tools are limited by the physics included in the models and ease of user implementation .... additional development work is needed to improve models.

  3. Self-Recovery Experiments in Extreme Environments Using a Field Programmable Transistor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Arslan, Tughrul; Duong, Vu; Zebulum, Ricardo; Ferguson, Ian; Guo, Xin

    2004-01-01

    Temperature and radiation tolerant electronics, as well as long life survivability are key capabilities required for future NASA missions. Current approaches to electronics for extreme environments focus on component level robustness and hardening. However, current technology can only ensure very limited lifetime in extreme environments. This paper describes novel experiments that allow adaptive in-situ circuit redesign/reconfiguration during operation in extreme temperature and radiation environments. This technology would complement material/device advancements and increase the mission capability to survive harsh environments. The approach is demonstrated on a mixed-signal programmable chip (FPTA-2), which recovers functionality for temperatures until 28 C and with total radiation dose up to 250kRad.

  4. PARTICULARITIES OF THE COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT IN THE BUSINESS TO BUSINESS FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Claudiu CĂESCU; Ionel DUMITRU

    2011-01-01

    Any product traded on the consumer goods market, in its evolution from raw material to finished products undergoes a series of successive transactions on the business to business market. On the business to business market, the competitive environment and the marketing mix are essentially different than those on the business to consumer market, under the aspect of the instruments used to analyse the marketing environment and the product, price, distribution, and promotion policies. The objecti...

  5. Some Considerations on Developmental Strategies in the Fields of Resources and the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bojie

    2004-01-01

    The overall situation of the world's current disciplinary development in the sciences dealing with resources and the environment features the following characteristics: the guiding thoughts of holism and systematics are leading a growing trend of all-round enhancement while inter-disciplinary integration and crossbreeding between the natural sciences and social sciences or the humanities are emerging in the research of resources and environment problems;

  6. Detection of the change of a magnetic field in the environment by magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D.; Yurchenko, A.; Yurchenko, V.

    2017-08-01

    The experimental results of the magnetic field sensor based on various materials are presented. In article the possibility of use of magnetic fluid as a sensitive element of the magnetic field sensor is considered. The importance of current tasks deals with the search of the perspective magnetic substances susceptible to weak magnetic field. The operation principle of the sensor is based on change in the capacity of the condenser with magnetic active medium caused by the magnetic field. The complex organization of magnetic particles into chain aggregates was considered. The principle of measuring the condenser capacity is described. The experimental results are promising for future application.

  7. Theoretical Formula and Simulation of Cyclotron Magnet Shimming in High Field Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Dong-sheng; YANG; Jian-jun; LI; Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the computation of cyclotron magnet shimming,trim-rod and magnetic channel,one common process is to calculate the variation of magnet field caused by a small iron piece.Under the circumstance of superconducting cyclotron,high field approximate can be used and we can derive

  8. Effect of electric field, stress and environment on delayed fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yi; SU; Yanjing; CHU; Wuyang; QIAO; Lijie

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on fracture of a PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramic in silicone oil has been investigated using a single edge notched specimen. The results show that the fracture toughness and the threshold stress intensity factor of delayed fracture in silicone oil, i.e. stress corrosion cracking, decrease linearly with the increasing applied electric field, either positive or negative. For the PZT-5 ferroelectric ceramics, delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained positive or negative field can occur, and the threshold field for delayed fracture under sustained positive or negative field decreases linearly with applied stress intensity factor. The combined effect of electric and mechanical loading on delayed fracture in silicone oil includes fieldenhancing delayed fracture under sustained load and stress-enhancing delayed fracture in silicone oil under sustained field.

  9. Prototyping an in-field collaborative environment for landscape decision support by linking GIS with a game engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Stock, Christian; Bishop, Ian D.; O'Connor, Alice N.

    2006-10-01

    With public environmental awareness increasing, there are growing prospects for access to real-time data anytime and everywhere for decision support involving multiple users not only office-based but also remotely. This paper describes the development of a prototype system implementing an in-field collaborative visualisation environment in order to facilitate decision support in landscape planning and environmental management. Our initial development is based on live linking GIS with a fully immersive collaborative virtual decision environment which uses the commercial low-cost Torque Game Engine (TGE, www.garagegames.com). Game engines provide efficient image rendering, a built-in editor for interactive processing of terrain surface features and, in particular, sophisticated and robust client/server networked functionality for multi-user access. Anticipated research activities include the development of an interfacing Augmented Reality (AR) extension to the system, terrain feature library establishment and the deployment of a pilot project including in field mobile observation.

  10. Calcium localization in lettuce leaves with and without tipburn: comparison of controlled-environment and field-grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An electron microprobe was used to determine tissue concentrations of Ca across 20-mm-long leaves of 'Green Lakes' crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with and without tipburn injury. Concentrations within the fifth and 14th leaves, counted from the cotyledons, from plants grown under controlled-environment conditions were compared to concentrations within similar leaves obtained from plants grown under field conditions. Only the 14th leaf from plants grown under controlled-environment conditions developed tipburn. Injured areas on these leaves had Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 to 0.3 mg g-1 dry weight. Uninjured areas of tipburned leaves contained from 0.4 to 0.5 mg g-1 dry weight. Concentrations across the uninjured 14th leaf from field-grown plants averaged 1.0 mg g-1 dry weight. Amounts across the uninjured fifth leaves from both environments averaged 1.6 mg g-1 dry weight. In contrast, Mg concentrations were higher in injured leaves than in uninjured leaves and thus were negatively correlated with Ca concentrations. Magnesium concentrations averaged 4.7 mg g-1 dry weight in injured leaves compared with 3.4 mg g-1 dry weight in uninjured leaves from both environments. Magnesium concentrations were uniform across the leaf. Potassium concentrations were highest at the leaf apex and decreased toward the base and also decreased from the midrib to the margin. Potassium averaged 51 mg g-1 dry weight in injured and uninjured leaves from both environments. No significant differences in K concentration were present between injured and uninjured leaves. This study documented that deficient concentrations of Ca were present in areas of leaf tissue developing tipburn symptoms and that concentrations were significantly higher in similar areas of other leaves that had no symptoms. This study also documented that Ca concentrations were significantly lower in enclosed leaves that exhibited tipburn symptoms than in exposed leaves that did not exhibit tipburn. Also, the

  11. The environment of radio sources in the VLA-COSMOS Survey field

    CERN Document Server

    Malavasi, Nicola; Ciliegi, Paolo; Ilbert, Olivier; Pozzetti, Lucia; Zucca, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the correlation among environmental density and radio AGN presence up to $z = 2$. Using data from the photometric COSMOS survey and its radio 1.4 GHz follow-up (VLA-COSMOS), a sample of radio AGNs has been defined. The environment was studied using the richness distributions inside a parallelepiped with base side of 1 Mpc and height proportional to the photometric redshift precision. Radio AGNs are found to be always located in environments significantly richer than those around galaxies with no radio emission. Moreover, a distinction based on radio AGN power shows that the significance of the environmental effect is only maintained for low-power radio sources. The results of this work show that denser environments play a significant role in enhancing the probability that a galaxy hosts a radio AGN and, in particular, low-power ones.

  12. Field Phenotyping and Long-Term Platforms to Characterise How Crop Genotypes Interact with Soil Processes and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. George

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agronomic practices and environmental change necessitate a revolution in agricultural production to ensure food security. A new generation of crops that yield more with fewer inputs and are adapted to more variable environments is needed. However, major changes in breeding programmes may be required to achieve this goal. By using the genetic variation in crop yield in specific target environments that vary in soil type, soil management, nutrient inputs and environmental stresses, robust traits suited to specific conditions can be identified. It is here that long-term experimental platforms and field phenotyping have an important role to play. In this review, we will provide information about some of the field-based platforms available and the cutting edge phenotyping systems at our disposal. We will also identify gaps in our field phenotyping resources that should be filled. We will go on to review the challenges in producing crop ideotypes for the dominant management systems for which we need sustainable solutions, and we discuss the potential impact of three-way interactions between genetics, environment and management. Finally, we will discuss the role that modelling can play in allowing us to fast-track some of these processes to allow us to make rapid gains in agricultural sustainability.

  13. Thermocapillary motion of bubbles inside drops. [in free fall environment with axisymmetric surface temperature field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, N.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    A quasi-static analysis is performed for the thermocapillary motion of a bubble located inside a drop in free fall, with arbitrary axisymmetric temperature fields prescribed on the drop surface. It is shown that in the case of an axially symmetric temperature field, the bubble moves along the axis of symmetry toward the nearest warm pole. The bubble velocity as well as the velocity and temperature fields in the drop can be predicted on the basis of the quasi-static assumptions. An approximation is presented which adequately describes bubble migration velocities in the case where the ratio of the bubble radius to the drop radius is relatively small.

  14. EHWPACK: An evolvable hardware environment using the SPICE simulator and the Field Programmable Transistor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, D.; Klimeck, G.; Zebulum, R.; Stoica, A.; Jin, Y.; Lazaro, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the EHW development system, a tool that performs the evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits, using the SPICE simulator and the Field Programmable Transistor Array hardware (FPTA) developed at JPL.

  15. Augmented Reality in a Simulated Tower Environment: Effect of Field of View on Aircraft Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Reisman, Ronald J.; Schmidt-Ott, Joelle R.; Gips, Jonathan; Krozel, Jimmy; Cohen, Malcolm (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical see-through, augmented reality display was used to study subjects' ability to detect aircraft maneuvering and landing at the Dallas Ft. Worth International airport in an ATC Tower simulation. Subjects monitored the traffic patterns as if from the airport's western control tower. Three binocular fields of view (14 deg, 28 deg and 47 deg) were studied in an independent groups' design to measure the degradation in detection performance associated with the visual field restrictions. In a second experiment the 14 deg and 28 deg fields were presented either with 46% binocular overlap or 100% overlap for separate groups. The near asymptotic results of the first experiment suggest that binocular fields of view much greater than 47% are unlikely to dramatically improve performance; and those of the second experiment suggest that partial binocular overlap is feasible for augmented reality displays such as may be used for ATC tower applications.

  16. Adiabatic hydrodynamic modes in dielectric environment in a random electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Stupka, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric is considered in the electric field that has equal to zero the first moment and different from zero the second moment of strength in an equilibrium. The equations of ideal hydrodynamics are obtained in such a field for the case of the neglect of dissipative effects. A new variable - the second moment of electric field strength is included in the Euler equation. A temporal equation for this variable is obtained on the basis of Maxwell equations in the hydrodynamic approximation. Adiabatic one-dimensional waves of small amplitude are studied in this system. Proceeding from the theoretical estimation of the intracrystalline field in an ionic crystal the good consent of the obtained numerical values of transversal velocity of this wave with transversal velocity of sound for isotropic crystals of alkali halides is found.

  17. Laying the Groundwork for Future Alma Direct Magnetic Field Detection in Protostellar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Erin Guilfoil; Harris, Robert J.; Looney, Leslie; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Crutcher, Richard; Li, Zhi-Yun; Tobin, John; Stephens, Ian; Novak, Giles; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic fields are a crucial element of the star formation process on many scales, from controlling jet and outflow formation on large scales, determining the structure of any protostellar disk, to modulating the accretion rate onto the central protostar. Both the three-dimensional structure and the field strength are important in determining the outcome of star formation. Unfortunately, the method most commonly used to infer magnetic field structure - linearly polarized dust continuum emission - is limited to the plane-of-sky field structure, and gives no reliable information on field strength. Alternatively, observations of the Zeeman effect in transitions of paramagnetic molecules, especially CN, are one of the best prospects for making such measurements due to the molecules' high Zeeman coefficients. In particular, these observations have been used in determining field strengths on cloud-size scales. However, CN and other paramagnetic molecules have, to our knowledge, never been observed in the envelopes/disks of Class 0 protostars at ˜arcsecond resolution, due both to sensitivity and resolution limits of previous generations of millimeter-wave interferometers. Because field strengths near the protostar are so important to understand the star formation process, we have conducted a snapshot ALMA Band 3 (3 mm / 113 GHz) survey of the 10 brightest Class 0 protostars in the Perseus, Taurus, and ρ Ophiuchus molecular clouds in the regions surrounding five transitions of four paramagnetic species, including CN, SO, C_2S, and C_4H. We present this survey - the principle goal of which was to assess the brightness of the lines within ˜ 1000 AU of the protostar - and assess the likelihood of using ALMA observations of the Zeeman effect to determine protostellar magnetic field strength.

  18. The Environments of Active Galactic Nuclei within the zCOSMOS Density Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, J. D.; Kovac, K.; Knobel, C.; Lilly, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Lamareille, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Peng, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Jahnke, K.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Brunner, H.; Caputi, K.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Elvis, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Montero, E. Perez; Ricciardelli, E.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Vignali, C.; Zucca, E.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Salvato, M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of environment on active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity up to z ~ 1 is assessed by utilizing a mass-selected sample of galaxies from the 10k catalog of the zCOSMOS spectroscopic redshift survey. We identify 147 AGN by their X-ray emission as detected by XMM-Newton from a parent sample of

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the electric field close to the body in realistic environments for application in personal radiofrequency dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, S; McKenzie, R; Cosic, I

    2011-11-01

    Personal dosemeters can play an important role in epidemiological studies and in radiofrequency safety programmes. In this study, a Monte Carlo approach is used in conjunction with the finite difference time domain method to obtain distributions of the electric field strength close to a human body model in simulated realistic environments. The field is a proxy for the response of an ideal body-worn electric field dosemeter. A set of eight environments were modelled based on the statistics of Rayleigh, Rice and log-normal fading to simulate outdoor and indoor multipath exposures at 450, 900 and 2100 MHz. Results indicate that a dosemeter mounted randomly within 10-50 mm of the adult or child body model (torso region) will on average underestimate the spatially averaged value of the incident electric field strength by a factor of 0.52 to 0.74 over the frequencies of 450, 900 and 2100 MHz. The uncertainty in results, assessed at the 95 % confidence level (between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) was largest at 2100 MHz and smallest at 450 MHz.

  20. Waste Burial in Arid Environments--Application of Information From a Field Laboratory in the Mojave Desert, Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, B.J.; Prudic, David E.; Nichols, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the potentially harmful effect of improper waste disposal on water resources in the arid West, comprehensive laboratory and field studies are critical to identifying likely contaminant-release pathways and the potential for waste migration at arid sites. However, the quandary for those charged with assessment of the suitability of potential disposal sites is that site characterization and evaluation must be accomplished in a relatively short period of time-only 1 to 2 years. Data collection at the Mojave Desert field laboratory provides the needed long-term benchmark against which short-term data from proposed arid sites can be compared. The data base and monitoring facilities developed at the field laboratory also provide an excellent foundation upon which to build collaborative efforts with universities and local, State, and other Federal agencies to further the study and understanding of hydrologic processes in an arid environment.

  1. Density and Distribution of Citemene Fields in a Miombo Woodland Environment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague; Oyama

    1999-09-01

    / The Bemba people of northern Zambia practice citemene shifting cultivation. We utilized Landsat satellite images from 1984 and 1992 to map the distribution of citemene fields in those two years and to assess changes in the spatial sustainability of citemene cultivation in a miombo woodland study area. The citemene fields were concentrated within about 5-6 km of roads. Between 1984 and 1992, there was a decrease in the number of fields, and an increase in the average distance from the road. These changes may have been due to the introduction of semipermanent maize farming in the intervening years. The estimated cycle times for woodland utilization may have been long enough to maintain sustainability under traditional citemene cultivation practices. However, cycle times may be too short to maintain sustainability within the woodlands along roads.KEY WORDS: Shifting agriculture; GIS; Sustainability; Citemene; Miombo; Zambiahttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p273.html

  2. The revised electromagnetic fields directive and worker exposure in environments with high magnetic flux densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Rianne

    2014-06-01

    Some of the strongest electromagnetic fields (EMF) are found in the workplace. A European Directive sets limits to workers' exposure to EMF. This review summarizes its origin and contents and compares magnetic field exposure levels in high-risk workplaces with the limits set in the revised Directive. Pubmed, Scopus, grey literature databases, and websites of organizations involved in occupational exposure measurements were searched. The focus was on EMF with frequencies up to 10 MHz, which can cause stimulation of the nervous system. Selected studies had to provide individual maximum exposure levels at the workplace, either in terms of the external magnetic field strength or flux density or as induced electric field strength or current density. Indicative action levels and the corresponding exposure limit values for magnetic fields in the revised European Directive will be higher than those in the previous version. Nevertheless, magnetic flux densities in excess of the action levels for peripheral nerve stimulation are reported for workers involved in welding, induction heating, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The corresponding health effects exposure limit values for the electric fields in the worker's body can be exceeded for welding and MRI, but calculations for induction heating and transcranial magnetic stimulation are lacking. Since the revised European Directive conditionally exempts MRI-related activities from the exposure limits, measures to reduce exposure may be necessary for welding, induction heating, and transcranial nerve stimulation. Since such measures can be complicated, there is a clear need for exposure databases for different workplace scenarios with significant EMF exposure and guidance on good practices.

  3. A Field Programmable Gate Array Based Software Defined Radio Design for the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Signal Analysis, Software Defined Radio (SDR), System Generator , Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Xilinx, Virtex...5 B. COMPUTING TOOLS ...................................................................................7 1. System Generator .................................................................................7... System Generator Configuration Options [After 16]........................18 Figure 8. FFTv1.0, Triple memory configuration [From 22

  4. Using the Urban Environment to Engage Youths in Urban Ecology Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Lord, Charles; Strauss, Eric; Rosca, Camelia; Langford, Heather; Chavez, Dawn; Deni, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Recent science education reform proponents explicitly put forward the idea that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. To address this need, the authors have developed and implemented a field-based urban ecology science program to engage traditionally…

  5. Open Science Grid (OSG) Ticket Synchronization: Keeping Your Home Field Advantage In A Distributed Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kyle; Hayashi, Soichi; Teige, Scott; Quick, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Large distributed computing collaborations, such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), face many issues when it comes to providing a working grid environment for their users. One of these is exchanging tickets between various ticketing systems in use by grid collaborations. Ticket systems such as Footprints, RT, Remedy, and ServiceNow all have different schema that must be addressed in order to provide a reliable exchange of information between support entities and users in different grid environments. To combat this problem, OSG Operations has created a ticket synchronization interface called GOC-TX that relies on web services instead of error-prone email parsing methods of the past. Synchronizing tickets between different ticketing systems allows any user or support entity to work on a ticket in their home environment, thus providing a familiar and comfortable place to provide updates without having to learn another ticketing system. The interface is built in a way that it is generic enough that it can be customized for nearly any ticketing system with a web-service interface with only minor changes. This allows us to be flexible and rapidly bring new ticket synchronization online. Synchronization can be triggered by different methods including mail, web services interface, and active messaging. GOC-TX currently interfaces with Global Grid User Support (GGUS) for WLCG, Remedy at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), and Request Tracker (RT) at the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT). Work is progressing on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) ServiceNow synchronization. This paper will explain the problems faced by OSG and how they led OSG to create and implement this ticket synchronization system along with the technical details that allow synchronization to be preformed at a production level.

  6. Simulation of self-generated magnetic fields in an inertial fusion hohlraum environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, W. A.; Koning, J. M.; Strozzi, D. J.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Jones, O. S.; Rosen, M. D.

    2017-05-01

    We present radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of self-generated magnetic field in a hohlraum, which show an increased temperature in large regions of the underdense fill. Non-parallel gradients in electron density and temperature in a laser-heated plasma give rise to a self-generated field by the “Biermann battery” mechanism. Here, HYDRA simulations of three hohlraum designs on the National Ignition Facility are reported, which use a partial magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description that includes the self-generated source term, resistive dissipation, and advection of the field due to both the plasma flow and the Nernst term. Anisotropic electron heat conduction parallel and perpendicular to the field is included, but not the Righi-Leduc heat flux. The field strength is too small to compete significantly with plasma pressure, but affects plasma conditions by reducing electron heat conduction perpendicular to the field. Significant reductions in heat flux can occur, especially for high Z plasma, at modest values of the Hall parameter, Ωeτei≲1Ωeτei≲1, where Ωe=eB/mecΩe=eB/mec and τei is the electron-ion collision time. The inclusion of MHD in the simulations leads to 1 keV hotter electron temperatures in the laser entrance hole and high-Z wall blowoff, which reduces inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption of the laser beam. This improves propagation of the inner beams pointed at the hohlraum equator, resulting in a symmetry shift of the resulting capsule implosion towards a more prolate shape. The time of peak x-ray production in the capsule shifts later by only 70 ps (within experimental uncertainty), but a decomposition of the hotspot shape into Legendre moments indicates a shift of P2/P0P2/P0 by ~20%. This indicates that MHD cannot explain why simulated x-ray drive exceeds measured levels, but may be partially responsible for failures to correctly model the symmetry.

  7. EMERGE: Engineered Materials that Create Environments for ReGeneration via Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    developing a collagen material with tailored nanotopography with ability to deliver endogenous wound electric field-enhancing molecules that will...encourage and accelerate the wound healing process . We monitor wound electrophysiology as a function of time using a vibrating probe. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...developing  a  collagen  material   with  tailored  nanotopography  possessing  the  ability   to  deliver   endogenous  wound

  8. Reaction of Oilseed Rape Cultivars to Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Field Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jun-ming; HAN Fen-xia; Malgorzata Jedryczka

    2005-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, as an ubiquitous phytopathogenic Ascomycete fungus capable of infecting a wide range of plants, has increased in importance for oilseed rape production worldwide in recent years. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of two measurements of disease rating in predicting the field reaction of cultivars to sclerotinia stem rot. One hundred and ten cultivars or lines of oilseed rape were repeatedly evaluated the disease severity index (DSI) and lesion length for their resistance to nine isolates of S. sclerotiorum in two field stations.There were greatly significant differences between two stations, among isolates, among population of cultivars for the disease severity index and lesion length, and also significant station×isolate interaction for lesion length and population×isolate interactions for DSI and lesion length, but interactions of station×isolate for DSI were not significant.Cultivars such as Pomorzanin and Lisek consistently had the lowest disease severity ratings in the field tests. However,most of cultivars were susceptible to sclerotinia stem rot in the field test. A positive correlation between the mean DSI and lesion length was found for both isolates (Sc23 and B1). The correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.83 at various plots, with nine of the twelve correlations significant. The correlations for disease caused by different fungal isolates were statistically significant difference. These correlations ranged from -0.44 to 0.90, with nine of the thirty-two correlations significant. It indicated that resistance to some isolates was significantly correlated and selection of some varieties for resistance to one isolate appeared to improve resistance to other isolates.

  9. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  10. How Do Modern Extreme Hydrothermal Environments Inform the Identification of Martian Habitability? The Case of the El Tatio Geyser Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success in knowledge gained by the Mars missions in the last two decades, the search for traces of life on Mars is still in progress. The reconstruction of (paleo- environments on Mars have seen a dramatic increase, in particular with regard to the potentially habitable conditions, and it is now possible to recognize a significant role to subaerial hydrothermal processes. For this reason, and because the conditions of the primordial Earth—when these extreme environments had to be common—probably resembled Mars during its most suitable time to host life, research on terrestrial extreme hydrothermal habitats may assist in understanding how to recognize life on Mars. A number of geological and environmental reasons, and logistics opportunities, make the geothermal field of El Tatio, in the Chilean Andes an ideal location to study.

  11. Effect of visual field locus and oscillation frequencies on posture control in an ecological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piponnier, Jean-Claude; Hanssens, Jean-Marie; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2009-01-14

    To examine the respective roles of central and peripheral vision in the control of posture, body sway amplitude (BSA) and postural perturbations (given by velocity root mean square or vRMS) were calculated in a group of 19 healthy young adults. The stimulus was a 3D tunnel, either static or moving sinusoidally in the anterior-posterior direction. There were nine visual field conditions: four central conditions (4, 7, 15, and 30 degrees); four peripheral conditions (central occlusions of 4, 7, 15, and 30 degrees); and a full visual field condition (FF). The virtual tunnel respected all the aspects of a real physical tunnel (i.e., stereoscopy and size increase with proximity). The results show that, under static conditions, central and peripheral visual fields appear to have equal importance for the control of stance. In the presence of an optic flow, peripheral vision plays a crucial role in the control of stance, since it is responsible for a compensatory sway, whereas central vision has an accessory role that seems to be related to spatial orientation.

  12. Induced current density in the foetus of pregnant workers in high magnetic field environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, C; Wood, A W; Dovan, T

    2004-12-01

    There are moves to limit by legislation the amount of electric and magnetic fields that workers and the general public are exposed to. In work locations near wiring, cables & equipment carrying high electric currents, there are situations in which the proposed magnetic field limits could be exceeded. Since the limits for the general public are more conservative than those for workers and since the foetus or a pregnant worker should be afforded the status of a member of the general public, it is important to assess a worst-case scenario for the purposes of a general code of practice. Three different magnetic field exposures are modelled, which include the worst case - the body of a pregnant woman at a smallest distance of 30 cm to the conductor. All computations were done by using Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), which is based on the Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) from ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland. In a worst-case scenario the proposed basic restrictions would be exceeded slightly in both maternal and foetal tissue. With appropriate pre-placement assessment, these over-exposures can be avoided.

  13. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  14. Ion concentrations in seagrass: A comparison of results from field and controlled-environment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote-Moreno, Aurora; Cambridge, Marion; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2016-11-01

    Osmoregulation is essential for the survival of seagrasses in marine and hypersaline environments. The aim of this study was to examine ion concentrations of four seagrass species (Posidonia australis, P. sinuosa, Amphibolis antarctica and A. griffithii) after exposure to salinity changes. Plant fragments were placed in a series of aquaria at marine salinity (35) and, after one week of acclimation, exposed for 7 days to salinities between 20 and 70. Cl-, Na+ and total ion concentration increased with salinity in leaf tissue of the four seagrasses species. These results were compared with those of P. australis and A. antarctica samples collected at three locations at Shark Bay, Western Australia where higher salinities occurred, ranging from 46 to 51. Concentrations of K+ and Ca+2 were higher in seagrass tissues from Shark Bay than in those in aquarium trials. Cl-, Na+ and total ions in P. australis and A. antarctica from Shark Bay were lowest at the highest salinity location. The K+/Na+ ratio in the aquarium trials (under ambient conditions) was in the following order: A. antarctica = A. griffithii > P. australis > P. sinuosa and Ca+2/Na+ ratio was: A. antarctica = A. griffithii > P. sinuosa > P. australis. This species order indicates a physiological capacity to tolerate variation in salinity. Furthermore, these ratios were higher in the locality with highest salinity in Shark Bay, indicating acclimation and adaptation of ion concentrations to the salinity regime in the environment.

  15. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  16. The Role of Learners' Field Dependence and Gender on the Effects of Conversational versus Non-Conversational Narrations in Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liew Tze; Su-Mae, Tan; Wi, Tay Nuo

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to ascertain if the effectiveness of conversational narrations and non-conversational narrations in multimedia environment will be mediated by learners' field dependence and gender. 53 participants (25 field dependent and 28 field independent subjects) were randomly divided to interact with either one of…

  17. Application of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-min ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the stability, safety and efficacy of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment. Methods The acute renal failure model was established in 4 dogs by bilateral nephrectomy, which was thereafter treated with the mobile blood purification system. The evaluation of functional index of the mobile blood purification system was performed after a short-time (2 hours and conventional (4 hours dialysis treatment. Results The mobile blood purification system ran stably in the field environment at a blood flow of 150-180ml/min, a dialysate velocity of 2000ml/h, a replacement fluid velocity of 2000ml/h, and ultrafiltration rate of 100-200ml/h. All the functions of alarming system worked well, including static upper limit alarm of ultrafiltration pressure (>100 mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory arterial pressure (>400mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory venous pressure (>400mmHg, bubble alarm of vascular access, bubble alarm during the infusion of solutions, pressure alarm at the substitution pump segment and blood leaking alarm. The vital signs of the 4 dogs with acute renal failure kept stable during the treatment. After the treatment, a remarkable decrease was seen in the levels of serum urea nitrogen, creatinine and serum potassium (P0.05. Conclusions The mobile blood purification system runs normally even in a field environment. It is a flexible and portable device with a great performance in safety and stability in the treatment of acute renal failure. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.15

  18. The design of the inelastic neutron scattering mode for the Extreme Environment Diffractometer with the 26 T High Field Magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkowiak, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.bartkowiak@helmholtz-berlin.de; Stüßer, Norbert; Prokhnenko, Oleksandr

    2015-10-11

    The Extreme Environment Diffractometer is a neutron time-of-flight instrument, designed to work with a constant-field hybrid magnet capable of reaching fields over 26 T, unprecedented in neutron science; however, the presence of the magnet imposes both spatial and technical limitations on the surrounding instrument components. In addition to the existing diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering modes, the instrument will operate also in an inelastic scattering mode, as a direct time-of-flight spectrometer. In this paper we present the Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations, the results of which illustrate the performance of the instrument in the inelastic-scattering mode. We describe the focussing neutron guide and the chopper system of the existing instrument and the planned design for the instrument upgrade. The neutron flux, neutron spatial distribution, divergence distribution and energy resolution are calculated for standard instrument configurations.

  19. Using Teleducation and Field Experiences to further the Understanding of Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T. A.; Shugart, H.

    2007-05-01

    This project is an outreach and education program with a partner in the K-12 schools at Accomack County on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. It endeavors to build a community knowledgeable of the importance the ocean plays daily in our lives, and our own impact on the ocean. It is an program built in stages that: 1) Establish high speed live interactive classes (teleducation) linkages with the Eastern Shore High Schools with earth science teachers enabling them to remotely participate in University of Virginia classes in Oceanography (designed on a faculty development basis or acquire NSTA certification in Earth Science Education, as well as participation by seniors in the Accomack Schools; 2) Establish field experiences for teachers and selected students that involve travel to both the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR/LTER) Center, UVA to observe first- hand the science programs at those locations and participate in cutting edge coastal marine research efforts. These experiences improve student understanding of the ocean-atmosphere biogeophysical system and encourage students to explore the sciences as a field of study and possible vocation. Advanced high school students and science teachers from Accomack County Public Schools participated in an experience involving field and laboratory methods employed in a NSF-sponsored study of the coupled natural-human dynamics on the Eastern Shore of Virginia over the past 500 years (NSF-Biocomplexity). Students and teachers worked with researchers of the VCR facility in Oyster, VA, collected sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay tributaries, and traveled to the Organic Geochemistry Laboratory at UVA, in Charlottesville, VA to prepare and analyze samples for isotopic and palynological information. In a first of its kind connectivity, in June/July, 2006, using high speed internet connections, a summer class in Oceanography was live, interactively broadcast (teleducation) from UVA to Arcadia High School on

  20. Conditional Random Field-Based Offline Map Matching for Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Bataineh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an offline map matching technique designed for indoor localization systems based on conditional random fields (CRF. The proposed algorithm can refine the results of existing indoor localization systems and match them with the map, using loose coupling between the existing localization system and the proposed map matching technique. The purpose of this research is to investigate the efficiency of using the CRF technique in offline map matching problems for different scenarios and parameters. The algorithm was applied to several real and simulated trajectories of different lengths. The results were then refined and matched with the map using the CRF algorithm.

  1. Conditional Random Field-Based Offline Map Matching for Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Safaa; Bahillo, Alfonso; Díez, Luis Enrique; Onieva, Enrique; Bataineh, Ikram

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we present an offline map matching technique designed for indoor localization systems based on conditional random fields (CRF). The proposed algorithm can refine the results of existing indoor localization systems and match them with the map, using loose coupling between the existing localization system and the proposed map matching technique. The purpose of this research is to investigate the efficiency of using the CRF technique in offline map matching problems for different scenarios and parameters. The algorithm was applied to several real and simulated trajectories of different lengths. The results were then refined and matched with the map using the CRF algorithm.

  2. Regulation of cellular function via electromagnetic field frequency and extracellular environment: A theoretical- experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghian, Toloo; Sheikh, Abdul; Narmoneva, Daria; Kogan, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    Application of external electric field (EF) as a non-pharmacological, non-invasive tool to control cell function is of great therapeutic interest. We developed a theoretical-experimental approach to investigate the biophysical mechanisms of EF interaction with cells in electrode-free physiologically-relevant configuration. Our numerical results demonstrated that EF frequency is the major parameter to control cell response to EF. Non-oscillating or low-frequency EF leads to charge accumulation on the cell surface membrane that may mediate membrane initiated cell responses. In contrast, high-frequency EF penetrates the cell membrane and reaches cell cytoplasm, where it may directly activate intracellular responses. The theoretical predictions were confirmed in our experimental studies of the effects of applied EF on vascular cell function. Results show that non-oscillating EF increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression while field polarity controls cell adhesion rate. High-frequency, but not low frequency, EF provides differential regulation of cytoplasmic focal adhesion kinase and VEGF expression depending on the substrate, with increased expression in cells cultured on RGD-rich synthetic hydrogels, and decreased expression for matrigel culture. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the NSF (DMR-1206784 & DMR-0804199 to AK); the NIH (1R21 DK078814-01A1 to DN) and the University of Cincinnati (Interdisciplinary Faculty Research Support Grant to DN and AK).

  3. Identifying Areas for Field Conservation of Forages in Latin American Disturbed Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peters

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial analysis tools DIVA and FloraMap to identify potential areas for the in situ conservation of a set of 10 forage species. We introduce the idea of roadside verges as conservation areas and discuss the risks and opportunities of two potential scenarios for conservation. These are the introduction of mass reservoirs outside of the original areas of collection and conservation inside the area of origin. Four potential areas for in situ conservation in Latin America are identified. Although more detailed studies using remote sensing, soil information, and field reconnaissance will be necessary for a final assessment of the suggested areas as field conservation sites, we discuss the possibilities of establishing low-maintenance communities and the potential dangers of introducing harmful weed species. We do not have final answers with regard to the permanent maintenance of genetic diversity in these areas but suggest that further studies of genetic drift in the populations would not only be scientifically useful but might also lead to identifying useful genotypes for local use.

  4. A Monte Carlo-based radiation safety assessment for astronauts in an environment with confined magnetic field shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Changran; Tang, Xiaobin; Gong, Chunhui; Guan, Fada; Johns, Jesse; Shu, Diyun; Chen, Da

    2015-12-01

    The active shielding technique has great potential for radiation protection in space exploration because it has the advantage of a significant mass saving compared with the passive shielding technique. This paper demonstrates a Monte Carlo-based approach to evaluating the shielding effectiveness of the active shielding technique using confined magnetic fields (CMFs). The International Commission on Radiological Protection reference anthropomorphic phantom, as well as the toroidal CMF, was modeled using the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4. The penetrating primary particle fluence, organ-specific dose equivalent, and male effective dose were calculated for particles in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and solar particle events (SPEs). Results show that the SPE protons can be easily shielded against, even almost completely deflected, by the toroidal magnetic field. GCR particles can also be more effectively shielded against by increasing the magnetic field strength. Our results also show that the introduction of a structural Al wall in the CMF did not provide additional shielding for GCR; in fact it can weaken the total shielding effect of the CMF. This study demonstrated the feasibility of accurately determining the radiation field inside the environment and evaluating the organ dose equivalents for astronauts under active shielding using the CMF.

  5. High-intensity static magnetic field exposure devices for in vitro experiments on biopharmaceutical plant factories in aerospace environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, Vanni; Merla, Caterina; Pinto, Rosanna; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    Three high-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) exposure devices have been designed and realized for application to in vitro experimental research on hairy root cultures, supposed to grow in extreme environments- as those of space aircrafts- for producing biopharmaceutical molecules. The devices allow the exposure at two different levels of induction magnetic (B) field (250 mT and 500 mT) plus sham for blind exposure. The exposure levels can be considered representative of possible B-fields experienced within the habitat of a spacecraft in presence of active magnetic shielding systems. Each device can house a single 85-mm diameter Petri dish. Numerical simulations have been performed to accurately evaluate the B-field distribution in the biological target. Numerical results have been confirmed by measured data, proving that designed setups allows exposure to SMFs with a homogeneity better than 90%. The exposure devices will be employed for experiments scheduled within BIOxTREME research project, funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  6. Air Quality Impacts of Atmospheric Particles & Trace Gases: Field Studies in Diverse Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaniki, George R.

