WorldWideScience

Sample records for field deployable gamma

  1. Field-deployable gamma-radiation detectors for DHS use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2007-09-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS' requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER TM, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack TM that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field1. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant spectral data and

  2. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant

  3. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  4. Field deployable pushbroom hyperspectral imagining polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Mariano; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral polarimetry is demonstrated to measure the spectrum and polarization state of a scene. This information is important to identify material properties for applications such as remote sensing and agricultural monitoring, among others. We report the design and performance of a ruggedized, field deployable Hyperspectral Polarimeter Imaging (HPI) system over the VIS to NIR range (450-800 nm). An entrance slit was used to sample a scene in a pushbroom scanning mode, sampling over a 30 degree vertical by 110 degree horizontal field of view. Furthermore, athermalized achromatic retarders were implemented in a channel spectrum generator to measure the linear Stoke vectors. This paper reports the mechanical and optical layout of the system and its peripherals. We present preliminary spectral and polarimetry calibration techniques as well as testing results in field environments.

  5. A compact neutron scatter camera for field deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, John E M; Brennan, James S

    2016-01-01

    We describe a very compact (0.9 m high, 0.4 m diameter, 40 kg) battery operable neutron scatter camera designed for field deployment. Unlike most other systems, the configuration of the sixteen liquid-scintillator detection cells are arranged to provide omnidirectional (4{\\pi}) imaging with sensitivity comparable to a conventional two-plane system. Although designed primarily to operate as a neutron scatter camera for localizing energetic neutron sources, it also functions as a Compton camera for localizing gamma sources. In addition to describing the radionuclide source localization capabilities of this system, we demonstrate how it provides neutron spectra that can distinguish plutonium metal from plutonium oxide sources, in addition to the easier task of distinguishing AmBe from fission sources.

  6. Field guide to quick deployment thermocouples

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for quick deployment of thermocouples to measure fire intensity at Kulm Wetland Management District as part of the Fire Intensity Monitoring survey....

  7. Gamma-Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The expected level of gamma-gamma absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of gamma-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs)is evaluated as a function of the location of the gamma-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the gamma-gamma opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to $\\gamma\\gamma$ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the gamma-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the cen...

  8. Evaluation of field dental equipment in a deployment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, David G; Ehrlich, A Dale; Ragain, James C; Lyles, Mark B; Roberts, Howard W

    2006-03-01

    Dental officers and technicians must have reliable, durable, well-performing field dental equipment to enable them to provide dental care to deployed troops in operational environments. Unfortunately, no organized program exists to test such equipment before its purchase and use in the field. This article presents the results of a project conducted by the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research and the Air Force Dental Evaluation and Consultation Service to evaluate commercially available field dental equipment through laboratory testing and clinical-user evaluations in theater. The purpose of this 2-year project was to identify the best-performing and most cost-effective field dental equipment for possible future procurement. Initial laboratory testing was performed at the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, and the equipment was then shipped to Kuwait for in-theater environmental and clinical-user testing. A seven-member scientific team of military dental officers and technicians was deployed for 1 month to perform in-theater testing under regional environmental conditions and to coordinate clinical-user evaluations. The testing provided beneficial results by identifying equipment that performed properly and equipment that exhibited shortcomings serious enough to render it inadequate for operational use. It is recommended that the project serve as a model for future testing and evaluation of medical/dental equipment by all of the military services.

  9. A programmable autosampler for a field deployable tritium analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.

    1996-08-01

    Researchers in the Environmental Technology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center, in cooperation with Sampling Systems, Inc. are developing a fully programmable, remotely operated, fixed volume, automatic sampler for use with the field deployable tritium analysis system currently under development at U. of GA`s Center for Applied Isotope Studies. The sampler will collect a limited-volume sample and perform on-line sample purification for tritium analyses from multiple collection sites. Pneumatically operated stainless steel samplers operate satisfactorily upon remote activation. The one-step purification system removes all impurities with interfere with tritium analysis by liquid scintillation. Field testing has confirmed system operation. The autosampler may act as a stand-alone device and is enclosed in a rugged, field-portable case with wheels. The system weighs about 40 lbs.

  10. Computer Based Training: Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut training has traditionally been conducted at specific sites with specialized facilities. Because of its size and nature the training equipment is generally not portable. Efforts are now under way to develop training tools that can be taken to remote locations, including into orbit. Two of these efforts are the Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality projects. Field Deployable Trainer NASA has used the recent shuttle mission by astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian space station, Mir, as an opportunity to develop and test a prototype of an on-orbit computer training system. A laptop computer with a customized user interface, a set of specially prepared CD's, and video tapes were taken to the Mir by Ms. Lucid. Based upon the feedback following the launch of the Lucid flight, our team prepared materials for the next Mir visitor. Astronaut John Blaha will fly on NASA/MIR Long Duration Mission 3, set to launch in mid September. He will take with him a customized hard disk drive and a package of compact disks containing training videos, references and maps. The FDT team continues to explore and develop new and innovative ways to conduct offsite astronaut training using personal computers. Shared Virtual Reality Training NASA's Space Flight Training Division has been investigating the use of virtual reality environments for astronaut training. Recent efforts have focused on activities requiring interaction by two or more people, called shared VR. Dr. Bowen Loftin, from the University of Houston, directs a virtual reality laboratory that conducts much of the NASA sponsored research. I worked on a project involving the development of a virtual environment that can be used to train astronauts and others to operate a science unit called a Biological Technology Facility (BTF). Facilities like this will be used to house and control microgravity experiments on the space station. It is hoped that astronauts and instructors will ultimately be able to share

  11. Optomechanical design of a field-deployable thermal weapon sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc-André; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bernier, Sophie; Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Lagacé, François; Laou, Philips

    2007-09-01

    The use of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging technology in Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems produces a unique tool that perfectly fulfills the all-weather, day-and-night vision demands in modern battlefields by significantly increasing the effectiveness and survivability of a dismounted soldier. The main advantage of IR imaging is that no illumination is required; therefore, observation can be accomplished in a passive mode. It is particularly well adapted for target detection even through smoke, dust, fog, haze, and other battlefield obscurants. In collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC Valcartier), INO engineering team developed, produced, and tested a rugged thermal weapon sight. An infrared channel provides for human detection at 800m and recognition at 200m. Technical system requirements included very low overall weight as well as the need to be field-deployable and user-friendly in harsh conditions. This paper describes the optomechanical design and focuses on the catadioptric-based system integration. The system requirements forced the optomechanical engineers to minimize weight while maintaining a sufficient level of rigidity in order to keep the tight optical tolerances. The optical system's main features are: a precision manual focus, a watertight vibration insulated front lens, a bolometer and two gold coated aluminum mirrors. Finite element analyses using ANSYS were performed to validate the subsystems performance. Some of the finite element computations were validated using different laboratory setups.

  12. High-frequency field-deployable isotope analyzer for hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena S.F. Berman; Manish Gupta; Chris Gabrielli; Tina Garland; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2009-01-01

    A high-frequency, field-deployable liquid water isotope analyzer was developed. The instrument was deployed for 4 contiguous weeks in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest Long-term Ecological Research site in western Oregon, where it was used for real-time measurement of the isotope ratios of precipitation and stream water during three large storm events. We were able...

  13. Electromagnetic panel deployment and retraction using the geomagnetic field in LEO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Sugawara, Yoshiki; Satou, Yasutaka

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, spacecraft are installed with large-area structures that are extended and deployed post-launch. These extensible structures have been applied in several missions for power generation, thermal radiation, and solar propulsion. Here, we propose a deployment and retraction method using the electromagnetic force generated when the geomagnetic field interacts with electric current flowing on extensible panels. The panels are installed on a satellite in low Earth orbit. Specifically, electrical wires placed on the extensible panels generate magnetic moments, which interfere with the geomagnetic field. The resulting repulsive and retraction forces enable panel deployment and retraction. In the proposed method, a satellite realizes structural deployment using simple electrical wires. Furthermore, the satellite can achieve not only deployment but also retraction for avoiding damage from space debris and for agile attitude maneuvers. Moreover, because the proposed method realizes quasi-static deployment and the retraction of panels by electromagnetic forces, low impulsive force is exerted on fragile panels. The electrical wires can also be used to detect the panel deployment and retraction and generate a large magnetic moment for attitude control. The proposed method was assessed in numerical simulations based on multibody dynamics. Simulation results shows that a small cubic satellite with a wire current of 25 AT deployed 4 panels (20 cm × 20 cm) in 500 s and retracted 4 panels in 100 s.

  14. On Non-Parametric Field Estimation using Randomly Deployed, Noisy, Binary Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ye

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing a deterministic data field from binary quantized noisy observations of sensors randomly deployed over the field domain. Our focus is on the extremes of lack of control in the sensor deployment, arbitrariness and lack of knowledge of the noise distribution, and low-precision and unreliability in the sensors. These adverse conditions are motivated by possible real-world scenarios where a large collection of low-cost, crudely manufactured sensors are mass-deployed in an environment where little can be assumed about the ambient noise. We propose a simple estimator that reconstructs the entire data field from these unreliable, binary quantized, noisy observations. Under the assumption of a bounded amplitude field, we prove almost sure and mean-square convergence of the estimator to the actual field as the number of sensors tends to infinity. For fields with bounded-variation, Sobolev differentiable, or finite-dimensionality properties, we derive specific mean squared error...

  15. Deployment of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide field upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Good, John; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian; Kriel, Herman; Bryant, Randy; Elliot, Linda; Landriau, Martin; Leck, Ron; Perry, David; Ramsey, Jason; Savage, Richard; Allen, Richard D.; Damm, George; DePoy, D. L.; Fowler, Jim; Gebhardt, Karl; Haeuser, Marco; MacQueen, Phillip; Marshall, J. L.; Martin, Jerry; Prochaska, Travis; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Shetrone, Matthew; Schroeder Mrozinski, Emily; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Cornell, Mark E.; Booth, John; Moreira, Walter

    2014-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an innovative large telescope located in West Texas at the McDonald Observatory. The HET operates with a fixed segmented primary and has a tracker, which moves the four-mirror optical corrector and prime focus instrument package to track the sidereal and non-sidereal motions of objects. A major upgrade of the HET is in progress that will substantially increase the pupil size to 10 meters (from 9.2 m) and the field of view to 22 arcminutes (from 4 arcminutes) by replacing the corrector, tracker, and prime focus instrument package. In addition to supporting existing instruments, and a new low resolution spectrograph, this wide field upgrade will feed a revolutionary new integral field spectrograph called VIRUS, in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX§). The upgrade is being installed and this paper discusses the current status.

  16. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD DEPLOYMENT OF A TELEOPERATED SAMPLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmaso, M; Robert Fogle, R; Tony Hicks, T; Larry Harpring, L; Daniel Odell, D

    2007-11-09

    A teleoperated sampling system for the identification, collection and retrieval of samples following the detonation of an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or Radiological Dispersion Devise (RDD) has been developed and tested in numerous field exercises. The system has been developed as part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA) National Technical Nuclear Forensic (NTNF) Program. The system is based on a Remotec ANDROS Mark V-A1 platform. Extensive modifications and additions have been incorporated into the platform to enable it to meet the mission requirements. The Defense Science Board Task Force on Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense, 2000 Summer Study Volume III report recommended the Department of Defense (DOD) improve nuclear forensics capabilities to achieve accurate and fast identification and attribution. One of the strongest elements of protection is deterrence through the threat of reprisal, but to accomplish this objective a more rapid and authoritative attribution system is needed. The NTNF program provides the capability for attribution. Early on in the NTNF program, it was recognized that there would be a desire to collect debris samples for analysis as soon as possible after a nuclear event. Based on nuclear test experience, it was recognized that mean radiation fields associated with even low yield events could be several thousand R/Hr near the detonation point for some time after the detonation. In anticipation of pressures to rapidly sample debris near the crater, considerable effort is being devoted to developing a remotely controlled vehicle that could enter the high radiation field area and collect one or more samples for subsequent analysis.

  17. Telecommunications in Israeli field hospitals deployed to three crisis zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestone, Aharon S; Levy, Gadi; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2014-10-01

    A field hospital overseas requires various types of communication equipment. This study presents the communications equipment used by three Israeli field hospital delegations to earthquake sites at Adapazari, Turkey, in 1999, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in 2010 and Minamisanriku, Japan, in 2011. The delegations to Turkey and Haiti were relatively large (105-230 personnel) and were on the site early (three to four days after each event). The 55-person delegation to Japan arrived later and was established as an outpatient community hospital. Standard military VHF radios were the only effective tool up to 5 km, until cellular coverage was regained (1-2 weeks after each event). International communication was good. While short-wave communication (telephone and Internet) was used in Turkey, a direct satellite channel was set up in Haiti. In Japan, BGAN Inmarsat provided efficient Wi-Fi for all needs. Motorola walkie talkies were not efficient beyond the immediate vicinity. This paper recommends continued use of military-specification equipment alongside newer modalities, particularly in situations where infrastructure is damaged.

  18. Gamma-Ray Bursts as Sources of Strong Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Granot, Jonathan; Bromberg, Omer; Racusin, Judith L; Daigne, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the strongest explosions in the Universe, which due to their extreme character likely involve some of the strongest magnetic fields in nature. This review discusses the possible roles of magnetic fields in GRBs, from their central engines, through the launching, acceleration and collimation of their ultra-relativistic jets, to the dissipation and particle acceleration that power their $\\gamma$-ray emission, and the powerful blast wave they drive into the surrounding medium that generates their long-lived afterglow emission. An emphasis is put on particular areas in which there have been interesting developments in recent years.

  19. A low-magnetic-field soft gamma repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, N; Esposito, P; Turolla, R; Israel, G L; Zane, S; Stella, L; Mereghetti, S; Tiengo, A; Götz, D; Göğüş, E; Kouveliotou, C

    2010-11-12

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous x-ray pulsars form a rapidly increasing group of x-ray sources exhibiting sporadic emission of short bursts. They are believed to be magnetars, that is, neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields, B ~ 10(14) to 10(15) gauss. We report on a soft gamma repeater with low magnetic field, SGR 0418+5729, recently detected after it emitted bursts similar to those of magnetars. X-ray observations show that its dipolar magnetic field cannot be greater than 7.5 × 10(12) gauss, well in the range of ordinary radio pulsars, implying that a high surface dipolar magnetic field is not necessarily required for magnetar-like activity. The magnetar population may thus include objects with a wider range of B-field strengths, ages, and evolutionary stages than observed so far.

  20. Pulsed mixed n, {gamma} radiation fields for electronic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurdin, G.; Becret, C.; Jaureguy, J.C. [Etablissement Technique Central de l`Armement (ETCA), 94 - Arcueil (France); Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.; Lapeyre, P.; Ramisse, D. [D.G.A., 46 - Gramat (France)

    1994-12-31

    For combined n, {gamma} TREE testing we have modified the CALIBAN Fast Burst Reactor Field with CdO/Epoxy converters to cover the range [10{sup 11} -10{sup 12}] n.cm{sup -2} (1 MeV Si), [10{sup 7} - 10{sup 8}] cGy(Si).s{sup -1}. Activation and fission {sigma} {phi}vector, 1 MeV(Si) fluences, neutron spectra, total exposures and dose rates were predicted with good agreement by n, {gamma} photon transport codes. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. PANGU: a wide field gamma-ray imager and polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Walter, R.; Su, M.; Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Böttcher, M.; Chang, J.; Chernyakova, M.; Fan, Y.; Farnier, C.; Gargano, F.; Grenier, I.; Hajdas, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Pearce, M.; Pohl, M.; Zdziarski, A.