    Air pollution impacts occur at all scales, meaning that policies and air quality management practices must be implemented and coordinated at the local, regional, national, and global scales. This dissertation is part of a continuing effort to improve our understanding of various air quality related issues in different environments. The dissertation consists of four studies. In the first study, wintertime chemical composition of water-soluble particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) was monitored in the Treasure Valley region near Boise, Idaho. This study was aimed at understanding the major drivers of wintertime PM2.5 within the locality of Boise and its suburbs. From this study, organics and particulate nitrate were the dominant contributors to the PM2.5 mass during wintertime. In the second study, particle size distribution, light scattering coefficient, speciated water soluble PM2.5, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration were monitored in a mixed deciduous forest in Northern Michigan during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX-2009). The overall goal of this study was to understand on how emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) affect the gas-phase and particle-phase chemistry in the near-canopy environment, and the implications on local and regional air quality. From this study aerosol derived from the oxidation of BVOCs exhibited reduced hygroscopicity and CCN activation potential compared to aerosols derived from anthropogenic activities. The third study employed the eddy covariance (EC) technique to understand source-sink interactions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH 4), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in Xi'an, China. In this study urban vegetation were found to play a major role in regulating CO2 emissions within the city while vehicular activities were a major driver for CO and CH4 fluxes. In the fourth study, visibility degradation effects of

  7. Shape from specular reflection in calibrated environments and the integration of spatial normal fields

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Reflections of a scene in a mirror surface contain information on its shape. This information is accessible by measurement through an optical metrology technique called deflectometry. The result is a field of normal vectors to the unknown surface having the remarkable property that it equally changes in all spatial directions, unlike normal maps occurring, e.g., in Shape from Shading. Its integration into a zero-order reconstruction of the surface thus deserves special attention. We develop a novel algorithm for this purpose which is relatively straightforward to implement yet outperforms existing ones in terms of efficiency and robustness. Experimental results on synthetic and real data complement the theoretical discussion. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Field Study on Indoor Thermal and Luminous Environment in Winter of Vernacular Houses in Northern Hebei Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiMeng Hao; YeHao Song; JunJie Li; Ning Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a climate-adaptation study of vernacular houses in northern Hebei Province has been conducted based on quantitative field surveys. Three typical vernacular houses with different kinds of building envelopes were selected. The field surveys included investigation on building material and construction, measurement of indoor thermal environment, infrared thermographic study of building envelopes and measurement of luminous environment. The results showed that the indoor air temperatures were below thermal comfort zone from late night till early morning and the horizontal temperature gradient was obvious. The adobe wall showed better thermal performance than the other two. As for the building layout, it is beneficial to put a storeroom on the north side of the house as a temperature buffer zone. Furthermore, due to missing insulation and the informal process of construction, significant amounts of heat escaped from building envelopes, especially from the corner of wall, ceiling and around the openings. The daylight factors on the work plan in the main rooms were accordance with design standards and the level of illuminance met the requirements of family’ s daily activities.

  9. Galaxy environment in the 3D-HST fields. Witnessing the onset of satellite quenching at z ~ 1-2

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, M; Mendel, J T; Saglia, R P; Galametz, A; Beifiori, A; Bender, R; Chan, J C C; Fabricius, M; Bandara, K; Brammer, G B; Davies, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Genzel, R; Hartley, W; Kulkarni, S K; Lang, P; Momcheva, I G; Nelson, E J; Skelton, R; Tacconi, L J; Tadaki, K; Übler, H; van Dokkum, P G; Wisnioski, E; Whitaker, K E; Wuyts, E; Wuyts, S

    2016-01-01

    We make publicly available a catalog of calibrated environmental measures for galaxies in the five 3D-HST/CANDELS deep fields. Leveraging the spectroscopic and grism redshifts from the 3D-HST survey, multi wavelength photometry from CANDELS, and wider field public data for edge corrections, we derive densities in fixed apertures to characterize the environment of galaxies brighter than $JH_{140} < 24$ mag in the redshift range $0.5environment specific processes. Using the mock sample, w...

  10. Field Measurements of Residential Energy Consumption and Indoor Thermal Environment in Six Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to reveal the energy use and indoor environment characteristics of twelve households located in six cities in China, including daily use of gas and electricity, temperature and humidity throughout a year. The energy uses for district heating and hot water were not included. The investigated houses were separated into two groups, namely Group 1 with domestic heating, and Group 2 with district heating. The analysis showed that the energy use of Lighting and Audio visual & information for each house is not very different during the four seasons. Annual energy use varied from 13.3 to 32.4 GJ in Group 1. The energy use of House 05 was 32.4 GJ/year, which is the highest in Group 1, the space heating reached 18.5 GJ/year, accounting for 57% of the total. Energy use of House 01 increased in winter and summer, which is attributed to the use of heating in winter and cooling in summer, respectively. Annual energy use varied from 2.9 to 17.0 GJ in Group 2. Almost no change of energy use was found for the houses in Group 2 during the four seasons, but a big difference of average indoor temperature was found in the coldest days between the houses in Group 1 (around 10 °C and Group 2 (around 20 °C, while the difference was small in summer.

  11. Parametric studies and evaluations of indoor thermal environment in wet season using a field survey and PMV-PPD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengxian [College of Physics and Electric Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Li, Ming [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Lin, Wenxian [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); School of Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Sun, Yanlin [College of Physics and Electric Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Fanger's PMV-PPD is the most famous thermal sensation indices but it is too complex to be applied in practice. To obtain simple and applicable correlations, taking Qujing of Yunnan province, China, as example, a wet season (six-month) field measurement was conducted in a naturally ventilated residential room. Based on collected data, PMV indices were calculated by using Newton's iterative method. It is shown that the PMV values approximately vary from -1.0 to +1.0 and the indoor thermal environment is basically comfortable. Relationships of the parameters (indoor and outdoor air temperatures, mean radiant temperature, PMV and PPD) and indoor air temperature gradients (vertical and horizontal) were also studied by means of the linear regression and the quadratic polynomial fit techniques. Numerous correlations with high relativities have been developed. Moreover, the vertical and horizontal air temperature gradients range from 0.1 K/m to 0.85 K/m and from -0.208 K/m to 0.063 K/m in wet season. It is convenient to use these results to evaluate and assess the indoor thermal environment under similar climatic conditions. The results of this work enrich and develop the basic theory of the indoor thermal environment design and control. (author)

  12. Depositional environment and source potential of Jurassic coal-bearing sediments (Gresten Formation, Hoflein gas/condensate field, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Bechtel, A.; Kuffner, T.; Rainer, T.; Gratzer, R.; Sauer, R.; Sperl, H. [Mount University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Coal-bearing Jurassic sediments (Gresten Formation; Lower Quartzarenite Member) are discussed as source rocks for gas and minor oil in the basement of the Alpine-Carpathian frontal zone (e.g. Hoflein gas/condensate field). Core material has therefore been analysed to characterize depositional environment and source potential of the Lower Quartzarenite Member (LQM). Geochemical data from the Hoflein condensate are used to establish a Source-condensate correlation. The LQM was deposited in a flood basin with transitions to a delta-plain environment. Coal originated in frequently flooded mires and evolved within an oxygenated and acidic environment. It is inferred from geochemical data that organic matter from aquatic macrophytes and gymnosperms contributed to coal formation. Wildfires were abundant and oxidation of plant remains occurred frequently. This resulted in the formation of dull coal with very high inertinite contents. Bituminous shales were formed in deeper waters under dysoxic conditions. Apart from abundant algae and micro-organisms, it is concluded that there was an increased contribution of higher land plants relative to macrophytes to the biomass of the shales. Despite high inertinite contents, coal within the LQM has a significant oil potential. Bituminous shales contain a Type III-II kerogen. According to pyrolysis-gas chromatography data, coal and shale generate a high wax paraffinic oil. The organic matter is immature to marginal mature (0.55% Rr). Bituminous shales are considered a potential source for the Hoflein condensate. Coal may be the source for gas and minor oil in the Klement Field, but is not the source for the condensate.

  13. Electric field-controlled directed migration of neural progenitor cells in 2D and 3D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoting; Li, Wenfei; Young, Fraser; Gao, Runchi; Chalmers, Laura; Zhao, Min; Song, Bing

    2012-02-16

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) occur naturally in vivo and play a critical role during tissue/organ development and regeneration, including that of the central nervous system(1,2). These endogenous EFs are generated by cellular regulation of ionic transport combined with the electrical resistance of cells and tissues. It has been reported that applied EF treatment can promote functional repair of spinal cord injuries in animals and humans(3,4). In particular, EF-directed cell migration has been demonstrated in a wide variety of cell types(5,6), including neural progenitor cells (NPCs)(7,8). Application of direct current (DC) EFs is not a commonly available technique in most laboratories. We have described detailed protocols for the application of DC EFs to cell and tissue cultures previously(5,11). Here we present a video demonstration of standard methods based on a calculated field strength to set up 2D and 3D environments for NPCs, and to investigate cellular responses to EF stimulation in both single cell growth conditions in 2D, and the organotypic spinal cord slice in 3D. The spinal cordslice is an ideal recipient tissue for studying NPC ex vivo behaviours, post-transplantation, because the cytoarchitectonic tissue organization is well preserved within these cultures(9,10). Additionally, this ex vivo model also allows procedures that are not technically feasible to track cells in vivo using time-lapse recording at the single cell level. It is critically essential to evaluate cell behaviours in not only a 2D environment, but also in a 3D organotypic condition which mimicks the in vivo environment. This system will allow high-resolution imaging using cover glass-based dishes in tissue or organ culture with 3D tracking of single cell migration in vitro and ex vivo and can be an intermediate step before moving onto in vivo paradigms.

  14. Far-Field Voice Activity Detection and Its Applications in Adverse Acoustic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Voice Activity Detection (VAD), being in the focus of speech processing research for many years, is nowadays a mature technology with application in several sectors. Embedded VAD components in telecommunications systems (like in cellular telephony) attempt to reduce power consumption of transmitt......Voice Activity Detection (VAD), being in the focus of speech processing research for many years, is nowadays a mature technology with application in several sectors. Embedded VAD components in telecommunications systems (like in cellular telephony) attempt to reduce power consumption...... of transmitters and bandwidth utilization. VAD technology is also integrated in speech-processing systems, such as Speaker Identification, Automatic Event Detection, and Automatic Speech Recognition, to prevent their operation in the absence of speech, and thus reduce the error rates of each of these systems....... The performance of VAD systems depends strongly on various factors, including the discriminative ability of the classification criterion employed, the dynamics of the additive noise and the signal to noise ratio. Speech signals transmitted within reverberant enclosures and captured using far-field microphones...

  15. Application of geotechnical and geophysical field measurements in an active alpine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D. R.; Fankhauser, K.; Springman, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall can trigger landslides, rockfalls and debris flow events. When rainfall infiltrates into the soil, the suction (if there is any) is reduced, until positive water pressure can be developed, decreasing the effective stresses and leading to a potential failure. A challenging site for the study of mass movement is the Meretschibach catchment, a location in the Swiss Alps in the vicinity of Agarn, Canton of Valais. To study the effect of rainfall on slope stabilities, the soil characterization provides valuable insight on soil properties, necessary to establish a realistic ground model. This model, together with an effective long term-field monitoring, deliver the essential information and boundary conditions for predicting and validating rainfall- induced slope instabilities using numerical and physical modelling. Geotechnical monitoring, including soil temperature and volumetric water content measurements, has been performed on the study site together with geophysical measurements (ERT) to study the effect of rainfall on the (potential) triggering of landslides on a scree slope composed of a surficial layer of gravelly soil. These techniques were combined to provide information on the soil characteristics and depth to the bedrock. Seasonal changes of precipitation and temperature were reflected in corresponding trends in all measurements. A comparison of volumetric water content records was obtained from decagons, time domain reflectometry (TDR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) conducted throughout the spring and summer months of 2014, yielding a reasonable agreement.

  16. Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Galen T; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates pred...

  17. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiligiannis, G; Bosio, A; Girard, P; Pravossoudovitch, S; Todri, A; Virazel, A; Mekki, J; Brugger, M; Wrobel, F; Saigne, F

    2014-01-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for mon- itoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of parti- cles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shield...

  18. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligiannis, G.; Dilillo, L.; Bosio, A.; Girard, P.; Pravossoudovitch, S.; Todri, A.; Virazel, A.; Mekki, J.; Brugger, M.; Wrobel, F.; Saigne, F.

    2014-05-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for monitoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of particles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shielded areas. By using stability estimation methods and presenting experimental data, we prove that this device is proper to be used for such a purpose.

  19. From the Field to the Classroom: A Web-Based Teaching Tool on Depositional Environments and Landscape Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzic, M.; Watson, K.; Grand, S.; Crowley, C.; Dyanatkar, S.; Bomke, A.; Smith, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationship between sedimentary deposits, landforms and soil profile development is difficult for students to grasp in a conventional classroom setting. The ideal way to solve this is to take the students on extended field trips; however, field trips are expensive, have to be conducted during specific time periods, and can only handle a limited number of students. The objective of this project was to bring the field to the classroom via a virtual, dynamic web-based teaching tool illustrating common depositional environments and associated landforms and soils. The teaching tool was largely based on video footage obtained in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and in the grasslands of the southern interior of British Columbia. The Canadian Rockies are undergoing rapid deglaciation and provided excellent examples of new glacial deposits and early landscape development processes. On the other hand, British Columbia's grasslands became ice-free about 10,000 years ago and were used to illustrate landscape evolution and post-glaciation soil profile development. To bring these two environments together, video footage of corresponding landforms was shot at both locations and edited into a series of short video clips illustrating the link between depositional processes, resulting landforms and soils and their post-glacial evolution. Soil scientists, survey specialists and geomorphologists provided live commentary. The teaching tool (http://soilweb.landfood.ubc.ca/landscape/) is an open-access website merging video clips, sound recordings, text, photos and graphics intended to help students situate landforms within their geomorphologic context. This online teaching resource allows students to observe, on their own time, conditions under which sediments are deposited and soils are formed, and to witness the transformation of a barren, glacial landscape into a vegetated soil landscape. The tool can be used in various geomorphology, soil, agriculture, forestry, and natural

  20. Modelling the buried human body environment in upland climes using three contrasting field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew S; Janaway, Robert C; Holland, Andrew D; Dodson, Hilary I; Baran, Eve; Pollard, A Mark; Tobin, Desmond J

    2007-06-14

    Despite an increasing literature on the decomposition of human remains, whether buried or exposed, it is important to recognise the role of specific microenvironments which can either trigger or delay the rate of decomposition. Recent casework in Northern England involving buried and partially buried human remains has demonstrated a need for a more detailed understanding of the effect of contrasting site conditions on cadaver decomposition and on the microenvironment created within the grave itself. Pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in three inter-related taphonomy experiments to examine differential decomposition of buried human remains. They were buried at three contrasting field sites (pasture, moorland, and deciduous woodland) within a 15 km radius of the University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. Changes to the buried body and the effect of these changes on hair and associated death-scene textile materials were monitored as was the microenvironment of the grave. At recovery, 6, 12 and 24 months post-burial, the extent of soft tissue decomposition was recorded and samples of fat and soil were collected for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. The results of these studies demonstrated that (1) soil conditions at these three burial sites has a marked effect on the condition of the buried body but even within a single site variation can occur; (2) the process of soft tissue decomposition modifies the localised burial microenvironment in terms of microbiological load, pH, moisture and changes in redox status. These observations have widespread application for the investigation of clandestine burial and time since deposition, and in understanding changes within the burial microenvironment that may impact on biomaterials such as hair and other associated death scene materials.

  1. Field studies on the behaviour of radiocaesium in agricultural environments after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.

    1996-05-01

    This thesis deals with the occurrence of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in cultivated, semi-natural and natural agricultural areas of five Swedish counties. The investigations were carried out under field conditions 1986 to 1995 on farms where transfer to grass and milk during the first years were high. Vertical migration rate in soil profiles, the practical value of countermeasures to reduce transfer to feed and food and the impact of passing time were important aims for the study. The transfer of Cs was higher on permanent pasture than on temporary grassland and much lower to barley grain. Stubble and grass swards kept Cs available for transfer to grass. High organic matter contents in the surface soil also caused high transfer during a lag period of some years. Soil texture, grass sward, K-fertilization and growth dilution explained the variation in Cs transfer and its reduction rate. A case study on transfer of Cs to vegetation and to grazing lambs was made on a mountain farm. High transfer to vegetation was found, 510-2260 Bq/kg d.w.. Mean transfer soil to plant (TFg,m{sup 2}/kg) was 67 and plant to muscle 0.7 during 1990-1993. The effect of K-fertilization on soil-plant transfer was studied on 15 soils. A dose of 100 to 200 kg/ha K decreased the transfer on sandy soils with a factor of up to 10. Liming was effective on soils that were originally low in pH. Adding zeolite on the surface of pastures did not reduce the root uptake of Cs. Ploughing down the contaminated surface was effective in reducing the transfer. Downward migration of Cs was usually less on mineral soils than or organic or podsolized soils. 68 refs, 9 figs, 13 tabs.

  2. Precision Viticulture : is it relevant to manage the vineyard according to the within field spatial variability of the environment ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseyre, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    For more than 15 years, research projects are conducted in the precision viticulture (PV) area around the world. These research projects have provided new insights into the within-field variability in viticulture. Indeed, access to high spatial resolution data (remote sensing, embedded sensors, etc.) changes the knowledge we have of the fields in viticulture. In particular, the field which was until now considered as a homogeneous management unit, presents actually a high spatial variability in terms of yield, vigour an quality. This knowledge will lead (and is already causing) changes on how to manage the vineyard and the quality of the harvest at the within field scale. From the experimental results obtained in various countries of the world, the goal of the presentation is to provide figures on: - the spatial variability of the main parameters (yield, vigor, quality), and how this variability is organized spatially, - the temporal stability of the observed spatial variability and the potential link with environmental parameters like soil, topography, soil water availability, etc. - information sources available at a high spatial resolution conventionally used in precision agriculture likely to highlight this spatial variability (multi-spectral images, soil electrical conductivity, etc.) and the limitations that these information sources are likely to present in viticulture. Several strategies are currently being developed to take into account the within field variability in viticulture. They are based on the development of specific equipments, sensors, actuators and site specific strategies with the aim of adapting the vineyard operations at the within-field level. These strategies will be presented briefly in two ways : - Site specific operations (fertilization, pruning, thinning, irrigation, etc.) in order to counteract the effects of the environment and to obtain a final product with a controlled and consistent wine quality, - Differential harvesting with the

  3. Graphene-Based Platform for Infrared Near-Field Nanospectroscopy of Water and Biological Materials in an Aqueous Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Omar; Wood, Joshua D; McLeod, Alexander S; Goldflam, Michael D; Wagner, Martin; Damhorst, Gregory L; Koepke, Justin C; Doidge, Gregory P; Rangarajan, Aniruddh; Bashir, Rashid; Pop, Eric; Lyding, Joseph W; Thiemens, Mark H; Keilmann, Fritz; Basov, D N

    2015-08-25

    Scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) has emerged as a powerful nanoscale spectroscopic tool capable of characterizing individual biomacromolecules and molecular materials. However, applications of scattering-based near-field techniques in the infrared (IR) to native biosystems still await a solution of how to implement the required aqueous environment. In this work, we demonstrate an IR-compatible liquid cell architecture that enables near-field imaging and nanospectroscopy by taking advantage of the unique properties of graphene. Large-area graphene acts as an impermeable monolayer barrier that allows for nano-IR inspection of underlying molecular materials in liquid. Here, we use s-SNOM to investigate the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in water underneath graphene. We resolve individual virus particles and register the amide I and II bands of TMV at ca. 1520 and 1660 cm(-1), respectively, using nanoscale Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (nano-FTIR). We verify the presence of water in the graphene liquid cell by identifying a spectral feature associated with water absorption at 1610 cm(-1).

  4. Development of Web-Based Learning Environment Model to Enhance Cognitive Skills for Undergraduate Students in the Field of Electrical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakonpol, Thongmee; Ruangsuwan, Chaiyot; Terdtoon, Pradit

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a web-based learning environment model for enhancing cognitive skills of undergraduate students in the field of electrical engineering. The research is divided into 4 phases: 1) investigating the current status and requirements of web-based learning environment models. 2) developing a web-based learning environment…

  5. Genotypic Variation in Grain P Loading across Diverse Rice Growing Environments and Implications for Field P Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Elke; Wissuwa, Matthias; Rose, Terry; Dieng, Ibnou; Drame, Khady N.; Fofana, Mamadou; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Venuprasad, Ramaiah; Jallow, Demba; Segda, Zacharie; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Sirisena, Dinarathna; Kato, Yoichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    More than 60% of phosphorus (P) taken up by rice (Oryza spp.) is accumulated in the grains at harvest and hence exported from fields, leading to a continuous removal of P. If P removed from fields is not replaced by P inputs then soil P stocks decline, with consequences for subsequent crops. Breeding rice genotypes with a low concentration of P in the grains could be a strategy to reduce maintenance fertilizer needs and slow soil P depletion in low input systems. This study aimed to assess variation in grain P concentrations among rice genotypes across diverse environments and evaluate the implications for field P balances at various grain yield levels. Multi-location screening experiments were conducted at different sites across Africa and Asia and yield components and grain P concentrations were determined at harvest. Genotypic variation in grain P concentration was evaluated while considering differences in P supply and grain yield using cluster analysis to group environments and boundary line analysis to determine minimum grain P concentrations at various yield levels. Average grain P concentrations across genotypes varied almost 3-fold among environments, from 1.4 to 3.9 mg g−1. Minimum grain P concentrations associated with grain yields of 150, 300, and 500 g m−2 varied between 1.2 and 1.7, 1.3 and 1.8, and 1.7 and 2.2 mg g−1 among genotypes respectively. Two genotypes, Santhi Sufaid and DJ123, were identified as potential donors for breeding for low grain P concentration. Improvements in P balances that could be achieved by exploiting this genotypic variation are in the range of less than 0.10 g P m−2 (1 kg P ha−1) in low yielding systems, and 0.15–0.50 g P m−2 (1.5–5.0 kg P ha−1) in higher yielding systems. Improved crop management and alternative breeding approaches may be required to achieve larger reductions in grain P concentrations in rice. PMID:27729916

  6. Support for EU fundraising in the field of Environment & Energy - BayFOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerl, Thomas; Baumann, Cornelia; Reiter, Andrea; Blume, Andreas; Just, Jana; Franke, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The Bavarian Research Alliance (BayFOR, http://www.bayfor.org) is a private company for the support of Bavaria (Free State in the South East of Germany) as a centre for science and innovation within the European Research Area. It was set up on the initiative of the Bavarian universities to strengthen their networking at regional, national and international level while helping them to prepare to meet the requirements for European research funding. The focus is directed at the current EU Framework Programme (FP7) and the forthcoming Framework Programme for Research and Innovation "Horizon 2020", but also comprises the wide range of European programmes (e.g. FP7, LIFE+, Interreg, COST, EUREKA, ERA-Nets, IEE (CIP), LLP, Calls for tender). BayFOR is also a partner institution in the Bavarian "Haus der Forschung" (www.hausderforschung.bayern.de/en). BayFORs overall aim is to strengthen and permanently anchor the science and innovation location of Bavaria in the European Research Area through: a) Initiation of national and in particular European innovation and science partnerships from academia and business b) Improvement of innovation potential of Bavarian universities and SME c) Support in acquisition, management and dissemination of results of European and international projects in the field of research and technological development The service portfolio of the EU Funding Advisory Service reaches from the first project idea to project implementation. The minimum condition for BayFOR support is at least one partner from Bavaria (Germany) must be part of the applying consortium: a) Recommendation of funding programmes/instruments (incl. integration of relevant EU policies & directives) b) Partner search c) Project development and proposal elaboration (Online platform, Creation of consortium, Attendance at meetings, Preparation of documents, Proposal structure elaboration, Provision of templates, Editorial support: Gantt, PERT, Impact, EU added value) d) Support in the

  7. Effects of Non-Uniform Wall Heating on Thermal and Momentum Fields in a 3-Dimensional Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, N.; Kleissl, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization progresses, microclimate modifications are also aggravated and the increasing environmental concerns call for more sophisticated methods of urban microclimate analysis. Comprehensive numerical simulations for a clear summer day in southern California are performed in a compact low-rise urban environment. The effect of realistic unsteady, non-uniform thermal forcing, that is caused by solar insolation and inter-building shadowing on thermal and flow conditions are analyzed based on Algebraic Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The urban thermal field is influenced by urban density, material properties and local weather conditions, as well as urban canyon flow. Urban canyon conditions are translated into vertical and horizontal bulk Richardson numbers indicating atmospheric instability and solar tilt with respect to the momentum forcing of the canyon vortex, respectively. The effect of roof heating is found to be critical on the vortex formation between buildings when the vertical bulk Richardson number is low. Variations of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients (CHTCs) along building walls are studied and the street canyon ventilation performance is characterized by the mean of air exchange rate (ACH). It is found that volumetric air exchange from street canyons, as well as the distribution of heat transfer along the wall depends strongly on the three-dimensional orientation of the heated wall in relation to wind direction. For example, air removal increases by surface heating and is larger when the leeward wall is heated. In summary, we demonstrate the importance of considering complex realistic conditions on 3-dimensional thermal and momentum fields in Urban Environments.

  8. Water-Gated n-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Complementary Integrated Circuits Operating in an Aqueous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The first demonstration of an n-type water-gated organic field-effect transistor (WGOFET) is here reported, along with simple water-gated complementary integrated circuits, in the form of inverting logic gates. For the n-type WGOFET active layer, high-electron-affinity organic semiconductors, including naphthalene diimide co-polymers and a soluble fullerene derivative, have been compared, with the latter enabling a high electric double layer capacitance in the range of 1 μF cm–2 in full accumulation and a mobility–capacitance product of 7 × 10–3 μF/V s. Short-term stability measurements indicate promising cycling robustness, despite operating the device in an environment typically considered harsh, especially for electron-transporting organic molecules. This work paves the way toward advanced circuitry design for signal conditioning and actuation in an aqueous environment and opens new perspectives in the implementation of active bio-organic interfaces for biosensing and neuromodulation.

  9. Field investigation on effects of wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch on ecological environment of upland crop farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志勇; 钱炳法

    2002-01-01

    This work systematically investigates the effects of wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch on the ecological environment in upland crops (winter wheat, summer corn) field from 1997 to 1998. With and without mulch soil moisture distribution, water demand, day and night variation of soil temperature, weeds control, crop yields, water and soil conservation, as well as improvement of soil texture were experimentally investigated. The optimal mulch rate for both water saving and yield-increase was determined. Ineffective interplant evaporation can be turned into effective transpiration of leaf by application of wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch, which enhances the utility factor of soil moisture and reduces irrigation norm, and may also regulate soil temperature, increase soil fertility, and improve soil texture after being returned to the field. Wheat-straw/corn-stalk mulch inhibits evaporation of moisture so that accumulation of salinity near the soil surface is prevented, and thus ameliorates salinization of land. In the region of severe soil erosion, mulch is used to cover land so as to forestall hydraulic and wind erosion of the soil.

  10. Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-06-01

    Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology.

  11. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  12. Vyryvajas' iz objatij politiki. Issledovanie kul'tur vospominanija kak sposob pooshhrenija istoricheskogo dialoga v litovsko-rossijskih otnoshenijah [An escape from the embrace of politics. A study into the cultures of remembrance as a means to encourage a historical dialogue in Lithuanian-Russian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronovas Vasilijus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the factors inhibiting a productive rethinking of the past in contemporary Lithuanian-Russian relations. The rethinking of the past is understood as a process facilitating the reconsideration of historical meanings through adjusting them to the expectations and values of the contemporary society. The author argues that in this process historical research — as an important tool for encouraging the co-existence of communities —should fulfil certain social functions. Having chosen the Lithuanian-Russian communication space as a case, the author emphasizes the need to develop an interest in mutual knowledge of cultures of remembrance in this space. Outlining the strategies specific to the prevailing cultures of remembrance in contemporary Russia and Lithuania, the author addresses the issue of their proper relationship, as well as that of the appropriateness of historical policy. The criminalisation of certain evaluations of the past and the academic dialogue between historians are regarded as two opposite extremes of historical policy actually existing in the Lithuanian-Russian communication space. The author stresses that research into the values and interpretations of the past peculiar to certain social groups in both Lithuania and Russia may be considered as a basis for further development of the historical dialogue. It is assumed that such research may contribute to the improvement in the field of politics of history.

  13. Measuring arterial oxygenation in a high altitude field environment: comparing portable pulse oximetry with blood gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliot M; Matteucci, Michael J; Shepherd, Matthew; Barker, Matthew; Orr, Lance

    2013-06-01

    High altitude environments present unique medical treatment challenges. Medical providers often use small portable pulse oximetry devices to help guide their clinical decision making. A significant body of high altitude research is based on the use of these devices to monitor hypoxia, yet there is a paucity of evidence that these devices are accurate in these environments. We studied whether these devices perform accurately and reliably under true mountain conditions. Healthy unacclimatized active-duty military volunteers participating in mountain warfare training at 2100 m (6900 feet) above sea level were evaluated with several different pulse oximetry devices while in a cold weather, high altitude field environment and then had arterial blood gases (ABG) drawn using an i-STAT for comparison. The pulse oximeter readings were compared with the gold standard ABG readings. A total of 49 individuals completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference between any of the devices and the gold standard of ABG. The best performing device was the PalmSAT (PS) 8000SM finger probe with a mean difference of 2.17% and SD of 2.56 (95% CI, 1.42% to 2.92%). In decreasing order of performance were the PS 8000AA finger probe (mean ± SD, 2.54% ± 2.68%; 95% CI, 1.76% to 3.32%), the PS 8000Q ear probe (2.47% ± 4.36%; 95% CI, 1.21% to 3.75%), the Nonin Onyx 9500 (3.29% ± 3.12%; 95% CI, 2.39% to 4.20%), and finally the PS 8000R forehead reflectance sensor (5.15% ± 2.97%; 95% CI, 4.28% to 6.01%). Based on the results of this study, results of the newer portable pulse oximeters appear to be closely correlated to that of the ABG measurements when tested in true mountain conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Bulk Snow Properties in North Boreal and Tundra Environments Based on Extensive Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, H. R.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Pulliainen, J.; Kontu, A.; Derksen, C.

    2015-12-01

    A large collection of in situ snow data was collected in a support of ESA SnowSAR airborne acquisitions in Northern Finland (Lemmetyinen et al., 2014). The purpose was to demonstrate the mission concept of the proposed ESA CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory, Rott et al., 2010) mission, a candidate in the ESA Earth Explorer series of Earth observing satellites. Around 21400 snow depth measurements, 600 SWE measurements and a number of distributed snow pit measurements were collected during 19 days between December 2011 and March 2012. In this study, these field measurements will be used to analyse the snow property variation within and between different land-cover types in North boreal and tundra environments. The wide heterogeneity of snow properties forms a challenge for remote snow information retrieval as even in flat areas the amount and type of heterogeneity vary in a number of different scales. Especially, information of hemispheric scale SWE variation is suffering from large uncertainties, although, assimilation of ground-based and space-borne information and algorithms specific for a land-cover type have lowered these remaining uncertainties (Takala et al., 2011). This study aims to contribute to this future work for more reliable SWE retrievals by statistically describing the snow parameter variation in these northern environments. Lemmetyinen, J., J. Pulliainen, A. Kontu, A. Wiesmann, C. Mätzler, H. Rott, K. Voglmeier, T. Nagler, A. Meta, A. Coccia, M. Schneebeli, M. Proksch, M. Davidson, D. Schüttemeyer, Chung-Chi Lin, and M. Kern, 2014. Observations of seasonal snow cover at X- and Ku bands during the NoSREx campaign. Proc. EUSAR 2014, 3-5 June 2014, Berlin. Rott, H., S.H. Yueh, D.W. Cline, C. Duguay, R. Essery et al., 2010. Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory for Snow and Cold Land Processes. Proc. IEEE, 98(5), 752-765. Takala, M., K. Luojus, J. Pulliainen, C. Derksen, J. Lemmetyinen, J-P. Kärnä, J. Koskinen

  15. Surface failure analysis of a field-exposed copper-clad plate in a marine environment with industrial pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Pan; Dong, Chaofang; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-03-01

    The corrosion behavior and electrochemical migration mechanism of a copper-clad plate (PCB-Cu) in a marine atmospheric environment with industrial pollution were studied in field exposure experiments. The results showed that corrosion was initiated from activity locations with low potential. With extended exposure time, the amount of corrosion products increased and gradually formed a double layer structure. The inner layer corrosion products were mainly Cu2O; the outer layer mainly included CuCO3·Cu(OH)2, Cu(OH)2·CuO·HCl, CuSO4·3Cu(OH)2 and CuSO3·3Cu(OH)2. When a 12 V bias voltage was applied, an anomalous electrochemical migration (ECM) phenomenon was observed: a Cu dendrite was produced near the anode and migrated toward the cathode. Finally, ECM led to the bridge connection of the two metallization stripes and caused a short circuit in the PCB-Cu.

  16. DETERMINING THE INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO IN THE ENVIRONMENT FIELD BY USING THE SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENT CONDITION. EXEMPLIFYING THE ECOLOGIC REHABILITATION IN THE IER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Ioan Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to the environment investment, there is a great challenge in determining the project portfolio because there is no unanimously accepted solution. The objective to bring an area to its initial shape, existing before the anthropic investment, is only possible theoretically. In practice, my recommendation is to rebuild to a certain extent the whole area in order to make it attractive for economic activities which, once implemented, should justify the investment effort. Economic effectiveness strictly calculated for environment projects is an unproper approach in my opinion. By the SWOT analysis I shall follow to cause a relationship between the area’s business opportunities and its environment investment needs.

  17. A Comparative Study of Density Field Estimation for Galaxies: New Insights into the Evolution of Galaxies with Environment in COSMOS out to z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Darvish, Behnam; Sobral, David; Scoville, Nicholas; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that galaxy environment has a fundamental effect in shaping its properties. We study the environmental effects on galaxy evolution, with an emphasis on the environment defined as the local number density of galaxies. The density field is estimated with different estimators (weighted adaptive kernel smoothing, 10$^{th}$ and 5$^{th}$ nearest neighbors, Voronoi and Delaunay tessellation) for a K$_{s}$10$^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$) star-forming galaxies have not significantly changed since z$\\sim$3, regardless of their environment. However, for massive quiescent systems at lower redshifts (z$\\lesssim$1.3), we find a significant evolution in the number and stellar mass densities in denser environments compared to lower density regions. Our results suggest that the relation between stellar mass and local density is more fundamental than the color-density relation and that environment plays a significant role in quenching star formation activity in galaxies at z$\\lesssim$1.