    2016-07-01

    PANGU (the PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit) is a gamma-ray telescope with a wide field of view optimized for spectro-imaging, timing and polarization studies. It will map the gamma-ray sky from 10 MeV to a few GeV with unprecedented spatial resolution. This window on the Universe is unique to detect photons produced directly by relativistic particles, via the decay of neutral pions, or the annihilation or decay light from anti-matter and the putative light dark matter candidates. A wealth of questions can be probed among the most important themes of modern physics and astrophysics. The PANGU instrument is a pair-conversion gamma-ray telescope based on an innovative design of a silicon strip tracker. It is light, compact and accurate. It consists of 100 layers of silicon micro-strip detector of 80 x 80 cm2 in area, stacked to height of about 90 cm, and covered by an anticoincidence detector. PANGU relies on multiple scattering effects for energy measurement, reaching an energy resolution between 30-50% for 10 MeV - 1 GeV. The novel tracker will allow the first polarization measurement and provide the best angular resolution ever obtained in the soft gamma ray and GeV band.

  2. Evaluation of Methods for In-Situ Calibration of Field-Deployable Microphone Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Culliton, William G.; McSwain, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Current field-deployable microphone phased arrays for aeroacoustic flight testing require the placement of hundreds of individual sensors over a large area. Depending on the duration of the test campaign, the microphones may be required to stay deployed at the testing site for weeks or even months. This presents a challenge in regards to tracking the response (i.e., sensitivity) of the individual sensors as a function of time in order to evaluate the health of the array. To address this challenge, two different methods for in-situ tracking of microphone responses are described. The first relies on the use of an aerial sound source attached as a payload on a hovering small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) vehicle. The second relies on the use of individually excited ground-based sound sources strategically placed throughout the array pattern. Testing of the two methods was performed in microphone array deployments conducted at Fort A.P. Hill in 2015 and at Edwards Air Force Base in 2016. The results indicate that the drift in individual sensor responses can be tracked reasonably well using both methods. Thus, in-situ response tracking methods are useful as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of a phased array during long duration deployments.

  3. Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10 days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were more than 99.9%. Patient movements within the hospital were noted, and an online command dashboard screen was generated. Patient care was delivered using the electronic medical record. Digital radiographs were acquired and transmitted to stations throughout the hospital. The system helped to introduce order in an otherwise chaotic situation and enabled adequate utilization of scarce medical resources by continually gathering information, analyzing it, and presenting it to the decision-making command level. The establishment of electronic medical records promoted the adequacy of medical treatment and facilitated continuity of care. This experience in Haiti supports the feasibility of deploying information technologies within a field hospital operation. Disaster response teams and agencies are encouraged to consider the use of information technology as part of their contingency plans.

  4. Detection of cosmic gamma-rays using a heliostat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arqueros, F.; Ballestrin, J.; Borque, D. M.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Enriquez, R.; Gebauer, H.-J.; Plaga, R.

    2001-08-01

    Gamma-Ray telescopes based on a solar plant are able to accurately measure the spatial distribution and time structure of the Cherenkov shower front. Although this information should be sufficient for the reconstruction of several primary parameters, it will be shown that the restricted field of view of the optical detection system and the limited sampling of a realistic heliostat array impose severe limitations.

  5. Telesurgery via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a field deployable surgical robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Mitchell J H; Rosen, Jacob; King, Hawkeye; Friedman, Diana C W; Donlin, Gina; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Harnett, Brett; Huffman, Lynn; Doarn, Charles; Broderick, Timothy; Hannaford, Blake

    2007-01-01

    Robotically assisted surgery stands to further revolutionize the medical field and provide patients with more effective healthcare. Most robotically assisted surgeries are teleoperated from the surgeon console to the patient where both ends of the system are located in the operating room. The challenge of surgical teleoperation across a long distance was already demonstrated through a wired communication network in 2001. New development has shifted towards deploying a surgical robot system in mobile settings and/or extreme environments such as the battlefield or natural disaster areas with surgeons operating wirelessly. As a collaborator in the HAPs/MRT (High Altitude Platform/Mobile Robotic Telesurgery) project, The University of Washington surgical robot was deployed in the desert of Simi Valley, CA for telesurgery experiments on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were performed telerobotically with a maximum time delay between the surgeon's console (master) and the surgical robot (slave) of 20 ms for the robotic control signals and 200 ms for the video stream. This was our first experiment in the area of Mobile Robotic Telesurgery (MRT). The creation and initial testing of a deployable surgical robot system will facilitate growth in this area eventually leading to future systems saving human lives in disaster areas, on the battlefield or in other remote environments.

  6. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants’ (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  7. Development of Field-deployable Diode-laser-based Water Vapor Dial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hoai Phong Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL has been developed for lower-tropospheric water vapor observation in Tokyo, Japan. A photoacoustic cell is used for spectroscopy experiment around absorption peaks of 829.022 nm and 829.054 nm. The water vapor density extracted from the observational data agrees with the referenced radiosonde data. Furthermore, we applied modulated pulse technique for DIAL transmitter. It enables DIAL to measure water vapor profile for both low and high altitude regions.

  8. Deployable laboratory response to influenza pandemic; PCR assay field trials and comparison with reference methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J J Inglis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza A/H1N1/09 pandemic spread quickly during the Southern Hemisphere winter in 2009 and reached epidemic proportions within weeks of the official WHO alert. Vulnerable population groups included indigenous Australians and remote northern population centres visited by international travellers. At the height of the Australian epidemic a large number of troops converged on a training area in northern Australia for an international exercise, raising concerns about their potential exposure to the emerging influenza threat before, during and immediately after their arrival in the area. Influenza A/H1N1/09 became the dominant seasonal variant and returned to Australia during the Southern winter the following year. METHODS: A duplex nucleic acid amplification assay was developed within weeks of the first WHO influenza pandemic alert, demonstrated in northwestern Australia shortly afterwards and deployed as part of the pathology support for a field hospital during a military exercise during the initial epidemic surge in June 2009. RESULTS: The nucleic acid amplification assay was twice as sensitive as a point of care influenza immunoassay, as specific but a little less sensitive than the reference laboratory nucleic acid amplification assay. Repetition of the field assay with blinded clinical samples obtained during the 2010 winter influenza season demonstrated a 91.7% congruence with the reference laboratory method. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid in-house development of a deployable epidemic influenza assay allowed a flexible laboratory response, effective targeting of limited disease control resources in an austere military environment, and provided the public health laboratory service with a set of verification tools for resource-limited settings. The assay method was suitable for rapid deployment in time for the 2010 Northern winter.

  9. Wide field of view adaptive optical system for lightweight deployable telescope technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.; Cermak, Michael A.; Friedman, Edward J.

    2003-02-01

    A NASA research contract (NAS1-00116) was awarded to Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. in January 2000 to study wide field-of-view adaptive optical systems. These systems will be required on future high resolution Earth remote sensing systems that employ large, flexible, lightweight, deployed primary mirrors. The deformations from these primary mirrors will introduce aberrations into the optical system, which must be removed by corrective optics. For economic reasons, these remote sensing systems must have a large field-of-view (a few degrees). Unlike ground-based adaptive optical systems, which have a negligible field-of-view, the adaptive optics on these space-based remote sensing systems will be required to correct for the deformations in the primary mirror over the entire field-of-view. A new error function, which is an enhancement to conventional adaptive optics, for wide field-of-view optical systems will be introduced. This paper will present the goals of the NASA research project and its progress. The initial phase of this research project is a demonstration of the wide field-of-view adaptive optics theory. A breadboard has been designed and built for this purpose. The design and assembly of the breadboard will be presented, along with the final results for this phase of the research project. Finally, this paper will show the applicability of wide field-of-view adaptive optics to space-based astronomical systems.

  10. Gamma neutron method applied to field measurement of hydrodynamic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F.; Pappalardo, A.; Couchat, Ph.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma neutron method is applied to the study of solute movements during field irrigations under steady-state and transient hydrodynamic conditions. Two different types of behavior are discussed. In the first, the labeled water pulse velocity matches the conservation of the vertical rate of water and, when the deuterated water concentration profiles are mass-conservative, the experimental results are accurately described by the equation of dispersion. In the second, the pore water velocity differs considerably from that of strictly vertical displacements and the concentration profiles are not massconservative.

  11. Wireless sensor network deployment for monitoring soil moisture dynamics at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, B.; Bellin, A.; Filippi, E.; Ioriatti, L.; Martinelli, M.; Massa, A.; Toller, G.

    2009-12-01

    We describe a recent deployment of soil moisture and temperature sensors in an apple tree orchard aimed at exploring the interaction between soil moisture dynamics and plant physiology. The field is divided into three parcels with different constant irrigation rates. The deployment includes dendrometers which monitor the variations of the trunk diameter. The idea is to monitor continuously and at small time steps soil moisture dynamics, soil temperature and a parameter reflecting plant stress at the parcel scale, in order to better investigate the interaction between plant physiology and soil moisture dynamics. Other sensors monitoring plant physiology can be easily accommodated within the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The experimental site is an apple orchard of 5000 m2 located at Cles, province of Trento, Italy, at the elevation of 640 m.a.s.l. In this site about 1200 apple trees are cultivated (cultivar Golden Delicious). The trees have been planted in 2004 in north-south rows 3.5 m apart. The deployment consists of 27 locations connected by a multi hop WSN, each one equipped with 5 soil moisture sensors (capacitance sensors EC-5, decagon Service) at the depths of 10, 20, 30, 50 and 80 cm, and a temperature sensor at the depth of 20 cm, for a total of 135 soil moisture and 27 temperature sensors. The proposed monitoring system is based on totally autonomous sensor nodes which allow both real time and historic data management. The data gathered are then organized in a database on a public web site. The node sensors are connected through an input/output interface to a WSN platform. The power supply consists of a solar panel able to provide 250 mA at 7 V and a 3V DC/DC converter based on a dual frequency high efficient switching regulator. The typical meteorological data are monitored with a weather station located at a distance of approximately 100 m from the experimental site. Great care has been posed to calibration of the capacitance sensors both in the

  12. A remotely operated, field deployable tritium analysis system for surface and groundwater measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, P.R.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Collins, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M.P. [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, Athens, GA (United States); Peterson, R. [Sampling Systems, Inc., Old Ocean, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A prototype system for the remote, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground waters has been developed at the Savannah River Site through the combined efforts of university, private industry, and government laboratory personnel under a project funded by the DOE/OTD. Using automated liquid scintillation counting techniques, the Field Deployable Tritium Analysis System (FDTAS) has been shown in laboratory and limited field tests to have sufficient sensitivity to measure tritium in water samples at environmental levels (10 Bq/L [{approximately}300 pCi/L] for a 100-minute count) on a near-real time basis. These limits are well below the EPA drinking water standard for tritium at 740 Bq/L (1) and lower than the normal upstream Savannah River tritium concentration of {approximately}40 Bq/L (2). The FDTAS consists of a fixed volume sampler (50 mL), an on-line water purification system, and a stop-flow liquid scintillation counter for detecting tritium in the purified sample. All operations are controlled and monitored by a remote computer using standard telephone line modem communications. The FDTAS offers a cost-effective alternative to the expensive and time-consuming methods of field sample collection and laboratory analyses for tritium in contaminated groundwater.

  13. $n + p \\to d + \\gamma$ in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, M J; Wise, M B; Savage, Martin J.; Scaldeferri, Kevin A.; Wise, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    The radiative capture process n+p-> d+gamma provides clear evidence for meson exchange currents in nuclear physics. We compute this process at low energies using a recently developed power counting for the effective field theory that describes nucleon-nucleon interactions. The leading order contribution to this process comes from the photon coupling to the nucleon magnetic moments. At subleading order there are other contributions. Among these are graphs where the photon couples directly to pions, i.e. meson exchange currents. These diagrams are divergent and require the presence of a local four-nucleon-one photon counterterm. The coefficient of this operator is determined by the measured cross section, 334.2 +- 0.5 mb, for incident neutrons with speed |v|=2200 m/s.

  14. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillard, Y. [Existing Substances Division, Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, 20th floor, Gatineau, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada)], E-mail: yves.couillard@ec.gc.ca; Grapentine, L.C.; Borgmann, U. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Doyle, P. [Existing Substances Division, Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, 20th floor, Gatineau, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Masson, S. [Parc Aquarium du Quebec, 1675 avenue des Hotels, Quebec, Quebec, Canada G1W 4S3 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi - James Bay region, northwestern Quebec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents. - Hyalella azteca accumulates dissolved metals in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard, Y; Grapentine, L C; Borgmann, U; Doyle, P; Masson, S

    2008-12-01

    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi-James Bay region, northwestern Québec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO4(2-) modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents.

  16. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  17. Preliminary study about frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by gamma beam and neutron-gamma mixed field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Mariana E.; Souza, Priscilla L.G.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson de C.; Santos, Joelan A.L.; Vilela, Eudice C.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Calixto, Merilane S.; Santos, Neide [Universidade Federal de Pernanmbuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Genetica

    2011-07-01

    The estimate on approximate dose in exposed individual can be made through conventional cytogenetic analysis of dicentric, this technique has been used to support physical dosimetry. It is important to estimate the absorbed dose in case of accidents with the aim of developing an appropriate treatment and biological dosimetry can be very useful in case where the dosimetry is unavailable. Exposure to gamma and neutron radiation leads to the same biological effects such as chromosomal alterations and cancer. However, neutrons cause more genetic damage, such as mutation or more structural damage, such as chromosome alterations. The aim of research is to compare frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by a gamma beam with those from neutron-gamma mixed field. Two blood samples were obtained from one healthy donor and irradiated at different sources. The first sample was exposed to mixed field neutron-gamma sources {sup 241}AmBe at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL - CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil) and the second one was exposed to {sup 137}Cs gamma rays at {sup 137}Cs Laboratory (CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil), both exposures resulting in an absorbed dose of 0.66Gy. Mitotic metaphase cells were obtained by lymphocyte culture for chromosomal analysis and slides were stained with Giemsa 5%. These preliminary results showed a similarity in associated dicentrics frequency per cell (0.041 and 0.048) after {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}AmBe sources irradiations, respectively. However, it was not observed centric rings frequency per cell (0.0 and 0.027). This study will be continue to verify the frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by only gamma beam and neutron-gamma mixed field. (author)

  18. Spatial regulation of cell cohesion by Wnt5a during second heart field progenitor deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Sinha, Tanvi; Ajima, Rieko; Seo, Hwa-Seon; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-04-01

    Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt ligand critical for outflow tract (OFT) morphogenesis, is expressed specifically in second heart field (SHF) progenitors in the caudal splanchnic mesoderm (SpM) near the inflow tract (IFT). Using a conditional Wnt5a gain of function (GOF) allele and Islet1-Cre, we broadly over-expressed Wnt5a throughout the SHF lineage, including the entire SpM between the IFT and OFT. Wnt5a over-expression in Wnt5a null mutants can rescue the cell polarity and actin polymerization defects as well as severe SpM shortening, but fails to rescue OFT shortening. Moreover, Wnt5a over-expression in wild-type background is able to cause OFT shortening. We find that Wnt5a over-expression does not perturb SHF cell proliferation, apoptosis or differentiation, but affects the deployment of SHF cells by causing them to accumulate into a large bulge at the rostral SpM and fail to enter the OFT. Our immunostaining analyses suggest an inverse correlation between cell cohesion and Wnt5a level in the wild-type SpM. Ectopic Wnt5a expression in the rostral SpM of Wn5a-GOF mutants diminishes the upregulation of adherens junction; whereas loss of Wnt5a in Wnt5a null mutants causes premature increase in adherens junction level in the caudal SpM. Over-expression of mouse Wnt5a in Xenopus animal cap cells also reduces C-cadherin distribution on the plasma membrane without affecting its overall protein level, suggesting that Wnt5a may play an evolutionarily conserved role in controlling the cell surface level of cadherin to modulate cell cohesion during tissue morphogenesis. Collectively, our data indicate that restricted expression of Wnt5a in the caudal SpM is essential for normal OFT morphogenesis, and uncover a novel function of spatially regulated cell cohesion by Wnt5a in driving the deployment of SHF cells from the SpM into the OFT.