  18. Comprehensive study on different crystal field environments in highly efficient NaLaF4:Er3+ upconversion phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Krieke, Guna; Doke, Guna; Grube, Jurgis; Grinberga, Liga; Springis, Maris

    2015-01-01

    Complex fluorides, especially rare-earth doped NaREF4 (RE = Y3+, La3+ or Gd3+), are promising materials for the upconversion luminescence mostly due to low phonon energy of their matrices and multisite nature of the crystalline lattice. Although multisite formation in hexagonal NaREF4 structures has generally been proved, the actual number of the active sites in different structures varies from two (NaGdF4) to seven (NaYF4). The aim of this work has been to study multisite formation in NaLaF4:Er3+. For this purpose low-temperature site-selective spectroscopy measurements in hexagonal NaLaF4:Er3+ have been performed. Excitation at different wavelengths corresponding to the excitation of 4F7/2 level of Er3+ ions has revealed three distinct luminescence spectra in the green spectral region associated with 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 electronic transition. The number of the spectra has been sufficient to model experimentally measured luminescence spectra at any excitation wavelength as a linear combination of the distinct spectra. The analysis of the structure of the material and the results of site-selective spectroscopy signify the presence of at least three different crystalline field environments where Er3+ ions incorporate. Upon site-selective excitation of Er3+ located at a specific site energy transfer to erbium ions located at other sites has been observed in both the upconversion and downconversion luminescence processes. The enhanced energy transfer between the different sites in NaLaF4:Er3+ signifies the importance of the multisite nature of the structure, which is a key factor for an efficient upconversion luminescence.

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND STRESS FACED BY SOLDIERS WHO OPERATE IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  20. [Reports on the impact of objects emitting electromagnetic fields on the environment: issues concerning their better understanding by non-specialists in telecommunication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents issues concerning a better understanding of reports on the impact of objects emitting electromagnetic fields on the environment among non-specialists in telecommunication. A proposed universal model of the radiation pattern of antenna base stations to widen the information contained in environmental audits as well as a vocabulary of basic technical terms in colloquial language are discussed.

  1. Design and development of a digital farmer field school. Experiences with a digital learning environment for cocoa production and certification in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Loes; Lie, Rico; Goris, Margriet; Ingram, Verina

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the design and development of the Digital Farmer Field School (DFFS). The DFFS offers a tablet-based digital learning environment for farmers and extension agents for knowledge sharing and knowledge co-creation. It provides an alternative to conventional agricultural exten

  2. Research on the influence of solar PV electric field to environment%太阳能光伏电场对环境影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学武

    2016-01-01

    结合工程实例,从噪声、污染物、生态环境等方面,探讨了太阳能光伏电场建设施工及运行时期内对环境的影响,指出太阳能光伏电场项目缓解了非再生能源带来的环境问题,具有积极的清洁能源效益。%Combining with the engineering example,from the noise,pollution,ecological environment and other aspects,this paper discussed the influence of solar PV electric field construction and operation period to environment,pointed out the solar PV field project alleviated the environ-mental problems caused by non renewable energy,had positive effectiveness of clean energy.

  3. In-Field Implementation of a Recombinant Factor C Assay for the Detection of Lipopolysaccharide as a Biomarker of Extant Life within Glacial Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Megan J; Wadham, Jemma L; Jackson, Miriam; Cullen, David C

    2012-03-09

    The discovery over the past two decades of viable microbial communities within glaciers has promoted interest in the role of glaciers and ice sheets (the cryosphere) as contributors to subglacial erosion, global biodiversity, and in regulating global biogeochemical cycles. In situ or in-field detection and characterisation of microbial communities is becoming recognised as an important approach to improve our understanding of such communities. Within this context we demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to detect Gram-negative bacteria in glacial field-environments (including subglacial environments) via the detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS); an important component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls. In-field measurements were performed using the recently commercialised PyroGene® recombinant Factor C (rFC) endotoxin detection system and used in conjunction with a handheld fluorometer to measure the fluorescent endpoint of the assay. Twenty-seven glacial samples were collected from the surface, bed and terminus of a low-biomass Arctic valley glacier (Engabreen, Northern Norway), and were analysed in a field laboratory using the rFC assay. Sixteen of these samples returned positive LPS detection. This work demonstrates that LPS detection via rFC assay is a viable in-field method and is expected to be a useful proxy for microbial cell concentrations in low biomass environments.

  4. In-Field Implementation of a Recombinant Factor C Assay for the Detection of Lipopolysaccharide as a Biomarker of Extant Life within Glacial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Cullen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery over the past two decades of viable microbial communities within glaciers has promoted interest in the role of glaciers and ice sheets (the cryosphere as contributors to subglacial erosion, global biodiversity, and in regulating global biogeochemical cycles. In situ or in-field detection and characterisation of microbial communities is becoming recognised as an important approach to improve our understanding of such communities. Within this context we demonstrate, for the first time, the ability to detect Gram-negative bacteria in glacial field-environments (including subglacial environments via the detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; an important component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls. In-field measurements were performed using the recently commercialised PyroGene® recombinant Factor C (rFC endotoxin detection system and used in conjunction with a handheld fluorometer to measure the fluorescent endpoint of the assay. Twenty-seven glacial samples were collected from the surface, bed and terminus of a low-biomass Arctic valley glacier (Engabreen, Northern Norway, and were analysed in a field laboratory using the rFC assay. Sixteen of these samples returned positive LPS detection. This work demonstrates that LPS detection via rFC assay is a viable in-field method and is expected to be a useful proxy for microbial cell concentrations in low biomass environments.

  5. Reconstructing the galaxy density field with photometric redshifts - II. Environment-dependent galaxy evolution since z ≃ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Nicola; Pozzetti, Lucia; Cucciati, Olga; Bardelli, Sandro; Ilbert, Olivier; Cimatti, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Although extensively investigated, the role of the environment in galaxy formation is still not well understood. In this context, the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) is a powerful tool to understand how environment relates to galaxy mass assembly and the quenching of star formation. In this work, we make use of the high-precision photometric redshifts of the UltraVISTA Survey to study the GSMF in different environments up to z ∼ 3, on physical scales from 0.3 to 2 Mpc, down to masses of M ∼ 1010 M⊙. We witness the appearance of environmental signatures for both quiescent and star-forming galaxies. We find that the shape of the GSMF of quiescent galaxies is different in high- and low-density environments up to z ∼ 2 with the high-mass end (M ≳ 1011 M⊙) being enhanced in high-density environments. On the contrary, for star-forming galaxies, a difference between the GSMF in high- and low-density environments is present for masses M ≲ 1011 M⊙. Star-forming galaxies in this mass range appear to be more frequent in low-density environments up to z 2. Our results, in terms of general trends in the shape of the GSMF, are in agreement with a scenario in which galaxies are quenched when they enter hot gas-dominated massive haloes that are preferentially in high-density environments.

  6. Estimating Temperature Fields from MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature Observations in a Sub-Arctic Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N. Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous satellite infrared temperature measurements are essential for understanding the consequences and drivers of change, at local and regional scales, especially in northern and alpine environments dominated by a complex cryosphere where in situ observations are scarce. We describe two methods for producing daily temperature fields using MODIS “clear-sky” day-time Land Surface Temperatures (LST. The Interpolated Curve Mean Daily Surface Temperature (ICM method, interpolates single daytime Terra LST values to daily means using the coincident diurnal air temperature curves. The second method calculates daily mean LST from daily maximum and minimum LST (MMM values from MODIS Aqua and Terra. These ICM and MMM models were compared to daily mean air temperatures recorded between April and October at seven locations in southwest Yukon, Canada, covering characteristic alpine land cover types (tundra, barren, glacier at elevations between 1,408 m and 2,319 m. Both methods for producing mean daily surface temperatures have advantages and disadvantages. ICM signals are strongly correlated with air temperature (R2 = 0.72 to 0.86, but have relatively large variability (RMSE = 4.09 to 4.90 K, while MMM values had a stronger correlation to air temperature (R2 = 0.90 and smaller variability (RMSE = 2.67 K. Finally, when comparing 8-day LST averages, aggregated from the MMM method, to air temperature, we found a high correlation (R2 = 0.84 with less variability (RMSE = 1.54 K. Where the trend was less steep and the y-intercept increased by 1.6 °C compared to the daily correlations. This effect is likely a consequence of LST temperature averages being differentially affected by cloud cover over warm and cold surfaces. We conclude that satellite infrared skin temperature (e.g., MODIS LST, which is often aggregated into multi-day composites to mitigate data reductions caused by cloud cover, changes in its relationship to air temperature

  7. Comparison of Dehydrin Gene Expression and Freezing Tolerance in Bromus inermis and Secale cereale Grown in Controlled Environments, Hydroponics, and the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. J.; Weninger, A.; Wilen, R. W.; Fu, P.; Gusta, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    There have been very few reports on the expression of stress-responsive genes in field-grown material. A barley dehydrin cDNA was used to investigate the expression of dehydrin-like transcripts after low-temperature and abscisic acid-induced acclimation of bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) suspension cells and of bromegrass and rye (Secale cereale) plants grown in the field and under controlled environmental conditions. Field-acclimated plants accumulated high levels of dehydrin transcripts and were very freezing tolerant. Plants grown in pots and hydroponics under controlled environments also accumulated dehydrin transcripts and showed increased freezing tolerance. Simulation of a combined drought and freezing stress in pots resulted in expression of dehydrin-like transcripts comparable to those observed in field-acclimated material. PMID:12232403

  8. Summary of measured radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields (10 kHz to 30 GHz) in the general and work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantiply, E D; Pohl, K R; Poppell, S W; Murphy, J A

    1997-01-01

    We have plotted data from a number of studies on the range of radiofrequency (RF) field levels associated with a variety of environmental and occupational sources. Field intensity is shown in units of volts/meter (V/m) for electric field strength and amps/meter (A/m) for magnetic field strength. Duty factors, modulation frequencies, and modulation indices are also reported for some sources. This paper is organized into seven sections, each cataloging sources into appropriate RF frequency bands from very-low frequency (VLF) to super-high frequency (SHF), and covers frequencies from 10 kHz to 30 GHz. Sources included in this summary are the following: Coast Guard navigational transmitters, a Navy VLF transmitter, computer visual display terminals (VDTs), induction stoves or range tops, industrial induction and dielectric heaters, radio and television broadcast transmitters, amateur and citizens band (CB) transmitters, medical diathermy and electrosurgical units, mobile and handheld transmitters, cordless and cellular telephones, microwave ovens, microwave terrestrial relay and satellite uplinks, and police, air traffic, and aircraft onboard radars. For the sources included in this summary, the strongest fields are found near industrial induction and dielectric heaters, and close to the radiating elements or transmitter leads of high power antenna systems. Handheld transmitters can produce near fields of about 500 V/m at the antenna. Fields in the general urban environment are principally associated with radio and TV broadcast services and measure about 0.1 V/m root-mean-square (rms). Peak fields from air traffic radars sampled in one urban environment were about 10 V/m, 300 times greater than the rms value of 0.03 V/m when the duty factor associated with antenna rotation and pulsing are factored in.

  9. An Analysis of Magnetic Field Environment Near High-Voltage Power Lines and Contact Wires of Electric Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Image method is used in this paper to calculate the value of magnetic field near high-voltage transmission lines and electric railways. Areas in which the magnetic field is less than 0.002 Gauss are given and the magnetic pollution of high-voltage power transmission lines and electric railways is discussed

  10. Hydrogen atom in a quantum plasma environment under the influence of Aharonov-Bohm flux and electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Falaye, Babatunde James; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm-flux (AB-flux), electric and magnetic fields directed along $z$-axis and encircled by quantum plasmas, on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result to a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that, the combined effect of the fields is stronger than solitary effect and consequently, there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, where AB-flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics, it can also be applied in molecular physics.

  11. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene shifts of climate and vegetation in the Long Gang Volcanic Field in NE China have been reconstructed, e. g. by Steblich et al. (2009), based on Maar lake sediment cores. In this study, we investigated soil development during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene and linked it to the climate and vegetation reported in the literature. Three pedons were described and analyzed on a crater wall surrounding a maar. The lower part of the slope is covered by basic pyroclastics that are obviously younger than the maar itself. Pedon 1 is located on the upper slope, where the younger pyroclastics are not present; thus it developed over the entire Holocene and part of the Late Pleistocene. Pedon 2 is on the toe slope and developed from the young basic pyroclastics. Vegetation remains, charred by fire that was caused by the volcanic ash fall, were found in the lowermost part of the pyroclastics layer, on top of a paleosol. Charcoal fragments were dated to 18950-18830 cal BP (using INTCAL 09). Thus, pedon 2 developed since around 18.9 ka BP, whereas the development of the paleosol that was buried under the pyroclastics (pedon 3), was stopped at this time. Pedons 1 and 2 are Vitric Andosols, developed mainly from basic pyroclastics, as evidenced by the composition of rock fragments in the soils, comprising 78 / 81 mass % lapilli and 22 / 19 mass % gneiss fragments, respectively. Pedon 3 is a Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic) that developed entirely from gneiss fragments produced by the maar explosion. Lab data suggest increasing intensity of pedogenesis in the direction: Pedon 3 (paleosol) < Pedon 2 < Pedon 1, reflected e. g. in increasing Fed/Fet ratios, decreasing molar ratios of (Ca+K+Na)/Al, and decreasing pH. However, it needs to be considered that lapilli are more readily weatherable than gneiss fragments. The profile morphology of the paleosol, characterized by reddish-brown color (7.5YR), strong angular blocky structure and well-expressed illuvial clay

  12. Space Environment of Mercury at the Time of the First MESSENGER Flyby: Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field Modeling of Upstream Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    passed over the planet (and MESSENGER) several days prior to the flyby of Mercury with the highest-speed (600 km/s) stream features having been expected...when MESSENGER is in orbit around Mercury , the spacecraft will be within the magnetosphere and magnetotail of the planet for extended portions of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Space environment of Mercury at the time of the first 3HESSENGER flyby: Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field •Modeling

  13. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments; a case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Goedhart, P.W.; Vandecasteele, B.

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects

  14. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments; a case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Goedhart, P.W.; Vandecasteele, B.

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects

  15. A Proposed Treatment for Visual Field Loss caused by Traumatic Brain Injury using Interactive Visuotactile Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Attila J.; Hajnal, Alen; Shiratuddin, Mohd F.; Szatmary, Gabriella

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach of using interactive virtual environment technology in Vision Restoration Therapy caused by Traumatic Brain Injury. We called the new system Interactive Visuotactile Virtual Environment and it holds a promise of expanding the scope of already existing rehabilitation techniques. Traditional vision rehabilitation methods are based on passive psychophysical training procedures, and can last up to six months before any modest improvements can be seen in patients. A highly immersive and interactive virtual environment will allow the patient to practice everyday activities such as object identification and object manipulation through the use 3D motion sensoring handheld devices such data glove or the Nintendo Wiimote. Employing both perceptual and action components in the training procedures holds the promise of more efficient sensorimotor rehabilitation. Increased stimulation of visual and sensorimotor areas of the brain should facilitate a comprehensive recovery of visuomotor function by exploiting the plasticity of the central nervous system. Integrated with a motion tracking system and an eye tracking device, the interactive virtual environment allows for the creation and manipulation of a wide variety of stimuli, as well as real-time recording of hand-, eye- and body movements and coordination. The goal of the project is to design a cost-effective and efficient vision restoration system.

  16. Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the

  17. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specifications: ACRR Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) Bucket Environment (ACRR-PLG-CC-32-CL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parm, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 37 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  18. Influence of Length of Opposing bi-Au Cone-Tips and Different Environment on Field Enhancement in Feed Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu-Feng; WU Shi-Fa

    2007-01-01

    Electric field enhancement distributions encountered in feed gap of opposing bi-Au cone-tips is studied using a frequency-domain three-dimensional finite element method to solve Maxwell's equations of electric field distributions. Both the influences of cone-tip length and surrounding medium on electric field enhancement are investigated. The maximal enhancement value is discussed in terms of a simple physical model based on a standing wave on the tip surface associated with the antenna effect and surface plasmon. Simulated results demonstrate the enhancement is sensitive to the tip length. By selecting a suitably matched scale according to the incident wavelength, a large enhancement value can be observed within a small focused spot between the opposing tips permitting a high spatial resolution. The relative position of the opposing tips is also found for the optimum enhancement. All of the results suggest that our configuration is suitable for the site-specific Raman spectroscopic analysis at nanoscale.

  19. Link between optical spectra, crystal-field parameters, and local environments of Eu3+ ions in Eu2O3-doped sodium disilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, T.; Mountjoy, G.; Afify, N. D.; Reid, M. F.; Yeung, Y. Y.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.

    2011-09-01

    Rare-earth-doped glasses are key materials for optical technology due to the luminescent properties of 4fn ions. The crystal-field model describes the effect of local environment on transitions between 4f electrons. We present a detailed modeling study of the optical spectra of sodium disilicate glass, 33Na2O·67SiO2, doped with 0.2% and 1.0 mol% Eu2O3. This study uses very large molecular dynamics models with up to 100 Eu3+ ions, the superposition model for covalent and overlap effects on crystal-field parameters, and realistic values for homogeneous linewidth broadening. The simulated spectra are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The trends in 7FJ energy levels across different Eu3+ ion sites have been examined and a very detailed analysis is presented that looks at how features of the spectra are related to features of the local environment of Eu3+ ions. Increasing the crystal-field strength Stotal causes the 7F0 energy level to decrease and causes the splitting of 7FJ manifolds to increase, and this is due to increasing mixing of 4f wave functions. To a reasonable approximation the crystal-field strength components Sk depend on angular positions of ligands independently of distances to ligands. The former are seen to be more significant in determining Sk, which are closely related to the rotationally invariant bond-orientational order parameters Qk. The values of S2 are approximately linear in Q2, and the values of Q2 are higher for fivefold than sixfold coordinated rare-earth ions. These results can be of importance for efforts to enhance the local environment of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses for optical applications.

  20. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2016-11-02

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.64.

  1. Field estimates of attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to methyl eugenol in varying environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation and control of invasive pests. Here we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...

  2. Genome Sequences of Five Arboviruses in Field-Captured Mosquitoes in a Unique Rural Environment of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jun; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Yang, Yu; Jima, Dereje D; Richardson, Jason H; Jarman, Richard G

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present the genome sequences of one mesonivirus and four novel arboviruses observed in Culex bitaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens, captured in and near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. Results suggest the ubiquitous presence of mesoniviruses and the discovery of a potentially new species of arboviruses in field-captured mosquitoes.

  3. A Case-Based Study of Students' Visuohaptic Experiences of Electric Fields around Molecules: Shaping the Development of Virtual Nanoscience Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E. Höst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent educational research has suggested that immersive multisensory virtual environments offer learners unique and exciting knowledge-building opportunities for the construction of scientific knowledge. This paper delivers a case-based study of students’ immersive interaction with electric fields around molecules in a multisensory visuohaptic virtual environment. The virtual architecture presented here also has conceptual connections to the flourishing quest in contemporary literature for the pressing need to communicate nanoscientific ideas to learners. Five upper secondary school students’ prior conceptual understanding of electric fields and their application of this knowledge to molecular contexts, were probed prior to exposure to the virtual model. Subsequently, four students interacted with the visuohaptic model while performing think-aloud tasks. An inductive and heuristic treatment of videotaped verbal and behavioural data revealed distinct interrelationships between students’ interactive strategies implemented when executing tasks in the virtual system and the nature of their conceptual knowledge deployed. The obtained qualitative case study evidence could serve as an empirical basis for informing the rendering and communication of overarching nanoscale ideas. At the time of composing this paper for publication in the current journal, the research findings of this study have been put into motion in informing a broader project goal of developing educational virtual environments for depicting nanophenomena.

  4. Rate Constants of PSII Photoinhibition and its Repair, and PSII Fluorescence Parameters in Field Plants in Relation to their Growth Light Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kazunori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakaji, Masayoshi; Kanel, Dhana Raj; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The extent of photoinhibition of PSII is determined by a balance between the rate of photodamage to PSII and that of repair of the damaged PSII. It has already been indicated that the rate constants of photodamage (kpi) and repair (krec) of the leaves differ depending on their growth light environment. However, there are no studies using plants in the field. We examined these rate constants and fluorescence parameters of several field-grown plants to determine inter-relationships between these values and the growth environment. The kpi values were strongly related to the excess energy, EY, of the puddle model and non-regulated energy dissipation, Y(NO), of the lake model, both multiplied by the photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) level during the photoinhibitory treatment. In contrast, the krec values corrected against in situ air temperature were very strongly related to the daily PPFD level. The plants from the fields showed higher NPQ than the chamber-grown plants, probably because these field plants acclimated to stronger lightflecks than the averaged growth PPFD. Comparing chamber-grown plants and the field plants, we showed that kpi is determined by the incident light level and the photosynthetic capacities such as in situ rate of PSII electron transport and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) [e.g. Y(NO)×PPFD] and that krec is mostly determined by the growth light and temperature levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. From fields to a super-cluster: the role of the environment at z=0.84 with HiZELS

    CERN Document Server

    Sobral, David; Smail, Ian; Geach, Jim

    2010-01-01

    At z=0, clusters are primarily populated by red, elliptical and massive galaxies, while blue, spiral and lower-mass galaxies are common in low-density environments. Understanding how and when these differences were established is of absolute importance for our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, but results at high-z remain contradictory. By taking advantage of the widest and deepest H-alpha narrow-band survey at z=0.84 over the COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS fields, probing a wide range of densities (from poor fields to rich groups and clusters, including a confirmed super-cluster with a striking filamentary structure), we show that the fraction of star-forming galaxies falls continuously from ~40% in fields to approaching 0% in rich groups/clusters. We also find that the median SFR increases with environmental density, at least up to group densities - but only for low and medium mass galaxies, and thus such enhancement is mass-dependent at z~1. The environment also plays a role in setting the faint-end ...

  6. Environment of 1 ≤ z ≤ 2 MIR selected obscured and unobscured AGNs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornancini, Carlos Guillermo; Taormina, Mónica Silvia; Lambas, Diego García

    2017-08-01

    Context. In unified models, different types of active galaxy nuclei (AGN) correspond to a single class of objects, where their observed differences are solely due to the different orientations of the obscuring material around the central inner regions. Recent studies also show that this obscuring material can even extend at galactic scales due to debris from galaxy interactions and/or mergers. In standard unified models the different AGN types are expected to show similar galaxy environments. Aims: We aim to investigate properties and environment of obscured and unobscured AGNs selected from mid-infrared (MIR) bands from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), in order to test the unified model and evolutionary scenarios. Methods: The sample of AGNs was selected from images obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) mounted on the Spitzer Space Telescope, based on their MIR colors centered at wavelengths [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] microns. We selected two samples of AGNs with redshifts in the range 1 ≤ z ≤ 2 and rest-frame absolute magnitudes Mv ≤ -21: obscured and unobscured AGNs by means of a simple optical-MIR color cut criterion (R- [4.5] = 3.05.) Results: We find that obscured AGNs are intrinsically optically faint in the R band, suggesting that luminous IR-selected AGNs have a significant dust extinction. From a cross-correlation with several X-ray surveys, we find that the majority of the AGNs in our sample have X-ray luminosities similar to those found in Seyfert-like galaxies. We study the properties of galaxies surrounding these two samples. Neighbouring galaxies located close to ( 200 kpc) obscured AGNs tend to have redder colors, compared to the local environment of unobscured AGNs. Results obtained from a KS test show that the two color distributions are different at 95% confidence level. We find that obscured AGNs are located in denser local galaxy environments compared to the unobscured AGN sample. Conclusions: Our results

  7. Simulator sickness when performing gaze shifts within a wide field of view optic flow environment: preliminary evidence for using virtual reality in vestibular rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Susan L

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wide field of view virtual environments offer some unique features that may be beneficial for use in vestibular rehabilitation. For one, optic flow information extracted from the periphery may be critical for recalibrating the sensory processes used by people with vestibular disorders. However, wide FOV devices also have been found to result in greater simulator sickness. Before a wide FOV device can be used in a clinical setting, its safety must be demonstrated. Methods Symptoms of simulator sickness were recorded by 9 healthy adult subjects after they performed gaze shifting tasks to locate targets superimposed on an optic flow background. Subjects performed 8 trials of gaze shifting on each of the six separate visits. Results The incidence of symptoms of simulator sickness while subjects performed gaze shifts in an optic flow environment was lower than the average reported incidence for flight simulators. The incidence was greater during the first visit compared with subsequent visits. Furthermore, the incidence showed an increasing trend over the 8 trials. Conclusion The performance of head unrestrained gaze shifts in a wide FOV optic flow environment is tolerated well by healthy subjects. This finding provides rationale for testing these environments in people with vestibular disorders, and supports the concept of using wide FOV virtual reality for vestibular rehabilitation.

  8. Fast Room Temperature Very Low Field-Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Compatible with MagnetoEncephaloGraphy Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Angelo; Sinibaldi, Raffaele; Conti, Allegra; De Luca, Cinzia; Catallo, Nadia; Sebastiani, Piero; Pizzella, Vittorio; Romani, Gian Luca; Sotgiu, Antonello; Della Penna, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, ultra-low field (ULF)-MRI is being given more and more attention, due to the possibility of integrating ULF-MRI and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the same device. Despite the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction, there are several advantages to operating at ULF, including increased tissue contrast, reduced cost and weight of the scanners, the potential to image patients that are not compatible with clinical scanners, and the opportunity to integrate different imaging modalities. The majority of ULF-MRI systems are based, until now, on magnetic field pulsed techniques for increasing SNR, using SQUID based detectors with Larmor frequencies in the kHz range. Although promising results were recently obtained with such systems, it is an open question whether similar SNR and reduced acquisition time can be achieved with simpler devices. In this work a room-temperature, MEG-compatible very-low field (VLF)-MRI device working in the range of several hundred kHz without sample pre-polarization is presented. This preserves many advantages of ULF-MRI, but for equivalent imaging conditions and SNR we achieve reduced imaging time based on preliminary results using phantoms and ex-vivo rabbits heads.

  9. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. A non-CFD modeling system for computing 3D wind and concentration fields in urban environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Matthew A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gowardhan, Akshay [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pardyjak, Eric R [UNIV OF UTAH

    2010-01-01

    The Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) Dispersion Modeling System has been developed to rapidly compute the transport and dispersion of toxic agent releases in the vicinity of buildings. It is composed of an empirical-diagnostic wind solver, an 'urbanized' Lagrangian random-walk model, and a graphical user interface. The code has been used for homeland security and environmental air pollution applications. In this paper, we discuss the wind solver methodology and improvements made to the original Roeckle schemes in order to better capture flow fields in dense built-up areas. The mode1-computed wind and concentration fields are then compared to measurements from several field experiments. Improvements to the QUIC Dispersion Modeling System have been made to account for the inhomogeneous and complex building layouts found in large cities. The logic that has been introduced into the code is described and comparisons of model output to full-scale outdoor urban measurements in Oklahoma City and New York City are given. Although far from perfect, the model agreed fairly well with measurements and in many cases performed equally to CFD codes.

  11. Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Nicolas; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Pitre, Frédéric E; Labrecque, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

  12. Novel Cleanup Agents Designed Exclusively for Oil Field Membrane Filtration Systems Low Cost Field Demonstrations of Cleanup Agents in Controlled Experimental Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett; Harold Vance

    2007-08-31

    The goal of our project is to develop innovative processes and novel cleaning agents for water treatment facilities designed to remove fouling materials and restore micro-filter and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane performance. This project is part of Texas A&M University's comprehensive study of the treatment and reuse of oilfield brine for beneficial purposes. Before waste water can be used for any beneficial purpose, it must be processed to remove contaminants, including oily wastes such as residual petroleum hydrocarbons. An effective way of removing petroleum from brines is the use of membrane filters to separate oily waste from the brine. Texas A&M and its partners have developed highly efficient membrane treatment and RO desalination for waste water including oil field produced water. We have also developed novel and new cleaning agents for membrane filters utilizing environmentally friendly materials so that the water from the treatment process will meet U.S. EPA drinking water standards. Prototype micellar cleaning agents perform better and use less clean water than alternate systems. While not yet optimized, the new system restores essentially complete membrane flux and separation efficiency after cleaning. Significantly the amount of desalinated water that is required to clean the membranes is reduced by more than 75%.

  13. A Study on Training Highly Skilled Personnel in Environment Protection Field%环境类高技能人才培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婧

    2015-01-01

    Highly skilled personnel in environment protection field is the core of China environ-mental pollution prevention and control work, is indispensable to promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements. However, the employment of the personnel in environmental protection field is not optimistic, there is no professional system for training highly skilled personnel, the government's investment is insufficient, enterprises' training strengthen is not enough, environmental highly-skilled personnel's training is time-consuming, and their promotion is difficult, so highly skilled personnel in environmental protection field is scarce and uneven distributed. All these problems could be resolved by increasing government investment, perfecting the evaluation system of higher vocational education, fully exerting the principal role of enterprises and improving the environment treatment.%环境类高技能人才是我国环境污染防治工作的核心骨干,是推动科技成果转化不可或缺的重要力量。然而环境类人才就业不乐观,缺乏专业的高技能培训体制,政府投入不够,企业培训力度不够,环境类高技能人才培养慢、晋升难等,造成了我国环境类高技能人才资源匮乏、分布不均。这些问题可以通过加大政府投入,完善高职教育评价体系,充分发挥企业的主体作用和提高环境类高技能人才待遇的方法得以解决。

  14. Spectral-Domain-Based Scattering Analysis of Fields Radiated by Distributed Sources in Planar-Stratified Environments with Arbitrarily Anisotropic Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Sainath, Kamalesh

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the numerically stable computation and extraction of the scattered electromagnetic field excited by distributed sources embedded in planar-layered environments where each layer may exhibit arbitrary and independent electrical and magnetic anisotropic response and loss profiles. Although the scattered field computation appears analytically relatively straightforward, different procedures within the computation chain, if not treated carefully, are inherently susceptible to numerical instabilities and (or) accuracy limitations due to the potential manifestation of numerically overflown and (or) numerically unbalanced terms entering the chain. Therefore, primary emphasis is given to effecting these tasks in a numerically stable and robust manner for all ranges of physical parameters. We validate the results against closed-form solutions and provide a computational efficiency study demonstrating a drastic reduction in computation time realized via the spectral domain (i.e., $k$-space or, equivalently, m...

  15. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Central Cavity Free-Field Environment with the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-FF-CC-32-cl).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naranjo, Gerald E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lippert, Lance L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document presents the facilit y - recommended characteri zation o f the neutron, prompt gamma - ray, and delayed gamma - ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor ( ACRR ) for the cen tral cavity free - field environment with the 32 - inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environmen t is ACRR - FF - CC - 32 - cl. The neutron, prompt gamma - ray , and delayed gamma - ray energy spectra , uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma - ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the cavity . Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples . Acknowledgements The authors wish to th ank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work . Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  16. Molecular Mechanics (MM) Force Fields for Modelling of Copper(II) Amino Acid Complexes in Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolović, Jasmina

    2009-03-01

    New MM force field developed for modelling the properties of copper(II) complexes with aliphatic amino acid in vacuo, in crystal, and in aqueous solution was applied to study conformational properties of bis(N,N-diethylglycinato)copper(II). Two hypotheses are examined and confirmed as true: (i) the conformations which do not allow apical coordination to the copper(II) are the most stable in vacuo and in aqueous solution; (ii) MM calculations quantitatively support the supposition that the experimentally observed conformer is better suited for crystal packing than the in vacuo and in solution most stable conformers.

  17. [Influence of magnetic field on the growth of pathogen microorganisms isolated from the indoor environment at the Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Matilde; Barbará, Eduardo; Padrón, Jesús; Borrego, Sofía F; Valdés, Oderlaise; Molina, Alian

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic pollution has been detected at the Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba and the influence of extremely low frequency magnetic fields could be quantified with pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the indoor environment. To quantify the influence of an extremely low frequency magnetic field on the growth of pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the environment at the Archivo Nacional. We used five microorganisms isolated at the Archivo Nacional: Streptococcus sp. (1), Listeria sp. (2) and Candida guillermondii (3), and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (4) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5) as references. We applied this magnetic field of extremely low frequency, 60 Hz/220 V (3 mT), for two hours to these microorganisms on three culture tubes with distilled water and nutrient broth. Then we inoculated 0.1 mL in the following solid culture mediums on Petri dishes: CromoCen SC Agar (1 and 2), Potato Dextrose Agar (3), CromoCen DC 4227 (4) and Malt Extract Agar (5). The colonies were counted (log CFU/mL) by digital processing of the images of Petri dishes using the MatLab ® tool. We observed a statistically significant stimulation (p=0.05) in the quantity of treated colonies as compared to controls, which was higher in nutrient broth than in distilled water, and in bacteria (nutrient broth and treated colonies: 9.43 to 10.62 CFU/mL) as compared with yeasts (nutrient broth-treated colonies: 8.31 to 8.79 CFU/mL). In decreasing order, stimulation was as follows: Listeria sp., E. coli ATCC 25922, Streptococcus sp., C. guillermondii and S. cerevisiae . We concluded that the magnetic field applied had a stimulating effect on the microorganisms under study, which increases the risk to the health of staff and visitors at the Archivo Nacional .

  18. Fabricating and Tailoring Polyaniline (PANI) Nanofibers with High Aspect Ratio in a Low-Acid Environment in a Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Chen, Yanhui; Mei, Ang; Qiao, Mingtao; Hou, Chunping; Zhang, Hepeng; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2016-01-01

    In a 0.010 m HCl solution, we successfully transformed irregular polyaniline (PANI) agglomerates into uniform PANI nanofibers with a diameter of 46-145 nm and a characteristic length on the order of several microns by the addition of superparamagnetic Fe3 O4 microspheres in a magnetic field. The PANI morphological evolution showed that the PANI nanofibers stemmed from the PANI coating shell synthesized on the surface of the Fe3 O4 microsphere chains. It was found that the magnetic field could optimize the PANI nanofibers with a narrow diameter size distribution, and effectively suppressed secondary growth. When compared with other microspheres (like silica and polystyrene), only the use of superparamagnetic Fe3 O4 microspheres resulted in the appearance of PANI nanofibers. Attempts to form these high-quality PANI nanofibers in other concentrations of HCl solution were unsuccessful. This deficiency was largely attributed to the inappropriate quantity of aniline cations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Field validation of secondary commercial data sources on the retail food outlet environment in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Han, Euna; Zenk, Shannon N; Khan, Tamkeen; Quinn, Christopher M; Gibbs, Kevin P; Pugach, Oksana; Barker, Dianne C; Resnick, Elissa A; Myllyluoma, Jaana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    This study used direct field observations with interior assessments of outlets to validate food store and restaurant data from two commercial business lists conditional on classification of outlet type, including supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, full-service restaurants and fast food restaurants. The study used a stratified random sample that included 274 urban census tracts across 9 counties from the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and 46 suburban and 61 rural census tracts across 13 counties from a 50-mile buffer surrounding the MSA. Results showed that agreement between the field observations and the commercial business lists for the food store and restaurant outlets was generally moderate (ranging from fair to good). However, when the listed data were validated based on an exact classification match, agreement was only fair (ranging from poor to moderate) and, in particular, poor for fast food restaurants. The study also found that agreement levels for some outlet types differed by tract characteristics. Commercial databases must be used with caution as substitutes for on the ground data collection.

  20. [Evaluation of the levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the territory of the city of Bari in outside and inside environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Abbate, N; Pranzo, S; Martucci, V; Rella, C; Vitucci, L; Salamanna, S

    2004-01-01

    In this study we measured the levels of the high frequency field in the proximity of non-ionizing radiation sources (wireless transmitting stations for mobile telephones and radio and television transmitters) in nine districts of the city of Bari. The measurements were taken both inside and outside closed environments. For the indoor measurements we took into account electromagnetic field generating equipment (VDT, electric domestic appliances, mobile telephones) in working and non-working order and with the windows open and shut respectively. We carried out these measurements according to the methods laid down in the Italian regulation CEI ENV 50166-2 of May 1995, as shown in the enclosure to the Ministerial Decree of 10.9.98 n.381. The electromagnetic field levels near wireless transmitting stations for mobile telephones are certainly modest when we consider that they never exceeded the limits established by the aforesaid Ministerial Decree. On the contrary radio and television equipment creates a much greater source of exposure. The electromagnetic field levels are certainly superior to those of the wireless transmitting stations although they never exceed, except in one isolated case, the values established by the Ministerial Decree 381/98.

  1. Key Ground-Based and Space-Based Assets to Disentangle Magnetic Field Sources in the Earth's Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulliat, A.; Matzka, J.; Masson, A.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic field measured on the ground or in space is the addition of several sources: from flows within the Earth's core to electric currents in distant regions of the magnetosphere. Properly separating and characterizing these sources requires appropriate observations, both ground-based and space-based. In the present paper, we review the existing observational infrastructure, from magnetic observatories and magnetometer arrays on the ground to satellites in low-Earth (Swarm) and highly elliptical (Cluster) orbits. We also review the capability of SuperDARN to provide polar ionospheric convection patterns supporting magnetic observations. The past two decades have been marked by exciting new developments in all observation types. We review these developments, focusing on how they complement each other and how they have led or could lead in the near future to improved separation and modeling of the geomagnetic sources.

  2. CFD prediction of the near-field sonic boom environment for two low boom HSCT configurations. [High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, M. J.; Darden, C. M.

    1991-01-01

    Current efforts to reduce the sonic boom of a future High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) by careful shaping have led to the need for more accurate predictions of the near-field flow conditions of the configuration. A fully three-dimensional Euler finite volume code is used to predict sonic boom pressure signatures for two low boom concepts - one designed to cruise at Mach 2 and the other at Mach 3. Calculations were carried out using a grid topology that has been modified to reduce the inaccuracies caused by grid spreading often suffered with CFD methods when calculations several body lengths downstream become necessary. Comparisons of CFD results and experimental wind tunnel signatures are shown. Ground signatures are predicted by extrapolating the pressures predicted by the Euler code with an extrapolation method based on the Whitham theory.

  3. Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity measurements to determine frequency dependent electrical parameters in periglacial environment - theoretical considerations and first field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyklenk, A.; Hördt, A.; Radić, T.

    2016-05-01

    Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity (CCR) is conventionally used to emulate DC resistivity measurements and may provide important information about the ice content of material in periglacial areas. The application of CCR theoretically enables the determination of both electrical parameters, i.e. the resistivity and the electrical permittivity, by analyzing magnitude and phase shift spectra. The electrical permittivity may dominate the impedance, especially in periglacial areas or regions of hydrogeological interest. However, previous theoretical work suggested that the phase shift may strongly depend on electrode height above ground, implying that electrode height must be known with great accuracy to determine electrical permittivity. Here, we demonstrate with laboratory test measurements, theoretical modelling and by analysing the Jacobian matrix of the inversion, that the sensitivity towards electrode height is drastically reduced if the electrical permittivity is frequency dependent in a way that is typical for ice. For the fist time, we used a novel broadband CCR device "Chameleon" for a field test located in one of the ridge galleries beneath the crest of Mount Zugspitze. A permanently ice covered bottom of a tunnel was examined. For the inversion of the measured spectra, the frequency dependance of the electrical parameters was parameterized in 3 different ways. A Debye Model for pure ices, a Cole-Cole Model for pure ices and a dual Cole-Cole Model including interfacial water additionally. The frequency-dependent resistivity and permittivity spectra obtained from the inversion, including low and high frequency limits, agree reasonably well with laboratory and field measurements reported in the literature.

  4. Successful field application in continuous DTS monitoring under harsh environment of SAGD wells using improved optical fiber technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaura, J.; Sierra, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). WellDynamics

    2008-10-15

    Most protective materials of conventional optical fibers used in well monitoring applications are not designed for the extreme temperatures associated with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations. Optical fiber performance is highly affected by hydrogen ingression; thermal resistance of materials; and mechanical resistance of the fiber. Optical fibers exposed to hydrogen experience increased absorption or light loss due to various chemical species in the glass fiber. This paper described the performance of a newly developed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) high temperature (HT) system for use in a hydrogen-rich SAGD environment. The OptoLog uses a new single-mode fiber that is hydrogen resilient under severe temperature. Hydrogen molecular reactions with impurities from the manufacturing process are minimized by a pure core glass fiber. The new temperature calculation algorithm used by the system was also described in this paper along with a comparative evaluation of the system performance with that of a conventional multi-mode DTS system. It was concluded that this newly developed system is a feasible solution for lowering Opex and minimizing interventions. It also reduces personnel exposure to hazardous well conditions because of the enhanced longevity of the OptoLog DTS-HT fiber. The data provided by the new system enables users to quickly identify anomalies; implement corrective actions immediately; and allow for better steam utilization. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Galaxy Environment in the 3D-HST Fields: Witnessing the Onset of Satellite Quenching at z ∼ 1–2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, M.; Wilman, D. J.; Mendel, J. T.; Saglia, R. P.; Galametz, A.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Chan, J. C. C.; Fabricius, M.; Bandara, K.; Brammer, G. B.; Davies, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Hartley, W.; Kulkarni, S. K.; Lang, P.; Momcheva, I. G.; Nelson, E. J.; Skelton, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Wisnioski, E.; Whitaker, K. E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.

    2017-02-01

    We make publicly available a catalog of calibrated environmental measures for galaxies in the five 3D-Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS deep fields. Leveraging the spectroscopic and grism redshifts from the 3D-HST survey, multiwavelength photometry from CANDELS, and wider field public data for edge corrections, we derive densities in fixed apertures to characterize the environment of galaxies brighter than {{JH}}140satellite galaxy. The same procedure is applied to a z = 0 sample selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We compute the fraction of passive central and satellite galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass, and redshift, and then derive the fraction of galaxies that were quenched by environment specific processes. Using the mock sample, we estimate that the timescale for satellite quenching is {t}{quench}∼ 2{--}5 {Gyr}; it is longer at lower stellar mass or lower redshift, but remarkably independent of halo mass. This indicates that, in the range of environments commonly found within the 3D-HST sample ({M}h≲ {10}14 {M}ȯ ), satellites are quenched by exhaustion of their gas reservoir in the absence of cosmological accretion. We find that the quenching times can be separated into a delay phase, during which satellite galaxies behave similarly to centrals at fixed stellar mass, and a phase where the star formation rate drops rapidly ({τ }f∼ 0.4{--}0.6 Gyr), as shown previously at z = 0. We conclude that this scenario requires satellite galaxies to retain a large reservoir of multi-phase gas upon accretion, even at high redshift, and that this gas sustains star formation for the long quenching times observed.

  6. [The notion of conflict of interest in the field of health and environment: philosophical and legal approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermitte, M-A; Le Coz, P

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the conflict of interest in philosophical and legal perspective. The philosophical approach comes from two perspectives: political philosophy focuses on the role of the link of interest in the city considered in the light of a broader reflection on the conditions of living together. Antiquity philosophers have enhanced the interest link as privileged vector of humanization and socialization of individuals. In the eighteenth century, Adam Smith considers the pursuit of individual interests a stronger social base that love of neighbor advocated by Christians. Moral philosophy focuses specifically on the passage of interest linked to the conflict of interest. It wondered if we should be impartial in all circumstances or whether it's right to give priority to our friends and loved ones. Thus, it poses the question of whether introspection is sufficient to detect conflicts of interest or if the look of an external third party is still required. The legal process differs from the philosophical approach at two levels; on the one hand, its scope is more limited: the law doesn't envisage the benefits of links of interest on social life even though it may protect some of them (in the context of the family, for example) and is intended to prevent bias that may taint the decision public. On the other hand, the lawyer doesn't enter the interiority of individuals but stands by what appears on the outside: it tracks the suspicion of bias can have serious impacts, such as health and the environment. Somehow, it is more radical. It's noteworthy that despite its many developments, the law can't to stop conflicts of interest in research. Several reasons account for this impasse: scientists receive mission to partner with industry to develop products but they must remain independent in order to assess the risks; there is a tendency to always choose the same experts; there are conflicts of interest intellectuals which are not easy to detect.

  7. Spatial and temporal variation of bulk snow properties in northern boreal and tundra environments based on extensive field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Derksen, Chris; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-08-01

    An extensive in situ data set of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow density collected in support of the European Space Agency (ESA) SnowSAR-2 airborne campaigns in northern Finland during the winter of 2011-2012 is presented (ESA Earth Observation Campaigns data 2000-2016). The suitability of the in situ measurement protocol to provide an accurate reference for the simultaneous airborne SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data products over different land cover types was analysed in the context of spatial scale, sample spacing, and uncertainty. The analysis was executed by applying autocorrelation analysis and root mean square difference (RMSD) error estimations. The results showed overall higher variability for all the three bulk snow parameters over tundra, open bogs and lakes (due to wind processes); however, snow depth tended to vary over shorter distances in forests (due to snow-vegetation interactions). Sample spacing/sample size had a statistically significant effect on the mean snow depth over all land cover types. Analysis executed for 50, 100, and 200 m transects revealed that in most cases less than five samples were adequate to describe the snow depth mean with RMSD < 5 %, but for land cover with high overall variability an indication of increased sample size of 1.5-3 times larger was gained depending on the scale and the desired maximum RMSD. Errors for most of the land cover types reached ˜ 10 % if only three measurements were considered. The collected measurements, which are available via the ESA website upon registration, compose an exceptionally large manually collected snow data set in Scandinavian taiga and tundra environments. This information represents a valuable contribution to the snow research community and can be applied to various snow studies.

  8. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

    1998-02-01

    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  9. Using Tailed Radio Galaxies to Probe the Environment and Magnetic Field of Galaxy Clusters in the SKA Era

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston-Hollitt, M; Pratley, L

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of tailed radio galaxies is an invaluable source of environmental information, in which a history of the past interactions in the intra-cluster medium, such as complex galaxy motions and cluster merger shocks, are preserved. In recent years, the use of tailed radio galaxies as environmental probes has gained momentum as a method for galaxy cluster detection, examining the dynamics of individual clusters, measuring the density and velocity flows in the intra-cluster medium, and for probing cluster magnetic fields. To date instrumental limitations in terms of resolution and sensitivity have confined this research to the local (z < 0.7) Universe. The advent of SKA1 surveys however will allow detection of roughly 1,000,000 tailed radio galaxies and their associated galaxy clusters out to redshifts of 2 or more. This is in fact ten times more than the current number of known clusters in the Universe. Additionally between 50,000 and 100,000 tailed radio galaxies will be sufficiently polarized to a...

  10. [Reaction of the animal adrenal cortex to the action of a strong, constant magnetic field and to a hypomagnetic environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shust, I V; Kostinik, I M

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on male albino rats; a study was made of the functional condition of the adrenal cortex following a single 30-minute (decapitation of the animals in 1, 8, 16, and 24 hours, and in 4, 8, 16, and 30 days) and repeated (for 30 minutes every day) prolonged (for 1 month) action of CMF (decapitation in 2, 4, 8, 16, and 30 days) and hypomagnetic field (for 8 and 30 days). Changes in the lipid content and in the alkaline phosphatase activity served as a morpho-histochemical criterion. A single brief CMF action proved to stimulate the adrenal function the first hours of the after-action; later the changes were oscillating in character. Prolonged repeated action of CMF depressed the functional activity of the adrenal cortex. Both in the first and in the second cases functional activity of the organism was almost completely restored by the end of the month, after the cessation of the CMF action. An 8-day stay of the animals in the hypomagnetic medium led to activation of the adrenal gland function, and a 30-day stay--to its reduction.

  11. Combining a modified vector field histogram algorithm and real-time image processing for unknown environment navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Kumud; Fine, Adam; Imam, Nabil; Pietrocola, David; Robertson, Neil; Ahlgren, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Q is an unmanned ground vehicle designed to compete in the Autonomous and Navigation Challenges of the AUVSI Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). Built on a base platform of a modified PerMobil Trax off-road wheel chair frame, and running off a Dell Inspiron D820 laptop with an Intel t7400 Core 2 Duo Processor, Q gathers information from a SICK laser range finder (LRF), video cameras, differential GPS, and digital compass to localize its behavior and map out its navigational path. This behavior is handled by intelligent closed loop speed control and robust sensor data processing algorithms. In the Autonomous challenge, data taken from two IEEE 1394 cameras and the LRF are integrated and plotted on a custom-defined occupancy grid and converted into a histogram which is analyzed for openings between obstacles. The image processing algorithm consists of a series of steps involving plane extraction, normalizing of the image histogram for an effective dynamic thresholding, texture and morphological analysis and particle filtering to allow optimum operation at varying ambient conditions. In the Navigation Challenge, a modified Vector Field Histogram (VFH) algorithm is combined with an auto-regressive path planning model for obstacle avoidance and better localization. Also, Q features the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS) Level 3 compliance. All algorithms are developed and implemented using National Instruments (NI) hardware and LabVIEW software. The paper will focus on explaining the various algorithms that make up Q's intelligence and the different ways and modes of their implementation.

  12. Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images IV. Statistical properties of the dynamical environment around pores

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Meetu

    2014-01-01

    The extensive database of high-resolution G-band images observed with the Hinode/SOT is a unique resource to derive statistical properties of pores using advanced digital image processing techniques. The study is based on two data sets: (1) Photometric and morphological properties inferred from single G-band images cover almost seven years from 2006 October 25 to 2013 August 31. (2) Horizontal flow fields have been derived from 356 one-hour sequences of G-band images using LCT for a shorter period of time from 2006 November 3 to 2008 January 6 comprising 13 active regions. A total of 7643/2863 (single/time-averaged) pores builds the foundation of the statistical analysis. Pores are preferentially observed at low latitudes in the southern hemisphere during the deep minimum of solar cycle No. 23. This imbalance reverses during the rise of cycle No. 24, when the pores migrate from high to low latitudes. Pores are rarely encountered in quiet-Sun G-band images, and only about 10% of pores exists in isolation. In g...

  13. The irradiating field of view of imaging laser radar under fog conditions in a controlled laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Hua; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Lai, Jian-Cheng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yong; Li, Zhen-Hua

    2017-04-01

    This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates the performance of the imaging laser radar (ILR) system under the fog condition. Fog is generated and controlled homogeneously within a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber. A physical model of the reflected laser pulses due to fog and a standard Lambertian target are developed to determine the width of each echo pulse for different fog concentrations. We show that there is a good agreement between the predicted and measured results for the width of backscattered return pulses. Based on experimental results an empirical model of the horizontal and vertical irradiating field of views (FOVs) of ILR under different visibilities is also developed. Consequently, a new model is proposed to predict the horizontal and vertical irradiating FOVs of ILR by using the width of the backscattered return pulse under different fog conditions. The reported results can be used to dynamically adjust the scanning interval based on the variation of the irradiating FOVs of laser radar and improve the precision of target ranging and imaging.

  14. Citizen science applied to building healthier community environments: advancing the field through shared construct and measurement development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica; Schneider, Margaret; Winter, Sandra J; Stone, Emily; Puhan, Milo; Stathi, Afroditi; Porter, Michelle M; Gardiner, Paul A; Dos Santos, Daniela Lopes; Wolff, Andrea; King, Abby C

    2017-09-29

    Physical inactivity across the lifespan remains a public health issue for many developed countries. Inactivity has contributed considerably to the pervasiveness of lifestyle diseases. Government, national and local agencies and organizations have been unable to systematically, and in a coordinated way, translate behavioral research into practice that makes a difference at a population level. One approach for mobilizing multi-level efforts to improve the environment for physical activity is to engage in a process of citizen science. Citizen Science here is defined as a participatory research approach involving members of the public working closely with research investigators to initiate and advance scientific research projects. However, there are no common measures or protocols to guide citizen science research at the local community setting. We describe overarching categories of constructs that can be considered when designing citizen science projects expected to yield multi-level interventions, and provide an example of the citizen science approach to promoting PA. We also recommend potential measures across different levels of impact. Encouraging some consistency in measurement across studies will potentially accelerate the efficiency with which citizen science participatory research provides new insights into and solutions to the behaviorally-based public health issues that drive most of morbidity and mortality. The measures described in this paper abide by four fundamental principles specifically selected for inclusion in citizen science projects: feasibility, accuracy, propriety, and utility. The choice of measures will take into account the potential resources available for outcome and process evaluation. Our intent is to emphasize the importance for all citizen science participatory projects to follow an evidence-based approach and ensure that they incorporate an appropriate assessment protocol. We provided the rationale for and a list of contextual factors

  15. Spatial and temporal RF electromagnetic field exposure of children and adults in indoor micro environments in Belgium and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Günter; Markakis, Ioannis; Goeminne, Francis; Samaras, Theodoros; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-11-01

    Personal radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure, or exposimetry, is gaining importance in the bioelectromagnetics community but only limited data on personal exposure is available in indoor areas, namely schools, crèches, homes, and offices. Most studies are focused on adult exposure, whereas indoor microenvironments, where children are exposed, are usually not considered. A method to assess spatial and temporal indoor exposure of children and adults is proposed without involving the subjects themselves. Moreover, maximal possible daily exposure is estimated by combining instantaneous spatial and temporal exposure. In Belgium and Greece, the exposure is measured at 153 positions spread over 55 indoor microenvironments with spectral equipment. In addition, personal exposimeters (measuring EMFs of people during their daily activities) captured the temporal exposure variations during several days up to one week at 98 positions. The data were analyzed using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method to account for data below the detection limit. All instantaneous and maximal exposures satisfied international exposure limits and were of the same order of magnitude in Greece and Belgium. Mobile telecommunications and radio broadcasting (FM) were most present. In Belgium, digital cordless phone (DECT) exposure was present for at least 75% in the indoor microenvironments except for schools. Temporal variations of the exposure were mainly due to variations of mobile telecommunication signals. The exposure was higher during daytime than at night due to the increased voice and data traffic on the networks. Total exposure varied the most in Belgian crèches (39.3%) and Greek homes (58.2%).

  16. Measuring and modelling the airborne particulate matter mass concentration field in the street environment: model overview and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, A; Colls, J J

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses the outline structure and preliminary evaluation of an emission-dispersion model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-derived airborne particulate matter mass concentration in street canyons. The model is called Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ). SLAQ is semi-empirical, in that it uses not only results from field and wind tunnel experiments but also theory and models derived from multiple runs of numerical routines in order to simulate the basic physical processes within the street canyon. A combination of a plume model, for the direct contribution of vehicle exhaust, and a box model for the recirculating part of the pollutants in the street, is used to predict concentration for receptors within the canyon. Emission rates of vehicle-derived particulate matter are calculated within SLAQ, which serve as input to the dispersion module. Exhaust emission rates are scaled element by element along the street for each of the lanes according to the direction of traffic flow to account for modal operation of vehicles near signalised intersections. This refinement allows SLAQ to account for non-uniformity in along-canyon emission rates and to model a street that has several intersections along its length. Thermal turbulence due to environmental surface sensible heat and vehicle-generated heat is accounted for in the model. Other features of SLAQ include correction for the urban heat island effect, dry deposition, wet deposition, particle settling and estimation of wind direction standard deviation, when this latter data is not available. SLAQ has been evaluated in a street in Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom and correlation coefficient of 0.8 between the modelled and measured concentrations has been obtained.

  17. Measuring and modelling the airborne particulate matter mass concentration field in the street environment. Model overview and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, A.; Colls, J.J. [Division of Environmental Science, School of Biological Sciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses the outline structure and preliminary evaluation of an emission-dispersion model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-derived airborne particulate matter mass concentration in street canyons. The model is called Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ). SLAQ is semi-empirical, in that it uses not only results from field and wind tunnel experiments but also theory and models derived from multiple runs of numerical routines in order to simulate the basic physical processes within the street canyon. A combination of a plume model, for the direct contribution of vehicle exhaust, and a box model for the recirculating part of the pollutants in the street, is used to predict concentration for receptors within the canyon. Emission rates of vehicle-derived particulate matter are calculated within SLAQ, which serve as input to the dispersion module. Exhaust emission rates are scaled element by element along the street for each of the lanes according to the direction of traffic flow to account for modal operation of vehicles near signalised intersections. This refinement allows SLAQ to account for non-uniformity in along-canyon emission rates and to model a street that has several intersections along its length. Thermal turbulence due to environmental surface sensible heat and vehicle-generated heat is accounted for in the model. Other features of SLAQ include correction for the urban heat island effect, dry deposition, wet deposition, particle settling and estimation of wind direction standard deviation, when this latter data is not available. SLAQ has been evaluated in a street in Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom and a correlation coefficient of 0.8 between the modelled and measured concentrations has been obtained.

  18. Removing Regional Trends in Microgravity in Complex Environments: Testing on 3D Model and Field Investigations in the Eastern Dead Sea Coast (Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are now recognized as a powerful tool for subsurface imaging and especially for the localization of underground karsts. However numerous natural (geological, technical, and environmental factors interfere with microgravity survey processing and interpretation. One of natural factors that causes the most disturbance in complex geological environments is the influence of regional trends. In the Dead Sea coastal areas the influence of regional trends can exceed residual gravity effects by some tenfold. Many widely applied methods are unable to remove regional trends with sufficient accuracy. We tested number of transformation methods (including computing gravity field derivatives, self-adjusting and adaptive filtering, Fourier series, wavelet, and other procedures on a 3D model (complicated by randomly distributed noise, and field investigations were carried out in Ghor Al-Haditha (the eastern side of the Dead Sea in Jordan. We show that the most effective methods for regional trend removal (at least for the theoretical and field cases here are the bilinear saddle and local polynomial regressions. Application of these methods made it possible to detect the anomalous gravity effect from buried targets in the theoretical model and to extract the local gravity anomaly at the Ghor Al-Haditha site. The local anomaly was utilized for 3D gravity modeling to construct a physical-geological model (PGM.

  19. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating mec

  20. Electromagnetic fields from the environment, or EMC for man. On the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on man; EMVU, die EMV fuer den Menschen, ueber die Wirkungen elektrischer, magnetischer und elektromagnetischer Felder auf den Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E. [Univ. Witten/Herdecke, Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie, Witten (Germany); Reissenweber, J. [Univ. Witten/Herdecke, Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie, Witten (Germany); Peier, D. [Univ. Dortmund, Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnik (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The increasing use of electrotechnical equipment causes enhanced exposure of the environment to electromagnetic fields. The impact of such fields on biological systems and on man is difficult to assess because of its complexity. In the first part the article gives an overview of the effect of electromagnetic fields on melatonin production in man, dealing specifically with the importance of melatonin for the night-and-day rhythm, sleep, the immune system, as a hormone antagonist, and for the development and growth of tumors. In a second part the authors discuss possible effects on electronic implants, especially cardiac pacemakers. (MG) [Deutsch] Die zunehmende Nutzung elektrotechnischer Einrichtungen fuehrt dazu, dass die Umwelt in steigendem Mass elektromagnetischen Feldern ausgesetzt ist. Die Ermittlung der Auswirkungen dieser Felder auf biologische System und auf den Menschen erweist sich aufgrund ihrer Komplexitaet als schwierig. In einem ersten Teil gibt der Artikel einen Ueberblick ueber die Auswirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder auf die Melatoninproduktion beim Menschen, wobei naeher auf die Bedeutung des Melatonins beim Tag-Nacht-Rhythmus, dem Schlaf, auf das Immunsystem, als Hormonantagonist und bei Tumorentstehung und -wachstum diskutiert werden. In einem zweiten Teil diskutieren die Autoren moegliche Auswirkungen auf elektronische Implantate, v.a. auf Herzschrittmacher. (orig.)

  1. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    A new map of the Furlo Gorge was surveyed and elaborated in a digital way. In every step of work we used digital tools as mobile GIS and 3D modelling software. Phase 1st Starting in the lab, planning the field project development, base cartography, forms and data base were designed in the way we thought was the best for collecting and store data in order of producing a digital n­-dimensional map. Bedding attitudes, outcrops sketches and description, stratigraphic logs, structural features and other informations were collected and organised in a structured database using rugged tablet PC, GPS receiver, digital cameras and later also an Android smartphone with some survey apps in-­house developed. A new mobile GIS (BeeGIS) was developed starting from an open source GIS (uDig): a number of tools like GPS connection, pen drawing annotations, geonotes, fieldbook, photo synchronization and geotagging were originally designed. Phase 2nd After some month of digital field work, all the informations were elaborated for drawing a geologic map in GIS environment. For that we use both commercial (ArcGIS) and open source (gvSig, QGIS, uDig) without big technical problems. Phase 3rd When we get to the step of building a 3D model (using 3DMove), passing trough the assisted drawing of cross-­sections (2DMove), we discovered a number of problems in the interpretation of geological structures (thrusts, normal faults) and more in the interpretation of stratigraphic thickness and boundaries and their relationships with topography. Phase 4th Before an "on­-armchair" redrawing of map, we decide to go back to the field and check directly what was wrong. Two main vantages came from this: (1) the mistakes we found could be reinterpreted and corrected directly in the field having all digital tools we need; (2) previous interpretations could be stored in GIS layers keeping memory of the previous work (also mistakes). Phase 5th A 3D model built with 3D Move is already almost self

  2. Surveillance and characterisation by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Cronobacter spp. in farming and domestic environments, food production animals and retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Catherine; Cagney, Claire; O'Brien, Stephen; Iversen, Carol; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter spp. (formally Enterobacter sakazakii) has been linked to illness in infants from contaminated powdered infant formula, however, there is limited information on the environmental sources and potential transmission routes of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to establish if food production animals (cattle, pigs), and the wider farm environment were playing a role in the transmission of Cronobacter spp. and also to assess the risk of cross contamination in the home where infant formula is prepared, from the presence of the pathogen on other foods and the general domestic environment. A wide range of samples (n=518) was collected at dairy farms, meat abattoirs, retail food stores and domestic environs and examined for the pathogen using an adapted ISO/DTS 22964 cultural protocol. The modified method included incubation at 42 degrees C instead of 44 degrees C and serial dilution of the enriched media prior to plating on Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar. Presumptive Cronobacter spp. colonies were confirmed by Real Time PCR targeting the dnaG on the MMS operon. All Cronobacter spp. isolated were speciated using biochemical tests, tested for resistance to 8 antibiotics and characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Cronobacter spp. was not recovered from cattle faeces, farm soil or trough water but isolates (n=33) were recovered from a variety of other sample types including cattle feed, pork and beef cuts, beef burgers and beef mince, green vegetables as well as organic breakfast cereals and domestic vacuum cleaner dust. The species recovered included C. Sakazakii (n=21), C. malonaticus (n=1) and C. turicensis (n=1). Of the 33 isolates 51% were resistant to Cephalothin but sensitive to all other 7 tested antibiotics. Sub-typing of the recovered isolates by PFGE showed considerable clonal diversity, though a number of persistent PFGE profiles were observed. In conclusion the study showed that Cronobacter spp. was not carried by food production

  3. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Galametz, A. [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Norman, D.; Dey, A. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Jannuzi, B. T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Murray, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, M. J. I., E-mail: martini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M {>=} 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) at 1 < z < 1.5 selected from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey, as well as the field fraction in the immediate vicinity of these clusters, and combine these data with measurements from the literature to quantify the relative evolution of cluster and field AGN from the present to z {approx} 3. We estimate that the cluster AGN fraction at 1 < z < 1.5 is f{sub A} = 3.0{sup +2.4}{sub -1.4}% for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) + 1, where M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 {mu}m bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3{sigma} upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z {approx} 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z {approx} 0.75. AGNs with L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z {approx} 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  4. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  5. Prediction and measurement of the electromagnetic environment of high-power medium-wave and short-wave broadcast antennas in far field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanghong; Wang, Qun; Ji, Zhijiang; Shi, Meiwu; Hou, Guoyan; Tan, Danjun; Wang, Pengqi; Qiu, Xianbo

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing city size, high-power electromagnetic radiation devices such as high-power medium-wave (MW) and short-wave (SW) antennas have been inevitably getting closer and closer to buildings, which resulted in the pollution of indoor electromagnetic radiation becoming worsened. To avoid such radiation exceeding the exposure limits by national standards, it is necessary to predict and survey the electromagnetic radiation by MW and SW antennas before constructing the buildings. In this paper, a modified prediction method for the far-field electromagnetic radiation is proposed and successfully applied to predict the electromagnetic environment of an area close to a group of typical high-power MW and SW wave antennas. Different from currently used simplified prediction method defined in the Radiation Protection Management Guidelines (H J/T 10. 3-1996), the new method in this article makes use of more information such as antennas' patterns to predict the electromagnetic environment. Therefore, it improves the prediction accuracy significantly by the new feature of resolution at different directions. At the end of this article, a comparison between the prediction data and the measured results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Expected near-field thermal environments in a sequentially loaded spent-fuel or high-level waste repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Arbital, J.G.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the effect of realistic waste emplacement schedules on repository thermal environments. Virtually all estimates to date have been based on instantaneous loading of wastes having uniform properties throughout the repository. However, more realistic scenarios involving sequential emplacement of wastes reflect the gradual filling of the repository over its lifetime. These cases provide temperatures that can be less extreme than with the simple approximation. At isolated locations in the repository, the temperatures approach the instantaneous-loading limit. However, for most of the repository, temperature rises in the near-field are 10 to 40 years behind the conservative estimates depending on the waste type and the location in the repository. Results are presented for both spent-fuel and high-level reprocessing waste repositories in salt, for a regional repository concept, and for a single national repository concept. The national repository is filled sooner and therefore more closely approximates the instantaneously loaded repository. However, temperatures in the near-field are still 20/sup 0/C or more below the values in the simple model for 40 years after startup of repository emplacement operations. The results suggest that current repository design concepts based on the instantaneous-loading predictions are very conservative. Therefore, experiments to monitor temperatures in a test and evaluation facility, for example, will need to take into account the reduced temperatures in order to provide data used in predicting repository performance.

  7. DETERMINATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC PARAMETERS AND PHASE RELATIONS IN TURBO-GENERATORS BY THE AUTOMATED CALCULATION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT FEMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Milykh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical bases of calculation of electromagnetic quantities and time-phase relationship are presented for the turbo-generators. This is done by numerical calculations of the magnetic field in the software environment package FEMM (Finite Element Method Magnetics. A program which controls calculations and organizes the issuance of the results to a text file is created on the algorithmic language Lua. The program is universal in terms of a turbo-generator models, as well as steady-state modes of their work with a minimum of input data. The exciting current of the rotor and the phase currents of three-phase stator winding in accordance with their initial phase are given for the calculation of the magnetic field. The key function for the analysis of electromagnetic parameters is the calculated angular function of the magnetic flux phase stator winding. The expansion in the harmonic series is carried out and amplitude and initial phase are received for this function. Next, the phase EMF and voltage, phase shifts between all values, active power, electromagnetic torque, the magnetic flux in the gap and other parameters are determined. The presented Lua script is a prototype for a similar calculation software of electric machines of other types.

  8. Yields and resistance of strawberry cultivars to crown and root diseases in the field, and cultivar responses to pathogens under controlled environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling FANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Devastating outbreaks of crown and root diseases have impacted severely on commercial strawberry production in Western Australia (W.A.. Studies were conducted to evaluate the yields, and resistance of three commercial strawberry cultivars to crown and root diseases, both in fumigated and non-fumigated field beds, and to determine the responses of eight commercial cultivars to individual pathogens under controlled conditions. In the field, cv. Camino Real showed the greatest fruit yield both in fumigated and non-fumigated beds, and was the most disease-resistant cultivar. Each cultivar had a greater fruit yield and a lower amount of plant decline in fumigated beds, compared with non-fumigated beds. Both for fumigated and non-fumigated beds, the amount of plant decline increased from August to November, particularly in non-fumigated beds. Under controlled conditions, cv. Festival was most resistant and cv. Camarosa most susceptible to wilt-causing Fusarium oxysporum. Against binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Phoma exigua, cv. Festival was most resistant and cv. Aromas most susceptible. Cultivar Camino Real was the most resistant to Gnomonia fructicola and Phytophthora cactorum and cv. Festival most resistant to Pythium ultimum. Against Macrophomina phaseolina, cv. Albion was the most resistant with cv. Camarosa the most susceptible. Cultivar Camarosa, the most widely grown cultivar in W.A., was most susceptible to F. oxysporum, while cv. Camino Real was resistant to F. oxysporum both in the field and the controlled environment conditions. Cultivar Festival is the most resistant cultivar to F. oxysporum and a range of different pathogens. The Australian bred cv. Juliette was as susceptible as cv. Camarosa to F. oxysporum, but relatively resistant to binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A. This is the first study, not only to define the relative yield potentials of different cultivars in a situation where crown and root disease

  9. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  10. Experimental study of the portable blood purification system for treatment of acute renal failure in dogs under the field condition in a high-altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bin LI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce the model of acute renal failure (ARF in beagles for comprehensively evaluating the safety, stability and validity of the continuous blood purification system under the field condition in a high-altitude environment. Methods Adult beagle ARF model was reproduced by bilateral nephrectomy. All ARF dogs underwent continuous veno-venous hemofiltration with a blood purification machine. Vital signs, renal function, liver function and plasma ion-levels before and after the therapy were analyzed through self-controlled study. Performance of the continuous blood purification machine running in a highaltitude environment was evaluated. Results Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr of six dogs were assayed 24 hours after nephrectomy, the difference showed statistical significance compared with those before the surgery (P<0.05, implying that six ARF models were reproduced successfully. Six dogs experienced continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT with external jugular vein double-lumen tube placement (3 dogs or femoral vein catheter placement (3 dogs. Five dogs successfully finished the whole experiment, and one dog died because of falling off of the dialysis tube and blood loss. The continuous blood purification machine was sensitive with rapid release of warning signals when the condition was abnormal. Compared to that before CRRT, there were no statistically significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure in ARF models 2, 4 hours after CRRT (P>0.05. And there were no statistically significant differences in ALT, AST and T-Bil in ARF models between that before and 2, 4 hours after CRRT (P>0.05. However, 2, 4 hours after CRRT, BUN and Cr levels descended significantly (P<0. 05, so was K+ level (P<0. 05. There were no complications such as hemorrhage or hypotension. There were no statistical differences in volume of replacement fluid or discarded fluid between before and after CRRT

  11. Framework for near-field-communication-based geo-localization and personalization for Android-based smartphones--application in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Philipp; Fehre, Karsten; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Various applications using near field communication (NFC) have been developed for the medical sector. As a method of short-range wireless contact-driven data transfer, NFC is a useful tool in medicine. It can be used to transfer data such as blood pressure, control adherence to medication, or transmit in vivo data. The first proposed general framework uses NFC as a mechanism for indoor geo-localization in hospitals. NFC geo-localization is economical compared to classical concepts using indoor GPS or WLAN triangulation, and the granularity of location retrieval can be defined at a tag level. Using this framework, we facilitate the development of medical applications that require exact indoor geo-localization. Multi-user Android systems are addressed in the second framework. Using private NFC tags, users are able to carry on their personal settings for enabled applications. This eliminates the need for multiple user accounts on common Android devices, improves usability, and eases technical administration. Based on the prototypes presented here, we show a novel concept of using NFC-enabled Android devices in hospital environments.

  12. Genetic characterization of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from ewes' milk, sheep farm environments, and humans by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2013-10-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water.

  13. Detection of Micrococcus Luteus Biofilm Formation in Microfluidic Environments by pH Measurement Using an Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Naruse

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation in microfluidic channels is difficult to detect because sampling volumes are too small for conventional turbidity measurements. To detect biofilm formation, we used an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET measurement system to measure pH changes in small volumes of bacterial suspension. Cells of Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus were cultured in polystyrene (PS microtubes and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-based microfluidic channels laminated with polyvinylidene chloride. In microtubes, concentrations of bacteria and pH in the suspension were analyzed by measuring turbidity and using an ISFET sensor, respectively. In microfluidic channels containing 20 μL of bacterial suspension, we measured pH changes using the ISFET sensor and monitored biofilm formation using a microscope. We detected acidification and alkalinization phases of M. luteus from the ISFET sensor signals in both microtubes and microfluidic channels. In the alkalinization phase, after 2 day culture, dense biofilm formation was observed at the bottom of the microfluidic channels. In this study, we used an ISFET sensor to detect biofilm formation in clinical and industrial microfluidic environments by detecting alkalinization of the culture medium.