  19. A scheme for assessing the performance characteristics of small field-of-view gamma cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, B S; Bugby, S L; Lees, J E; Perkins, A C

    2015-02-01

    Existing protocols for assessing the performance characteristics of large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma cameras can be inappropriate and require modification for use with small field-of-view (SFOV) gamma camera systems. This communication proposes a generic scheme suitable for evaluating the performance characteristics of SFOV gamma cameras, based on modifications to the standard procedures of NEMA NU1-2007. Key differences in methodology between tests for LFOV and SFOV gamma cameras are highlighted along with the rationale for these changes. It is envisaged that this scheme will provide more appropriate methods for equipment characterisation, ensuring quality and consistency for all SFOV cameras.

  20. Further developments and field deployment of phosphorus functionalized polymeric scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Malcolm J.; Thornton, Alex R.; Wylde, Jonathan J.; Strachan, Catherine J.; Moir, Gordon [Clariant Oil Services, Muttenz (Switzerland); Goulding, John [John Goulding Consultancy, York (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    monomer distribution, it was important to gauge this effect in reservoir analogues. A reservoir rock will act as a large chromatography column, separating out the scale inhibitor according to molecular weight and phosphorus content. That is the larger molecular weights will adhere more strongly than lower molecular weight fractions, whereas polymer chains containing larger phosphorus functionality will adhere to the rock significantly stronger than those without. Thus it is important to understand if there were components containing phosphorus but did not contribute to the inhibition of scale. In order to study these effects the phosphorus functionalized polymers were tested on very clean sandstone core plugs in a core flood rig. Their adsorption/retention characteristics were studied. The scale inhibitor effluent was analyzed by numerous methods and confirmed by inhibition efficiency measurements. Following successful development, one of the phosphorus functionalized polymeric inhibitors was subject to sequential field-trial in a harsh BaSO{sub 4} scaling, highly naturally fractured North Sea carbonate reservoir. As this was the first deployment of this novel technology the scale inhibitor returns and water chemistry were monitored using a number of methods to assess the efficiency of the inhibitor at mitigating the BaSO{sub 4} risk. A number of previous technologies utilizing phosphorus tagging have resulted in false readings due to anomalous phosphorus signals. The results presented in this paper show a step change with the scale inhibitor analysis by both elemental phosphorus (ICP-OES) and polymer methods (cartridge/Hyamine) showing excellent correlation. Indirect analysis of the scale inhibitor performance by elemental Ba{sup 2+} measurement confirmed the results, as there was no drop in Ba{sup 2+} concentration indicating no significant scaling before the re-squeeze operation was conducted. The phosphorus functionalized inhibitor provided superior performance

  1. A Field Test of the New Portable Gamma Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung-Ki; Park, Uk Ryang; Park, Seunghoon; Chung, Heejun; Kwak, Sung-Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongkwn [NuCare Medical Systems, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to perform a field test of the system, the measurement of U-235 enrichment for nuclear fuel pellets was conducted along with the IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) inspection at the KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF). The enrichment value of U-235 was calculated based on the total counts of the 185.7 keV photopeak and compared with the reference line, drawn by certified sources. The goal of this study is to experimentally evaluate the system performance of the developed system. In this study, the new portable gamma spectrometry system showed a good linearity (R{sup 2}=1) but overestimated the enrichment values than IAEA inspection device. It could be caused by the stability of the new system since it found, right after this measurement, that the accuracy of the system gradually increases and becomes stable over time. Further steps will optimize the design parameter based on these results and repeat measurement with the same samples under the same environment.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  3. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  4. A disjunct eddy accumulation system for the measurement of BVOC fluxes: instrument characterizations and field deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Edwards

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, are emitted in large amounts from forests. Quantification of the flux of BVOCs is critical in the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants and on the production of secondary organic aerosol. A disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA sampler system was constructed for the measurement of speciated BVOC fluxes. Unlike traditional eddy covariance (EC, the relatively new technique of disjunct sampling differs by taking short, discrete samples that allows for slower sampling frequencies. Disjunct sample airflow is directed into cartridges containing sorbent materials at sampling rates proportional to the magnitude of the vertical wind. Compounds accumulated on the cartridges are then quantified by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Herein, we describe our initial tests to evaluate the disjunct sampler including the application of using vertical wind measurements to create optimized sampling thresholds. Measurements of BVOC fluxes obtained from DEA during its deployment above a mixed hardwood forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI during the 2009 CABINEX field campaign are reported. Daytime (09:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. isoprene fluxes, when averaged over the footprint of the tower were 1.31 mg m−2 h−1 which is comparable to previous flux measurements at this location. Speciated monoterpene fluxes are some of the first to be reported from this site. Daytime averages were 26.7 μg m−2 h−1 for α-pinene and 10.6 μg m−2 h−1 for β-pinene. These measured concentrations and fluxes were compared to the output of an atmospheric chemistry model, and were found to be consistent with our knowledge of the variables that control BVOCs fluxes at this site.

  5. A disjunct eddy accumulation system for the measurement of BVOC fluxes: instrument characterizations and field deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, are emitted in large amounts from forests. Quantification of the flux of BVOCs is critical in the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants and on the production of secondary organic aerosol. A disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA sampler system was constructed for the measurement of speciated BVOC fluxes. Unlike traditional eddy covariance (EC, the relatively new technique of disjunct sampling differs by taking short, discrete samples that allow for slower sampling frequencies. Disjunct sample airflow is directed into cartridges containing sorbent materials at sampling rates proportional to the magnitude of the vertical wind. Compounds accumulated on the cartridges are then quantified by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Herein, we describe our initial tests to evaluate the disjunct sampler including the application of vertical wind measurements to create optimized sampling thresholds. Measurements of BVOC fluxes obtained from DEA during its deployment above a mixed hardwood forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI during the 2009 CABINEX field campaign are reported. Daytime (09:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. LT isoprene fluxes, when averaged over the footprint of the tower, were 1.31 mg m−2 h−1 which are comparable to previous flux measurements at this location. Speciated monoterpene fluxes are some of the first to be reported from this site. Daytime averages were 26.7 μg m−2 h−1 for α-pinene and 10.6 μg m−2 h−1 for β-pinene. These measured concentrations and fluxes were compared to the output of an atmospheric chemistry model, and were found to be consistent with our knowledge of the variables that control BVOCs fluxes at this site.

  6. Deficiency in Monte Carlo simulations of coupled neutron-gamma-ray fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleka, Peane P.; Maucec, Marko; de Meijer, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency in Monte Carlo simulations of coupled neutron-gamma-ray field was investigated by benchmarking two simulation codes with experimental data. Simulations showed better correspondence with the experimental data for gamma-ray transport only. In simulations, the neutron interactions with m

  7. Definition of the radiation fields for the JET gamma-ray spectrometer diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoita, Vasile, E-mail: Vasile.Zoita@jet.efda.org [EFDA-JET CSU Culham, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Association EURATOM-MEdC, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Soare, Sorin [Association EURATOM-MEdC, National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotope Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Craciunescu, Teddy [Association EURATOM-MEdC, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Curuia, Marian [Association EURATOM-MEdC, National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotope Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Kiptily, Vasily; Balshaw, Nick [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Blanchard, Patrick [EFDA-JET CSU Culham, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Association EURATOM-CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Croft, David [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Murari, Andrea [EFDA-JET CSU Culham, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Association EURATOM-ENEA, RFX, Padova (Italy); Syme, Brian [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The JET gamma-ray diagnostics system provides information on the behaviour of fast particles within the tokamak plasma. Information on the spatial distribution of the interacting fast particles is obtained from the gamma-ray cameras, while energy distribution information is provided by gamma-ray spectrometers. These techniques have been successfully applied so far in fast particle simulation experiments at JET. The extension of these diagnostics to high performance discharges with high neutron yields is not straightforward due to the background gamma-ray emission induced by neutrons. Two gamma-ray diagnostics upgrade projects at JET addressed this issue by developing neutron/gamma radiation filters (“neutron attenuators”) and collimators for a proper definition of the radiation (neutron and gamma) fields along the diagnostics line-of-sight. A pair of neutron/gamma collimators working in a tandem configuration have been designed and constructed for the JET quasi-tangential gamma-ray spectrometer. The tandem collimators were designed to provide shielding factors of about 5 × 10{sup 2} for 2.45 MeV neutrons and about 10{sup 3} for 9 MeV gamma-rays. The devices have been installed on the JET machine and the paper presents the first experimental results. A similar tandem collimator system was designed for deuterium-tritium experiments on JET. The results of neutron-photon transport calculations for 14.1 MeV neutrons are also presented.

  8. Field Deployment for In-situ Metal and Radionuclide Stabilization by Microbial Metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C. E.; Knox, A. S.; Dixon, K. L.; Roseberry, R. J.; Kritzas, Y. G

    2005-09-26

    A novel biotechnology is reported here that was demonstrated at SRS that facilitates metal and actinide immobilization by incorporating the physiology and ecology of indigenous bacteria. This technology is based on our previous work with pyomelanin-producing bacteria isolated from SRS soils. Through tyrosine supplementation, overproduction of pyomelanin was achieved, which lead ultimately to metal and actinide immobilization, both in-vitro and in-situ. Pyomelanin is a recalcitrant microbial pigment and a humic type compound in the class of melanin pigments. Pyomelanin has electron shuttling and metal chelation capabilities and thus accelerates the bacterial reduction and/or immobilization of metals. Pyomelanin is produced outside the cell and either diffuses away or attaches to the cell surface. In either case, the reduced pyomelanin is capable of transferring electrons to metals as well as chelating metals. Because of its recalcitrance and redox cycling properties, pyomelanin molecules can be used over and over again for metal transformation. When produced in excess, pyomelanin produced by one bacterial species can be used by other species for metal reduction, thereby extending the utility of pyomelanin and further accelerating metal immobilization rates. Soils contaminated with Ni and U were the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, metal bioimmobilization technologies. We have demonstrated pyomelanin production in soil from the Tims Branch area of SRS as a result of tyrosine amendments. These results were documented in laboratory soil column studies and field deployment studies. The amended soils demonstrated increased redox behavior and sequestration capacity of U and transition metals following pyomelanin production. Treatments incorporating tyrosine and lactate demonstrated the highest levels of pyomelanin production. In order to determine the potential use of this technology at other areas of SRS, pyomelanin producing bacteria were also quantified

  9. Self-Sufficient Healthcare Logistics Systems and Responsiveness: Ten Cases of Foreign Field Hospitals Deployed to Disaster Relief Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters around the globe illustrate the unpredictability of their timing and the severity of their impact, making aid operations highly uncertain and complex. The aftermath of sudden-impact disasters, such as civil conflicts, wars, and natural disasters, are typically characterized by chaos and the urgent need for medical care for a massive number of casualties; however, damage to local healthcare infrastructures usually render them unable to deliver needed services. Foreign field hospitals, innovative self-sufficient emergency healthcare logistics systems deployed outside the hospitals’ country, constitute a temporary solution until the local facilities are repaired or rebuilt. These types of healthcare logistics system have been deployed with great success. However, not much is known about factors that may account for their success in the supply chain literature. In this study, we investigate military foreign field hospitals and explore general factors that may account for their effectiveness. Specifically, we look into military healthcare logistics systems, specifically foreign field hospitals (FFHs, to explore factors that may account for their responsiveness. We examine ten successful deployments of an experienced and effective military FFH through an exploratory case analysis to shed light into factors that may account for its success. Various propositions and avenues for future research are developed.

  10. Characterisation of a high resolution small field of view portable gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, S L; Lees, J E; Bhatia, B S; Perkins, A C

    2014-05-01

    A handheld, high-resolution small field of view (SFOV) pinhole gamma camera has been characterised using a new set of protocols adapted from standards previously developed for large field of view (LFOV) systems. Parameters investigated include intrinsic and extrinsic spatial resolution, spatial linearity, uniformity, sensitivity, count rate capability and energy resolution. Camera characteristics are compared to some clinical LFOV gamma cameras and also to other SFOV cameras in development.

  11. Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Abdel-Hafiez

    2006-09-01

    The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.

  12. A Social Potential Fields Approach for Self-Deployment and Self-Healing in Hierarchical Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Aguilera, Francisco; Sandoval, Francisco; Urdiales, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous mobile nodes in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN) allow self-deployment and self-healing. In both cases, the goals are: (i) to achieve adequate coverage; and (ii) to extend network life. In dynamic environments, nodes may use reactive algorithms so that each node locally decides when and where to move. This paper presents a behavior-based deployment and self-healing algorithm based on the social potential fields algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, nodes are attached to low cost robots to autonomously navigate in the coverage area. The proposed algorithm has been tested in environments with and without obstacles. Our study also analyzes the differences between non-hierarchical and hierarchical routing configurations in terms of network life and coverage. PMID:28075364

  13. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Method for Airborne Aerosol Light Extinction Measurement: Instrument Validation and First Results from Field Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A.; Perim de Faria, J.; Berg, M.; Bundke, U.; Freedman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate requires the continuous measurement of aerosol optical parameters like the aerosol extinction coefficient on a regular basis. Remote sensing and ground-based networks are well in place (e.g., AERONET, ACTRIS), whereas the regular in situ measurement of vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol optical properties remains still an important challenge in quantifying climate change. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. Recently, a compact and robust family of optical instruments based on the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique has become available for measuring aerosol light extinction. While this technique was successfully deployed for ground-based atmospheric measurements under various conditions, its suitability for operation aboard aircraft in the free and upper free troposphere still has to be demonstrated. In this work, the modifications of a CAPS PMex instrument for measuring aerosol light extinction on aircraft, the results from subsequent laboratory tests for evaluating the modified instrument prototype, and first results from a field deployment aboard a research aircraft will be covered. In laboratory studies, the instrument showed excellent agreement (deviation < 5%) with theoretical values calculated from Rayleigh scattering cross-sections, when operated on pressurized air and CO2 at ambient and low pressure (~200 hPa). For monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols, reference aerosol extinction coefficients were calculated from measured size distributions and agreed with the CAPS PMex instrument

  14. Imaging multi-energy gamma-ray fields with a Compton scatter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Dogan, N.; Gormley, J. E.; Knoll, G. F.; O'Donnell, M.; Wehe, D. K.