  14. Detection of Micrococcus luteus biofilm formation in microfluidic environments by pH measurement using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Koji; Asano, Yuka; Yamada, Akira; Naruse, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation in microfluidic channels is difficult to detect because sampling volumes are too small for conventional turbidity measurements. To detect biofilm formation, we used an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) measurement system to measure pH changes in small volumes of bacterial suspension. Cells of Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus) were cultured in polystyrene (PS) microtubes and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based microfluidic channels laminated with polyvinylidene chloride. In microtubes, concentrations of bacteria and pH in the suspension were analyzed by measuring turbidity and using an ISFET sensor, respectively. In microfluidic channels containing 20 μL of bacterial suspension, we measured pH changes using the ISFET sensor and monitored biofilm formation using a microscope. We detected acidification and alkalinization phases of M. luteus from the ISFET sensor signals in both microtubes and microfluidic channels. In the alkalinization phase, after 2 day culture, dense biofilm formation was observed at the bottom of the microfluidic channels. In this study, we used an ISFET sensor to detect biofilm formation in clinical and industrial microfluidic environments by detecting alkalinization of the culture medium. 

  15. Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Goulson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The causes of bee declines remain hotly debated, particularly the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides. In 2013 the UK’s Food & Environment Research Agency made public a study of the impacts of exposure of bumblebee colonies to neonicotinoids. The study concluded that there was no clear relationship between colony performance and pesticide exposure, and the study was subsequently cited by the UK government in a policy paper in support of their vote against a proposed moratorium on some uses of neonicotinoids. Here I present a simple re-analysis of this data set. It demonstrates that these data in fact do show a negative relationship between both colony growth and queen production and the levels of neonicotinoids in the food stores collected by the bees. Indeed, this is the first study describing substantial negative impacts of neonicotinoids on colony performance of any bee species with free-flying bees in a field realistic situation where pesticide exposure is provided only as part of normal farming practices. It strongly suggests that wild bumblebee colonies in farmland can be expected to be adversely affected by exposure to neonicotinoids.

  16. Optical fiber and integrated optics accelerometers for real-time vibration monitoring in harsh environments: in-lab and in-field characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Higuera, Jose Miguel; Mottier, Patrick L.; Cobo, Adolfo; Ollier, Eric; Morante Rabago, Miguel A.; Chabrol, C.; Madruga Saavedra, Francisco J.; Philippe, P.

    1998-06-01

    The reliability of rotating machines such as electrical generator is critical to the overall reliability and operation of electrical power plants. The very high cost of these machines, makes it necessary to improve the lifetime of a wide set of currently installed hydrogenerators around the world and avoid costly maintenance. Vibration monitoring is essential in maintenance and protection programs. However, due to the harsh environment and the very low frequency spectrum of the vibrations, the above mentioned machines cannot be appropriately monitored by piezoelectric sensors. Several combination of optical fiber with silicon microstructures or in integrated optics, but because of technical or economic reasons, up to now, these sensors are not fully suited for the above-mentioned applications. In this paper both optical fiber and integrated optics accelerometers developed in order to satisfy specifications required for these applications are presented. Their developments were a part of a European project dedicated to real time defect detection and predict forthcoming failures of a generator group in an electric power plant in Spain. In-laboratory and in-field test are reported.

  17. 吡虫啉在稻田水环境中的残留动态%Dynamics of Imidacloprid Residue in Paddy-field Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑岚; 王梅; 段劲生; 胡本进; 孙明娜; 张勇; 高同春

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The dynamics of imidacloprid residue in paddy-field water environment by HPLC was studied in this paper. [ Method]Imidacloprid in the samples was extracted with dichloromethane and detected by HPLC with UV. [ Result ] The average of recoveries were ranged from 89.69% to 92.06%, the standard deviations were from 3.01% to 3.73%, and the coefficients of variation were from 3.79% to 4.46%. The minmium detectable amount of imidacloprid was 1.0 × 10-9 g, and the minimum detectable concentrations in paddy-field water was 0.005 mg/L. The test in Anhui province indicated that the half-lives of imidacloprid was 4.4 days. [ Conclusion] 10% EC imidacloprid was applied in paddy-field; imidacloprid in water was more quickly degradated%[目的]研究了稻田水环境中吡虫啉的残留动态.[方法]田水样品采用二氯甲烷萃取,HPLC-UV测定不同田水样品中的吡虫啉残留量.[结果]田水中吡虫啉的平均添加回收率为89.69%~92.06%、标准偏差为3.01%~3.73%、变异系数为3.79%~4.46%,吡虫啉的最小检出量为1.0×10g,在田水中最低检测浓度为0.005 mg/L.在安徽的试验结果表明,吡虫啉在碍水中降解半衰期为4.4 d.[结论]10%吡虫啉乳油在稻田使用后,在田水中降解较快.

  18. 亚磁场环境对小鼠血液系统的影响%Effects of Hypomagnetic Field Environment on Hematopoietic System in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾斌; 张卫菊; 谢丽; 郑琪; 田宗成; 骞爱荣; 商澎

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究亚磁场(HMF)环境对血液系统的影响.方法 将50只成年雄性BALB/c小鼠(体重20±2g)随机分组后分别饲养在正常地磁场环境(~50 μT)和HMF环境(< 0.3 μT),于实验前、实验第7,14,21和28天分别提取动物全血进行血液细胞成分和骨髓涂片细胞检查.结果 HMF环境饲养7d白细胞数量及淋巴细胞百分比显著下降,14 d开始逐步回升,至28 d恢复接近对照组.血小板数量随着在HMF环境饲养时间的延长而逐渐增高,28 d组与对照组和7d组相比有显著差异.平均血小板体积和大血小板比率7,14,21和28 d组与对照组相比均有显著减少.红细胞数量及相关指标在整个实验过程中未发现显著变化.骨髓涂片显示7d和14 d骨髓单核细胞和分叶状粒细胞显著增多,而核红细胞与红细胞比值没有显著变化.结论 HMF环境可以引起小鼠血液成分白细胞和血小板数量的变化,有可能影响机体免疫系统的功能和血液的凝血机制.%Objective To explore the effects of hypomagnetic fields (HMF) environment on hematopoietic system. Methods Total of 50 adult male BALB/c mice, body weight ( 20 ± 2) g, were randomly divided into: control group (n = 10)and HMF group (n =40) , and housed in normal(~50 μT) or in a geomagnetic field shielding room ( <0. 3 μT) , maintained at (20 ±2 )℃ with a 12 h light/dark cycle, and given free access to food and water. Before experiment and on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 of experiment, whole blood and bone marrow of mice were analyzed respectively. Results Compared with control group, blood leucocyte ( WBC ) quantity and the percentage of lymphocyte ( LYM% ) decreased significantly on day 7 in HMF group, but recovered gradually on day 14, 21 and 28; platelet (PLT) quantity showed a gradual increasing tendency, which appeared significantly different on day 28 as compared with control group and on day 7; MPV and P-LCR were significantly decreased on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 of

  19. The Relationship between the Field-Shifting Phenomenon and Representational Coherence of Place Cells in CA1 and CA3 in a Cue-Altered Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Knierim, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Subfields of the hippocampus display differential dynamics in processing a spatial environment, especially when changes are introduced to the environment. Specifically, when familiar cues in the environment are spatially rearranged, place cells in the CA3 subfield tend to rotate with a particular set of cues (e.g., proximal cues), maintaining a…

  20. Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry: a model for estimating microbial communities in repository drifts at Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Darren M.; Ehrhorn, Thomas F.; Horn, Joanne

    2003-05-01

    Geochemical and microbiological modeling was performed to evaluate the potential quantities and impact of microorganisms on the geochemistry of the area adjacent to and within nuclear waste packages in the proposed repository drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The microbial growth results from the introduction of water, ground support, and waste package materials into the deep unsaturated rock. The simulations, which spanned 1 million years, were accomplished using a newly developed computer code, Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING). MING uses environmental thresholds for limiting microbial growth to temperatures below 120 °C and above relative humidities of 90% in repository drifts. Once these thresholds are met, MING expands upon a mass balance and thermodynamic approach proposed by McKinley et al. [FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 20 (1997) 545] by using kinetic rates to supply constituents from design materials and constituent fluxes including solubilized rock components into the drift to perform two separate mass balance calculations as a function of time. The first (nutrient limit) assesses the available nutrients (C, N, P and S) and calculates how many microorganisms can be produced based on a microorganism stoichiometry of C 160(H 280O 80)N 30P 2S. The second (energy limit) calculates the energy available from optimally combined redox couples for the temperature and pH at that time. This optimization maximizes those reactions that produce >15 kJ/mol (limit on useable energy) using an iterative linear optimization technique. The final available energy value is converted to microbial mass at a rate of 1 kg of biomass (dry weight) for every 64 MJ of energy. These two values (nutrient limit and energy limit) are then compared and the smaller value represents the number of microorganisms that can be produced over a specified time. MING can also be adapted to investigate other problems of interest as the model can be used in saturated and

  1. Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING): A Model for Estimating Microbial Communities in Repository Drifts at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Jolley; T.F. Ehrhorn; J. Horn

    2002-03-19

    Geochemical and microbiological modeling was performed to evaluate the potential quantities and impact of microorganisms on the geochemistry of the area adjacent to and within nuclear waste packages in the proposed repository drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The microbial growth results from the introduction of water, ground support, and waste package materials into the deep unsaturated rock. The simulations, which spanned one million years, were accomplished using a newly developed computer code, Microbial Impacts to the Near-Field Environment Geochemistry (MING). MING uses environmental thresholds for limiting microbial growth to temperatures below 120 C and above relative humidities of 90 percent in repository drifts. Once these thresholds are met, MING expands upon a mass balance and thermodynamic approach proposed by McKinley and others (1997), by using kinetic rates to supply constituents from design materials and constituent fluxes including solubilized rock components into the drift, to perform two separate mass-balance calculations as a function of time. The first (nutrient limit) assesses the available nutrients (C, N, P and S) and calculates how many microorganisms can be produced based on a microorganism stoichiometry of C{sub 160}(H{sub 280}O{sub 80})N{sub 30}P{sub 2}S. The second (energy limit) calculates the energy available from optimally combined redox couples for the temperature, and pH at that time. This optimization maximizes those reactions that produce > 15kJ/mol (limit on useable energy) using an iterative linear optimization technique. The final available energy value is converted to microbial mass at a rate of 1 kg of biomass (dry weight) for every 64 MJ of energy. These two values (nutrient limit and energy limit) are then compared and the smaller value represents the number of microorganisms that can be produced over a specified time. MING can also be adapted to investigate other problems of interest as the model can be used in saturated

  2. Numerical simulations of barnacle larval dispersion coupled with field observations on larval abundance, settlement and recruitment in a tropical monsoon influenced coastal marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Samiksha, S. V.; George, Grinson; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-06-01

    Larval abundance in an area depends on various factors which operate over different spatial and temporal scales. Identifying the factors responsible for variations in larval supply and abundance is important to understand the settlement and recruitment variability of their population in a particular area. In view of this, observations were carried out to monitor the larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles on a regular basis for a period of two years. The results were then compared with the numerical modelling studies carried out along the west coast of India. Field observations of larval abundance showed temporal variations. The least abundance of larvae was mostly observed during the monsoon season and the peak in abundance was mostly observed during the pre-monsoon season. Numerical simulations also showed a seasonal change in larval dispersion and retention patterns. During pre-monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards south and the larvae released from the northern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuaries, whereas during the monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards north and the larvae released from southern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuary. During post-monsoon season, the larval movement was found towards the north in the beginning of the season and is shifted towards the south at the end of the season, but the movement was mostly restricted near to the release sites. Larval supply from the adjacent rocky sites to the estuaries was higher during the pre-monsoon season and the retention of larvae released from different sites within the estuaries was found to be highest during the late post-monsoon and early pre-monsoon season. Maximum larval supply and retention during the pre-monsoon season coincided with maximum larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles observed in the field studies. These observations showed that the pattern of

  3. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  4. Field Sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) Seeds in the Same Bur Respond Differently to Temperature and Water Potential in Relation to Germination in a Semi-Arid Environment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Tian, Xun; Bai, Yuguang; Liu, Huifang; Niu, Xueli; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its germination response to water and temperature still remains unclear. C. pauciflorus contains two seeds in the same bur that differ in size: big seeds (M) and small seeds (P). Separate greenhouse experiments were conducted under different temperature regimes (0/10°C, 5/15°C, 10/20°C, 15/25°C, 18/28°C, 20/30°C and 25/35°C) and water potentials (-1.50Mpa, -1.00Mpa, -0.75Mpa, -0.50Mpa, -0.25Mpa and 0Mpa) for M and P seeds. The results support the hypothesis that germination of C. pauciflorus is significantly influenced by seed type, temperature and water potential. M and P seeds responded differently to varied alternative temperatures and water potentials. However, M and P seeds were more sensitive to water potential than to temperature. Optimal conditions for M and P seed germination were measured at 25/35°C (night temperature/day temperature) and 20/30°C, respectively. In contrast, the highest germination rate was observed for the 0Mpa of the water potential treatment. Additionally, base temperature (Tbase) and base water potential (Wbase) were lower for M (7.7°C, -1.11Mpa at 10/20°C, and -1.07Mpa at 20/30°C) than for P (9.4°C, -0.92Mpa at 10/20°C, and -0.52Mpa at 20/30°C). These different germination strategies of M and P seeds with respect to temperature and water potential increased overall plant propagation. These results indicate that tropical and subtropical regions water potentials beyond -0.50Mpa (10/20°C) or -1.00Mpa (20/30°C) face a potential risk of C. pauciflorus invasion.

  5. Laboratory and field studies of Macrocyclops albidus (Crustacea: Copepoda) for biological control of mosquitoes in artificial containers in a subtropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Connell, Sheila; Suárez, Silvia; Menéndez, Zulema; Lounibos, L Philip; Byer, Gracie

    2004-06-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine) was tested as a potential biological control agent of mosquitoes in laboratory microcosms, in controlled field conditions, and in a 22-mo field experiment using discarded tires. The predator was highly efficient in controlling mosquitoes in all three settings, reaching close to 90% reduction in larval survival under field conditions and exceeding the recommended predation rates for effective mosquito control in laboratory experiments. The predator was most effective on 1-4-d-old larvae. Alternate food and habitat structure significantly influenced the predation rates on mosquito larvae. Once established, the copepod was able to maintain reproducing populations in the field for the duration of the experiments. However, the predator failed to establish populations at four of the experimental field sites. Two of the failures can be attributed to characteristics of the individual tires, such as leaching chemicals, whereas the other two were probably due to site-specific factors. This copepod species is a promising candidate for control of mosquito larvae because it is a widespread and highly effective predator that is capable of establishing and maintaining populations under a wide variety of field conditions. Additionally, M. albidus is relatively easy to culture, maintain, and deliver to the target areas.

  6. Working Influence of Organizing Field of Force under the Environment of AMT on Workers%组织“力场”对AMT环境下员工行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈业华; 田子州

    2012-01-01

    在先进制造技术(AMT)的环境下,有效的人力资源管理(HRM)对于员工行为绩效的提升和组织目标的实现有着十分重要的作用。基于勒温场论,针对AMT环境下传统的组织系统对员工行为的影响和约束,提出一种员工一般工作环境下的组织"力场"概念,定义了员工行为影响力的各种组织"力场"因素。在此基础上分析了组织"力场"环境与AMT环境之间的异同以及相互影响,进一步使用结构方程分析了在AMT环境下组织"力场"因素与AMT环境对员工行为的影响度,为能够更好完善组织在AMT环境下实施员工行为管理提供理论依据,并给出相应政策建议。%Under the circumstance of advanced manufacturing technology(AMT),the effective human resource management(HRM) plays an important role in promoting the performance of the employees and achieving the organizational goals.Regarding to the traditional organizational system having influenced and constrained the employees' behaviors under AMT environment,this paper,using K· Lewin's Environmental Theory,proposes a conception of organizational force field under the ordinary working environment,and defines the factors of organizational force field which influences the employees' behaviors.On this basis,this paper analyzes the similarities,differences and interactive influences between the organizational force field and the AMT environment.Furthermore,it uses the structure equation to analyze influential degree of the employees' behaviors,which affected by both the factors of organizational force field under AMT environment and the AMT environment.This provides scientific basis and advices to organize and improve the employees' behaviors management under AMT environment.

  7. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  8. First data on the environment and climate change within the Zhom-Bolok volcanic field (Eastern Sayan Mountains) in the Middle-Late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, E. V.; Shchetnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Sharova, O. G.; Kulagina, N. V.; Letunova, P. P.; Ivanov, E. V.; Kraynov, M. A.; Kerber, E. V.; Filinov, I. A.; Levina, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the results of comprehensive lithological, biostratigraphic, and geochemical investigation of sediments in Khara-Nur Lake (Eastern Sayan Mountains) situated in the area of the greatest Holocene eruptions in the Central Asia Region. The age of the basal sediment layer is estimated at 6881 ± 53 years. The local natural environment and climate have undergone great changes since that time. The Holocene volcanic events did not exert a catastrophic impact on the regional landscape, but they caused dramatic changes in the local vegetation. The well-defined correlation of the regional events with the well-known records of the natural environment in the Northern Hemisphere is indicative of the decisive influence of global atmospheric circulation on restructuring the landscape and climate system in the Zhom-Bolok Region in the Middle-Late Holocene.

  9. Analysis of the Influence of Organic Corrosion Inhibitors on Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete Bridge Structure Under Simulated Field Service Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Liang; Ye, J.; C. C. CHEN; Wu, Y; Liu, J. Z.

    2014-01-01

    For concrete bridge projects in marine environments, attention must be paid to the reinforcement corrosion problems caused by chloride intrusion. As kinds of functional admixtures, which can reduce the reinforcement corrosion rate, corrosion inhibitors are becoming very popular in China in new bridge projects. Corrosion inhibitors cover both inorganic and organic inhibitors. Nitrite is representative of inorganic corrosion inhibitors, but its carcinogenicity has hindered its further developme...

  10. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, B.; van Logtestijn, R.; Broekman, R.; de Vos, A.; Parra Gonzàlez, A.; Rozema, J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environmentsand thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experimentconducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation b

  11. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels in different European outdoor urban environments in comparison with regulatory limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Huss, Anke; Verloock, Leen; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerns of the general public about potential adverse health effects caused by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) led authorities to introduce precautionary exposure limits, which vary considerably between regions. It may be speculated that precautionary limits affect the

  12. A comparison of BOX-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine genetic relatedness of enterococci from different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The genetic relatedness of enterococci from poultry litter to enterococci from nearby surface water and groundwater in the Lower Fraser Valley regions of British Columbia, Canada was determined. Methods and Results: BOX-PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to subtype en...

  13. Jupiter Environment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  14. Equivalent calculation between coupling responses of electromagnetic fields from radiating-wave simulators and actual environment%模拟器电磁场与实际电磁场耦合响应等效计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹轶; 郭春营; 许伟; 林源根

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic environment generated by radiating-wave simulators could simulate the free fields of the high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)approximately.However,the electromagnetic fields imposed on the devices under the real threat environments were the synthesized fields from the incident waves and the reflected waves.The total fields synthesized by the incident and reflected waves of the free electromagnetic fields on different situations above the lossy earth were calculated. Through comparing the field strengths and waveforms of the total fields with the initial incident waves,the features of the synthe-sized fields nearby the ground were analyzed.An equivalent calculating method from the simulated environment to the real envi-ronment was suggested,and the correction factor of the simulated environment was calculated using this method for the 45°polar-ized incident wave.Based on the results,we proposed that the devices should be tested for at least three mutually orthogonal ori-entations and electromagnetic pulse widths should be reduced appropriately for the experiments of radiating-wave simulators.%辐射波模拟器产生的脉冲电磁环境能够近似模拟高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)的自由场,然而在实际 HEMP 威胁环境中,施加在地面设备上的电磁场是电磁脉冲入射波与地面反射波的合成场。通过计算不同入射情况下,HEMP 自由辐射场经损耗地面反射叠加形成的总电场,对比其与初始入射场的强度及波形变化,分析了地面附近合成电磁场的特点。提出一种将模拟环境效应与实际环境效应进行等效转换的计算方法,应用该方法计算了入射波电场45°极化情况下的模拟环境效应修正因子。分析计算结果,建议在开展 HEMP效应的辐射波模拟试验中,应将受试设备放在至少三个相互正交的方向上进行测试,同时适当减小模拟器产生电磁脉冲的宽度。

  15. Simulation of Matched Field Processing Localization Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Karhunen-Loève Expansion in Underwater Waveguide Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch problem has been one of important issues of matched field processing for underwater source detection. Experimental use of MFP has shown that robust range and depth localization is difficult to achieve. In many cases this is due to uncertainty in the environmental inputs required by acoustic propagation models. The paper presents that EMD (Empirical mode decomposition processing underwater acoustic signals is motivated because it is well suited for removing specific unwanted signal components that may vary spectrally. And the Karhunen-Loève expansion is applied on sample covariance matrix to gain a relatively uncorrupted signal. The EMD denoising scheme is combined with Karhunen-Loève expansion to improve underwater target localization performance of matched field processing (MFP. The robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method is tested by the benchmark cases numerical simulation when there had large environmental parameter uncertainties of the acoustic waveguide.

  16. Developing a Geoinformatic-engineering Stability Modeling Method, using Field Data and GIS Environment: A Case Study from Al Qarara Area in Wadi Musa, Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammmad Al Farajat; Abdullah Diabat; Hussein Al Hassanat; Mohammad Ibweni; Jamal Shawaqfeh

    2015-01-01

    DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.1.1-21By applying detailed geological field surveys, the spatial factors affecting geo-engineering stability were used to develop a geo-engineering stability modeling method to identify areas under potential threat of landsliding. The factors affecting geo-engineering stability in Al Qarara area in Petra-Jordan were studied and given assumed rates of importance, where optimization process was run by lag iterations; the produced spatial layers of the different factors were ...

  17. Context-dependent expression of the foraging gene in field colonies of ants: the interacting roles of age, environment and task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Krista K; Gordon, Deborah M; Friedman, Daniel A; Greene, Michael; Kahler, John; Peteru, Swetha

    2016-08-31

    Task allocation among social insect workers is an ideal framework for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural plasticity because workers of similar genotype adopt different behavioural phenotypes. Elegant laboratory studies have pioneered this effort, but field studies involving the genetic regulation of task allocation are rare. Here, we investigate the expression of the foraging gene in harvester ant workers from five age- and task-related groups in a natural population, and we experimentally test how exposure to light affects foraging expression in brood workers and foragers. Results from our field study show that the regulation of the foraging gene in harvester ants occurs at two time scales: levels of foraging mRNA are associated with ontogenetic changes over weeks in worker age, location and task, and there are significant daily oscillations in foraging expression in foragers. The temporal dissection of foraging expression reveals that gene expression changes in foragers occur across a scale of hours and the level of expression is predicted by activity rhythms: foragers have high levels of foraging mRNA during daylight hours when they are most active outside the nests. In the experimental study, we find complex interactions in foraging expression between task behaviour and light exposure. Oscillations occur in foragers following experimental exposure to 13 L : 11 D (LD) conditions, but not in brood workers under similar conditions. No significant differences were seen in foraging expression over time in either task in 24 h dark (DD) conditions. Interestingly, the expression of foraging in both undisturbed field and experimentally treated foragers is also significantly correlated with the expression of the circadian clock gene, cycle Our results provide evidence that the regulation of this gene is context-dependent and associated with both ontogenetic and daily behavioural plasticity in field colonies of harvester ants. Our results underscore

  18. The performance of the EU-Rotate_N model in predicting the growth and nitrogen uptake of rotations of field vegetable crops in a Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nendel, Claas; Venezia, A.; Piro, F.; Ren, T; Lillywhite, Robert; Rahn, C. (Clive)

    2013-01-01

    The EU-Rotate_N model was developed as a tool to estimate the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake of vegetable crop rotations across a wide range of European climatic conditions and to assess the economic and environmental consequences of alternative management strategies. The model has been evaluated under field conditions in Germany and Norway and under greenhouse conditions in China. The present work evaluated the model using Italian data to evaluate its performance in a warm and dry environmen...

  19. Environment of $1\\le z \\le 2$ mid-IR selected obscured and unobscured AGNs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Bornancini, Carlos Guillermo; Lambas, Diego García

    2016-01-01

    In unified models, different types of Active Galaxy Nuclei correspond to a single class of objects, where their observed differences are solely due to the different orientations of the obscuring material around the central inner regions. Recent studies show that this obscuring material can even extend at galactic scales due to debris from galaxy interactions or mergers. In standard unified models the different AGN types are expected to show similar galaxy environments. We investigate properties and environment of obscured and unobscured AGNs selected from mid-infrared from the MUSYC survey, in order to test the unified model and evolutionary scenarios. The sample of AGNs was selected from images obtained with the IRAC camera mounted on the Spitzer Space Telescope, based on their mid-infrared colors. We select two samples of AGNs with redshifts in the range $1\\le z \\le 2$ and absolute magnitudes $M_v\\leq -$21: obscured and unobscured AGNs by means of a simple color cut criterion at $R -[4.5] = 3.05$. We find t...

  20. Teaching in the Field: What Teacher Professional Life Histories Tell About How They Learn to Teach in the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feille, Kelly K.

    2017-06-01

    This research investigates the professional life histories of upper elementary science teachers who were identified as effective both within the classroom and in the outdoor learning environment (OLE). The narratives of five teachers, collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews, provided the data for the study. Professional life histories were constructed for each teacher participant and an analysis of the teacher narratives identified the themes of teacher development across the voices of the participants. Narrative reasoning was used to unify those themes into a hypothetical professional life history as reported in this manuscript. Implications of this research can be realized for stakeholders in the preparation of pre-service teachers as well as the development of in-service teachers. Future research regarding the early induction years of new teachers, impacts of inclusion of the OLE in pre-service teacher instruction, and teacher experiences regarding professional development relating to efforts to include the OLE in formal education should be investigated.

  1. Teaching in the Field: What Teacher Professional Life Histories Tell About How They Learn to Teach in the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feille, Kelly K.

    2016-06-01

    This research investigates the professional life histories of upper elementary science teachers who were identified as effective both within the classroom and in the outdoor learning environment (OLE). The narratives of five teachers, collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews, provided the data for the study. Professional life histories were constructed for each teacher participant and an analysis of the teacher narratives identified the themes of teacher development across the voices of the participants. Narrative reasoning was used to unify those themes into a hypothetical professional life history as reported in this manuscript. Implications of this research can be realized for stakeholders in the preparation of pre-service teachers as well as the development of in-service teachers. Future research regarding the early induction years of new teachers, impacts of inclusion of the OLE in pre-service teacher instruction, and teacher experiences regarding professional development relating to efforts to include the OLE in formal education should be investigated.

  2. Chloride ingress in concrete as measured by field exposure tests in the atmospheric, tidal and submerged zones of a tropical marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.K. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). School of Building and Estate Management); Chye, Liam Kok (Matcor Technology and Services (Singapore)); Northwood, D.O. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical and Production Engineering Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Engineering Materials Group)

    1993-11-01

    Five grades of concrete were exposed in the atmosphere, tidal and submerged zones of a tropical marine environment for times up to 80 weeks and the chloride ion ingress profiles determined. The measured chloride profiles were compared with profiles calculated on the basis of diffusion theory and the agreement was found to be reasonably good for all 3 zones. Diffusion coefficients, D, for the chloride ion calculated from the measured ingress profiles agreed well with previous data from laboratory tests and from surveys of marine structures. D was found to be mainly dependent on the water/cement (W/C) ratio and changed little with the addition of superplasticizers. The use of data for the diffusion coefficient, D, and equilibrium surface chloride level, Ce, obtained from the chloride ingress profiles, to the calculation of the time-to-initiation for corrosion of the steel reinforcement is briefly discussed.

  3. Cluster and field elliptical galaxies at z~1.3. The marginal role of the environment and the relevance of the galaxy central regions

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Ciocca, F; Marchesini, D

    2016-01-01

    We compared the properties of 56 elliptical galaxies selected from three clusters at 1.2 2x10^{11} Msun) and large (Re > 4-5 kpc) ellipticals with respect to the cluster. Nonetheless, at M*m_t}_{1.07\\ environment. The central stellar mass density, Sigma_1kpc, besides to be correlated with the mass, is correlated to the age of the stellar population: the higher the central stellar mass density, the higher the mass, the older the age of the stellar population. [Abridged

  4. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  5. Ideas on DC-DC Converters for Delivery of Low Voltage and High Currents for the SLHC / ILC Detector Electronics in Magnetic field and Radiation environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dhawan, Satish; Neal, H; Sumner, R; Weber, M; Weber, R

    2007-01-01

    For more efficient power transport to the electronics embedded inside large colliding beam detectors, we explore the feasibility of supplying 48 Volts DC and using local DCDC conversion to 2 V (or lower, depending upon on the lithography of the embedded electronics) using switch mode regulators located very close to the front end electronics. These devices will be exposed to high radiation and high magnetic fields, 10 – 100 Mrads and 2 - 4 Tesla at the SLHC, and 20 Krads and 6 Tesla at the ILC.

  6. Developing a Geoinformatic-engineering Stability Modeling Method, using Field Data and GIS Environment: A Case Study from Al Qarara Area in Wadi Musa, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammmad Al Farajat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.1.1-21By applying detailed geological field surveys, the spatial factors affecting geo-engineering stability were used to develop a geo-engineering stability modeling method to identify areas under potential threat of landsliding. The factors affecting geo-engineering stability in Al Qarara area in Petra-Jordan were studied and given assumed rates of importance, where optimization process was run by lag iterations; the produced spatial layers of the different factors were gathered and modeled using GIS; a final stability map was produced using an optimized equation. The produced map was validated qualitatively and quantitatively, where a comparison was made between the reality in the field and several maps of different equation. The modeling method which was developed in the context of this study proved to be suitable to produce micro-zonation maps of areas having landslide risk. Further applications on the method in other areas suffering landslides will further improve it.

  7. The influence of tillage on field scale water fluxes and maize yields in semi-arid environments: A case study of Potshini catchment, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Kongo, V. M.; Lorentz, S. A.

    Water is a limiting resource to crop production in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is responsible for substantial yield losses annually. These lands are often occupied by resource poor smallholder rainfed farmers who have little capacity to establish conventional irrigation infrastructure to mitigate recurrent droughts and dry spells. In situ water harvesting techniques in the form of conservation agriculture practices have been identified and promoted as measures that can improve soil water availability and thus enhance crop yields. Land use practices e.g. tillage influences mechanisms of lateral flow, infiltration, storage, redistribution and residence times of water at field scale. Such alterations in flow paths have not been adequately studied in ASALs where small perturbations at field scale upstream of a catchment may have significant effects downstream. Quantifying these fluxes enables better understanding of productive and non-productive water transition processes and thus to evaluate cropping and management systems. On this study the effects of tillage on water fluxes, soil physical properties and maize ( Zea mays L.) yields were examined at three sites in the Potshini catchment, South Africa. Measurements were made on plots under no-till ( NT) and conventional till ( CT) practices. Seasonal analysis indicated that nearly twice as much runoff was generated from CT treatments when compared to NT plots. However, this was not the case at the beginning of the season. The moisture content in the root zone was significantly higher in NT treatments. Maize yield was also higher in NT compared to CT plots.

  8. EIAGRID: In-field optimization of seismic data acquisition by real-time subsurface imaging using a remote GRID computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, B. Z.; Vallenilla Ferrara, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    The constant growth of contaminated sites, the unsustainable use of natural resources, and, last but not least, the hydrological risk related to extreme meteorological events and increased climate variability are major environmental issues of today. Finding solutions for these complex problems requires an integrated cross-disciplinary approach, providing a unified basis for environmental science and engineering. In computer science, grid computing is emerging worldwide as a formidable tool allowing distributed computation and data management with administratively-distant resources. Utilizing these modern High Performance Computing (HPC) technologies, the GRIDA3 project bundles several applications from different fields of geoscience aiming to support decision making for reasonable and responsible land use and resource management. In this abstract we present a geophysical application called EIAGRID that uses grid computing facilities to perform real-time subsurface imaging by on-the-fly processing of seismic field data and fast optimization of the processing workflow. Even though, seismic reflection profiling has a broad application range spanning from shallow targets in a few meters depth to targets in a depth of several kilometers, it is primarily used by the hydrocarbon industry and hardly for environmental purposes. The complexity of data acquisition and processing poses severe problems for environmental and geotechnical engineering: Professional seismic processing software is expensive to buy and demands large experience from the user. In-field processing equipment needed for real-time data Quality Control (QC) and immediate optimization of the acquisition parameters is often not available for this kind of studies. As a result, the data quality will be suboptimal. In the worst case, a crucial parameter such as receiver spacing, maximum offset, or recording time turns out later to be inappropriate and the complete acquisition campaign has to be repeated. The

  9. The environments of Ly$\\alpha$ blobs I: Wide-field Ly$\\alpha$ imaging of TN J1338-1942, a powerful radio galaxy at $z\\simeq 4.1$ associated with a giant Ly$\\alpha$ nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoki; Lacey, Cedric G; Smail, Ian; Orsi, Alvaro; Baugh, Carlton M; Inoue, Akio K; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Ohta, Kouji; De Breuck, Carlos; Kodama, Tadayuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We present wide-field Lya imaging observations of the field around TN J1338-1942, a powerful radio galaxy associated with an extended Lya nebula (>100 kpc) at z=4.11, with Subaru Prime-focus Camera to probe the environment of the radio galaxy. We used a sample of Lya emitters (LAEs) down to the Lya luminosity of $\\log(L_{\\rm Lya}\\rm [erg\\, s^{-1}])\\sim 42.8$ to measure the galaxy density of this field, calibrating by direct comparison with a control sample in a blank field taken with the same instrument. We found that the radio galaxy resides in a region with a peak overdensity of $\\delta_{\\rm LAE}=3.1\\pm 0.5$, after being smoothed on $8\\, h^{-1}$ Mpc scales on the sky and $160\\, h^{-1}$ Mpc along the line of sight (both in comoving coordinates). Adjacent to this overdense region, we found a highly underdense region where virtually no LAEs are detected. We used a semi-analytical model of LAEs derived from the Millennium Simulation to compare our results with theoretical predictions. This comparison suggests t...

  10. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  11. Reconstruction of sedimentary environments of J2-4 reservoir rocks of the Lovin oil field by facial analysis and 3D simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagudin, R.; Minibaev, N.