    1994-08-01

    Multi-energy gamma-ray fields have been imaged with a ring Compton scatter camera (RCC). The RCC is intended for industrial applications, where there is a need to image multiple gamma-ray lines from spatially extended sources. To our knowledge, the ability of a Compton scatter camera to perform this task had not previously been demonstrated. Gamma rays with different incident energies are distinguished based on the total energy deposited in the camera elements. For multiple gamma-ray lines, separate images are generated for each line energy. Random coincidences and other interfering interactions have been investigated. Camera response has been characterized for energies from 0.511 to 2.75 MeV. Different gamma-ray lines from extended sources have been measured and images reconstructed using both direct and iterative algorithms.

  15. High Pressure XENON Gamma-Ray Spectrometers for Field Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Wehe; Zong He; Glenn K. Knoll

    2004-02-16

    This project explored a new concept for high-pressure xenon ionization chambers by replacing the Frisch grid with coplanar grid electrodes similar to those used in wide bandgap semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers. This work is the first attempt to apply the coplanar grid anode design in a gas ionization chamber in order to achieve to improved energy resolution. Three prototype detectors, two cylindrical and one parallel plate configurations, were built and tested. While the detectors did not demonstrate energy resolutions as good as other high pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometers, the results demonstrated that the concept of single polarity charge sending using coplanar grid electrodes will work in a gas detector.

  16. Using SPMDs To Assess Natural Recovery Of PCB-Contaminated Sediments In Lake Hartwell, SC: I. A Field Test Of New In-Situ Deployment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from the field testing of some innovative sampling methods developed to evaluate risk management strategies for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments are presented. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were combined with novel deployment methods to quan...

  17. Calibration of uncooled LWIR microbolometer imagers to enable long-term field deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Paul W.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2014-05-01

    Radiometric calibration methods are described that enable long-term deployment of uncooled microbolometer infrared imagers without on-board calibration sources. These methods involve tracking the focal-plane-array and/or camera-body temperatures and compensating for the changing camera response. The compensation is derived from laboratory measurements with the camera viewing a blackbody source while the camera temperature is varied in a thermal chamber. Results are shown that demonstrate absolute temperature uncertainty of 0.35 °C or better over a 24-hour period, with more than half of this uncertainty inherent in the blackbody source to which the measurements are compared. This work was driven by environmental remote sensing applications, but the calibration methods are also relevant to a wide range of infrared imaging applications.

  18. Field Deployment of Prototype Antenna Tiles for the Mileura Widefield Array--Low Frequency Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, J D; Briggs, F H; Corey, B E; Lynch, M J; Bhat, N D R; Cappallo, R J; Doeleman, S S; Fanous, B J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Johnston, C; Kasper, J C; Kocz, J; Kratzenberg, E; Lonsdale, C J; Morales, M F; Oberoi, D; Salah, J E; Stansby, B; Stevens, J; Torr, G; Wayth, R; Webster, R L; Wyithe, J S B; Bowman, Judd D.; Barnes, David G.; Briggs, Frank H.; Corey, Brian E.; Lynch, Merv J.; Cappallo, Roger J.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fanous, Brian J.; Herne, David; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Johnston, Chris; Kasper, Justin C.; Kocz, Jonathon; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Morales, Miguel F.; Oberoi, Divya; Salah, Joseph E.; Stansby, Bruce; Stevens, Jamie; Torr, Glen; Wayth, Randall; Webster, Rachel L.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were performed with prototype antenna tiles for the Mileura Widefield Array--Low Frequency Demonstrator (MWA-LFD) to better understand the widefield, wideband properties of their design and to characterize the radio frequency interference (RFI) between 80 and 300 MHz at the site in Western Australia. Observations acquired during the six month deployment confirmed the predicted sensitivity of the antennas, sky-noise dominated system temperatures, and phase-coherent interferometric measurements. The radio spectrum is remarkably free of strong terrestrial signals, with the exception of two narrow frequency bands allocated to satellite downlinks and rare bursts due to ground-based transmissions being scattered from aircraft and meteor trails. Results indicate the potential of the MWA-LFD to make significant achievements in its three key science objectives: epoch of reionziation science, heliospheric science, and radio transient detection.

  19. The exposure of children to deploying side air bags: an initial field assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kallan, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0-15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side air bag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury - none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs.

  20. Cosmic Connections:. from Cosmic Rays to Gamma Rays, Cosmic Backgrounds and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenko, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Combined data from gamma-ray telescopes and cosmic-ray detectors have produced some new surprising insights regarding intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, as well as extragalactic background light. We review some recent advances, including a theory explaining the hard spectra of distant blazars and the measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields based on the spectra of distant sources. Furthermore, we discuss the possible contribution of transient galactic sources, such as past gamma-ray bursts and hypernova explosions in the Milky Way, to the observed ux of ultrahigh-energy cosmicrays nuclei. The need for a holistic treatment of gamma rays, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields serves as a unifying theme for these seemingly unrelated phenomena.

  1. STUDIES CONCERNING THE EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD EXPOSURE ON GLADIOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M CANTOR

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus (Gladiolus sp. is one of the most floral species cultivated over in the world and in Romania. There are many studies concerning the effect of gamma radiation on ornamental plants but little is known about the synergetic effect of gamma radiation and exposure to magnetic fields on Gladiolus. In our investigation we have tested the effect of gamma irradiation and magnetic field exposure of gladiolus corms and cormels of the cultivars: Her Majesty, Applause and Speranţa. The corms and cormels were irradiated for 72 hrs with 137 Cs gamma source on cylindrical exposure geometry. At medium dose of 1 Gy has been accumulated for each corm and cormel. For each variety we used 10 corms and 30 cormels in five variants. The comportment of various varieties was evaluated by recording the following characteristics: length of roots and growth tip. Significant effect was obtained at the variants which was irradiated with 1 Gy gamma radiation and 3 Gauss magnetic fields.

  2. Development and Calibration of a Field-Deployable Microphone Phased Array for Propulsion and Airframe Noise Flyover Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Culliton, William G.; McSwain, Robert G.; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Johns, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    A new aeroacoustic measurement capability has been developed consisting of a large channelcount, field-deployable microphone phased array suitable for airframe noise flyover measurements for a range of aircraft types and scales. The array incorporates up to 185 hardened, weather-resistant sensors suitable for outdoor use. A custom 4-mA current loop receiver circuit with temperature compensation was developed to power the sensors over extended cable lengths with minimal degradation of the signal to noise ratio and frequency response. Extensive laboratory calibrations and environmental testing of the sensors were conducted to verify the design's performance specifications. A compact data system combining sensor power, signal conditioning, and digitization was assembled for use with the array. Complementing the data system is a robust analysis system capable of near real-time presentation of beamformed and deconvolved contour plots and integrated spectra obtained from array data acquired during flyover passes. Additional instrumentation systems needed to process the array data were also assembled. These include a commercial weather station and a video monitoring / recording system. A detailed mock-up of the instrumentation suite (phased array, weather station, and data processor) was performed in the NASA Langley Acoustic Development Laboratory to vet the system performance. The first deployment of the system occurred at Finnegan Airfield at Fort A.P. Hill where the array was utilized to measure the vehicle noise from a number of sUAS (small Unmanned Aerial System) aircraft. A unique in-situ calibration method for the array microphones using a hovering aerial sound source was attempted for the first time during the deployment.

  3. Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence global climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). While it is widely accepted that aerosol indirect effects cool the Earth-atmosphere system by increasing cloud reflectivity and coverage, the magnitudes of the indirect effects are poorly quantified. One key aerosol property for understanding aerosol indirect effects is the ability of aerosol particles to form cloud droplets at atmospheric relevant supersaturations—i.e., cloud condensation Nuclei (CCN) activity. For particles consisting of typical atmospheric inorganic compounds, their CCN activity is well understood and can be effectively predicted using Köhler theory based on physicochemical properties of the solute, such as its mass, molar volume, and activity coefficient. However, atmospheric aerosols often consist of hundreds of organic species, which can contribute ~20-90% to the total fine aerosol mass. Depending on their properties, organic species can significantly influence the ability of aerosol particles to act as CCN and form cloud droplets. This project focuses on the CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compounds formed from key biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under representative conditions, and the relationship between the hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosols. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerial Facility (AAF) scanning mobility particles sizer (SMPS) was deployed during a ~ 2-week intensive measurement campaign, taking place February 10-February 23, 2016 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Simulation Chamber. The SMPS was operated with a CCN counter (CCNc). Aerosol particles were first classified by the differential mobility analyzer inside the SMPS; the classified aerosol will then be simultaneously characterized

  4. Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Atmospheric aerosols influence global climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). While it is widely accepted that aerosol indirect effects act to cool the Earth-atmosphere system by increasing cloud reflectivity and coverage, the magnitudes of the indirect effects are poorly quantified. One key aerosol property for understanding aerosol indirect effects is the ability of aerosol particles to form cloud droplets at atmospheric relevant supersaturations—i.e., cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. For particles consisting of typical atmospheric inorganic compounds, their CCN activity is well understood and can be effectively predicted using Köhler theory based on physicochemical properties of the solute, such as its mass, molar volume, and activity coefficient. However, atmospheric aerosols often consist of hundreds of organic species, which can contribute ~20-90% to the total fine aerosol mass. Depending on their properties, organic species can significantly influence the ability of aerosol particles to act as CCN and form cloud droplets. This project focuses on the CCN activity of secondary organic aerosol compounds formed from key biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under representative conditions, and the relationship between the hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosols. The ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) scanning mobility particles sizer (SMPS) was deployed during a ~ 6 week intensive measurement campaign, taking place June 15-July 31 2015 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Simulation Chamber. The SMPS was operated with a CCN counter. Aerosol particles were first classified by the differential mobility analyzer inside the SMPS; the classified aerosol will then be simultaneously characterized by a condensation particle counter (part of the SMPS) and the CCN counter.

  5. A Novel Field-Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    retrospective convenience samples of clinical specimens known to be parasite positive or negative by PCR sent to UTMB from the field sites will be...leishmaniasis is that the disease occurs in remote and resource- limited areas of the world with poor or inexistent primary health infrastructure. This also...approaches that could enhance the success of the RPA method in the field, including 1) isolation of DNA from clinical samples using a mini (portable

  6. A Novel Field-Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    OEF/OIF veteran population. To date, there is no field-standardized molecular method based on sensitive DNA amplification coupled with Lateral Flow...OEF/OIF veteran population. To date, there is no field-standardized molecular method based on sensitive DNA amplification coupled with Lateral Flow...FIOCRUZ to carry out Leishmania identification using the RPA-LF test. Collaboration: FIOCRUZ staff (PhD student ) collaborated in the evaluation of

  7. VIRUS: first deployment of the massively replicated fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Lee, Hanshin; Drory, Niv; Kelz, Andreas; Ramsey, Jason; Peterson, Trent W.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Chonis, Taylor; Dalton, Gavin; Farrow, Daniel; Good, John M.; Haynes, Dionne M.; Indahl, Briana L.; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Montesano, Francesco; Nicklas, Harald; Noyola, Eva; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Bender, Ralf; Blanc, Guillermo; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Finkelstein, Steve; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Roth, M. M.; Savage, R. D.; Snigula, Jan M.; Anwad, Heiko

    2016-08-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) consists of 156 identical spectrographs (arrayed as 78 pairs) fed by 35,000 fibers, each 1.5 arcsec diameter, at the focus of the upgraded 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS has a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R 700. VIRUS is the first example of industrial-scale replication applied to optical astronomy and is capable of surveying large areas of sky, spectrally. The VIRUS concept offers significant savings of engineering effort, cost, and schedule when compared to traditional instruments. The main motivator for VIRUS is to map the evolution of dark energy for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX‡), using 0.8M Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies as tracers. The VIRUS array is undergoing staged deployment during 2016 and 2017. It will provide a powerful new facility instrument for the HET, well suited to the survey niche of the telescope, and will open up large spectroscopic surveys of the emission line universe for the first time. We will review the production, lessons learned in reaching volume production, characterization, and first deployment of this massive instrument.

  8. VIRUS: production and deployment of a massively replicated fiber integral field spectrograph for the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Drory, Niv; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian L.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Kelz, Andreas; Haynes, Dionne; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Gebhardt, Karl; Allen, Richard D.; Anwad, Heiko; Bender, Ralf; Blanc, Guillermo; Chonis, Taylor; Cornell, Mark E.; Dalton, Gavin; Good, John; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Murphy, J. D.; Peterson, Trent W.; Prochaska, Travis; Nicklas, Harald; Ramsey, Jason; Roth, M. M.; Savage, Richard D.; Snigula, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) consists of a baseline build of 150 identical spectrographs (arrayed as 75 unit pairs) fed by 33,600 fibers, each 1.5 arcsec diameter, at the focus of the upgraded 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS has a fixed bandpass of 350-550 nm and resolving power R~700. VIRUS is the first example of industrial-scale replication applied to optical astronomy and is capable of surveying large areas of sky, spectrally. The VIRUS concept offers significant savings of engineering effort, cost, and schedule when compared to traditional instruments. The main motivator for VIRUS is to map the evolution of dark energy for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), using 0.8M Lyman-α emitting galaxies as tracers. The full VIRUS array is due to be deployed starting at the end of 2014 and will provide a powerful new facility instrument for the HET, well suited to the survey niche of the telescope, and will open up large area surveys of the emission line universe for the first time. VIRUS is in full production, and we are about half way through. We review the production design, lessons learned in reaching volume production, and preparation for deployment of this massive instrument. We also discuss the application of the replicated spectrograph concept to next generation instrumentation on ELTs.