    2012-04-01

    The reconstruction of accumulations' conditions of sand bodies and determination of paleogeographical conditions is the basis for 3D modeling of lithologically screened oil and gas reservoirs. The reconstruction of accumulations' conditions is implemented by lithologic-and-facies analysis. The facial types are determined during the analysis of deposits of oil reservoir and then mapped within the reservoir's space. The facies type is an integral characteristic. It is determined on the basis of a large number of research methods such as the processing and analysis of core samples, seismic and well log data. Mapping of reservoirs' facies types allow estimating variability of important for exploration of oil deposits parameters such as reservoir properties, productivity, distribution of effective thickness, etc. The facies types can be mapped as an individual geological unit and used in 3D geological modeling. Subject of facial analysis was sediments of J2-4 reservoir of Lovin oil field (Western Lovin structure) which were accumulated in the Jurassic period. Based on lithologic-and-facies analysis of core material from 6 wells (25 samples), including studies on the grain size measurements, analysis of sediment's structure and core description, the metering of magnetic susceptibility of sediments, facies types of the J2-4 reservoir were identified. The lithotype A is characterized by sand and silt structure, small nodules in the halo of pyrite oxidation, indicated the presence of magnetite. This lithotype belongs to conditions of river-bed facies. The lithotype B have a silty structure, interlayer of coal and traces of bioturbation. This lithotype corresponds to the conditions of sand bars of the floodplain. The lithotype C is characterized by silty-clay structure, single siderite nodules and the remnants of the fauna. This is referring to bog part of the floodplain. After analyzing the well log data of 25 wells of Lovin oil field by Muromtsev methodology distribution

  12. Determination of Air Enthalpy Based on Meteorological Data as an Indicator for Heat Stress Assessment in Occupational Outdoor Environments, a Field Study in IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Hamidreza; Golbabaei, Farideh; Shamsipour, Aliakbar; Rahimi Forushani, Abbas; Gaeini, Abbasali

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress evaluation and timely notification, especially using meteorological data is an important issue attracted attention in recent years. Therefore, this study aimed at answering the following research questions: 1) can enthalpy as a common environmental parameter reported by meteorological agencies be applied accurately for evaluation of thermal condition of outdoor settings, and 2) if so, what is it's the best criterion to detect areas in stress or stress-free situations, separately. Nine climatic regions were selected throughout Iran covering a wide variety of climatic conditions like those, which exist around the world. Three types of parameters including measured (ta, RH, Pa and WBGT), estimated (metabolic rate and cloth thermal insulation), and calculated parameters (enthalpy and effective WBGT) were recorded for 1452 different situations. Enthalpy as a new indicator in this research was compared to WBGT in selected regions. Altogether, a good consistency was obtained between enthalpy and WBGT in selected regions (Kappa value: 0.815). Based on the good ROC curve obtained using MedCal software, the criterion of the values more than 74.24 for the new index was determined to explain heat stress situation for outdoor environments. Because of simplicity in measurement, applicability of the indicator for weather agencies, the consistency observed between enthalpy and a valid as well as accurate index (WBGT), sensor requirements which take only a few seconds to reach equilibrium and so on, enthalpy indicator can be introduced and applied as a good substitute for WBGT for outdoor settings.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion of an elevated release in a rural environment: Comparison between field SF 6 tracer measurements and computations of Briggs and ADMS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O.; Leroy, C.; Derkx, F.; Maro, D.; Hébert, D.; Roupsard, P.; Rozet, M.

    2011-12-01

    The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), in collaboration with VEOLIA (French environmental services company), conducted experimental campaigns to study atmospheric dispersion around an Energy Recycling Unit (EUR). The objectives were to study dispersion for an elevated release in a rural environment and to compare results with those of models. The atmospheric dispersion was studied by SF 6 tracer injection into a 40 m high stack. Maximum values of experimental Atmospheric Transfer Coefficients (ATC max) and horizontal dispersion standard deviations ( σh) were compared to predictions from a first generation Briggs gaussian model as well as results from the latest generation ADMS 4.1 gaussian model. In neutral atmospheric conditions, the Briggs and ADMS models are in good agreement with experimental data in terms of ATC and σh. In unstable condition, for σh, both ADMS and Briggs models slightly overestimate the data for winter and summer conditions. In unstable conditions, ADMS and Briggs models overestimated ATC max. The statistical evaluation of the models versus experimental data shows neither models ever meets all of the criteria for good performance. However, statistical evaluation indicates that the ADMS model is more suitable for neutral condition, and that the Briggs model is more reliable for summer unstable conditions.

  14. The genesis of Typhoon Nuri as observed during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS08 field experiment – Part 2: Observations of the convective environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of thermodynamic data gathered from airborne dropwindsondes during the Tropical Cyclone Structure (2008 experiment are presented for the disturbance that became Typhoon Nuri. Although previous work has suggested that Nuri formed within the protective recirculating "pouch" region of a westward propagating wave-like disturbance and implicated rotating deep convective clouds in driving the inflow to spin up the tangential circulation of the system-scale flow, the nature of the thermodynamic environment that supported the genesis remains a topic of debate. During the genesis phase, vertical profiles of virtual potential temperature show little variability between soundings on a particular day and the system-average soundings likewise show a negligible change. There is a tendency also for the lower and middle troposphere to moisten. However, the data show that, on the scale of the recirculating region of the disturbance, there was no noticeable reduction of virtual temperature in the lower troposphere, but a small warming (less than 1 K in the upper troposphere. Vertical profiles of pseudo-equivalent potential temperature, θe, during the genesis show a modestly decreasing deficit of θe in the vertical between the surface and the height of minimum θe (between 3 and 4 km, from 17.5 K to 15.2 K. The findings reported here are consistent with those found for developing disturbances observed in the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT experiment in 2010. Some implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Water saving at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water potential monitoring and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water potential (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water potential (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was

  16. Scientific innovation in karst resources and environment research field of China%我国岩溶资源环境领域的创新问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁道先

    2015-01-01

    中国岩溶地区资源环境问题突出,制约着经济社会的发展。“十八大”以来国家大力推进科技创新和生态文明建设。科技创新不仅有助于解决和应对岩溶地区的资源环境问题,也将推动岩溶科学的发展,服务我国生态文明建设。今后的岩溶研究应当落实地球系统科学在岩溶学中的应用,发挥我国岩溶研究的地域优势,探索我国岩溶关键带的特征和重要过程;加强岩溶作用应对全球变化、岩溶碳汇速率和稳定性的研究,建立应对极端气候的长效机制;考虑古纬度和古气候对古岩溶形成的影响;深入探索微生物对深部碳酸盐岩岩溶形成的作用;系统梳理和总结我国第一期石漠化治理工程的经验和存在的问题,更好地指导下一步的治理工作;思考从南北方岩溶分界线的角度开展岩溶自然遗产地的申报工作;将现代大数据等技术运用到岩溶资源环境、水文地质研究中,做好地质灾害的预警预报和应对资源短缺问题的研究,服务国家需求。%Abstract In karst areas of China,the natural resources and environment have some serious problems, which constrain the development of social economy.The Central Government has promoted the scientific and technical innovation and ecological civilization construction vigorously since the Eighteenth National Congress of Communist Party of China.Scientific and technical innovation can not only helps to face and solve the re-source and environment problems in karst areas,but also promote the development of karstology,and pro-vide service to the ecological civilization construction.The research on karst in the future should concentrate on the following aspects:to implement the application of earth system science in karstology,exert the re-gional advantages of China on the karst research,and explore the characteristics and significant processes of critical zones in karst areas of

  17. A field study on solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment parameters along a vertical canopy gradient of four tree species in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Alonso, Luis; Verrelst, Jochem; Hermans, Inge; Valcke, Roland; Veroustraete, Frank; Moreno, José; Samson, Roeland

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential uses of vegetation indices based on the sun-induced upward and downward chlorophyll fluorescence at leaf and at canopy scales, a field study was carried out in the city of Valencia (Spain). Fluorescence yield (FY) indices were derived for trees at different traffic intensity locations and at three canopy heights. This allowed investigating within-tree and between-tree variations of FY indices for four tree species. Several FY indices showed a significant (p alba (white mulberry) and Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm). The upward FY parameters of M. alba, and the upward to downward ratios at 687 and 741 nm for both species, were significantly related to tree location. It was found that not the total chlorophyll (Chl) content, but rather the Chl a/b ratio showed the strongest correlations with several of the indices applied. Chl a/b was lowest at the bottom level of the highest traffic intensity location for both species due to an increased Chl b, indicating a larger light harvesting complex related to Photosystem II (LHCII) as a response to limiting light. The leaf deposits from traffic observed at this sampling location possibly led to a shading effect, resulting further in an adaptive response of the photosynthetic system and subsequent difference of FY indices. This study therefore indicated the importance of the size of LHCII on the fluorescence emission, observed under different traffic generated pollution conditions.

  18. THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STAR FORMATION ENVIRONMENT OF NGC 6946: Br γ AND H{sub 2} RESULTS FROM KECK INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Jean L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Beck, Sara C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv (Israel); Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Wright, Shelley A., E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-10-20

    We present a three-dimensional data cube of the K-band continuum and the Br γ, H{sub 2} S(0), and S(1) lines within the central 18.''5 × 13.''8 (520 pc × 390 pc) region of NGC 6946. Data were obtained using OSIRIS, a near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Keck Observatory, with Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics. The 0.''3 resolution allows us to investigate the stellar bulge and the forming star clusters in the nuclear region on 10 pc scales. We detect giant H II regions associated with massive young star clusters in the nuclear spiral/ring (R ∼ 30 pc) and in the principal shocks along the nuclear bar. Comparisons of the Br γ fluxes with Pa α line emission and radio continuum indicate A{sub K} ∼ 3, A{sub V} ∼ 25 for the nuclear star-forming regions. The most luminous H II regions are restricted to within 70 pc of the center, despite the presence of high gas columns at larger radii (R ∼ 200 pc). H{sub 2} emission is restricted to clouds within R ∼ 60 pc of the center, resembling the distribution of HCN line emission. We propose that gas-assisted migration of the young star clusters is contributing to the buildup of the nuclear bar and nuclear star cluster (R < 30 pc) in this galaxy.

  19. Mycorrhizal inoculation as a tool for sustainable bio-engineering measures in steep alpine environments? - Results of a three year field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Lüscher, Peter; Graf, Frank; Gärtner, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Global warming is anticipated to result in an increase of heavy precipitation events. In vegetation-free, steep Alpine areas intense rain fall events have distinct influences on erosional processes on slopes. These processes and (shallow) mass movements are directly linked with torrential rain falls, and for this lead to high erosion rates in those regions, resulting in an increased natural and socio-economic damage potential. For restoring and managing erosion-prone sites, bioengineering measures as a tool for hazard prevention gain more importance. Due to the rough environmental conditions, and hence, reduced germination capability and sprout vigour, it is difficult to establish a dense cover of pioneer vegetation. Thus, the question is what can be done to give planted saplings within bioengineering projects maximum support, to develop their above- and belowground structures to promote slope stabilization. Green-house and laboratory experiments have shown that mycorrhizal inoculum has a positive impact on plant development and soil structure, e.g. the formation of (stable) aggregates within several months. Based on these promising results, we intended to apply mycorrhizal inoculation in a field-experiment. In May 2010, we established experimental plots at an erosion-prone talus slope (inclination: ~40 - 45 °; elevation 1220 - 1360 m a.s.l.), located in the Eastern Swiss Alps. The slope, consisting of moraine and denudation-derived substrate, shows high geomorphic activity (e.g. debris flows, rill erosion). Two slope areas, 10m wide and 32m long, were stabilized with 1200 plants each. Additionally, mycorrhiza inoculum (INOQ Forst, 40 ml/plant) was added to one of the two areas. Within the stabilized areas, a mixture of eight saplings was planted per running meter in 15 rows. The assortment included four saplings of green alder and two of purple willow, as well as one tree (maple, birch, ash) and shrub species (e.g. guelder rose, honeysuckle). Finally, both areas

  20. Geochemical signatures of benthic foraminifera shells from a heat-polluted shallow marine environment provide field evidence for growth and calcification under extreme warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-04-01

    Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. So far, most data on thermal tolerance of marine calcifiers have been obtained by manipulative laboratory experiments. Such experiments provide valuable physiological data, but it remains unclear to what degree these observations apply to natural ecosystems. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on ecosystem-relevant scales is by investigation of heat-polluted coastal areas. Here we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to temperature elevated by 6˚ C above the natural seasonal temperature range and reaching up to ˜42˚ C in summer. Several species of benthic foraminifera have been previously shown to persist throughout the year in the heat-polluted area, allowing us to examine in natural conditions the thermal limits of growth and calcification under extreme temperatures as they are expected to prevail in the future. Live specimens of two known heat tolerant species Lachlanella sp. 1 and Pararotalia calcariformata were collected over a period of one year from two stations, representing thermally polluted and undisturbed (control) shallow hard bottom habitats. Single-chamber element ratios of these specimens were obtained using laser ablation and the Mg/Ca of the last chambers (grown closest to the time of collection) were used to calculate calcification temperatures. Our results provide the first direct field evidence that these foraminifera species not only persist extreme warm temperatures but continue to grow and calcify. Species-specific Mg/Ca thermometry indicates that P. calcariformata precipitate their shells at temperatures as high as 40˚ C and Lachlanella sp. 1 at least up to 36˚ C. Instead, both species

  1. 输电走廊工频电磁场的测量和解决方案%Electromagnetic Field Intensity Measurement and Solution for Unsafe Environment along Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊兰; 宋道军; 张又力; 唐涛; 肖波; 杨帆; 何为

    2011-01-01

    With the development of extra high voltage power grid, electromagnetic radiation arouses people' s intensive concern. With an engineering example: physical discomfort of teachers and students in primary school near a 500 kV AC transmission lines,distribution of power frequency electric field and power frequency magnetic field under the lines is analyzed with program based on charge simulation method (CSM) and simulation current method (SCM) respectively. Moreover, measured data indicate that electric field intensity on the roof of the teaching building partially approaches national public exposure limit in good weather condition; it exceeds the limit in bad weather condition (high relative humidity). The solution proposal for unsafe electric field environment is to fix three shielding lines (LGJ-50/30) to reduce electric field strength from 3.43 kV/m to 1.35 kV/m. Even in rainy weather condition, electric field strength also meets the national standards' request.%随着超高压电网的迅速发展,输电线路走廊的电磁辐射问题引起越来越多的关注.结合工程实例—某500 kV交流线路靠近小学校园引起师生身体不适,运用模拟电荷法和模拟电流法,分别分析了该线路走廊的工频电场和工频磁场的空间分布特性.同时,现场测量数据表明:在晴朗天气条件下,教学楼顶部分区域的电场强度接近国标限值;在阴雨(湿度较大)天气条件下,电场强度确已超标.针对电场超标问题,通过架设3根LGJ-50/30-地屏蔽线将电场强度最大值由3.75 kV/m降至1.35 kV/m,阴雨天气条件下亦满足国家标准要求.

  2. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    , and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of distinction......, and that it is based fully on the conception of observation as indication by means of distinction....

  3. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  4. A Spectroscopically Confirmed Excess of 24 micron Sources in a Super Galaxy Group at z=0.37: Enhanced Dusty Star Formation Relative to the Cluster and Field Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Kim-Vy H; Moustakas, John; Bai, Lei; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Holden, Bradford P; Zaritsky, Dennis; Kautsch, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    To trace how dust-obscured star formation varies with environment, we compare the fraction of 24 micron sources in a super galaxy group to the field and a rich galaxy cluster at z~0.35. We draw on multi-wavelength observations that combine Hubble, Chandra, and Spitzer imaging with extensive optical spectroscopy (>1800 redshifts) to isolate galaxies in each environment and thus ensure a uniform analysis. We focus on the four galaxy groups in supergroup 1120-12 that will merge to form a galaxy cluster comparable in mass to Coma. We find that 1) the fraction of supergroup galaxies with SFR(IR)>3 Msun/yr is four times higher than in the cluster (32% vs. 7%); 2) the supergroup's infrared luminosity function confirms that it has a higher density of IR members compared to the cluster and includes bright IR sources not found in galaxy clusters at z0.5 Mpc); once their star formation is quenched, most will evolve into faint red galaxies. Our analysis indicates that the supergroup's 24 micron population also differs fr...

  5. Biogeochemical typing of paddy field by a data-driven approach revealing sub-systems within a complex environment--a pipeline to filtrate, organize and frame massive dataset from multi-omics analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M O Ogawa

    Full Text Available We propose the technique of biogeochemical typing (BGC typing as a novel methodology to set forth the sub-systems of organismal communities associated to the correlated chemical profiles working within a larger complex environment. Given the intricate characteristic of both organismal and chemical consortia inherent to the nature, many environmental studies employ the holistic approach of multi-omics analyses undermining as much information as possible. Due to the massive amount of data produced applying multi-omics analyses, the results are hard to visualize and to process. The BGC typing analysis is a pipeline built using integrative statistical analysis that can treat such huge datasets filtering, organizing and framing the information based on the strength of the various mutual trends of the organismal and chemical fluctuations occurring simultaneously in the environment. To test our technique of BGC typing, we choose a rich environment abounding in chemical nutrients and organismal diversity: the surficial freshwater from Japanese paddy fields and surrounding waters. To identify the community consortia profile we employed metagenomics as high throughput sequencing (HTS for the fragments amplified from Archaea rRNA, universal 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA; to assess the elemental content we employed ionomics by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES; and for the organic chemical profile, metabolomics employing both Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR all these analyses comprised our multi-omics dataset. The similar trends between the community consortia against the chemical profiles were connected through correlation. The result was then filtered, organized and framed according to correlation strengths and peculiarities. The output gave us four BGC types displaying uniqueness in community and chemical distribution, diversity and richness. We conclude therefore that

  6. Plastocrono e rendimento de feijão-de-vagem cultivado sob ambiente protegido e no ambiente externo em semeadura tardia no outono Plastochron and snap bean yield grown under protected environment and in open field in late fall sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Bernardo Heldwein

    2010-04-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a horticultural crop that is enhanced during Fall in Rio Grande do Sul State, which can be favored by growing inside a plastic greenhouse (protected cropping. The estimation of the time interval between the appearance of two successive nodes on a dicot stem, known as plastochron, is important in modeling studies and for crop management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the plastochron and the yield of snap bean grown inside plastic greenhouse (protected environment and in the open field. An experiment was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, during the Fall 2009 in two environments: protected environment (plastic house covered with 100µm of thickness low density polyethylene and in the open field. Solar radiation, air temperature, thermal time, the main stem node appearance (plastochron and pod yield were determined. Solar radiation was, 26% lower in the protected environment, and minimum, mean and maximum air temperatures were greater in the protected environment. The plastochron was higher (lower node appearance rate in the protected environment whereas pod yield was similar in the two environments. The reduction in solar irradiation, caused by the plastic cover, was pointed out as a major cause for the lower node appearance rate (greater plastochron of the plants in the protected environment whereas reproductive growth in the protected environment was similar to the one in the open field most likely because of the increase in the diffuse fraction of solar radiation that partially compensated the plastic shading, and because of the less plants exposure to possible mechanic stresses as wind and hydraulic during the hottest hours of the day when water demand is the highest.

  7. Teaching Ecology in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fail, Joseph, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of ecology and environmental education in urban environments by using field trips to city parks, airports, nuclear power plants, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, incinerators, foundries, and forests. (MKR)

  8. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  9. Path planning for mobile robot based on improved Artificial Potential Field method in complex environment%复杂环境下改进APF的机器人路径规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢恩超; 张万绪

    2013-01-01

    When the obstacles are large, or the complex environment space is relatively narrow, Artificial Potential Field method (APF)is prone to appear repeated shocks, long time planning and obstacle avoidance of difficulty nearby the large obstacles. This paper presents an adaptive dynamic step length adjustment method based on the APF path planning which is combined with the edge detection method to overcome the proposed defects of APF, achieving mobile robot smooth path planning in the complex environment. Hence it can not only improve APF algorithm convergence speed and the safety of path planning, but at the same time ensure the approximate optimum path. Experiments are carried out by simulation to verify the effectiveness of the afore-mentioned methods.%针对移动机器人在有大型障碍物和运动空间相对狭窄的复杂环境中,人工势场法(APF)容易出现反复震荡、路径规划时间较长以及大型障碍物附近避障困难的问题,提出了在结合边缘探测法的APF路径规划基础上,加入自适应动态步长调整算法来克服APF的上述缺陷,实现移动机器人在复杂环境下的平滑路径规划,在确保路径近似最优的同时提高APF算法的收敛速度和路经规划的避障性能。实验结果证明了上述方法的有效性。

  10. Pollutant dispersion in built environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, Tingzhen; Gong, Tingrui; Li, Zhengtong

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses energy transfer, fluid flow and pollution in built environments. It provides a comprehensive overview of the highly detailed fundamental theories as well as the technologies used and the application of heat and mass transfer and fluid flow in built environments, with a focus on the mathematical models and computational and experimental methods. It is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of buildings and environment, heat transfer and global warming.

  11. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  12. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  13. Safe environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  14. Spaceborne Double-probe Electric Field Sensor for Space Electromagnetic Environment Monitoring%空间电磁环境监测用双探针式星载电场探测仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任仁; 陈贤祥; 夏善红; 吕元生

    2012-01-01

    针对空间电磁环境监测需求,该文介绍了双探针式在轨电场探测方法.概述了双探针式、天线式和电子漂移式3种检测方法的异同,重点探讨了双探针式电场测量方法的原理、系统组成及测试标定方法.设计实现了敏感探头和数据采集处理单元,通过阻容耦合方式模拟电场仪在轨工作环境对系统进行了测试.测试结果显示SLF,VLF和HF频段的噪声本底分别小于4μVm-1Hz-1/2,1μVm-1Hz-1/2和0.5μVm-1Hz-1/2.%This paper presents a method of double-probe electric field in-orbit detection. Differences of three kinds of instrument including double-probe type, antenna type and electron drift type are briefly introduced. The principle, architecture and calibration method of double-probe spaceborne electric field sensor are described in detail. Sensitive probe and signal acquisition & processing units are implemented and tested with sensor in-orbit environment simulation through resistive coupling. Experiment results indicate that noise amplitude spectrum intensity of band SLF, VLF, HF are less than 4 μVm-1Hz-1/2, 1 μVm-1Hz-1/2 , 0.5 μVm-1Hz-11/2 separately.

  15. Environment Debate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    resource diversity, environmental variability and global influences on local ... these relationship has moved from the biased technocratic objective assessment of ... The environment of a particular human group includes both cultural ... and analysis using a livelihood approach that incorporates local knowledge, perceptions, ...

  16. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  17. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    , as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found......, ultimately, the epistemic and ontic effects of fact-making in the heart of neoliberal capitalism....

  18. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  19. A Wide-Field Study of the z~0.8 Cluster RX J0152.7-1357: the Role of Environment in the Formation of the Red-Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Shannon G; Holden, Bradford P; Illingworth, Garth D; Franx, Marijn; van der Wel, Arjen; Ford, Holland

    2008-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] We present the first results from the largest spectroscopic survey to date of an intermediate redshift galaxy cluster, the z=0.834 cluster RX J0152.7-1357. We use the colors of galaxies, assembled from a D~12 Mpc region centered on the cluster, to investigate the properties of the red-sequence as a function of density and clustercentric radius. Our wide-field multi-slit survey with a low-dispersion prism in the IMACS spectrograph at Magellan allowed us to identify 475 new members of the cluster and its surrounding large scale structure with a redshift accuracy of dz/(1+z)~1% and a contamination rate of ~2% for galaxies with i4x10^{10} M_sun. We find that the red galaxy fraction is 93+/-3% in the two merging cores of the cluster and declines to a level of 64+/-3% at projected clustercentric radii R>~3 Mpc. At these large projected distances, the correlation between clustercentric radius and local density is nonexistent. This allows an assessment of the influence of the local environment on galaxy ev...

  20. Patterns of Personal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The use of design patterns is now well established as an approach within the field of software systems as well as within the field of architecture. An initial effort was made to harness patterns as a tool for elaborating the design of the elements of personal learning environments as part of the University of Bolton's Personal Learning Environment…

  1. Space Environment Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J.

    1984-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Environment Laboratory (SEL), along with several other NOAA programs, is slated for a major budget reduction in FY 1985, a reduction which would have a serious impact upon the space environment services now provided by the laboratory.SEL, jointly with the U.S. Air Force's Air Weather Service, operates the Space Environment Services Center (SESC) in Boulder, Colorado. SESC acquires, in near real-time, world-wide data on solar activity, on the terrestrial magnetic field, and on energetic particles at geostationary and polar orbiting satellite altitudes. Data are available to SESC from solar observatories operated by both the Air Force and a number of nongovernment organizations, the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites, and a U.S.-Canadian magnetometer network.

  2. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    on the means by which architecture can enact places through socio-technical relationships. The architecture stands out as dynamic and open and carries emergent affects that facilitate interaction in a new configuration between objects and subjects. By crossing social and technological networks between flows...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  3. 传统稻鱼系统生产力提升对稻田水体环境的影响%Effects of improved traditional rice-fish system productivity on field water environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁伟华; 李娜娜; 任伟征; 胡亮亮; 陈欣; 唐建军

    2013-01-01

    traditional agricultural productivity without corresponding increase in negative environment impacts, two experiments were conducted at a traditional rice-fish co-culture site that had been operated for over 1 200 years in southern Zhejiang Province.In the first experiment, three treatments without pesticide, including rice monoculture (RM), rice-fish co-culture (RF) and fish monoculture (FM), were compared.In addition to measured rice yield (in RM and RF), fish yield (in RF and FM), and surveyed input-output economics, focus was put on total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in field water.Four fish density treatments, including with target fish yields in rice-fish co-culture fields of 750 kg·hm-2 (RF750), 1 500 kg·hm-2 (RF1500), 2 250 kg·hm-2 (RF2250) and 3 000 kg·hm-2 (RF3000), were designed in the second experiment.Rice and fish yields, input and output of economics, and TN, TP, NH4+-N and COD were measured in the field water.The first experiment showed no significant difference in rice yield between RM and RF.There was also no significant difference in fish yield between RF and FM in the experiment.However, total and net income of the system were higher in RF than in RM and FM.Field water contents of TN, TP, NH4+-N and COD were not significantly different between RF and RM.The second experiment showed that rice yield, fish yield, and total and net economic output increased with increasing fish stock density and fish feed input.Increase in fish stock density increased target yield of fish by 1 500 kg·hm-2 (50%), significantly increased net income of rice-fish co-culture systems by 25.2%~101.4%, and also increased COD, TN, TP and NH4+-N content in field water.When target yield was 3 000 kg·hm-2, TP and COD contents became significantly higher than in other treatments; which enhanced risk of environmental pollution.Economic analysis indicated that target fish yield of 2 250 kg·hm-2 gave higher

  4. Issledovanie temperaturnoi i chastotnoi zavisimostei elektrofizicheskikh svoistv dioksida tseriya [Investigation of the temperature and frequency dependences of the electrical properties of cerium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ogorodnik

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the electrical properties of CeO2 - temperature and frequency dependences of the conductivity, permittivity and dielectric loss tangent, as well as an interpretation of the results obtained

  5. Aerodynamic analysis on fly-at-zero of big airplane in field environment%野战环境下大型飞机超低空气动特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 马存宝; 许和勇

    2013-01-01

    According to the fly-at-zero of big airplane on unconventional condition such as field environment,the influences of ground effect on airplane' s aerodynamic parameters with forward or asymmetrical lateral obstacles on the ground were presented by CFD approach,including the longitudinal stability and lateral wing rock.The research results show that the uncertain obstacles on the ground will deteriorate the stability of big plane,and then cause the nodding or wing rock,this flight process will induce the airplane to touch the ground.In the end,the article presents the research idea for closed loop control approach for large airplane with conventional configuration in terms of modem flight control theory.%针对野战环境下的大型飞机超低空飞行,采用CFD方法对地面存在前向或横向不对称障碍物时地面效应对气动参数的影响进行了数值分析,包括纵向稳定性和侧向摇晃等问题.研究结果表明,野战等非常规飞行条件下,地面不确定障碍物会造成大型飞机稳定性变差,严重时可能出现纵向点头和横侧向摇晃现象,容易导致触地危险.最后,从现代飞行控制理论角度提出了对常规布局大型飞机进行闭环控制的研究思路.

  6. Evaluation of a Push-Pull Approach for Aedes aegypti (L.) Using a Novel Dispensing System for Spatial Repellents in the Laboratory and in a Semi-Field Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayr, Ulla; Ruther, Joachim; Bernier, Ulrich R; Rose, Andreas; Geier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The increase in insecticide resistant mosquito populations necessitates the exploration of novel vector control intervention measures. Push-pull strategies for insect control have been successful when used in integrated crop pest management. Through the combinatory use of deterring and attracting stimuli, the abundance of insect pests can be changed in a given area. A push-pull strategy might also significantly reduce human-vector contacts and augment existing mosquito control strategies, e.g. through the combination of an attractive trapping system and a potent spatial repellent. Our approach includes the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap in combination with catnip oil (Nepeta cataria), a known spatial repellent for Aedes aegypti. To impart a deterrent effect on mosquitoes at a distance, a homogenous and continuous dispersal of volatile repellent compounds is crucial. We have developed a repellent dispensing system that is easy to use and provides a homogenous dispersal of repellent in an air curtain. The use of five 9 V fans and custom-made repellent sachets containing 10% catnip essential oil created a repellent loaded air curtain that provided coverage of an area of 2 m2 (1.2 x 1.65 m). Air was sampled at four different heights in the curtain and analysed via thermal desorption (TD) and consecutive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nepetalactone, the main constituent of the oil, was detected in air at a concentration range of 80 to 100 μg/m3 and the amounts were comparable at all four sampling positions. When a human volunteer was sitting behind the repellent curtain and a BGS trap was installed in front of the curtain in laboratory push-pull trials, Ae. aegypti landing collections decreased significantly by 50% compared to repellent-free controls. However, in a semi-field environment, comparable protective effects could not be achieved and further research on suitable repellent concentrations for outdoor implementation will be required.

  7. Evaluation of a Push-Pull Approach for Aedes aegypti (L. Using a Novel Dispensing System for Spatial Repellents in the Laboratory and in a Semi-Field Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Obermayr

    Full Text Available The increase in insecticide resistant mosquito populations necessitates the exploration of novel vector control intervention measures. Push-pull strategies for insect control have been successful when used in integrated crop pest management. Through the combinatory use of deterring and attracting stimuli, the abundance of insect pests can be changed in a given area. A push-pull strategy might also significantly reduce human-vector contacts and augment existing mosquito control strategies, e.g. through the combination of an attractive trapping system and a potent spatial repellent. Our approach includes the BG-Sentinel (BGS trap in combination with catnip oil (Nepeta cataria, a known spatial repellent for Aedes aegypti. To impart a deterrent effect on mosquitoes at a distance, a homogenous and continuous dispersal of volatile repellent compounds is crucial. We have developed a repellent dispensing system that is easy to use and provides a homogenous dispersal of repellent in an air curtain. The use of five 9 V fans and custom-made repellent sachets containing 10% catnip essential oil created a repellent loaded air curtain that provided coverage of an area of 2 m2 (1.2 x 1.65 m. Air was sampled at four different heights in the curtain and analysed via thermal desorption (TD and consecutive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nepetalactone, the main constituent of the oil, was detected in air at a concentration range of 80 to 100 μg/m3 and the amounts were comparable at all four sampling positions. When a human volunteer was sitting behind the repellent curtain and a BGS trap was installed in front of the curtain in laboratory push-pull trials, Ae. aegypti landing collections decreased significantly by 50% compared to repellent-free controls. However, in a semi-field environment, comparable protective effects could not be achieved and further research on suitable repellent concentrations for outdoor implementation will be required.

  8. 农田环境中固氮菌的促生潜能与分布特点%Growth Promotion Potential and Distribution Features of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Field Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建光; 胡海燕; 刘君; 陈倩; 高淼; 徐晶; 周义清

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解小麦、水稻、玉米、蔬菜等作物根际固氮菌的优势种群、固氮菌菌株的固氮、抗病、促生潜能以及菌株在系统发育地位和来源作物种类上的分布特点.[方法]采用无氮培养基培养固氮菌,乙炔还原法测定菌株固氮酶活性,平板对峙法测定菌株拮抗病原真菌性能,ACC(1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸)唯一氮源法定性测定菌株产ACC脱氨酶特性,比色法定量测定ACC脱氨酶活性,通过16S rDNA序列测定和相似性分析研究菌株的分类地位.[结果] 94株供试菌株的固氮酶活性在0.99-180.59nmol C2H4/h·mg蛋白,其中大于10 nmol C2H4/h·mg蛋白的菌株有42株,占全部供试菌株的44.7%;类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)和芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)是主要类群,分别占供试菌株总数的33.0%和26.6%,且不具有寄主专一性.供试菌株中有6株分别对核盘菌(Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)、玉米赤霉菌(Gibberella zeae)和大丽轮枝菌(Verticillium dahliae)3种植物病原真菌表现出拮抗作用,占菌株总数的6.4%,抑菌率为23.9%-65.9%.有20株固氮菌能够产生ACC脱氨酶,占全部供试菌株的21.3%,活性在0.33-21.98 μmolα-丁酮酸、h·mg蛋白,主要分布在芽孢杆菌属、类芽孢杆菌属和根瘤菌属(Rhizobium).[结论]小麦、水稻、玉米、白菜、芹菜等作物根际以及农田环境中固氮菌的优势种群为类芽孢杆菌属和芽孢杆菌属,多数固氮菌菌株具有较高的固氮潜能,部分菌株具有ACC脱氨酶活性和促生潜能,少数菌株具有抗病潜能;固氮、抗病、促生潜力菌株主要分布在类芽孢杆菌属、芽孢杆菌属和根瘤菌属,随作物分布广泛,无专一性.%[Objective! The objective of this experiment is to determine the dominant species and phylogenetic position of nitrogen fixing bacteria in crop rhizosphere and field environments, and to screen for nitrogen-fixing bacteria with growth promotion potential. [Method

  9. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Garcia-Moral, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gomez, G. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Ruiz-Arbol, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scodellaro, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2007-04-21

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths.

  10. Ergonomics in the office environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  11. Citation Environment of Angewandte Chemie

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz; Marx, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Recently, aggregated journal-journal citation networks were made accessible from the perspective of each journal included in the Science Citation Index see (http://www.leydesdorff.net/). The local matrices can be used to inspect the relevant citation environment of a journal using statistical analysis and visualization techniques from social network analysis. The inspection gives an answer to the question what the local impact of this and other journals in the environment is. In this study the citation environment of Angewandte Chemie was analysed. Angewandte Chemie is one of the prime chemistry journals in the world. Its environment was compared with that of the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The results of the environment analyses give a detailed insight into the field-embeddedness of Angewandte Chemie. The impacts of the German and international editions of this journal are compared.

  12. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  13. Measuring Galaxy Environments with Deep Redshift Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, M C; Madgwick, D S; Gerke, B F; Yan, R; Davis, M; Cooper, Michael C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Madgwick, Darren S.; Gerke, Brian F.; Yan, Renbin; Davis, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We study the applicability of several galaxy environment measures (n^th-nearest-neighbor distance, counts in an aperture, and Voronoi volume) within deep redshift surveys. Mock galaxy catalogs are employed to mimic representative photometric and spectroscopic surveys at high redshift (z ~ 1). We investigate the effects of survey edges, redshift precision, redshift-space distortions, and target selection upon each environment measure. We find that even optimistic photometric redshift errors (\\sigma_z = 0.02) smear out the line-of-sight galaxy distribution irretrievably on small scales; this significantly limits the application of photometric redshift surveys to environment studies. Edges and holes in a survey field dramatically affect the estimation of environment, with the impact of edge effects depending upon the adopted environment measure. These edge effects considerably limit the usefulness of smaller survey fields (e.g. the GOODS fields) for studies of galaxy environment. In even the poorest groups and c...