  9. Deployable Integral Field Units, Multislits, and Image Slicer for the Goodman Imaging Spectrograph on the SOAR Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Moffett, A. J.; Cui, Y.; Eckert, K. D.; McBride, J.; Kannappan, S.; Keller, K.; Barlow, B. N.; Dunlap, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Goodman Imager-Spectrograph on the 4.1m SOAR telescope has operated on Cerro Pachon, Chile with volume-phase holographic gratings in long-slit mode since its commissioning in 2008. Recently, UNC graduate students played key roles to implement robust upgrades for multi-object spectroscopy that will soon be available to US astronomers through the NOAO time share on SOAR: • Multislits over 3x5 arcmin, generated on PCB solder stencils with exceptional sharpness compared to conventional laser cuts, initially to survey globular clusters for pulsating hot sub-dwarfs • An image slicer to obtain 3 simultaneous parallel spectra 70-arcsec long, 1- or 2-arcsec wide, spanning 320-750 nm to map stellar and gaseous emission and mass over the 1500 galaxies in the RESOLVE survey underway on SOAR • Four integral field units, each composed of 5-arcsec diameter, fused bundles of 0.5-arcsec diameter thin-clad optical fiber, independently deployed over a 10x5 arcmin field targeted by an EMCCD also used for Lucky Imaging. Initially will study aperture effects in single fiber surveys, extragalactic globular clusters, and demonstrate technology prior to deployment on larger telescopes • New wheels supporting a large set of existing narrow-band and Sloan filters • A trombone-style atmospheric dispersion compensator that corrects the full 12-arcmin diameter science field down to 30 deg elevation. Working in UNC's Goodman Laboratory for Astronomical Instrumentation, students employed SolidWorks and ZEMAX to design parts for in-house CAM on CNC machines and a 3D printer. All motors are controlled by LabVIEW as is the SOAR TCS. The deployable IFU axes are controlled by Quicksilver Controls Inc. intelligent servos and $80 model robot (Firgelli Corp.) actuators driven by a PIC-microcontroller and a student designed custom PCB. Upgrades and students were supported by $200K from SOAR Corporation, Research Corporation, NSF, and UNC competitive funds, and NC NASA Space Grant, Sigma Xi

  10. Attenuation of VHE gamma rays by the Milky Way interstellar radiation field

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalenko, I V; Strong, A W

    2006-01-01

    The attenuation of very high energy gamma rays by pair production on the Galactic interstellar radiation field has long been thought of as negligible. However, a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field consistent with multi-wavelength observations by DIRBE and FIRAS indicates that the Galactic interstellar radiation field is intense. We have made a calculation of the attenuation of very high energy gamma rays in the Galaxy using this new interstellar radiation field which takes into account its nonuniform spatial and angular distributions. We find that the maximum attenuation occurs around 100 TeV at the level of about 25% for sources located at the Galactic center, within the energy range of the HESS instrument, and is important for both Galactic and extragalactic sources.

  11. Deployment of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Good, John M.; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian L.; Kriel, Herman; Ramsey, Jason; Bryant, Randy; Elliot, Linda; Fowler, Jim; Häuser, Marco; Landiau, Martin; Leck, Ron; Odewahn, Stephen; Perry, Dave; Savage, Richard; Schroeder Mrozinski, Emily; Shetrone, Matthew; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, J. L.; Damm, George; Gebhardt, Karl; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Martin, Jerry; Armandroff, Taft; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    2016-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an innovative large telescope, located in West Texas at the McDonald Observatory. The HET operates with a fixed segmented primary and has a tracker, which moves the four-mirror corrector and prime focus instrument package to track the sidereal and non-sidereal motions of objects. We have completed a major multi-year upgrade of the HET that has substantially increased the pupil size to 10 meters and the field of view to 22 arcminutes by replacing the corrector, tracker, and prime focus instrument package. The new wide field HET will feed the revolutionary integral field spectrograph called VIRUS, in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX§), a new low resolution spectrograph (LRS2), an upgraded high resolution spectrograph (HRS2), and later the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF). The upgrade is being commissioned and this paper discusses the completion of the installation, the commissioning process and the performance of the new HET.

  12. Arid3b is essential for second heart field cell deployment and heart patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Verónica; Badía-Careaga, Claudio; Casanova, Jesús C; Domínguez, Jorge N; de la Pompa, José Luis; Sanz-Ezquerro, Juan José

    2014-11-01

    Arid3b, a member of the conserved ARID family of transcription factors, is essential for mouse embryonic development but its precise roles are poorly understood. Here, we show that Arid3b is expressed in the myocardium of the tubular heart and in second heart field progenitors. Arid3b-deficient embryos show cardiac abnormalities, including a notable shortening of the poles, absence of myocardial differentiation and altered patterning of the atrioventricular canal, which also lacks epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Proliferation and death of progenitors as well as early patterning of the heart appear normal. However, DiI labelling of second heart field progenitors revealed a defect in the addition of cells to the heart. RNA microarray analysis uncovered a set of differentially expressed genes in Arid3b-deficient tissues, including Bhlhb2, a regulator of cardiomyocyte differentiation, and Lims2, a gene involved in cell migration. Arid3b is thus required for heart development by regulating the motility and differentiation of heart progenitors. These findings identify Arid3b as a candidate gene involved in the aetiology of human congenital malformations.

  13. Correlation analysis of gamma dose rate from natural radiation in the test field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdic Senada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with correlation analysis of gamma dose rate measured in the test field with the five distinctive soil samples from a few minefields in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The measurements of ambient dose equivalent rate, due to radionuclides present in each of the soil samples, were performed by the RADIAGEMTM 2000 portable survey meter, placed on the ground and 1m above the ground. The gamma spectrometric analysis of the same soil samples was carried out by GAMMA-RAD5 spectrometer. This study showed that there is a high correlation between the absorbed dose rate evaluated from soil radioactivity and the corresponding results obtained by the survey meter placed on the ground. Correlation analysis indicated that the survey meter, due to its narrow energy range, is not suitable for the examination of cosmic radiation contribution.

  14. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  15. Gamma Oscillations and Neural Field DCMs Can Reveal Cortical Excitability and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Pinotsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how gamma oscillations can be combined with neural population models and dynamic causal modeling (DCM to distinguish among alternative hypotheses regarding cortical excitability and microstructure. This approach exploits inter-subject variability and trial-specific effects associated with modulations in the peak frequency of gamma oscillations. Neural field models are used to evaluate model evidence and obtain parameter estimates using invasive and non-invasive gamma recordings. Our overview comprises two parts: in the first part, we use neural fields to simulate neural activity and distinguish the effects of post synaptic filtering on predicted responses in terms of synaptic rate constants that correspond to different timescales and distinct neurotransmitters. We focus on model predictions of conductance and convolution based field models and show that these can yield spectral responses that are sensitive to biophysical properties of local cortical circuits like synaptic kinetics and filtering; we also consider two different mechanisms for this filtering: a nonlinear mechanism involving specific conductances and a linear convolution of afferent firing rates producing post synaptic potentials. In the second part of this paper, we use neural fields quantitatively—to fit empirical data recorded during visual stimulation. We present two studies of spectral responses obtained from the visual cortex during visual perception experiments: in the first study, MEG data were acquired during a task designed to show how activity in the gamma band is related to visual perception, while in the second study, we exploited high density electrocorticographic (ECoG data to study the effect of varying stimulus contrast on cortical excitability and gamma peak frequency.

  16. A field-deployable, chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bertram

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a new chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-TOFMS that measures atmospheric trace gases in real time with high sensitivity. We apply the technique to the measurement of formic acid via negative-ion proton transfer, using acetate as the reagent ion. A novel high pressure interface, incorporating two RF-only quadrupoles is used to efficiently focus ions through four stages of differential pumping before analysis with a compact TOFMS. The high ion-duty cycle (>20 % of the TOFMS combined with the efficient production and transmission of ions in the high pressure interface results in a highly sensitive (>300 ions s−1 pptv−1 formic acid instrument capable of measuring and saving complete mass spectra at rates faster than 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficient transfer and detection of both bare ions and ion-molecule clusters, and characterize the instrument during field measurements aboard the R/V Atlantis as part of the CalNex campaign during the spring of 2010. The in-field short-term precision is better than 5 % at 1 pptv (pL/L, for 1-s averages. The detection limit (3 σ, 1-s averages of the current version of the CI-TOFMS, as applied to the in situ detection of formic acid, is limited by the magnitude and variability in the background determination and was determined to be 4 pptv. Application of the CI-TOFMS to the detection of other inorganic and organic acids, as well as the use of different reagent ion molecules (e.g. I, CF3O, CO3 is promising, as we have demonstrated efficient transmission and detection of both bare ions and their associated ion-molecule clusters.

  17. Self-Cleaning Coatings and Materials for Decontaminating Field-Deployable Land and Water-Based Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Underwood, Lauren; Holekamp, Kara; May, George; Spiering, Bruce; Davis, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This technology exploits the organic decomposition capability and hydrophilic properties of the photocatalytic material titanium dioxide (TiO2), a nontoxic and non-hazardous substance, to address contamination and biofouling issues in field-deployed optical sensor systems. Specifically, this technology incorporates TiO2 coatings and materials applied to, or integrated as a part of, the optical surfaces of sensors and calibration sources, including lenses, windows, and mirrors that are used in remote, unattended, ground-based (land or maritime) optical sensor systems. Current methods used to address contamination or biofouling of these optical surfaces in deployed systems are costly, toxic, labor intensive, and non-preventative. By implementing this novel technology, many of these negative aspects can be reduced. The functionality of this innovative self-cleaning solution to address the problem of contamination or biofouling depends on the availability of a sufficient light source with the appropriate spectral properties, which can be attained naturally via sunlight or supplemented using artificial illumination such as UV LEDs (light emitting diodes). In land-based or above-water systems, the TiO2 optical surface is exposed to sunlight, which catalyzes the photocatalytic reaction, facilitating both the decomposition of inorganic and organic compounds, and the activation of superhydrophilic properties. Since underwater optical surfaces are submerged and have limited sunlight exposure, supplementary UV light sources would be required to activate the TiO2 on these optical surfaces. Nighttime operation of land-based or above-water systems would require this addition as well. For most superhydrophilic self-cleaning purposes, a rainwater wash will suffice; however, for some applications an attached rainwater collector/ dispenser or other fresh water dispensing system may be required to wash the optical surface and initiate the removal of contaminates. Deployment of this

  18. Sex pheromone of browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.): synthesis and field deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrimian, Ashot; Lance, David R; Schwarz, Meier; Leonhardt, Barbara A; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-04-09

    The browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.), is native to Eurasia, where periodic outbreaks result in defoliation of forest, shade, and ornamental trees. In addition to the damage caused by defoliation, human contact with larval urticating hairs often results in severe dermatitis. Hence, tools for monitoring and controlling the moth populations are desirable. The female-produced sex pheromone of the browntail moth was identified previously, but the synthesis had not been published. This paper reports the synthesis of the pheromone of the browntail moth, (7Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosatetraenyl isobutyrate, using in a key step a Wittig olefination of (6Z)-13-(tetrahydo-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)tridecenal. Field trapping studies were conducted with rubber septa and string formulations of the pheromone and included dose-response, pheromone purity, and dispenser-aging trials. It was found that traps baited with 250 microg of pheromone of 91-94% isomeric purity (main impurity presumably being the 13E isomer) on rubber septa are suitable for monitoring moth populations during the entire flight season.

  19. Autonomous field-deployable device for the measurement of phosphate in natural water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Conor; Cleary, John; McGraw, Christina M.; Yerazunis, William S.; Lau, King Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2007-09-01

    This work describes the ongoing development of an autonomous platform for the measurement of phosphate levels in river water. This device is designed to operate unassisted for one year, taking a measurement every hour and relaying the result to a laptop computer. A first generation prototype has already been developed and successfully field tested. The system contains the sampling, chemical storage, fluid handling, colorimetric data acquisition and waste storage capabilities necessary to perform the phosphate measurement. In addition to this, the device has the embedded control, GSM communications system and power supply to allow independent operation. The entire system is placed inside a compact and rugged enclosure. Further work discussed here builds on the successes of the prototype design to deliver a system capable of one full year of operation. The second generation system has been built from the ground up. Although identical in operation to the prototype its design has a greater emphasis on power efficient components and power management to allow for a longer lifetime. Other improvements include an automated two-point calibration to compensate for drift and a more rugged design to further increase the lifetime of the device.

  20. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  1. Neutron detection in a high-gamma field using solution-grown stilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, M.M., E-mail: mmbourne@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Clarke, S.D., E-mail: clarkesd@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adamowicz, N., E-mail: nicka@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zaitseva, N., E-mail: zaitseva1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Carman, L., E-mail: carman1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    A solution-based technique for growing large-volume stilbene scintillators was developed in 2013; crystals up to diameters of 10 cm, or larger, have been grown while preserving excellent pulse shape discrimination (PSD) properties. The goal of this study is to evaluate the PSD capabilities of 5.08 by 5.08-cm stilbene crystals grown by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Inrad Optics when exposed to a 1000 to 1 gamma ray-neutron ratio and operating at a 100-kHz count rate. Results were compared to an equivalent EJ-309 liquid scintillation detector. {sup 252}Cf neutron pulses were recorded in two experiments where {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs sources created the high-gamma field. The high count rate created numerous double pulses that were cleaned using fractional and template approaches designed to remove double pulses while preserving neutron counts. PSD was performed at a threshold of 42 keVee (440-keV proton) for stilbene and 60 keVee (610-keV proton) for EJ-309 liquid. The lower threshold in stilbene resulted in a neutron intrinsic efficiency of approximately 14.5%, 10% higher than EJ-309 liquid, for bare {sup 252}Cf and 13% for {sup 252}Cf in the high-gamma field. Despite the lower threshold, the gamma misclassification rate in stilbene was approximately 3×10{sup −6}, nearly a factor-of-five lower than what we found with the EJ-309 liquid.

  2. Scoping study to expedite development of a field deployable and portable instrument for UF6 enrichment assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, George; Valentine, John D.; Russo, Richard E.

    2017-09-14

    The primary objective of the present study is to identity the most promising, viable technologies that are likely to culminate in an expedited development of the next-generation, field-deployable instrument for providing rapid, accurate, and precise enrichment assay of uranium hexafluoride (UF6). UF6 is typically involved, and is arguably the most important uranium compound, in uranium enrichment processes. As the first line of defense against proliferation, accurate analytical techniques to determine the uranium isotopic distribution in UF6 are critical for materials verification, accounting, and safeguards at enrichment plants. As nuclear fuel cycle technology becomes more prevalent around the world, international nuclear safeguards and interest in UF6 enrichment assay has been growing. At present, laboratory-based mass spectrometry (MS), which offers the highest attainable analytical accuracy and precision, is the technique of choice for the analysis of stable and long-lived isotopes. Currently, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) monitors the production of enriched UF6 at declared facilities by collecting a small amount (between 1 to 10 g) of gaseous UF6 into a sample bottle, which is then shipped under chain of custody to a central laboratory (IAEA’s Nuclear Materials Analysis Laboratory) for high-precision isotopic assay by MS. The logistics are cumbersome and new shipping regulations are making it more difficult to transport UF6. Furthermore, the analysis is costly, and results are not available for some time after sample collection. Hence, the IAEA is challenged to develop effective safeguards approaches at enrichment plants. In-field isotopic analysis of UF6 has the potential to substantially reduce the time, logistics and expense of sample handling. However, current laboratory-based MS techniques require too much infrastructure and operator expertise for field deployment and operation. As outlined in the IAEA Department of Safeguards Long

  3. Near-field high-energy spectroscopic gamma imaging using a rotation modulation collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amy C.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Floyd, Carey E.