  14. Path planning in dynamic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.P. van den

    2007-01-01

    Path planning plays an important role in various fields of application, such as CAD design, computer games and virtual environments, molecular biology, and robotics. In its most general form, the path planning problem is formulated as finding a collision-free path for a moving entity between a start

  15. Measures of Galaxy Environment I - What is "Environment"?

    CERN Document Server

    Muldrew, Stuart I; Skibba, Ramin A; Pearce, Frazer R; Ann, Hong Bae; Baldry, Ivan K; Brough, Sarah; Choi, Yun-Young; Conselice, Christopher J; Cowan, Nicolas B; Gallazzi, Anna; Gray, Meghan E; Grützbauch, Ruth; Li, I-Hui; Park, Changbom; Pilipenko, Sergey V; Podgorzec, Bret J; Robotham, Aaron S G; Wilman, David J; Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Zibetti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The influence of a galaxy's environment on its evolution has been studied and compared extensively in the literature, although differing techniques are often used to define environment. Most methods fall into two broad groups: those that use nearest neighbours to probe the underlying density field and those that use fixed apertures. The differences between the two inhibit a clean comparison between analyses and leave open the possibility that, even with the same data, different properties are actually being measured. In this work we apply twenty published environment definitions to a common mock galaxy catalogue constrained to look like the local Universe. We find that nearest neighbour-based measures best probe the internal densities of high-mass haloes, while at low masses the inter-halo separation dominates and acts to smooth out local density variations. The resulting correlation also shows that nearest neighbour galaxy environment is largely independent of dark matter halo mass. Conversely, aperture-base...

  16. 深耕和施用有机肥对麦田土壤微环境的影响%Effects of Deep Tillage and Organic Fertilizer Application on Soil Micro-environment of Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马守臣; 张紧紧; 冯荣成; 邵云; 胡永娟; 马守田; 王文斐

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different tillage and fertilization meas-ures on the microbial quantity ,enzyme activity ,moisture and nutrients of soil .Four tillage and fertilization treatments were selected:deep tillage(DCK),deep tillage+organic fertilizer(DOF),shallow tillage(SCK),and shallow tillage+organic fertilizer(SOF).The results of 5-year field experiments showed that,without the application of organic fertilizer ,the number of fungi and actinomycetes in 0-40 cm soil layer was significantly higher in DCK than in SCK ( P<0 .05 ) ,while the number of bacteria in DCK was significantly higher only in 20-40 cm soil layer than that of SCK.Organic fertilizer could significantly increase the number of microorganisms (P<0.05).In 0-20 cm soil lay-er,the numbers of bacteria,fungi and actinomycetes in DOF treatment increased by 180.6%,53.6%and 19.8%, respectively,compared to DCK,while in SOF treatment increased by 8%,14.2% and 36.9%,respectively,com-pared to SCK .Deep tillage could increase the soil urease activity and soil water content compared with shallow till -age(P<0.05).Application of organic fertilizer could significantly increase the urease activity and soil water con-tent under deep tillage condition .In 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layer,the urease activity of DOF treatment in-creased by 11.9%and 54.3%,respectively,and the soil water content of DOF increased by 4.67%and 4.49%, respectively ,compared with DCK .Deep tillage helped to increase the content of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in 20-40 cm soil layer ,while shallow tillage helped to increase the content of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in 0-20 cm soil layer .Application of organic fertilizer could increase the contents of total nitrogen and total phosphor-us in 0 -20 cm soil layer .The contents of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in SOF treatment increased by 36.24%and 5.54%,respectively,and the content of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in DOF treatment

  17. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  18. SOI MESFETs for Extreme Environment Electronics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing a new extreme environment electronics (EEE) technology based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs)....

  19. Field Guide to Radiometry

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Written from a systems engineering perspective, this SPIE Field Guide covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment.

  20. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  1. Designing for Learning: Multiplayer Digital Game Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung On

    2010-01-01

    Many people in general think that digital game environment has potential as a learning environment. However, empirical research in digital game environment and education is a still relative young field, so to create a digital learning environment where students are actively engaged in the learning process is a great challenge. In part, it has been…

  2. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  3. Habituating field scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayna-Stevens, Lys

    2016-12-01

    This article explores the sensory dimensions of scientific field research in the only region in the world where free-ranging bonobos ( Pan paniscus) can be studied in their natural environment; the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. If, as sensory anthropologists have argued, the senses are developed, grown and honed in a given cultural and environmental milieu, how is it that field scientists come to dwell among familiarity in a world which is, at first, unfamiliar? This article builds upon previous anthropological and philosophical engagements with habituation that have critically examined primatologists' attempts to become 'neutral objects in the environment' in order to habituate wild apes to their presence. It does so by tracing the somatic modes of attention developed by European and North American researchers as they follow bonobos in these forests. The argument is that as environments, beings and their elements become familiar, they do not become 'neutral', but rather, suffused with meaning.

  4. Health and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Budimka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Department of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, is responsible for undergraduate and graduate courses in the field of preventive medicine. The principal task of physicians in the 21st century is to provide health promotion and disease prevention. In the future, evaluation of physician knowledge and competence will be predominantly based on patients' health conditions. Health and Environment. Human health is a result of long-term interaction between human genome and the environment. Good human health requires permanent control of health conditions as well as control of environmental health hazards. Various environmental factors, such as physical, chemical, biological, social and economic, affect the population health. Air, drinking water and food are fundamental to the existence of life of all living beings on Earth, and therefore they have enormous influence on the health of individuals and populations. Conclusion. The significance of the above mentioned requirements, essential for human health, is the reason why the Department of Hygiene conducted an investigation on the quality of air, food and water (water is a foodstuff as well in Vojvodina.

  5. Entangling Atoms and Ions in Dissipative Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Beige, A; Braun, D; Huelga, S F; Knight, P L; Plenio, M B; Vedral, V

    2000-01-01

    Quantum information processing rests on our ability to manipulate quantum superpositions through coherent unitary transformations, and to establish entanglement between constituent quantum components of the processor. The quantum information processor (a linear ion trap, or a cavity confining the radiation field for example) exists in a dissipative environment. We discuss ways in which entanglement can be established within such dissipative environments. We can even make use of a strong interaction of the system with its environment to produce entanglement in a controlled way.

  6. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments Michael B. Porter...complicated 3D environments . I have also been doing a great deal of work in modeling the noise field (the ocean soundscape) due to various sources...we have emphasized the propagation of ‘signals’. We have become increasingly interested in modeling ‘ noise ’ which can illuminate the ocean environment

  7. CSIR eNews: Natural resources and environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR conducts core research and develops competencies in various strategically critical areas of the natural resources and the environment (NRE) fields of study. Through relevant and focused research, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment...

  8. CSIR eNews: Natural resources and environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR conducts core research and develops competencies in various strategically critical areas of the natural resources and the environment (NRE) fields of study. Through relevant and focused research, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment...

  9. Application of grey clustering method in evaluation of mine water environment in Huainan coal field%灰色聚类法在淮南煤田矿井水环境评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田麒; 曹健; 袁黎明

    2016-01-01

    以淮南煤田5个矿区20个监测点采集的水样为研究对象,分析了矿井水的pH、总硬度、SO42-、Cl-4项指标,研究了水质特征并利用灰色聚类法对水环境进行了综合评价。研究发现,淮南煤田矿井水为碱性水,总硬度较低,SO42-浓度为中等,Cl-浓度变化较大。煤田矿井水环境类型差异性明显,Cl-浓度对该区水环境影响最大。%Taking 20 collected water samples of 5 coal mining areas in Huainan coalfield as the research object, analyzes the mine water PH, total hardness,SO42-,Cl-, four index, studied the characteristic of water quality and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of water environment by using grey clustering method. The study found that the coal mine water in Huainan coal mine is the alkaline mine water, the total hardness is low, theSO42-concentration is medium, and theCl- concentration changes relatively large. The difference of water environment type of coal mine is obvious, and the water environment of the area is affected most obviously withCl-concentration.

  10. Laser fields and proxy fields

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, H R

    2016-01-01

    The convention in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical (AMO) physics of employing the dipole approximation to describe laser-induced processes replaces the four source-free Maxwell equations governing laser fields with a single Maxwell equation for a "proxy" field that requires a virtual source current for its existence. There is no possible gauge equivalence between these fields. The proxy field is serviceable for some purposes, but its applicability is limited, and the qualitative models it evokes can be inappropriate or erroneous. One example is the "above-threshold ionization" (ATI) phenomenon; surprising for proxy fields, but natural and predicted for laser fields. A serious problem occurs as the field frequency declines; the proxy field approaches a constant electric field, in contrast to laser fields that propagate with the velocity of light for all frequencies, with increasing importance of the magnetic component. An often-overlooked constraint is that numerical solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation is exa...

  11. Assessment of Combustor Working Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Leiyong Jiang; Andrew Corber

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the remaining life of gas turbine critical components, it is vital to accurately define the aerothermodynamic working environments and service histories. As a part of a major multidisciplinary collaboration program, a benchmark modeling on a practical gas turbine combustor is successfully carried out, and the two-phase, steady, turbulent, compressible, reacting flow fields at both cruise and takeoff are obtained. The results show the complicated flow features inside the com...

  12. An epidemiological study on the norovirus detected in the field environment after an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis%诺如病毒胃肠炎暴发后环境中病毒检测情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓红; 李晖; 杨杏芬; 柯昌文; 钟豪杰; 孙立梅; 郭汝宁

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the status of norovirus in environment of the patient's residence and water samples after a norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak, to provide evidences for the development of strategies for prevention and control of the disease. Methods After a norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak, anus swabs from the patient, swabs from the household environment and the water samples were collected to detect the norovirus by RT-PCR methods. Sequencing analysis was conducted on those positive specimens. Results Three specimens of the anus swabs from 9 patients and 2 samples of the 46 house environment swabs were positive to the virus. The latter were from the surface of water-closets of two families that the illness were asymptomatic. Among 5 water samples, only one was positive, which was the rivulet water that the feces of the villagers evacuated directly. Results showed that the sequences of the virus detected from the anus swabs of the patients, the swabs from the household environment and the samples of the rivulet water belonged to the same species. Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen activities as supervision and disinfection to the feces of the patients, especially on monitoring the feces that might have contaminated the water during the noroviru gastroenteritis outbreak.%目的 了解诺如病毒胃肠炎暴发后,病例临床症状消失、末例病例发病日期经过最长潜伏期(72 h)且无续发病例的情况下,病例家庭环境及外环境水标本中病毒存在情况.方法 在末例病例发病日期经过最长潜伏期(72h)后,采集病例肛拭标本、家庭环境标本、外环境水标本,采用RT-PCR方法 检测病毒,阳性标本测序分析.结果 9份病例肛拭标本中3份呈阳性;46份家庭环境拭子中2份呈阳性,分别是来自两户已无现症病例的家庭厕所马桶表面;5份外环境水标本中1份呈阳性,即村民粪便直接排入的河涌.病例肛拭、家庭环境拭子及河涌水三者检出的病

  13. The importance of high-rise buildings field simulation environment evaluation of stroke%高层建筑群体环境评价中风场模拟的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洪兵

    2013-01-01

      本文对高层建筑群环境评价中风场模拟的重要性进行说明和分析,希望能够对相关方面工作的进行有所启示和帮助。%In this paper ,the high-rise buildings the importance of environmental evaluation of stroke field simulation ,descrip-tion and analysis related to work for some enlightenment and help .

  14. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Herrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments.

  15. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...

  16. Effect of Power Frequency Electromagnetic Field of Ultra High Voltage Transmission on Human Health and Environment%超高压输变电工频电磁场对人群健康及环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小兵; 徐勇; 邓青; 张皓; 余青; 裴松; 明小燕; 赵鑫; 潘会明

    2010-01-01

    @@ 工频电场(power frequency electric field)是指电量随时间作50Hz周期变化的电荷的电场.工频磁场(power fre-quency magnetic field)是指随时间作50Hz周期变化的磁场[1].它们主要来源于电力的传送、分配及使用.随着各行各业对电力需求的增加,输电线路的等级也在不断的提高,我国现已建成500kV线路近4万km,2005年我国建成了第一个750kV超高压输电线[2].超高压输变电线廊线路和设备在经过的区域及附近会产生工频电场和工频磁场,其对人群健康及环境的影响日益受到关注.

  17. The Research of Health Function in Forest Environment Based on Open Field Test%基于开场试验的森林环境保健功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳英; 王成; 董建文; 董建华; 王茜; 傅伟聪

    2015-01-01

    对森林环境的保健功能进行研究,可为生态旅游资源的开发提供理论基础。采用开场试验(OFT),对在森林和室内环境中生活的小白鼠行为学指标变化进行分析,研究森林环境对小白鼠自发行为的影响,进而综合评价森林环境的保健功能。结果表明,(1)常绿阔叶混交林和柳杉(Cryptomeria fortunei)林的群落结构组成有很大的不同,但其林分环境对小鼠自发行为的动物验证具有很多类似的规律,试验组和对照组小鼠自发活动指标呈阶段性变化,初期差异不显著,但随环境因子影响的累积,中后期差异明显。(2)以柳杉林和常绿阔叶混交林中的小白鼠与对照组自发活动指标差距最大值来看,其运动总路程比对照组分别要高31.49%(P=0.009)和46.64%(P=0.031),小鼠中央格运动路程、穿越次数、站立次数分别是对照组的2.58倍(P=0.016)和1.98倍(P=0.009)、2.24倍(P=0.011)和1.42倍(P=0.035)、1.41倍(P=0.007)和1.41倍(P=0.019);边角活动时间分别比对照组要少7.1%(P=0.004)和7.81%(P=0.007);小鼠的体质量分别为对照组的1.27(P=0.000)和1.15倍(P=0.029),小鼠的粪便粒数分别比对照组要少30.1%和30.2%,降低幅度都远远大于对照组。(3)福州旗山森林环境对提高小鼠的兴奋性、增加小鼠的探索认知能力、缓解焦虑状态、增强食欲等方面有促进作用。%In order to exploit forest tourism resources, and then Providing a theoretical basis for the development of eco-tourism resources, let green forest environment service public. Using OFT and effect of the forest environment factor on mice were examined to evaluate the health functions of forest environment, the behavioral indices of mice in the forests and indoor environment were analyzed. The results showed that, (1) Evergreen broad-leaved mixed forest andcryptomeria forest are very

  18. Clean Air Act oversight (Field Hearings). Part 6. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, April 14, 1981, May 26, 1982, May 27, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Part 6 of the field hearings covers testimony heard in Augusta, Maine on April 14, 1981, in Billings, Montana on May 26, and in Casper, Wyoming on May 27. A total of 54 witnesses spoke at the three hearings. Attention focused on the issue of acid rain, its causes and effects, and its possible solutions. The witnesses spoke of environmental damage that has already taken place and the transboundary effects of airborne pollutants. Witnesses were asked to comment on whether the present level of information justifies action and, if so, what type of legislative action is appropriate, and whether it should place the cost burden on the sources of acid rain or on the recipients. The witnesses represented environmental and recreational interests, industry, Indian tribes, and the Canadian government as well as State and Federal agencies. The testimony is followed by additional statements and material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  19. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the human organism and the environment. Report on the `Electrosmog` forum, Cologne; Wirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder auf Mensch und Umwelt. Ein Bericht ueber das Forum ``Elektrosmog`` in Koeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-12-31

    At the end of April `95, the TUeV-Akademie Rheinland, the Cologne Health Office, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection held the `Electrosmog` forum at cologne. About 145 attendants were informed on new findings and research results by more than 20 lectures and a podium discussion. This journal article sums up some of the papers and discussions on the effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields. (orig./VHE) [Deutsch] Ende April `95 veranstalteten die TUeV-Akademie Rheinland, das Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Koeln und das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz in Koeln das Forum `Elektrosmog`. Durch ueber 20 Vortraege sowie eine Podiumsdiskussion wurden die rund 145 Teilnehmer ueber die verschiedenen Erkenntnisse und Forschungsresultate informiert. Dieser Bericht beruecksichtigt zusammenfassend und in stark gekuerzter Fassung einige Referate und Diskussionen zu den Wirkungen niederfrequenter elektromagnetischer Felder. (orig./VHE)

  20. QCD matter in extreme environments

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We review various theoretical approaches to the states of QCD matter out of quarks and gluons in extreme environments such as the high-temperature states at zero and finite baryon density and the dimensionally reduced state under an intense magnetic field. The topics at high temperature include the Polyakov loop and the 't Hooft loop in the perturbative regime, the Polyakov loop behaviour and the phase transition in some of non-perturbative methods; the strong-coupling expansion, the large-Nc limit and the holographic QCD models. These analyses are extended to hot and dense matter with a finite baryon chemical potential. We point out that the difficulty in the finite-density problem has similarity to that under a strong magnetic field. We make a brief summary of results related to the topological contents probed by the magnetic field and the Chiral Magnetic Effect. We also address the close connection to the (1+1) dimensional system.

  1. Construção do "Habitat-Ação" saudável por meio de fundamentação teórico-metodológica do campo da semiologia do ambiente construído The construction of the healthy "Habitat-Action" through a theoretical-methodological framework from the field of the semiotics of the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cynamon Cohen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o processo de como se dá a qualidade do ambiente construído e as inter-relações com o seu entorno. Inicia-se com a reflexão sobre o campo da promoção da saúde, habitação saudável e conceitos correlatos. Em seguida, são introduzidas questões fundamentais para o desenvolvimento de propostas sociais de habitats saudáveis. Um caminho possível de aprofundamento teórico-metodológico desse campo dá-se por meio da Semiologia do Ambiente Construído, como ferramenta para a análise dos aspectos da habitabilidade. Aspectos fundamentais para construção de espacialidades saudáveis. Construção que se torna possível por meio da elaboração de políticas públicas saudáveis e da utilização de uma linguagem analítica para o ambiente construído. Ambas importantes no processo de desenvolvimento local, integrado e sustentável, adicionadas e incorporadas ao conceito e à prática metodológica da habitação saudável, campo intersetorial da promoção da saúde, habitação e meio ambiente.This article approaches how the quality of the built environment and the interrelationships to its surroundings occur. It begins with a reflection on the field of health promotion, healthy housing and related concepts. Then it introduces the key issues concerning the development of social proposals for healthy habitats. One possible way of furthering the theoretical and methodological framework in this field is by using the Semiotics of the Built Environment as a tool to examine aspects of habitability. Fundamental aspects for building healthy spatialities. A construction that is made possible through the development of healthy public policies and through the use of an analytic language for the built environment. Both are important in the local, integrated and sustainable process of development, added and incorporated into the concept and methodological practice of healthy housing, which is an intersectoral field of health

  2. Analysis of Researches and Funded Projects for the Big Data in the Field of Resource and Environment%资源环境领域大数据的研究与资助分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2015-01-01

    The research and application of big data is attracting great attention of international academics. In this paper, the main research direction of big data in the fi eld of resource and environment was discussed, including the aspect of air pollution prevention and pollutant reduction, resource and energy market complexity, smart grid, resources exploitation and utilization, global climate change and greenhouse gas emission reduction etc. Then the application and fi nancing of the major research plan“Big Data-Driven Management and Decision Sciences Research” by the National Natural Science Foundation of China was introduced, so did its key scientific problems, aiming to provide helpful information for the studies and applications in this fi eld.%大数据研究和应用已引起学术界的广泛研究兴趣,本文从区域大气污染防治与污染物减排研究、资源与能源市场复杂性研究、智能电网的大数据研究、资源开发利用的大数据管理研究、全球气候变化与温室气体减排研究等5个方面,梳理了资源环境领域大数据的主要研究方向,介绍了国家自然科学基金重大研究计划“大数据驱动的管理与决策研究”2015年度项目申请与资助情况,以及该重大研究计划的核心科学问题,以期对资源环境领域大数据的研究与申请提供信息参考。

  3. Operations (Field Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-27

    ability to learn and adapt. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel observed that American Soldiers were initially inexperienced but learned and adapted...quickly and well. Even though the Army is much more experienced than it was in North Africa in World War II, today’s complex environment requires or...strategic distance include the 1942 invasion of North Africa and the 1992 intervention in Somalia. These operations involved forces projected from the

  4. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  5. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  6. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C); simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD): total daily 7.7 (1.5) L/day, during running 732 (183) ml/h) and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3) g/day, during running 270 (151) mg/L) ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p  0.05 vs. CON pre-stage). Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (<135 mmol/L) was evident pre- and post-stage in n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p < 0.001) as competition progressed in UER, with no change in CON. Plasma volume and extra-cellular water increased (p < 0.001) 22.8% and 9.2%, respectively, from pre-Stage 1 to 5 in UER, with no change in CON. Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition

  7. Field study on indoor thermal environment in coastal traditional dwelling of North Jiangsu in summer%苏北沿海传统民居夏季室内热环境实测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白鲁建; 张毅; 杨柳; 宋冰

    2015-01-01

    Through contrasting the indoor thermal environment in the traditional dwelling with the new built dwelling in coastal North Jiangsu in summer,finds that the indoor temperature fluctuation of the traditional one is less than that of the new in all day,and the thermal stability is better.Compares the wall temperature in the traditional dwelling with that in the new built dwelling,finds that the thermal stability of the envelope in the traditional dwelling is better.The indoor temperature has the characteristics of vertical stratification in the traditional dwelling.The indoor temperature near the roof is 2.4 ℃ higher than that at 1.5 meters.Only one-side opened window leads to weak ventilation effect in the traditional dwelling.The indoor ventilation velocity is less than 0.1 m/s in all day and it is only 0.01 m/s at night.By using modified PMV-PPD model to predict the thermal comfort,finds that the indoor thermal comfort is worse in the traditional dwelling and the PMVe is above 0.85.%对苏北沿海地区传统民居及新民居的夏季室内热环境进行了实测对比研究,发现传统民居全天室内温度波动幅度比新民居小,热稳定性更好。通过对二者壁面温度的分析发现,传统民居围护结构具有更好的热稳定性。传统民居室内空气温度纵向有分层,屋顶处空气温度比1.5 m 处高2.4℃。传统民居由于单面开窗,夏季室内通风不畅,全天室内风速不足0.1 m/s,夜间室内风速仅为0.01 m/s。运用 Fanger 提出的 PMV-PPD 修正模型对室内热环境舒适度进行了预测分析,发现传统民居夏季室内舒适度较差,全天室内 PMVe 计算值均在0.85以上。

  8. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  9. Protect the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2006-01-01

    How to protect the environment becomes one of the biggest problems in the world.Rubbish not only pollutes our environment,but also harms people’s health, so we shouldn’t scatter litter.Some factories

  10. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  11. THE RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Paraschivescu; Carmen Elena Radu

    2011-01-01

    This study refers to the fundamental right of the human being to have a healthy, ecologically balanced environment as well as to the necessity of recognizing and guaranteeing this right. We analyze the major components of the human being environment protection, the right to water, the right to fresh air, the right to the environment of the human settlements, the relationship: health – environment. A special attention is given to the integration of the sustainable development in the EU policie...

  12. Computing environment logbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M

    2012-09-18

    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  13. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. METHODS: We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon...

  14. Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  15. Installation of a thermal solar plant for education in the field of environment at the secondary school Flonheim; Einrichtung einer thermischen Solaranlage fuer Umweltbildungszwecke an der Grund- und Hauptschule Flonheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawall, H. [Grund- und Hauptschule, Flonheim (Germany)]|[Schulaufsichtsbezirk Alzey-Worms (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Aim and purpose of the project: The installation is supposed to serve the pedagogic education of regenerative environmental technology and to allow for practice-oriented education of knowledge. The education plan for the secondary schools in the Land Rhineland Palatinate shows the subject 'Energy and Environment: Technical utilisation of energy'. Furthermore the plant is supposed to be used for teacher trainings in the subject work education in the frame of experts consulting and for demonstration purposes for schools in the district Alzey-Worms. Presentation of the working phases and applied methods: Pupils of secondary schools can be motivated at best for education by clear visual instruction and by practical experience with different subjects. The construction of solar power plant offers the opportunity based upon the performance of the pupils for an action and practice oriented approach to the subject. After the didactic introduction to the subject by means of a small model collector the pupils are going to build the 'larger' plant by themselves according to provided plans of an engineering office, assemble it and put it into operation. It must be proved that the captured solar energy suffices to gain enough warm water for hand washing or even taking a shower. Further working steps consist of increasing the efficiency of the plant and visualising the measurement results on a demonstration wall. At the end of this lesson series the plant is disassembled again and prepared for further use in the next school year. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung und Anlass des Vorhabens: Die Einrichtung soll der paedagogischen Vermittlung regenerativer Umwelttechnik dienen und praxisorientierte Wissensvermittlung erlauben. Im Lehrplan der Hauptschule in Rheinland-Pfalz ist das Thema 'Energie und Umwelt: Technische Nutzung von Energie' ausgewiesen. Darueber hinaus soll die Anlage im Rahmen der Fachberatung zu Lehrer-Fortbildungszwecken im Fach

  16. The Environment and the Relative Protection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The material is presenting, under an adequate structure, an analysis of the environment of Romania. The starting point of the study is given by the natural conditions, influenced by the geographic location of Romania on the globe, evidencing the main characteristics (relief, hydrographic basin, climate, flora and fauna etc.. Afterwards, the material is pointing out the concerns as well as certain outcomes achieved in our country in the field of the environment protection. Particularly, there is the concern regarding the durable development which is emphasized, along with the part that the environment protection should play under the circumstances. Then, the material is evidencing the essence of the policies concerning the environment protection as well as the transitory steps implied in this field by the adhesion of Romania to the European Union.

  17. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a Lévy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master Lévy measure and the associated Lévy-Itô representation. We give the dilation criterion...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued Lévy processes, give the Lévy-Itô representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of Lévy...

  18. Selfdecomposable Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Sauri, Orimar; Szozda, Benedykt

    for selfdecomposability analogous to the classical one. Next, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of the kernel functions) for a Volterra field driven by a L\\'evy basis to be selfdecomposable. In this context we also study the so-called Urbanik classes of random fields. We follow this with the study......In the present paper we study selfdecomposability of random fields, as defined directly rather than in terms of finite-dimensional distributions. The main tools in our analysis are the master L\\'evy measure and the associated L\\'evy-It\\^o representation. We give the dilation criterion...... of existence and selfdecomposability of integrated Volterra fields. Finally, we introduce infinitely divisible field-valued L\\'evy processes, give the L\\'evy-It\\^o representation associated with them and study stochastic integration with respect to such processes. We provide examples in the form of L...

  19. Medical geochemistry of tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, C. B.; Chandrajith, Rohana

    1999-10-01

    Geochemically, tropical environments are unique. This uniqueness stems from the fact that these terrains are continuously subjected to extreme rainfall and drought with resulting strong geochemical fractionation of elements. This characteristic geochemical partitioning results in either severe depletion of elements or accumulation to toxic levels. In both these situations, the effect on plant, animal and human health is marked. Medical geochemistry involves the study of the relationships between the geochemistry of the environment in which we live and the health of the population living in this particular domain. Interestingly, the relationships between geochemistry and health are most marked in the tropical countries, which coincidentally are among the poorest in the world. The very heavy dependence on the immediate environment for sustainable living in these lands enables the medical geochemist to observe correlations between particular geochemical provinces and the incidence of certain diseases unique to these terrains. The aetiology of diseases such as dental and skeletal fluorosis, iodine deficiency disorders, diseases of humans and animals caused by mineral imbalances among others, lie clearly in the geochemical environment. The study of the chemistry of the soils, water and stream sediments in relation to the incidence of geographically distributed diseases in the tropics has not only opened up new frontiers in multidisciplinary research, but has offered new challenges to the medical profession to seriously focus attention on the emerging field of medical geochemistry with the collaboration of geochemists and epidemiologists.

  20. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  1. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  2. Relationships between mining and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, G.

    1990-01-01

    The types of mining damages and the methods to prevent them are summarized. The types of emission into the environment are listed and the traditional research fields of environmental protection due to mining operations are dealt with. The problem of how to develop the protection of environment to environmental economy is discussed. The interrelation between environmental damages caused by mining and the level of production is studied.

  3. Field arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Field Arithmetic explores Diophantine fields through their absolute Galois groups. This largely self-contained treatment starts with techniques from algebraic geometry, number theory, and profinite groups. Graduate students can effectively learn generalizations of finite field ideas. We use Haar measure on the absolute Galois group to replace counting arguments. New Chebotarev density variants interpret diophantine properties. Here we have the only complete treatment of Galois stratifications, used by Denef and Loeser, et al, to study Chow motives of Diophantine statements.Progress from the fi

  4. Collaborative design in virtual environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) are multi-user virtual realities which actively support communication and co-operation. This book offers a comprehensive reference volume to the state-of-the-art in the area of design studies in CVEs. It is an excellent mix of contributions from over 25 leading researcher/experts in multiple disciplines from academia and industry, providing up-to-date insight into the current research topics in this field as well as the latest technological advancements and the best working examples. Many of these results and ideas are also applicable to other areas su

  5. Axisymmetric field generation within an ambient axial field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darah, A. A.; Sarson, G. R.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of magnetic field in a homogeneous, electrically conducting fluid - as required for the dynamo generation of the fields of many astrophysical bodies - is normally a threshold process; the dynamo mechanism, applicable to such bodies in unmagnetised environments, requires motions of sufficient strength to overcome the innate magnetic diffusion. In the presence of an ambient field, however, the critical nature of the field generation process is relaxed. Motions can distort and amplify the ambient field for all amplitudes of flow. For motions with appropriate geometries, an internal `dynamo-like' field of appreciable strength can be generated, even for relatively weak flows. At least a minority of planets, moons and other bodies exist within significant external astrophysical fields. For these bodies, the ambient field problem is more relevant than the classical dynamo problem, yet it remains relatively little studied. In this paper we consider the effect of an axial ambient field on a spherical mean-field α2 ω dynamo model, through nonlinear calculations with α-quenching feedback. Ambient fields of varying strengths, and both stationary and oscillatory in time, are imposed. Particular focus is placed on the effects of these fields on the equatorial symmetry and the time dependence of the preferred solutions.

  6. The atmospheric environment--an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendritzky, G

    1993-09-15

    The atmosphere is part of the environment with which the human organism is permanently confronted. Epidemiological research investigates the occurrence of effects on morbidity and mortality due to heat, cold, air pollution and changes in the weather. Concentrating on aspects of the environment relevant for medical questions, three major complexes of effects can be discriminated: the complex conditions of heat exchange, the direct biological effects of solar radiation, and air pollution. Biometeorological knowledge can serve to assess the atmospheric environment, and can also be of help in the field of preventive planning, to conserve and develop the climate as a natural resource with regard to man's health, well-being and performance.

  7. Field Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is a mobile application for capturing images , data, and geolocation for USAID projects in the field. The data is then stored on a server in AllNet. The...

  8. Secure Environment for Internet Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Tudor Gavrilescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is used by a large proportion of the population, but unfortunately their education regarding the usage of the instruments available is poor, resulting in potential informational frauds, especially in the financial field.In this article I have approached a few simple problems, yet very important and frequently occurred, regarding the secure environment for Internet browsing, proposing solutions for each of them. The security methods are: anti-phishing; the prevention of SQL injection, through the verification of the data given as input in the Address Bar and in the password fields and blocking the access in case of a potential threat; a virtual keyboard for preventing the recording of the keys pressed (key loggers; the backup of the credentials in a local file and the encryption of it to prevent unauthorized access, the decryption of the data is made using a unique encryption key, owned by the user.

  9. International Conference on Environment Science (ICES 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Computational Environment Science

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Environment Science and 2012 International Conference on Computer Science (ICES 2012/ICCS 2012) will be held in Australia, Melbourne, 15‐16 March, 2012.Volume 1 contains some new results in computational environment science. There are 47 papers were selected as the regular paper in this volume. It contains the latest developments and reflects the experience of many researchers working in different environments (universities, research centers or even industries), publishing new theories and solving new technological problems on computational environment science.   The purpose of volume 1 is interconnection of diverse scientific fields, the cultivation of every possible scientific collaboration, the exchange of views and the promotion of new research targets as well as the further dissemination, the dispersion, the diffusion of the environment science, including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography �...

  10. Field Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    2012-01-01

    This field report expresses perfectly the kind of confusion almost all of us experience when entering the field. How do we know whether what we’re doing is “right” or not? What in particular should we record when we don’t have time to write down everything among all the myriad impressions thrusti...... as remind experienced fieldworkers of what they’ve been through. I’m sure it will also provide food for thought and the occasional chuckle!...

  11. Collaborative environment for nuclear medicine training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Claudia Regio; Dalpiaz, Gabriel Goulart; Giraffa, Lucia Maria, E-mail: claudinharb@gmail.co [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Ana Maria Marques da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Silva Junior, Neivo da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (HSL-PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Ferreto, Tiago Coelho; Rose, Cesar Augusto Fonticielha de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Informatica; Silva, Vinicius Duval da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (FAMED/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia e Radiacoes

    2011-05-15

    Objective: To validate the proposal for development of a virtual collaborative environment for training of nuclear medicine personnel. Materials and Methods: Organizational assumptions, constraints and functionalities that should be offered to the professionals in this field were raised early in the development of the environment. The prototype was developed in the Moodle environment, including data storage and interaction functionalities. A pilot interaction study was developed with a sample of specialists in nuclear medicine. Users' opinions collected by means of semi-structured questionnaire were submitted to quantitative and content analysis. Results: The proposal of a collaborative environment was validated by a learning courses of nuclear medicine professionals and considered as an aid in the training in this field. Suggestions for improvements and new functionalities were made. There is a need to establish a program for education of moderators specifically for this environment, considering the different interaction characteristics as the online and conventional teaching methods are compared. Conclusion: The collaborative environment will allow the exchange of experiences and case discussions among professionals from institutions located in different regions all over the country, enhancing the collaboration among them. Thus, the environment can contribute in the early and continued education of nuclear medicine professionals. (author)

  12. Field Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    2012-01-01

    themselves upon us in a new environment? What is this strange language that people in other walks of life take for granted, but which seems so alien to us as outsiders? And how on earth are we to interpret people’s contradictory remarks? This report will warn novices of what’s in store for them, as well...

  13. The marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The tourism marketing environment consists of internal and external forces which could impact the organisations’ performance. To be successful, companies must adapt to ongoing trends and developments in their macro and micro environments. When organisations scan their marketing environment they will be in a position to deal with any possible threats from the market and to capitalise on any available opportunities. Therefore, this chapter explains the external environmental factors, including;...

  14. Characterizing environment friendly tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Reinsberg, Cicilie; Vinje, Linn Therese

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of sustainable tourism research today is to find tourists that have a low environmental impact on destinations, which can also be defined as environment friendly tourists. The majority of earlier studies on this topic have focused on characteristics of ecotourists, assuming that these are the only tourists that are environment friendly. Few have tried to identify characteristics of environment friendly tourists using a sample from the general tourist population....

  15. Fermi UNIX trademark environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of UNIX at Fermilab involves multiple platforms and multiple vendors. Additionally, a single user may have to use more than one platform. This heterogeneity and multiplicity makes it necessary to define a Fermilab environment for UNIX so that as much as possible the systems look and feel'' the same. We describe our environment, including both the commercial products and the local tools used to support it. Other products designed for the UNIX environment are also described. 19 refs.

  16. Man & Sound Environment 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings to the conference "Man and Sound Environment 2010" arranged by The sound Envirnment Center at Lund university. Ulf Landström, Swedish Noise Research Network & Frans Mossberg The Sound Environment Centre at Lund university. CONTENTS: Preface – Symposium “Man and Sound Environment 2010” The prevalence of noise problems. Gunn Marit Aasvang, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Medicine, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway Effects of ...

  17. Solar Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hood, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an introduction to the generation and evolution of the Sun's magnetic field, summarising both observational evidence and theoretical models. The eleven year solar cycle, which is well known from a variety of observed quantities, strongly supports the idea of a large-scale solar dynamo. Current theoretical ideas on the location and mechanism of this dynamo are presented. The solar cycle influences the behaviour of the global coronal magnetic field and it is the eruptions of this field that can impact on the Earth's environment. These global coronal variations can be modelled to a surprising degree of accuracy. Recent high resolution observations of the Sun's magnetic field in quiet regions, away from sunspots, show that there is a continual evolution of a small-scale magnetic field, presumably produced by small-scale dynamo action in the solar interior. Sunspots, a natural consequence of the large-scale dynamo, emerge, evolve and disperse over a period of several days. Numerical simulation...

  18. Field-structured composite studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, James Ellis; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2004-04-01

    Field-structured composites (FSCs) were produced by hosting micron-sized gold-coated nickel particles in a pre-polymer and allowing the mixture to cure in a magnetic field environment. The feasibility of controlling a composite's electrical conductivity using feedback control applied to the field coils was investigated. It was discovered that conductivity in FSCs is primarily determined by stresses in the polymer host matrix due to cure shrinkage. Thus, in cases where the structuring field was uniform and unidirectional so as to produce chainlike structures in the composite, no electrical conductivity was measured until well after the structuring field was turned off at the gel point. In situations where complex, rotating fields were used to generate complex, three-dimensional structures in a composite, very small, but measurable, conductivity was observed prior to the gel point. Responsive, sensitive prototype chemical sensors were developed based on this technology with initial tests showing very promising results.

  19. 复杂环境下解决势场法局部极小问题的路径规划方法%A Method for Solving Local Minimum Problem of Path Planning Based on Potential Field in Complex Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传领; 梁咏梅; 杨静宇

    2012-01-01

    The local minimum problem of path planning based on potential field has attracted attention for many years. For the innate limitations of potential field, an improved method for moblie robot path planning is proposed in this paper. In this method, expansion and erosion algorithms are used to pretreat and optimize the workspace of robot and improved potential field is used to navigate robot. Furthermore, sub-goal point is set for robot to get rid of local minimization rapidly. The simulation results indicate that this method is effective to solve local minimum problem for robot path planning in complex environments.%多年来势场法路径规划的局部极小问题就一直被广泛关注,针对人工势场法所固有的缺陷提出了一种改进的移动机器人路径规划方法.方法利用膨胀与腐蚀算法对机器人的工作空间进行预处理,来优化工作环境,并使用改进的势场法进行机器人导航,以改善其运动轨迹;另外通过设置子目标点使陷入局部极小的机器人快速“逃离”极小状态.仿真结果表明本文算法在复杂环境下解决机器人路径规划的局部极小问题是有效的.

  20. Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students.  The exercises have also been im

  1. Topological fields

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1989-01-01

    Aimed at those acquainted with basic point-set topology and algebra, this text goes up to the frontiers of current research in topological fields (more precisely, topological rings that algebraically are fields).The reader is given enough background to tackle the current literature without undue additional preparation. Many results not in the text (and many illustrations by example of theorems in the text) are included among the exercises. Sufficient hints for the solution of the exercises are offered so that solving them does not become a major research effort for the reader. A comprehensive bibliography completes the volume.

  2. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  3. An Engaging Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The author believes that a stimulating learning environment can offer benefits to the general classroom conduct of young people through the different charts displayed in his classroom. Students see the teacher taking pride in their shared working environment and wall or table graffiti. He mentions that he does not only care for his students'…

  4. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  5. SMashup Personal Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatti, Mohamed; Jarke, Matthias; Wang, Zhaohui; Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Chatti, M. A., Jarke, M., Wang, Z., & Specht, M. (2009). SMashup Personal Learning Environments. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European Conference on Technology

  6. Precision in harsh environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Paddy; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Roozeboom, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances, electromagnet

  7. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  8. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Cochrane; Laurent Antonczak

    2015-01-01

    Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  9. Understanding the Academic Environments: From Field Study to Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; de Groot, Spencer; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Rizzo, Antonio; Grote, Gudela; Wong, William

    2006-01-01

    Ethnographic methods have been widely used for requirements elicitation purposes in systems design, especially when the focus is on understanding users’ social, cultural and political contexts. Designing an on-line search engine for peer-reviewed papers could be a challenge considering the diversity

  10. Wave-Sediment Interaction in Muddy Environments: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Liu, 1987), generalized Voigt solids (Jiang and Mehta, 1995; Jiang and Mehta, 1996), and non-Newtonian fluids (Chou et al., 1993; Foda et al., 1993...dissipation is significantly stronger (Gade, 1957; Chou et al., 1993; Foda et al., 1993). On the other hand, even under mildly energetic waves mud...state can change from consolidated to fluid over the duration of one storm (Chou et al., 1993; Foda et al., 1993; also deWitt, 1995). The similar

  11. Wave-Sediment Interaction in Muddy Environments: Subbottom Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Berkeley, Doctoral thesis, 149p. Chou, H.-T., M.A. Foda , and J.R. Hunt (1993). Rheological response of cohesive sediments to oscillatory forcing”, In...dissipation by muddy seafloors, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35/7, L07611. Foda , A.M., J.R. Hunt, and H.-T. Chou (1993). A nonlinear model for the...fluidization of marine mud by waves, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7039-7047. Foda M.A. and S.Y., Tzang (1994). Resonant fluidization of silty soil by water waves

  12. Converted waves in shallow marine environments: modelling and field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Allouche, N.

    2011-01-01

    The shallow marine subsurface is explored for various engineering purposes e.g. constructing installations and platforms, laying pipelines and dredging for sand. Knowledge of the soil properties is essential to minimize the risks involved with these offshore activities. Energy resources in the form

  13. Brick Paving Systems in Expeditionary Environments: Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) tests were conducted on each test item as an alternative strength measurement to the in situ CBR tests conducted on the...many passes of the C-17 load before failure. Between 20 and 40 passes, the majority of the bricks in the wheel path began to break or shatter . Figures...American Society for Testing and Materials. 2003. Standard test method for use of the dynamic cone penetrometer in shallow pavement applications

  14. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, Niels

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is

  15. CSIR eNews: Built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available them during proceedings or detract from the work at hand. The nation and the media, however, had a field day with some of the major newspapers printing more than 100 000 extra copies as souvenirs," he comments. As a Fellow of CSIR Built Environment...

  16. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, Niels

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is t

  17. Gender, identities and environment: historiographical polysemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Oliveira Buriti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available     The study of the gender identities has acquired particular relevance in the contemporary agenda and has been receiving multidisciplinary views. One of the approaches that has contributed significantly to this discussion is the historiographical perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze how the categories of gender have been addressed by multiple historiographical fields, especially the aspects of social history, the fields of cultural history, the post-structuralism research, and, more recently, by historians of the environment. Expliciting the limits and prospects of these studies within each historiographical paradigm, the importance of incorporating the gender perspective to the density of the theoretical debate on human and social sciences will be emphasized. Key-words: History; gender; culture; social justice; environment The study of the gender identities has acquired particular relevance in the contemporary agenda and has been receiving multidisciplinary views. One of the approaches that has contributed significantly to this discussion is the historiographical perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze how the categories of gender have been addressed by multiple historiographical fields, especially the aspects of social history, the fields of cultural history, the post-structuralism research, and, more recently, by historians of the environment. Expliciting the limits and prospects of these studies within each historiographical paradigm, the importance of incorporating the gender perspective to the density of the theoretical debate on human and social sciences will be emphasized. Key-words: History; gender; culture; social justice; environment    

  18. Quantum Robots and Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, P

    1998-01-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes a quantum computer and needed ancillary systems on board. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activities include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase and possible recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes of neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. To each task is associated a unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics. T = T_{a}+T_{c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step ...

  19. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    This paper examines the implications of the mutual causality between environmental quality and economic growth. While economic growth deteriorates the environment through increasing amounts of pollution, the deteriorated environment in turn limits the possibility of further economic growth...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run........ In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...

  20. Ubiquitous Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Carl Gustaf

    This chapter presents the Ubiquitous Working Environments, a vision for the work environments of the future and how this vision is manifested in current experimental environments and projects at KTH. Building upon the Ubiquitous Computing paradigm, our research targets environments, which support collaborating mobile workers in a seamless way, providing work support anywhere and anytime. In our design work so far, we have been particularly interested in the following three design aspects: First, context aware, proactive, and adaptive services; second, ad hoc configuration and synchronization of available resources, including both devices and services; third, new ways of sharing and using resources in a work environment. The systems we design comprise both devices, services, and their interfaces.

  1. Genesis Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  2. Environment Assumptions for Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Jobstmann, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis problem asks to construct a reactive finite-state system from an $\\omega$-regular specification. Initial specifications are often unrealizable, which means that there is no system that implements the specification. A common reason for unrealizability is that assumptions on the environment of the system are incomplete. We study the problem of correcting an unrealizable specification $\\phi$ by computing an environment assumption $\\psi$ such that the new specification $\\psi\\to\\phi$ is realizable. Our aim is to construct an assumption $\\psi$ that constrains only the environment and is as weak as possible. We present a two-step algorithm for computing assumptions. The algorithm operates on the game graph that is used to answer the realizability question. First, we compute a safety assumption that removes a minimal set of environment edges from the graph. Second, we compute a liveness assumption that puts fairness conditions on some of the remaining environment edges. We show that the problem of findi...

  3. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    This paper examines the implications of the mutual causality between environmental quality and economic growth. While economic growth deteriorates the environment through increasing amounts of pollution, the deteriorated environment in turn limits the possibility of further economic growth....... In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  4. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  5. Turning research on the psychosocial working environment into regulatory practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft; Starheim, Liv

    The psychosocial working environment is an expanding field of research. Within the last decades a lot of knowledge has been developed in the field. The question however remains how this knowledge can be, and is being, utilized in the regulation of the psychosocial working environment. This question...... we understand this process as a translation of knowledge into policies, tools and actors dealing with the psychosocial working environment. Drawing on this understanding we develop a model that illustrates the utility of different types of research on the psychosocial working environment...... for a network of regulatory actors with different regulatory purposes....

  6. Consumption and environment - ecological economic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Consumption and environment – ecological economic perspectives Summary Research on issues related to consumption and environment has grown rapidly since the middle of the 1990s, and several disciplines as well as transdisciplinary fields have contributed to this development. The present papers...... constitute a small part of this wave of interest, and they are mostly framed as belonging to ecological economics. The collection starts with an introduction to the field of consumption research within ecological economics and then follows a series of papers on more specific issues. The introductionary...... overview outlines the background and the characteristics of the new wave of consumption and environment studies with a specific focus on ecological economic contributions. First, the roots in environmental research are described, and the breakthrough for the interest in consumption. Then the specific...

  7. Trick Simulation Environment 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alexander S.; Penn, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The Trick Simulation Environment is a generic simulation toolkit used for constructing and running simulations. This release includes a Monte Carlo analysis simulation framework and a data analysis package. It produces all auto documentation in XML. Also, the software is capable of inserting a malfunction at any point during the simulation. Trick 07 adds variable server output options and error messaging and is capable of using and manipulating wide characters for international support. Wide character strings are available as a fundamental type for variables processed by Trick. A Trick Monte Carlo simulation uses a statistically generated, or predetermined, set of inputs to iteratively drive the simulation. Also, there is a framework in place for optimization and solution finding where developers may iteratively modify the inputs per run based on some analysis of the outputs. The data analysis package is capable of reading data from external simulation packages such as MATLAB and Octave, as well as the common comma-separated values (CSV) format used by Excel, without the use of external converters. The file formats for MATLAB and Octave were obtained from their documentation sets, and Trick maintains generic file readers for each format. XML tags store the fields in the Trick header comments. For header files, XML tags for structures and enumerations, and the members within are stored in the auto documentation. For source code files, XML tags for each function and the calling arguments are stored in the auto documentation. When a simulation is built, a top level XML file, which includes all of the header and source code XML auto documentation files, is created in the simulation directory. Trick 07 provides an XML to TeX converter. The converter reads in header and source code XML documentation files and converts the data to TeX labels and tables suitable for inclusion in TeX documents. A malfunction insertion capability allows users to override the value of any

  8. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  9. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  10. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  11. Low Cost Projection Environment for Immersive Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bourke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available As computer performance and graphics hardware continue to improve, the gamer is increasingly being presented with richer and more realistic visual environments. Viewing these virtual environments is generally still based upon display technology that does not exploit two very important characteristics of our visual system, namely stereoscopic vision that is responsible for the enhanced depth perception we see in the real world and a wide field of view that allows us to sense activity in our far peripheral vision. In what follows it will be argued that for immersive gaming a wide field of view is both functionally more useful and places less stress on the visual system than stereoscopic viewing. In order to support gaming with a wide vertical and horizontal field of view a low cost projection system will be introduced and the implications for game developers discussed.

  12. Myopia, posture and the visual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, W Neil

    2011-09-01

    Evidence for a possible role for the peripheral retina in the control of refractive development is discussed, together with Howland's suggestion (Paper presented at the 13th International Myopia Conference, Tubingen, Germany, July 26-29, 2010) that signals to generate appropriate growth might be derived from ocular oblique astigmatism. The dependence of this, or similar peripheral mechanisms, on exposure to a uniform field of near-zero dioptric vergence is emphasized: this is required to ensure a consistent relationship between the astigmatic image fields and the retina. This condition is satisfied by typical outdoor environments. In contrast, indoor environments are likely to be unfavourable to peripherally-based emmetropization, since dioptric stimuli may vary widely across the visual field. This is particularly the case when short working distances or markedly asymmetric head postures with respect to the visual task are adopted.

  13. Psychophysiological Studies in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, William B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the results from two studies that employed the methodology of multiple converging indicators (physiological measures, subjective self-reports and performance metrics) to examine individual differences in the ability of humans to adapt and function in high stress environments. The first study was a joint collaboration between researchers at the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty-four men and women active duty soldiers volunteered as participants. Field tests were conducted in the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V), an enclosed armored vehicle, designed to support both stationary and on-the-move operations. This vehicle contains four computer workstations where crew members are expected to perform command decisions in the field under combat conditions. The study objectives were: 1) to determine the incidence of motion sickness in the C2V relative to interior seat orientation/position, and parked, moving and short-haul test conditions; and 2) to determine the impact of the above conditions on cognitive performance, mood, and physiology. Data collected during field tests included heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and skin conductance, self-reports of mood and symptoms, and cognitive performance metrics that included seven subtests in the DELTA performance test battery. Results showed that during 4-hour operational tests over varied terrain motion sickness symptoms increased; performance degraded by at least 5 percent; and physiological response profiles of individuals were categorized based on good and poor cognitive performance. No differences were observed relative to seating orientation or position.

  14. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment......, measured as ‘psychosocial well-being’, were found at workplaces managed in accordance with democratic principles....

  15. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  16. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss...

  17. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  18. The Effects of an Academic Environment Intervention on Science Identification among Women in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Betz, Diana E.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Academic environments can feel unwelcoming for women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Two studies examined academic environments of female undergraduates majoring in STEM fields at a university in the United States. In Study 1, we compared women in STEM who are in a welcoming environment to those in a traditional STEM…

  19. Field Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the magnetic field is often the final verification of the complex design and fabrication process of a magnetic system. In several cases, when seeking high accuracy, the measurement technique and its realization can result in a considerable effort. This note describes most used measurement techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, fluxmeters and Hall generators, and their typical range of application. In addition some of less commonly used techniques, such as magneto-optical, SQUIDs, or particle beams methods, are listed.

  20. Quantum Robots Plus Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, P

    1998-01-01

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system including an on bord quantum computer and ancillary systems, that interact with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include carrying out measurements and physical experiments on the environment. Environments considered so far in the literature: oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are shown to be special cases of environments considered here. It is noted that quantum robots should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of computation and action phases, is described by a unitary step operator. Overall system dynamics is described in terms of a Feynman sum over paths of completed computation and action phases. A simple task example, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D space lattice, with quantum phase path and time duration dispersion present, is analyzed.

  1. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations...

  2. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  3. CERN and the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    New webpages answer common questions about CERN and the environment.   One of the new public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. Do your neighbours ever ask you about CERN’s environmental impact? And about radiation in particular? If so, the answers to those questions can now be found online on a new set of public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. These pages, put together by the Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) unit and the groups responsible for CERN's site maintenance, contain a wealth of information on topics linked to the environment, such as biodiversity at CERN, waste management, ionising radiation, and water and electricity consumption. “CERN forms part of the local landscape, with its numerous sites and scientific activities. It’s understandable that people living nearby have questions about the impact of these activities and it’s important that we respond with complete transp...

  4. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environme...

  5. Environment and World Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)

  6. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  7. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    .... Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization...

  8. Business Game Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Valcke, Martin; Van Vilsteren, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Valcke, M., & Van Vilsteren, P. (1997) Business Game Learning Environment. Design and development of a competency-based distance education business curriculum at the Open University of the Netherlands.

  9. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  10. Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pothérat, Alban

    2015-01-01

    More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...

  11. Hotspots, Jets and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the nature of `hotspots' and `jet knots' in the kpc-scale structures of powerful radio galaxies and their relationship to jet-environment interactions. I describe evidence for interaction between the jets of FRI sources and their local environments, and discuss its relationship to particle acceleration, but the main focus of the paper is the hotspots of FRIIs and on new observational evidence on the nature of the particle acceleration associated with them.

  12. Environment induced incoherent controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Raffaele; D'Alessandro, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    We prove that the environment induced entanglement between two non interacting, two-dimensional quantum systems S and P can be used to control the dynamics of S by means of the initial state of P. Using a simple, exactly solvable model, we show that both accessibility and controllability of S can be achieved under suitable conditions on the interaction of S and P with the environment.

  13. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  14. Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1 use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2 two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3 two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO; these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

  15. Vehicle environment interactions - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitt, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    The advent of Space Shuttle Orbital operations utilizing science and technology payloads has led to a renewal of interest of vehicle-environmental interactions in low earth orbit. The first science payload on STS-3 showed an interaction on the surface of the Orbiter which, although it had been detected earlier on unmanned spacecraft, quickened interest in the possible impact of this phenomena on future missions. Subsequent flights have yielded data on a wide variety of interaction phenomena resulting from the large size of the Orbiter and its outgassing characteristics. These drivers have given rise to modifications in the neutral gas and plasma environments of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The physics of the interactions result in the generation of disturbed wave fields, optical emissions and particle distributions in the vicinity of the Orbiter. In this overview, the present observations, suggested interpretations and open questions will be addressed.

  16. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    ago." It continues to be true that a funda-mental requirement for success in this endeavour is consumers' active support and willing participation (Norwegian Ministry of Environment, 1994). Information is an important tool in this connection. Not only for marshalling public support...... is mainly directed at economists, I start with the importance of information for getting the full potential out of economic instruments. However, my main emphasis is on the importance of information for cre-ating and facilitating consumers' willing participation in solving envi-ronmental problems...... for the environmental cause, but for facilitating environmentally responsible behaviour in many specific ways. Research dealing with the diverse roles of information in the environmental field shows a need to distinguish between different forms and objectives of information, but also, it needs to be stressed...

  17. 秸秆覆盖对旱作冬小麦农田土壤呼吸、作物产量及经济-环境效益的影响%Effect of straw mulching on soil respiration, crop yield, economy-environment benefit in rainfed winter wheat fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂纯; 王俊; 官情; 刘文兆

    2013-01-01

    基于2009-2011年田间试验,研究了黄土旱塬区不同秸秆覆盖措施下冬小麦农田土壤呼吸和小麦产量变化,计算了生产每千克籽粒产量下土壤CO2的释放量,并以此比较了处理间的经济-环境效益值.试验包括4个处理:无覆盖对照(CK)、全年9000kg·hm-2秸秆覆盖(M9000)、全年4500 kg·hm-2秸秆覆盖(M4500)和夏闲期秸秆覆盖(SF).结果表明:冬小麦生育期内土壤CO2累积释放量在处理间无显著差异,但第1年生育期为14.92~17.43 t(CO2)·hm-2,显著高于第2年[12.95~13.69 t(CO2)·hm-2](P<0.05),处理和年份的交互作用不显著.与CK(产量5.03 t·hm-2)相比,秸秆覆盖降低了作物产量,其中M9000 (4.71 t·hm-2)与CK差异显著.经济-环境效益值计算结果显示,冬小麦生育期内生产每千克籽粒释放2.96~3.16 kg CO2,处理间无显著差异.从各处理平均值看,小麦产量以及经济-环境效益值均存在显著的年际差异,降水偏少的第1年度作物产量(4.60~4.98t·hm-2)显著低于降水相对丰富的第2年度(4.50~5.47 t·hm-2),但经济-环境效益值(3.03~3.69 kg·kg-1、2.45~2.88kg·kg-1)结果相反.处理和年份对作物产量和经济-环境效益值具有显著的交互影响,在缺水年份秸秆覆盖能够提高作物产量,M9000处理具有最优的经济-环境效益;而在丰水年份,秸秆覆盖导致产量显著下降,CK具有更好的经济-环境效益.%As a common cultivation pattern in the Loess Plateau,straw mulching has played a significant role in increasing grain yield,improving water use efficiency and regulating soil CO2 emission.A field experiment was conducted to measure the response of soil respiration and crop yield to different straw mulching treatments under winter wheat monoculture system in 2009-2011.Economy-environment benefit,calculated by soil CO2 emission per unit wheat yield,was also evaluated for each mulching treatment.The four treatments included the control (CK

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joo Heon; Putman, Mary E., E-mail: jhyoon@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The effect of environment on the circumgalactic medium (CGM) is investigated through a comparison of Ly{alpha} absorption line data in the Virgo Cluster and the field. This Letter uses the first systematic survey of background QSOs in and around the Virgo Cluster and large existing surveys of galaxies at low redshift. While previous studies found denser gas (higher equivalent width) closer to a galaxy (lower impact parameter), this correlation disappears in the Virgo environment. In addition, the covering fraction of the CGM is lower in the cluster environment than in the circumcluster environment and field. The results indicate that the CGM is suppressed for cluster galaxies while galaxies in the circumcluster environment have abundant CGM. The truncation of the CGM may result in the quenching of star formation through starvation. Our results also show that CGM surveys must consider the role of environment.

  19. Reduction of techno-genic load on the interior of the earth and environment due to development of hydrocarbon fields; La reduction de l'impact technologique sur le sous-sol et l'environnement lors du developpement de gisements d'hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrievsky, A.I.; Basniev, K.S.; Sedykh, A.D.; Zhidenko, G.G.; Sidorov, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oil and Gas Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences, I.M. Gubkin Russian State, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The present-day stage of industrial advance is associated with a risk of occurrence of anomalous and catastrophic natural and techno-genic events. The process of hydrocarbon field development can result in adverse consequences for the interior of the earth and for the environment in general. Two factors that complement and intensify each other can be conducive to that: the natural factor (geodynamic conditions) and the techno-genic factor (engineering and technological solutions employed for the development of formations). The lithosphere undergoes current geodynamic processes of high activity. Tectonic flexure faults bring about leakage from the wells and from the reservoirs in the process of fluid withdrawal. Man changes inevitably the interior of the earth and, as a consequence, the face of the planet while producing significant volumes of oil, gas and water. It is necessary to minimize the damage from penetration into the earth required to find very much needed energy. Negative after-effects are examined, in particular rock subsidence, failure of well casing strings, hydrodynamic changes in gas-bearing formations, techno-genic and induced earthquakes, etc. Cited are methods to reduce the after-effects that have already been worked out. It is emphasized that there is a need in registering and forecasting the environmental consequences of the natural and techno-genic events. (authors)

  20. Measuring Neighborhood Walkable Environments: A Comparison of Three Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Cheng Chiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple studies have revealed the impact of walkable environments on physical activity. Scholars attach considerable importance to leisure and health-related walking. Recent studies have used Google Street View as an instrument to assess city streets and walkable environments; however, no study has compared the validity of Google Street View assessments of walkable environment attributes to assessments made by local residents and compiled from field visits. In this study, we involved nearby residents and compared the extent to which Google Street View assessments of the walkable environment correlated with assessments from local residents and with field visits. We determined the assessment approaches (local resident or field visit assessments that exhibited the highest agreement with Google Street View. One city with relatively high-quality walkable environments and one city with relatively low-quality walkable environments were examined, and three neighborhoods from each city were surveyed. Participants in each neighborhood used one of three approaches to assess the walkability of the environment: 15 local residents assessed the environment using a map, 15 participants made a field visit to assess the environment, and 15 participants used Google Street View to assess the environment, yielding a total of 90 valid samples for the two cities. Findings revealed that the three approaches to assessing neighborhood walkability were highly correlated for traffic safety, aesthetics, sidewalk quality, and physical barriers. Compared with assessments from participants making field visits, assessments by local residents were more highly correlated with Google Street View assessments. Google Street View provides a more convenient, low-cost, efficient, and safe approach to assess neighborhood walkability. The results of this study may facilitate future large-scale walkable environment surveys, effectively reduce expenses, and improve survey efficiency.

  1. Measuring Neighborhood Walkable Environments: A Comparison of Three Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yen-Cheng; Sullivan, William; Larsen, Linda

    2017-06-03

    Multiple studies have revealed the impact of walkable environments on physical activity. Scholars attach considerable importance to leisure and health-related walking. Recent studies have used Google Street View as an instrument to assess city streets and walkable environments; however, no study has compared the validity of Google Street View assessments of walkable environment attributes to assessments made by local residents and compiled from field visits. In this study, we involved nearby residents and compared the extent to which Google Street View assessments of the walkable environment correlated with assessments from local residents and with field visits. We determined the assessment approaches (local resident or field visit assessments) that exhibited the highest agreement with Google Street View. One city with relatively high-quality walkable environments and one city with relatively low-quality walkable environments were examined, and three neighborhoods from each city were surveyed. Participants in each neighborhood used one of three approaches to assess the walkability of the environment: 15 local residents assessed the environment using a map, 15 participants made a field visit to assess the environment, and 15 participants used Google Street View to assess the environment, yielding a total of 90 valid samples for the two cities. Findings revealed that the three approaches to assessing neighborhood walkability were highly correlated for traffic safety, aesthetics, sidewalk quality, and physical barriers. Compared with assessments from participants making field visits, assessments by local residents were more highly correlated with Google Street View assessments. Google Street View provides a more convenient, low-cost, efficient, and safe approach to assess neighborhood walkability. The results of this study may facilitate future large-scale walkable environment surveys, effectively reduce expenses, and improve survey efficiency.

  2. Berry phases for interacting spins in composite environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Da-Bao; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential application in quantum information process, geometric phase of interacting system arouse many interests. Some physicists concentrate on the system in pure classical envi- ronment, while others study the system in pure quantized environment. So a natural question is asked: how about an interacting system in composite environments made up of both classical and quantized field. In this letter, we analyze a quantum system composed of two interacting spins, of which one is in classical magnetic field and the other is in quantized field. First, classical magnetic field driven Berry phases for the whole system and subsystem are studied. The effect of couplings between particles and photon on these phases are analyzed. In comparison with the dynamical quantized field, We find that even a static quantized field in its vacuum state can also have an effect on Berry phase. Second, quantized field driven Berry phases for the whole system and sub- system are formulated, including both one and two mode ...

  3. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    show that by using a sequence the evolutionary algorithm can find a controller that performs well in all sub-environments more consistently than when presenting all sub-environments together. We conclude that environment decomposition is an useful approach for evolving controllers for structured......In this paper we aim to develop a controller that allows a robot to traverse an structured environment. The approach we use is to decompose the environment into simple sub-environments that we use as basis for evolving the controller. Specifically, we decompose a narrow corridor environment...... into four different sub-environments and evolve controllers that generalize to traverse two larger environments composed of the sub-environments. We also study two strategies for presenting the sub-environments to the evolutionary algorithm: all sub-environments at the same time and in sequence. Results...

  4. Quantum robots plus environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  5. Matching roots to their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J; George, Timothy S; Gregory, Peter J; Bengough, A Glyn; Hallett, Paul D; McKenzie, Blair M

    2013-07-01

    Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on 'Matching Roots to Their Environment'. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future.

  6. Indoor Domestic environment and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimitriou E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genesis and development of asthma are greatly affected by the indoor environmental quality. Duringrecent years, it is noted an important increase in asthma cases worldwide which is mainly caused by the effects ofpollutants in indoor environments. Purpose: In this study, there has been an effort to show the impact of indoorenvironment on asthma development. Methodology: Reviewing bibliography by information retrieval from thePubmed and TRIP Database.Conclusion: Indoor air pollution is an interdisciplinary subject. The great number ofpollutants, their variety on structure and action, the conditions under which they are developed as well as theirdifferent and disparate ways of treatment and control require knowledge from many scientific fields. By assuming newdimensions in world climate changes, increasing sensitization in allergens, using respiratory irritants, such aspesticides and compounds and chemicals of industrial origin, and at the same time the poor home indoor air qualityand the family history of asthma lead to new asthma cases worldwide. An important number of asthma cases in afamily could be avoided by implementing a better environmental policy inside our homes. Finally, by understandingbetter the link between environment and asthma as well as by explaining the involved gene action, they will bedelivered more effective prevention and treatment programs.

  7. Assessment of Combustor Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiyong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the remaining life of gas turbine critical components, it is vital to accurately define the aerothermodynamic working environments and service histories. As a part of a major multidisciplinary collaboration program, a benchmark modeling on a practical gas turbine combustor is successfully carried out, and the two-phase, steady, turbulent, compressible, reacting flow fields at both cruise and takeoff are obtained. The results show the complicated flow features inside the combustor. The airflow over each flow element of the combustor can or liner is not evenly distributed, and considerable variations, ±25%, around the average values, are observed. It is more important to note that the temperatures at the combustor can and cooling wiggle strips vary significantly, which can significantly affect fatigue life of engine critical components. The present study suggests that to develop an adequate aerothermodynamics tool, it is necessary to carry out a further systematic study, including validation of numerical results, simulations at typical engine operating conditions, and development of simple correlations between engine operating conditions and component working environments. As an ultimate goal, the cost and time of gas turbine engine fleet management must be significantly reduced.

  8. Reference waste package environment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

  9. Gene-environment effects on hippocampal neurodevelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    Mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism put a heavy load on today’s societies, creating a steady call for revealing underlying disease mechanisms and the development of effective treatments. The etiology of major psychiatric illnesses is complex involving gene by environment susceptibility...... factors. Hence, a deeper understanding is needed of how cortical neurodevelopmental deficiencies can arise from such gene-environment interactions. The convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors is a recent field of research. It is now clear that disease, infection and stress factors may...

  10. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  11. Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

  12. Critical Connections: Personal Learning Environments and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alison; Sinkinson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Personal learning environments (PLEs) and critical information literacies (CILs) are two concepts that have been presented as responses to the challenges of the rich and complex information landscape. While both approaches support learners' critical engagement with new information environments, each was developed within a different field. This…

  13. Measuring Neighborhood Walkable Environments: A Comparison of Three Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Cheng Chiang; William Sullivan; Linda Larsen

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have revealed the impact of walkable environments on physical activity. Scholars attach considerable importance to leisure and health-related walking. Recent studies have used Google Street View as an instrument to assess city streets and walkable environments; however, no study has compared the validity of Google Street View assessments of walkable environment attributes to assessments made by local residents and compiled from field visits. In this study, we involved nearby ...

  14. Space Environment and Effects System (SEES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashio, Nana; Obara, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Koga, Kiyokazu; Koshiishi, Hideki

    Space environment group in JAXA has installed insturments to measure space environment on eleven satellites. In the last year, the biggest instrument called SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquision equipment -Attached Paylod) was atteched to the palette of JEM (ISS). On the other hand, we have a web site, "Space Environment and Effects System(SEES)". This system consisits of four parts. First part is to provide data that were obtained from these insturments. There are 18 kinds of mesurments, for example, radiation, magnetic field and so on. In 1994, Anik E-1 and Anik E-2 were broken by solar storm and we could catch the abnormal data from our instrument. Second part is a warning system. Many Japanese satellites are working around the earth and they are always exposed to radioactivity in space. So we predict the the radiation data in two days and if the expected value is over the threshold of safety, we inform a warning massage to users who want to keep their satellites safe. And we also provide the warning massage for Japanese astronauts who stay at ISS. Third part is the tool of the space environment /satellite environment models. There are 12 kinds of environment models which are constructed from 90 space environment models, for example, radiation model, solar activity model and so on. If you register your infomation in the SEES web site, you can simulate space environment by using them. Fourth part is providing the 2D and 3D infomations of satellite's orvits. This show the satelllite's position on the world map at a paticular time. If you want to use this system, please visit our SEES page at (http://seesproxy.tksc.jaxa.jp/fw/dfw/SEES/index.html ).

  15. Dodo Field and Solitaire Field: Newly Discovered Hydrothermal Fields at the Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, K.; Shipboard Scientists Of Yk09-13 Leg1 Cruise

    2010-12-01

    In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance by means of a manned deep-sea submersible vehicle (DSV) Shikai6500 in two regions of the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) 18 deg-20’S and successfully discovered two active hydrothermal sites; one is the Dodo field at the Dodo Great Lava Plain (CIR Segment 16 at 18 deg 20’S ) and the other is the Solitaire Field at the Roger Plateau (Segment 15 at 19 deg 33’S). The black smoker fluids in the Dodo field exhibit unusually high concentrations of H2 in spite of the slightly brine-enriched feature of the fluids. Chemosynthetic faunal communities in the Dodo field are emaciated in size and composition. The Solitaire field is characterized by extensive diffusing flows throughout the field, suggesting that the emission patterns of the hydrothermal fluids were atypical among the CIR hydrothermal systems known so far including the Dodo field. The most outstanding feature was the prosperous macrofaunal communities that potentially contained the almost entire members of macrofaunal genera found in the CIR hydrothermal environments and even previously unexplored animal members (e.g., Alvinellidae polychaetes). Moreover, a new morphotype of scaly foot gastropod, of which one type has been known only in the Kairei field in the world, dominated the chemosynthetic animal communities in the Solitaire field. These findings provide important insights into geochemical diversity of hydrothermal activity and biodiversity and biogeography of vent-endemic ecosystem in the Indian Ocean.

  16. Gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Stephen B; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly accessible technologies for typing genetic variation, studies of gene-environment (G×E) interactions have proliferated in psychological research. Among the aims of such studies are testing developmental hypotheses and models of the etiology of behavioral disorders, defining boundaries of genetic and environmental influences, and identifying individuals most susceptible to risk exposures or most amenable to preventive and therapeutic interventions. This research also coincides with the emergence of unanticipated difficulties in detecting genetic variants of direct association with behavioral traits and disorders, which may be obscured if genetic effects are expressed only in predisposing environments. In this essay we consider these and other rationales for positing G×E interactions, review conceptual models meant to inform G×E interpretations from a psychological perspective, discuss points of common critique to which G×E research is vulnerable, and address the role of the environment in G×E interactions.

  17. The hovercraft environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, E J

    1970-06-01

    In just over a decade the hovercraft has progressed from first prototype to a successful commercial form of transport which also has the ability to penetrate many environments hitherto virtually inaccessible to manned vehicles. Comparison with rival short range vehicles such as the helicopter and hydrofoil show that the hovercraft has become one of the most versatile forms of transport available. This versatility and ability to operate in unusual or extreme environments has been accompanied by the problems of control and of protection of the occupants of the hovercraft from the hazards associated with these environments. Several of these problems are discussed, together with their possible solutions. This article is based on a paper given to the Nederlands Vereniging Voor Ergonomie/Ergonomics Research Society joint conference at Noordwijk in Holland, 11-13 June, 1969.

  18. Appropriating the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policy has become an important area of European Union (EU) policy making, even though it had not originally been foreseen in the Treaty of Rome. Its emergence in the early 1970s can be understood as a result of a transfer of the novel policy idea of the environment to the European...... of the environment as a political concept emerging in the context of international organizations at the time. Secondly, an analysis of the first Environmental Action Programme of 1973 will be used to show how the EC conceptualized the environment, including the definition of problems and potential remedies. Thirdly...... level. This paper thus inquires into the emergence of a European environmental policy from a diffusion of ideas perspective. Rather than focusing on multi-level policy making it seeks to trace the diffusion of environmental ideas from the level of international organizations to the European Communities...

  19. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on institutional sources of environmental problems on monetary valuation and environmental decision-making as two areas where socio-economics has had a particularly strong influence. The chapter concludes that the acknowledgement in these areas of research of ecological and social embeddedness has given rise...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss......This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...

  20. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpasi, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.