    2008-11-01

    Certain trace elements are vital to the body and elemental imbalances can be indicators of certain diseases including cancer and liver diseases. Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT) is being developed as a spectroscopic imaging technique to non-invasively and non-destructively measure and image elemental concentrations within the body. A region of interest is illuminated via a high-energy beam of neutrons that scatter inelastically with elemental nuclei within the body. The excited nuclei then relax by emitting characteristic gamma rays. Acquiring the gamma spectrum in a tomographic manner allows not only the identification of elements, but also the formation of images representing spatial distributions of specific elements. We are developing a high-energy position-sensitive gamma camera that allows full illumination of the entire region of interest. Because current scintillation crystal based position-sensitive gamma cameras operate in too low of an energy range, we are adapting high-energy gamma imaging techniques used in space-based imaging. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector provides high-resolution energy spectra while a rotating modulation collimator (RMC) placed in front of the detector modulates the incoming signal to provide spatial information. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the near-field RMC geometry, which varies greatly from the infinite-focus space-based applications and how it modulates the incident gamma flux. A simple geometric model is presented and then used to reconstruct two-dimensional planar images of both simulated point sources and extended sources.

  4. Continuous Measurements of Dissolved Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe Ratios with a Field-Deployable Gas Equilibration Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Cara C; Stanley, Rachel H R; Lott, Dempsey E

    2016-03-15

    Noble gases dissolved in natural waters are useful tracers for quantifying physical processes. Here, we describe a field-deployable gas equilibration mass spectrometer (GEMS) that provides continuous, real-time measurements of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe mole ratios in natural waters. Gas is equilibrated with a membrane contactor cartridge and measured with a quadrupole mass spectrometer, after in-line purification with reactive metal alloy getters. We use an electron energy of 35 V for Ne to eliminate isobaric interferences, and a higher electron energy for the other gases to improve sensitivity. The precision is 0.7% or better and 1.0% or better for all mole ratios when the instrument is installed in a temperature-controlled environment and a variable-temperature environment, respectively. In the lab, the accuracy is 0.9% or better for all gas ratios using air as the only calibration standard. In the field (and/or at greater levels of disequilbrium), the accuracy is 0.7% or better for Ne/Kr, Ne/Ar, and Ar/Kr, and 2.5% or better for Ne/Xe, Ar/Xe, and Kr/Xe using air as the only calibration standard. The field accuracy improves to 0.6% or better for Ne/Xe, Ar/Xe, and Kr/Xe when the data is calibrated using discrete water samples run on a laboratory-based mass spectrometer. The e-folding response time is 90-410 s. This instrument enables the collection of a large number of continuous, high-precision and accuracy noble gas measurements at substantially reduced cost and labor compared to traditional methods.

  5. Digital Spectrometric System for Characterization of Mixed Neutron - Gamma Field in the Experimental Reactor LR-0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, Filip; Matej, Zdenek; Cvachovec, Frantisek; Kostal, Michal; Veskrna, Martin; Prenosil, Vaclav

    2016-02-01

    LR-0 reactor is an experimental reactor in NRI Rez, Czech Republic. So far an analog apparatus was used for measurements of the space-energy distribution of the neutron gamma mixed field inside the reactor vessel. Recently we measured in LR-0 with fully digital apparatus using Agilent digitizer and compared our results with older established results from analog apparatus and also with MCNP calculations.

  6. Facility monitoring of chemical warfare agent simulants in air using an automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonell N; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-05-30

    Vapors of four chemical warfare agent (CWA) stimulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), diethyl malonate (DEM), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and methyl salicylate (MeS), were detected, identified, and quantitated using a fully automated, field-deployable, miniature mass spectrometer. Samples were ionized using a glow discharge electron ionization (GDEI) source, and ions were mass analyzed with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer. A dual-tube thermal desorption system was used to trap compounds on 50:50 Tenax TA/Carboxen 569 sorbent before their thermal release. The sample concentrations ranged from low parts per billion [ppb] to two parts per million [ppm]. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.26 to 5.0 ppb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented for each analyte. A sample of CEES at low ppb concentration was combined separately with two interferents, bleach (saturated vapor) and diesel fuel exhaust (1%), as a way to explore the capability of detecting the simulant in an environmental matrix. Also investigated was a mixture of the four CWA simulants (at concentrations in air ranging from 270 to 380 ppb). Tandem mass (MS/MS) spectral data were used to identify and quantify the individual components. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Path to Impact for Autonomous Field Deployable Chemical Sensors: A Case Study of in Situ Nitrite Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Tim M; Smith, Matthew C

    2017-04-11

    Natural freshwater systems have been severely affected by excess loading of macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) from fertilizers, fossil fuels, and human and livestock waste. In the USA, impacts to drinking water quality, biogeochemical cycles, and aquatic ecosystems are estimated to cost US$210 billion annually. Field-deployable nutrient sensors (FDS) offer potential to support research and resource management efforts by acquiring higher resolution data than are currently supported by expensive conventional sampling methods. Following nearly 40 years of research and development, FDS instruments are now starting to penetrate commercial markets. However, instrument uncertainty factors (high cost, reliability, accuracy, and precision) are key drivers impeding the uptake of FDS by the majority of users. Using nitrite sensors as a case study, we review the trends, opportunities, and challenges in producing and implementing FDS from a perspective of innovation and impact. We characterize the user community and consumer needs, identify trends in research approaches, tabulate state-of-the-art examples and specifications, and discuss data life cycle considerations. With further development of FDS through prototyping and testing in real-world applications, these tools can deliver information for protecting and restoring natural waters, enhancing process control for industrial operations and water treatment, and providing novel research insights.

  8. Modeling of Gamma-Ray Pulsar Light Curves with Force-Free Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) Gamma-ray emission from pulsars has long been modeled using a vacuum dipole field. This approximation ignores changes in the field structure caused by the magnetospheric plasma and strong plasma currents. We present the first results of gamma-ray pulsar light curve modeling using the more realistic field taken from 3D force-free magnetospheric simulations. Having the geometry of the field, we apply several prescriptions for the location of the emission zone, comparing the light curves to observations. We find that the conventional two-pole caustic model fails to produce double-peak pulse profiles, mainly because the size of the polar cap in force-free magnetosphere is larger than the vacuum field polar cap. The conventional outer-gap model is capable of producing only one peak under general conditions, because a large fraction of open field lines does not cross the null charge surface. We propose a novel "annular gap" model, where the high-energy emission originates from a thin layer on the open fi...

  9. One dimensional spatial resolution optimization on a hybrid low field MRI-gamma detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulles-Pedrós, L.; Abril, A.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid systems like Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and MRI/gamma camera, offer advantages combining the resolution and contrast capability of MRI with the better contrast and functional information of nuclear medicine techniques. However, the radiation detectors are expensive and need an electronic set-up, which can interfere with the MRI acquisition process or viceversa. In order to improve these drawbacks, in this work it is presented the design of a low field NMR system made up of permanent magnets compatible with a gamma radiation detector based on gel dosimetry. The design is performed using the software FEMM for estimation of the magnetic field, and GEANT4 for the physical process involved in radiation detection and effect of magnetic field. The homogeneity in magnetic field is achieved with an array of NbFeB magnets in a linear configuration with a separation between the magnets, minimizing the effect of Compton back scattering compared with a no-spacing linear configuration. The final magnetic field in the homogeneous zone is ca. 100 mT. In this hybrid proposal, although the gel detector do not have spatial resolution per se, it is possible to obtain a dose profile (1D image) as a function of the position by using a collimator array. As a result, the gamma detector system described allows a complete integrated radiation detector within the low field NMR (lfNMR) system. Finally we present the better configuration for the hybrid system considering the collimator parameters such as height, thickness and distance.

  10. One dimensional spatial resolution optimization on a hybrid low field MRI-gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulles-Pedrós, L., E-mail: lagullesp@unal.edu.co; Abril, A., E-mail: ajabrilf@unal.edu.co [Medical Physics Group, Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    Hybrid systems like Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and MRI/gamma camera, offer advantages combining the resolution and contrast capability of MRI with the better contrast and functional information of nuclear medicine techniques. However, the radiation detectors are expensive and need an electronic set-up, which can interfere with the MRI acquisition process or viceversa. In order to improve these drawbacks, in this work it is presented the design of a low field NMR system made up of permanent magnets compatible with a gamma radiation detector based on gel dosimetry. The design is performed using the software FEMM for estimation of the magnetic field, and GEANT4 for the physical process involved in radiation detection and effect of magnetic field. The homogeneity in magnetic field is achieved with an array of NbFeB magnets in a linear configuration with a separation between the magnets, minimizing the effect of Compton back scattering compared with a no-spacing linear configuration. The final magnetic field in the homogeneous zone is ca. 100 mT. In this hybrid proposal, although the gel detector do not have spatial resolution per se, it is possible to obtain a dose profile (1D image) as a function of the position by using a collimator array. As a result, the gamma detector system described allows a complete integrated radiation detector within the low field NMR (lfNMR) system. Finally we present the better configuration for the hybrid system considering the collimator parameters such as height, thickness and distance.

  11. Gamma radiation and magnetic field mediated delay in effect of accelerated ageing of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Bhupinder; Ahuja, Sumedha; Dahuja, Anil; Anand, Anjali

    2015-08-01

    Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 kGy), static magnetic field (50, 100 and 200 mT) and a combination of gamma radiation and magnetic energy (0.5 kGy + 200 mT and 5 kGy + 50 mT) and stored at room temperature for six months. These seeds were later subjected to accelerated ageing treatment at 42 °C temperature and 95-100 % relative humidity and were compared for various physical and biochemical characteristics between the untreated and the energized treatments. Energy treatment protected the quality of stored seeds in terms of its protein and oil content . Accelerated aging conditions, however, affected the oil and protein quantity and quality of seed negatively. Antioxidant enzymes exhibited a decline in their activity during aging while the LOX activity, which reflects the rate of lipid peroxidation, in general, increased during the aging. Gamma irradiated (3 and 5 kGy) and magnetic field treated seeds (100 and 200 mT) maintained a higher catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity which may help in efficient scavenging of deleterious free radical produced during the aging. Aging caused peroxidative changes to lipids, which could be contributed to the loss of oil quality. Among the electromagnetic energy treatments, a dose of 1-5 kGy of gamma and 100 mT, 200 mT magnetic field effectively slowed the rate of biochemical degradation and loss of cellular integrity in seeds stored under conditions of accelerated aging and thus, protected the deterioration of seed quality. Energy combination treatments did not yield any additional protection advantage.

  12. Gamma ray and fair weather electric field measurements during thunderstorms: indications for TGEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Yuval; Yair, Yoav; Steinitz, Gideon; Price, Colin; Pustil'nik, Lev; Yaniv, Roy; Hamiel, Yariv; Katz, Evgeni

    2016-04-01

    We report coincidences of ground-level gamma-ray enhancements with strong electric fields typical of lightning discharges, measured at a mountainous site in northern Israel. High-energy emissions detected on the Earth's surface during thunderstorms supposedly initiate Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) of fluxes of electrons, neutrons and gamma rays that can last tens of minutes. Such enhancements are thought to be related to Extensive Cloud Showers (ECSs) initiated between the main negative charge center and the lower positive charge pocket in mature thunderstorms (Chilingarian et al., 2015). The Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center located at Mt. Hermon hosts a gamma ray detector alongside a continuous multi-parametric array consisting of a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) geodetic receiver (for measuring Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC)), vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) and current (Jz) and a neutron super monitor (for cosmic ray measurements). The diurnal variations in fair-weather conditions exhibit a clear 24-hour periodicity, related to the diurnal variation of atmospheric parameters. During several severe thunderstorms that occurred over Israel and near the Mt. Hermon station in October and November 2015, we recorded several instantaneous enhancements in the counts of Gamma rays, which lasted ten of minutes, and that coincided with peaks in the vertical electric field and current. Lightning data obtained from the Israeli Lightning Detection Network (ILDN) show that these peaks match the occurrences of close-by CG lightning discharges. This talk will present correlations between the properties of parent flashes and the observed peaks, and discuss possible mechanisms.

  13. Distinct gamma oscillations in the distal dendritic fields of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 area of mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasztóczi, Bálint; Klausberger, Thomas

    2017-04-08

    The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the anatomically adjacent stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 area, represent afferent areas at distinct levels of the hippocampal trisynaptic loop. Afferents to the dentate gyrus and CA1 area originate from different cell populations, including projection cells in entorhinal cortex layers two and three, respectively. To determine the organization of oscillatory activities along these terminal fields, we recorded local field potentials from multiple sites in the dentate gyrus and CA1 area of the awake mice, and localized gamma frequency (30-150 Hz) oscillations in different layers by means of current source density analysis. During theta oscillations, we observed different temporal and spectral organization of gamma oscillations in the dendritic layers of the dentate gyrus and CA1 area, with a sharp transition across the hippocampal fissure. In CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare, transient mid-frequency gamma oscillations (CA1-gammaM; 80 Hz) occurred on theta cycle peaks, while in the dentate gyrus, fast (DG-gammaF; 110 Hz), and slow (DG-gammaS; 40 Hz) gamma oscillations preferentially occurred on troughs of theta waves. Units in dentate gyrus, in contrast to units in CA1 pyramidal layer, phase-coupled to DG-gammaF, which was largely independent from CA1 fast gamma oscillations (CA1-gammaF) of similar frequency and timing. Spike timing of units recorded in either CA1 area or dentate gyrus were modulated by CA1-gammaM. Our experiments disclosed a set of gamma oscillations that differentially regulate neuronal activity in the dentate gyrus and CA1 area, and may allow flexible segregation and integration of information across different levels of hippocampal circuitry.

  14. Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Tanvi; Li, Ding; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Hutson, Mary R; Kelly, Robert G; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-03-15

    Outflow tract (OFT) malformation accounts for ∼30% of human congenital heart defects and manifests frequently in TBX1 haplo-insufficiency associated DiGeorge (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome. OFT myocardium originates from second heart field (SHF) progenitors in the pharyngeal and splanchnic mesoderm (SpM), but how these progenitors are deployed to the OFT is unclear. We find that SHF progenitors in the SpM gradually gain epithelial character and are deployed to the OFT as a cohesive sheet. Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, is expressed specifically in the caudal SpM and may regulate oriented cell intercalation to incorporate SHF progenitors into an epithelial-like sheet, thereby generating the pushing force to deploy SHF cells rostrally into the OFT. Using enhancer trap and Cre transgenes, our lineage tracing experiments show that in Wnt5a null mice, SHF progenitors are trapped in the SpM and fail to be deployed to the OFT efficiently, resulting in a reduction in the inferior OFT myocardial wall and its derivative, subpulmonary myocardium. Concomitantly, the superior OFT and subaortic myocardium are expanded. Finally, in chick embryos, blocking the Wnt5a function in the caudal SpM perturbs polarized elongation of SHF progenitors, and compromises their deployment to the OFT. Collectively, our results highlight a critical role for Wnt5a in deploying SHF progenitors from the SpM to the OFT. Given that Wnt5a is a putative transcriptional target of Tbx1, and the similar reduction of subpulmonary myocardium in Tbx1 mutant mice, our results suggest that perturbing Wnt5a-mediated SHF deployment may be an important pathogenic mechanism contributing to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome.

  15. Location of Gamma-ray emission and magnetic field strengths in OJ 287

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, J A; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Rani, B; Marti-Vidal, I; Bach, U; Sanchez, S; Bremer, M; Lindqvist, M; Uunila, M; Kallunki, J; Vicente, P; Fuhrmann, L; Angelakis, E; Karamanavis, V; Myserlis, I; Nestoras, I; Chidiac, C; Sievers, A; Gurwell, M; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-ray BL Lac object OJ 287 is known to exhibit inner-parsec "jet-wobbling", high degrees of variability at all wavelengths and quasi-stationary features including an apparent (~100 deg) position angle change in projection on the sky plane. Sub-50 micro-arcsecond resolution 86 GHz observations with the global mm-VLBI array (GMVA) supplement ongoing multi-frequency VLBI blazar monitoring at lower frequencies. Using these maps together with cm/mm total intensity and Gamma-ray observations from Fermi/LAT from 2008-2014, we aimed to determine the location of Gamma-ray emission and to explain the inner-mas structural changes. Observations with the GMVA offer approximately double the angular resolution compared with 43 GHz VLBA observations and allow us to observe above the synchrotron self-absorption peak frequency. The jet was spectrally decomposed at multiple locations along the jet. From this we derived estimates of the magnetic field. How the field decreases down the jet allowed an estimate of the dista...

  16. Practical applicability of field gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry in geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi; Pasquale; Verdoya; De Felice P

    2000-07-01

    We discuss the problems and calibration procedures for a portable gamma-ray scintillation spectrometer for determinations of potassium, uranium and thorium concentration in rocks. Particular emphasis was given to the evaluation of the background radiation. The apparatus was tested in the field at two selected areas in NW Italy. We found appropriate sites which could be used as reference targets to frequently check the gamma-ray equipment. An area formed by serpentinitic rocks showed such a low measured radioactivity that it could be used as a reference for the local background effect. An anomalously high uranium amount against negligible potassium and thorium concentrations were found in outcrops of dolomitic rocks, which can be used to detect possible changes in the instrument calibration constants.

  17. LiCaAlF6 scintillators in neutron and gamma radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Klupák, V.; Vinš, M.; Koleška, M.; Šoltés, J.; Yoshikawa, A.; Nikl, M.

    2016-09-01

    Intentionally doped LiCaAlF6 (LiCAF) single crystals are prospective scintillators, especially for thermal neutron detection through the 6Li(n,t)4He nuclear reaction. Four different LiCAF scintillator samples were tested in various neutron and gamma fields. Two of the tested samples were LiCAF:Eu and LiCAF:Eu,Na single crystals, and another two samples were made of LiCAF:Eu micro crystals dispersed in transparent rubber, with different rubber dimensions. All LiCAF samples contain lithium enriched to6Li. A plutonium-beryllium source was used as a neutron source. The neutron spectrum was modified by moderator and filter to get different ratios between thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The MCNP code was used for calculations of the fluence rates for different configurations. Radionuclides 137Cs and 60Co were applied as gamma radiation sources. The light signal from the scintillator was evaluated with a photomultiplier and a multichannel analyzer. The purpose of this work was to study the characteristics of LiCAF scintillators, especially the ability to discriminate signals from neutron and gamma radiation, which is the basic scintillator condition for neutron detection in mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields. Generally, the discrimination can be done by the pulse height and/or the pulse shape of the evaluated signals. Both methods can be used for a LiCAF scintillator. However, only the pulse height discrimination method is discussed in this paper. The possibility of fast neutron detection with LiCAF scintillators was also tested.

  18. Measurements of neutron distribution in neutrons-gamma-rays mixed field using imaging plate for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    The imaging plate (IP) technique is tried to be used as a handy method to measure the spatial neutron distribution via the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction for neutron capture therapy (NCT). For this purpose, IP is set in a water phantom and irradiated in a mixed field of neutrons and gamma-rays. The Hiroshima University Radiobiological Research Accelerator is utilized for this experiment. The neutrons are moderated with 20-cm-thick D(2)O to obtain suitable neutron field for NCT. The signal for IP doped with Gd as a neutron-response enhancer is subtracted with its contribution by gamma-rays, which was estimated using IP without Gd. The gamma-ray response of Gd-doped IP to non-Gd IP is set at 1.34, the value measured for (60)Co gamma-rays, in estimating the gamma-ray contribution to Gd-doped IP signal. Then measured distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate agrees within 10% with the calculated value based on the method that has already been validated for its reproducibility of Au activation. However, the evaluated distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate is so sensitive to gamma-ray energy, e.g. the discrepancy of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate between measurement and calculation becomes 30% for the photon energy change from 33keV to 1.253MeV.

  19. Measurements of neutron distribution in neutrons-{gamma}-rays mixed field using imaging plate for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kenichi [Center of Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, 17, Minami 1 Jo, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)], E-mail: tanakaken@sapmed.ac.jp; Endo, Satoru [Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The imaging plate (IP) technique is tried to be used as a handy method to measure the spatial neutron distribution via the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}){sup 158}Gd reaction for neutron capture therapy (NCT). For this purpose, IP is set in a water phantom and irradiated in a mixed field of neutrons and {gamma}-rays. The Hiroshima University Radiobiological Research Accelerator is utilized for this experiment. The neutrons are moderated with 20-cm-thick D{sub 2}O to obtain suitable neutron field for NCT. The signal for IP doped with Gd as a neutron-response enhancer is subtracted with its contribution by {gamma}-rays, which was estimated using IP without Gd. The {gamma}-ray response of Gd-doped IP to non-Gd IP is set at 1.34, the value measured for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, in estimating the {gamma}-ray contribution to Gd-doped IP signal. Then measured distribution of the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}){sup 158}Gd reaction rate agrees within 10% with the calculated value based on the method that has already been validated for its reproducibility of Au activation. However, the evaluated distribution of the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}){sup 158}Gd reaction rate is so sensitive to {gamma}-ray energy, e.g. the discrepancy of the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}){sup 158}Gd reaction rate between measurement and calculation becomes 30% for the photon energy change from 33 keV to 1.253 MeV.

  20. Development of a phantom and assessment of (141)Ce as a surrogate radionuclide for flood field uniformity testing of gamma cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Malpani, Basant; Rakshit, Sutapa; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an indigenous method for development and deployment of rechargeable liquid filled phantom with newly proposed radionuclide (141)Ce for determination of extrinsic uniformity of gamma cameras. Details about design of phantom, neutron irradiation of cerium targets, chemical processing of (141)Ce, charging of phantom with (141)Ce solution and their performance evaluation are presented. Suitability of (141)Ce in quality assurance of gamma cameras used in in-vivo diagnostic imaging procedures has been amply demonstrated.

  1. Acquisition of Oceanographic Measurements from Baleen Whales: Field Deployments of Tags Developed Under Grant ONR (N00014-13-1-0854)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Whales : Field Deployments of Tags Developed Under Grant ONR (N00014-13-1-0854) Jonas Teilmann Department of Bioscience University of Aarhus...LONG-TERM GOALS To use large baleen whales as oceanographic sampling platforms and understand how they use oceanographic features to navigate...and find prey. OBJECTIVES • To develop CTD satellite transmitters for baleen whales that can collect and transmit data on location, depth

  2. Total Quality Management (TQM) in Self-Financed Technical Institutions: A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Force Field Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Deshmukh, S. G.; Shastree, Anil

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the potential for adoption of TQM in self-financed technical institutions in the light of new demands and challenges posed by customers/students and society. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents use of quality function deployment (QFD) which prioritizes technical requirements and correlates them with various…

  3. Total Quality Management (TQM) in Self-Financed Technical Institutions: A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Force Field Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Deshmukh, S. G.; Shastree, Anil

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the potential for adoption of TQM in self-financed technical institutions in the light of new demands and challenges posed by customers/students and society. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents use of quality function deployment (QFD) which prioritizes technical requirements and correlates them with various…

  4. Use of depuration compounds in passive air samplers: results from active sampling-supported field deployment, potential uses, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Claudia; Harner, Tom; Nizzetto, Luca; Strandberg, Bo; Lindroth, Anders; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-05-01

    Depuration compounds (DCs) are added to passive air samplers (PAS) prior to deployment to account for the wind-dependency of the sampling rate for gas-phase compounds. This correction is particularly useful for providing comparable data for samplers that are deployed in different environments and subject to different meteorological conditions such as wind speeds. Two types of PAS--the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk sampler and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--were deployed at eight heights on a 100 m tower to test whether the DC approach could yield air concentrations profiles for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides and account for the wind speed gradient with height. Average wind speeds ranged from 0.3 to 4.5 m s(-1) over the 40 day deployment, increasing with height Two low volume active air samples (AAS), one collected at 25 m and one at 73 m over the 40 day deployment showed no significant concentration differences for target compounds. As expected, the target compounds taken up by PAS reflected the wind profile with height This wind-dependency of the PAS was also reflected in the results of the DCs. A correction based on the DC approach successfully accounted for the effect of wind on PAS sampling rates, yielding a profile consistent with the AAS. Interestingly, in terms of absolute air concentrations, there were differences between the AAS and PAS-derived values for some target compounds. These were attributed to different sampling characteristics of the two approaches that may have resulted in slightly different air masses being sampled. Based on the results of this study, guidelines are presented for the use of DCs and for the calibration of PAS using AAS.

  5. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, M. A.; Wong, P. Y.; Ajmani, K.

    1994-10-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPDs to electrons and γ-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for on-line monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of γ-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and γ-ray field.

  6. General relativistic massive vector field effects in Gamma Ray Burst production

    CERN Document Server

    Tamburini, Fabrizio; Amati, Lorenzo; Thidé, Bo

    2016-01-01

    To explain the extremely high energy release, $>10^{53}$~erg, suggested by the observations of some Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) we propose a new energy extraction mechanism from the rotation energy of a Kerr-Newman black hole (BH) by a massive photon field. Numerical results show that this mechanism is stable with respect to the black hole rotation parameter, $a$, with a clear dependence on the BH mass, $M$, and charge, $Q$, and can extract energies up to $10^{54}$ erg. The controversial "energy crisis" problem of GRBs that does not show evidence for collimated emission may benefit of this energy extraction mechanism. With these results we set a lower bound on the coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational fields.

  7. MSV signal processing system for neutron-gamma discrimination in a mixed field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srboljub J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principles derived from Campbell’s theorem, this paper carries out an analysis of the possibilities of Campbell’s mean square value signal processing system. The mean square value mode is especially suitable for measurements performed in a mixed radiation field, because the quantities of electrical charge involved in the interactions of the two types of radiation are substantially different. The measuring detector element may be an adequate ionization chamber and/or semiconductor components for mixed n-γ fields. An examination of the discrimination of gamma in relation to the neutron component in the signal of the detector output was carried out, calculated according to the theoretical model of radiation interaction with the detector. The advantage of the mean square value method was confirmed and it was concluded that the order of n-γ discrimination in mean square value signal processing is greater than the one rendered by the classical measuring method.

  8. Hyperaccreting Disks around Magnetars for Gamma-Ray Bursts: Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dong

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The hyperaccreting neutron star or magnetar disks cooled via neutrino emission can be a candidate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) central engines. The strong field $\\geq10^{15}-10^{16}$ G of the magnetar can play a significant role in affecting the disk properties and even lead to the funnel accretion process. We investigate the effects of strong fields on the disks around magnetars, and discuss implications of such accreting magnetar systems for GRB and GRB-like events. We discuss quantum effects of the strong fields on the disk, and use the MHD conservation equations to describe the behavior of the disk flow coupled with a large scale field, which is generated by the star-disk interaction. In general, stronger fields give higher disk densities, pressures, temperatures and neutrino luminosity, and change the electron fraction and degeneracy state significantly. A magnetized disk is always viscously stable outside the Alfv\\'{e}n radius, but will be thermally unstable near the Alfv\\'{e}n radius where the m...

  9. Evaluation of the 8310-N-S manufactured by Sutron–Results of bench, temperature, and field deployment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Gerald A.

    2016-01-07

    The Sutron 8310-N-S (8310) data collection platform (DCP) manufactured by Sutron Corporation was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s specifications for recording and transmitting data. The 8310-N-S is a National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)-enclosed DCP with a built-in Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite transmitter that operates over a temperature range of −40 to 60 degrees Celsius (°C). The evaluation procedures followed and the results obtained are described in this report for bench, temperature chamber, and outdoor deployment testing. The three units tested met the manufacturer’s stated specifications for the tested conditions, but two of the units had transmission errors either during temperature chamber or deployment testing. During outdoor deployment testing, 6.72 percent of transmissions by serial number 1206109 contained errors, resulting in missing data. Transmission errors were also observed during temperature chamber testing with serial number 1208283, at an error rate of 3.22 percent. Overall, the 8310 has good logging capabilities, but the transmission errors are a concern for users who require reliable telemetered data.

  10. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    potential future space-based mission through large-scale, ground-based testing. Full-scale deployment testing of two petal segments combined with...capture data for incorporation into larger analysis models. Stability testing of two full-scale composite strongback segments , including in a relevant...errors. The NuSTAR project opted for a metrology and adjustment system, which had many advantages for the project and few disadvantages . Because a

  11. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  12. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  13. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  14. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Sayenko, S. Yu.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Shkuropatenko, V. A.; Tarasov, R. V.; Rybka, A. V.; Zakharchenko, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete's tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  15. Evidence for a Sudden Magnetic Field Reconfiguration in Soft Gamma Repeater 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Smith, Don A.; Hurley, Kevin; Thompson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of large flux changes in the persistent X-ray flux of soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1900 + 14 during its burst active episode in 1998. Most notably, we find a factor of approx. 700 increase in the nonburst X-ray flux following the August 27 flare, which decayed in time as a power law. Our measurements indicate that the pulse fraction remains constant throughout this decay. This suggests a global flux enhancement as a consequence of the August 27 flare rather than localized heating. While the persistent flux has since recovered to the preoutburst level, the pulse profile has not. The pulse shape changed to a near sinusoidal profile within the tail of the August 27 flare (in gamma-rays), and this effect has persisted for more than 1.5 years (in X-rays). The results presented here suggest that the magnetic field of the neutron star in SGR 1900 + 14 was significantly altered (perhaps globally) during the giant flare of August 27.

  16. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S., E-mail: asw@anl.gov [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sayenko, S.Yu.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Tarasov, R.V.; Rybka, A.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • It incorporates all suggestions by the reviewers. • Explanation to each new term is provided and suitable references are given. • Sample identities have been streamlined by revising the text and the tables. • Some figures have been redrawn. - Abstract: Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid–base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete’s tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  17. Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects on the Gamma-Ray Burst Neutrino Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2010-01-01

    We reanalyze the prompt muon neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in terms of the particle physics involved. We first reproduce the often used reference Waxman-Bahcall GRB flux assuming photo-meson production by the Delta(1232) resonance, including synchrotron energy losses of the secondary pions explicitly. Then we switch on additional neutrino production modes, we include the neutrinos from muon decays, we include the magnetic field effects on all secondary species, and we apply flavor mixing including the current parameter uncertainties. We demonstrate that the combination of these effects modifies the shape of the original Waxman-Bahcall GRB flux significantly, and changes the normalization by up to one order of magnitude. As a consequence, the gamma-ray burst search strategy of neutrino telescopes may be based on the wrong flux shape, and the constraints derived for the GRB neutrino flux, such as the baryonic loading, may in fact be already much stronger than anticipated. Moreover, a neutrino flux ...

  18. The Radiation Field in the New Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea

    2017-09-11

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting now a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a particle background in the gas-based muon detectors that is ten times higher than under present conditions at the LHC. The detailed knowledge of the detector performance in the presence of such a high background is crucial for an optimised design and efficient operation after the HL-LHC upgrade. A precise understanding of possible ageing effects of detector materials and gases is of extreme importance. To cope with these challenging requirements, a new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) was designed and built at the CERN SPS North Area as successor of the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) period. The new GIF++ facility has been operational since spring 2015. In addition to describing the facility and its infrastructure, the goal of this work is to provide an extensive characterization of the GIF++ photon field with different confi...

  19. Evidence for a Sudden Magnetic Field Reconfiguration in Soft Gamma Repeater 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Smith, Don A.; Hurley, Kevin; Thompson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of large flux changes in the persistent X-ray flux of soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1900 + 14 during its burst active episode in 1998. Most notably, we find a factor of approx. 700 increase in the nonburst X-ray flux following the August 27 flare, which decayed in time as a power law. Our measurements indicate that the pulse fraction remains constant throughout this decay. This suggests a global flux enhancement as a consequence of the August 27 flare rather than localized heating. While the persistent flux has since recovered to the preoutburst level, the pulse profile has not. The pulse shape changed to a near sinusoidal profile within the tail of the August 27 flare (in gamma-rays), and this effect has persisted for more than 1.5 years (in X-rays). The results presented here suggest that the magnetic field of the neutron star in SGR 1900 + 14 was significantly altered (perhaps globally) during the giant flare of August 27.

  20. Field tests of a portable tissue equivalent survey meter for monitoring mixed beta/gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, D.E.; Rich, B.L.; Johnson, L.O.; Daniel, S.H. III

    1986-05-01

    A portable radiation survey meter that provides a tissue equivalent response to photons and beta particles has been designed and field tested. The detector is a very thin plastic scintillator that closely simulates the actual geometry and scattering properties of the relevant skin tissues. The meter reads out the D(0.07) dose rate directly, and indicates the tissue dose rates at other depths with the use of tissue equivalent filters of appropriate thicknesses. Data are presented which compare the D(0.07) and D(10) dose rates recorded by the Tissue Equivalent (TE) survey meter with dose rates recorded by two commercial ion chamber meters for a number of laboratory and field sources. Most commercial ion chamber meters fail to respond adequately to the extreme off-axis beta particles from extended beta sources, and hence require the application of large beta correction factors to change the instrument reading to the true D(0.07) dose rate. The tissue equivalent survey meter exhibits an angular response to beta particles that is very similar to the angular response of an extrapolation chamber. Consequently, there is close agreement between the TE meter and extrapolation chamber readings for a wide variety of beta and mixed beta-gamma rdiation fields. D(0.07), D(3), and D(10) dose rates, measured with the INEL TE meter at a number of typical work stations, are presented.

  1. On detecting oscillations of gamma rays into axion-like particles in turbulent and coherent magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Manuel; Conrad, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background radiation fields pervade the Universe, and above a certain energy any $\\gamma$-ray flux emitted by an extragalactic source should be attenuated due to $e^+e^-$ pair production. The opacity could be alleviated if photons oscillated into hypothetical axion-like particles (ALPs) in ambient magnetic fields, leading to a $\\gamma$-ray excess especially at high optical depths that could be detected with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Here, we introduce a method to search for such a signal in $\\gamma$-ray data and to estimate sensitivities for future observations. Different magnetic fields close to the $\\gamma$-ray source are taken into account in which photons can convert into ALPs that then propagate unimpeded over cosmological distances until they re-convert in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. Specifically, we consider the coherent field at parsec scales in a blazar jet as well as the turbulent field inside a galaxy cluster. For the latter, we explicitly derive the transversal components ...

  2. Dose Determination using alanine detectors in a Mixed Neutron and Gamma Field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Liver Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M.

    2011-01-01

    be suitable for measurements in mixed neutron and gamma fields. Materials and Methods Two experiments have been carried out in the thermal column of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz. Alanine dosimeters have been irradiated in a phantom and in liver tissue. Results For the interpretation......, in combination with flux measurements and Monte Carlo calculations with FLUKA, suggest that it is possible to establish a system for monitoring the dose in a mixed neutron and gamma field for BNCT and other applications in radiotherapy....

  3. Management of Diabetic Surgical Patients in a Deployed Field Hospital: A Model for Acute Non-Communicable Disease Care in Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen M; Hardstaff, Ruth M; Alpen, Sophie; Read, David J; Coatsworth, Nicholas R

    2017-07-27

    Sudden onset disasters (SODs) have affected over 1.5 billion of the world's population in the past decade. During the same time, developing nations have faced a sustained increase in the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) with extra pressure placed on health systems. The combined increase in SODs and the NCD epidemic facing the world's most disaster-prone nations will present new challenges to emergency medical teams (EMTs) during disaster response. This report details the experience as an EMT during the Typhoon Haiyan disaster of 2013, with particular reference to the challenges of diabetic management in a surgical field hospital. The incidence of diabetes in this surgical cohort exceeded that of the population by a factor of four. The steps to prepare for and treat diabetes in the field provide a useful model for the management of NCD in the deployed field hospital environment after a disaster. McDermott KM , Hardstaff RM , Alpen S , Read DJ , Coatsworth NR . Management of diabetic surgical patients in a deployed field hospital: a model for acute non-communicable disease care in disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):1-5.

  4. Empirically based gamma-distributed random wall pressure field in silo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj

    1999-01-01

    Measurements show that silo wall pressures exhibit large fluctuations in time and space during discharge of the silo. This observation is important for the design of the silowall because spatial pressure variations may impose substantial bending moments in the silo wall that otherwise may be small...... or vanishing do to the carrying ability of the membrane forces in the silo wall. Information about the stochastic properties of this pressure variation cannot be obtained from any existing continuum model for the silo medium flowing within the confinement of the silo walls. Therefore the modeling must...... presently be tied to statistical analysis of the empirical evidence combined with simple mechanical rinciples. It is shown that an explicitely constructed gamma distribution type of field in equilibrium with itself fits well to themeasurements made in the Swedish Karpalund silo....

  5. Gamma-Ray Dose Measurement with Radio-Photoluminescence Glass Dosimeter in Mixed Radiation Field for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Yoshihashi, S.; Kusaka, S.; Sato, F.; Hoashi, E.; Murata, I.

    2017-09-01

    Accelerator based neutron sources (ABNS) are being developed as the next generation neutron irradiation system for BNCT. From the ABNS, unnecessary gamma-rays will be generated by neutron capture reactions, as well as fast neutrons. To control the whole-body radiation dose to the patient, measurement of gamma-ray dose in the irradiation room is necessary. In this study, the objective is to establish a method to measure gamma-ray dose separately in a neutron/gamma mixed field by using RPL glass dosimeter. For this purpose, we proposed a lead filter method which uses a pair of RPL glasses with and without a lead filter outside. In order to realize this method, the basic characteristics of glass dosimeter was verified in the gamma-ray field, before adapting it in the mixture field. From the result of the experiment using the lead filter, the simulation result especially for the case with a lead filter overestimated the absorbed does obtained from measurement. We concluded that the reason of the discrepancy is caused by existence of gradient of the dose distribution in the glass, and the difference of sensitivity to low-energy photon between measurement and theory.

  6. The radiation field in the Gamma Irradiation Facility GIF++ at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Gorine, Georgi; Reithler, Hans; Biskup, Bartolomej; Day, Alasdair; Fabich, Adrian; Germa, Joffrey; Guida, Roberto; Jaekel, Martin; Ravotti, Federico

    2017-09-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting now a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a particle background in the gas-based muon detectors that is ten times higher than under conditions at the LHC. The detailed knowledge of the detector performance in the presence of such a high background is crucial for an optimized design and efficient operation after the HL-LHC upgrade. A precise understanding of possible aging effects of detector materials and gases is of extreme importance. To cope with these challenging requirements, a new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) was designed and built at the CERN SPS North Area as successor of the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) period. It features an intense source of 662 keV photons with adjustable intensity, to simulate continuous background over large areas, and, combined with a high energy muon beam, to measure detector performance in the presence of the background. The new GIF++ facility has been operational since spring 2015. In addition to describing the facility and its infrastructure, the goal of this work is to provide an extensive characterization of the GIF++ photon field with different configurations of the absorption filters in both the upstream and downstream irradiation areas. Moreover, the measured results are benchmarked with Geant4 simulations to enhance the knowledge of the radiation field. The absorbed dose in air in the facility may reach up to 2.2 Gy/h directly in front of the irradiator. Of special interest is the low-energy photon component that develops due to the multiple scattering of photons within the irradiator and from the concrete walls of the bunker.

  7. Measuring Radionuclides Concentration in Rice Field Soils Using Gamma Spectroscopy in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MZ Zareh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few elements of soil are radioactive. Soil can transfer radionuclide into plants feeding human. Sometimes their levels are as high as to be concern of human healthy. Rice has an important share for Iranian foods especially in north of Iran. Therefore we decided to obtain radionuclides concentration emitting g rays in Lahijan City (Northern Iran rice fields using g spectroscopy.Methods: Twenty eight samples from rice field's soils and 12 samples from superficial soils were collected at a square of 10*10 m2 to get 2kg weight. To make dry samples were put into oven at 105oC for 24h. Then they were milled and 950 gr of each sample was transferred to Marinelli container with 1000cc volume, sealed and left for 40 days to get secular equilibrium. After measuring Ph, Electric conductivity and organic carbon, g spectroscopy was done to get sample gamma spectrum at 2000-6000 sec using HpGe detector.Results: It was found 226Ra activity in rice fields of 29.273±0.72 Bqkg-1 and city soil of 31.02±1.1 Bqkg-1 and also 232Th activity of 37.47±1.12 Bqkg-1 for rice fields' soils and 40.47±1.68 Bqkg-1 for city soil were in standard mode.Conclusion: 40K activities mean value according to UNSCEAR; 2000 was found a little greater than standard. A little value of 137Cs was found in Lahijan rice fields and city soils that could be as a result of Chernobyl accident. In except of 137Cs, for three other under studied city soil elements, activities were greater than that of rice fields.

  8. Rotation and Magnetic Fields in Supernovae and Gamma-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2005-10-01

    Spectropolarimetry of core collapse supernovae has shown that they are asymmetric and often, but not universally, bi-polar; in some the dominant axes associated with hydrogen, oxygen, and calcium are oriented substantially differently. Jet-induced supernova models give a typical jet/torus structure that is reminiscent of some objects like the Crab nebula, SN 1987A and perhaps Cas A. Jets, in turn, may arise from the intrinsic rotation and magnetic fields that are expected to accompany core collapse. We summarize the potential importance of the magneto-rotational instability for the core collapse problem, stress the non- monotonic response of the final rotation and magnetic field to the initial iron core rotation, and the potential role of non-axisymmetric instabilities in the new-born neutron star. We sketch some of the effects that large magnetic fields, ˜10^15 - 10^17 G, may have on the physics at core bounce and in the subsequent cooling, de-leptonization phase. Production and dissipation of MHD waves in this strongly differentially rotating environment may affect the success of the supernova explosion, the nature of the compact remnant -- neutron star or black hole, pulsar or magnetar -- and whether the outcome is a normal supernova or a gamma-ray burst. In collaboration with Shizuka Akiyama, University of Texas at Austin.

  9. Gamma-ray emission enhanced by direct laser acceleration in a laser-driven magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, Alexey; Wang, Tao; Toncian, Toma; Stark, David

    2016-10-01

    Recently published particle-in-cell simulations indicate that a high-intensity laser irradiating an over-critical plasma can induce relativistic transparency and drive a Megatesla magnetic field while propagating into the plasma. We have examined the role of such an azimuthal Megatesla-level magnetic field on electron dynamics in a laser pulse with intensities around 5 ×1022 W/cm2, within reach for the existing laser facilities. We find that the magnetic field can be utilized in two complementary ways: to enhance direct laser acceleration, generating a GeV-level electron beam in the plasma, and to boost synchrotron emission by the accelerated electrons, producing copious multi-MeV photons in the form of a collimated beam. This regime potentially opens an opportunity for generating dense gamma-ray beams using existing laser facilities, thus fast-tracking a number of eagerly awaited applications. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1632777.

  10. Effects of Magnetic Fields on Neutrino-dominated Accretion Model for Gamma-ray Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Many models of gamma-ray bursts suggest a common central engine: a black hole of several solar masses accreting matter from a disk at an accretion rate from 0.01 to 10 M⊙ s~l, the inner region of the disk is cooled by neutrino emission and large amounts of its binding energy are liberated, which could trigger the fireball. We improve the neutrinodominated accreting flows by including the effects of magnetic fields. We find that more than half of the liberated energy can be extracted directly by the large-scale magnetic fields in the disk, and it turns out that the temperature of the disk is a bit lower than the neutrino-dominated accreting flows without magnetic field. Therefore, the outflows are magnetically-dominated rather than neutrino dominated. In our model, the neutrino mechanism can fuel some GRBs (not the brightest ones), but cannot fuel X-ray flares. The magnetic processes (both BZ and electromagnetic luminosity from a disk) are viable mechanisms for most of GRBs and their following X-ray flares.

  11. New approach to study the response of portable gamma detector for in-situ measurement of terrestrial gamma ray field

    CERN Document Server

    Askri, Boubaker

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to study the response of portable gamma detector to terrestrial gamma ray is proposed. This approach is based on two-stage Monte Carlo simulation. First, the probability distributions of the phase space coordinates of the events that are most likely to be detected are reconstructed at the phase space shell level. The phase space shell is a closed surface enclosing the detector. The detector response to events originating from the phase space shell is then studied. The full absorption spectra as well as the partial absorption spectra are obtained for natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the ground. For validation, this method is applied to a HpGe portable detector previously studied. The previous study is based on a semi-empirical model. Good agreement is achieved when we compare the full energy peak efficiencies and the total in-situ spectra obtained by the two methods. As an application, the effective depth of the activity of the 137Cs artificial radionuclide in the soil is determine...

  12. Evaluation of the Storm 3 data logger manufactured by WaterLOG/Xylem Incorporated—Results of bench, temperature, and field deployment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Gerald A.

    2016-05-04

    The Storm 3 is a browser-based data logger manufactured by WaterLOG/Xylem Incorporated that operates over a temperature range of −40 to 60 degrees Celsius (°C). A Storm logger with no built-in telemetry (Storm3-00) and a logger with built-in cellular modem (Storm3-03) were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s specifications with bench tests, for recording data over the device’s operating temperature range with temperature chamber tests, and for field performance with an outdoor deployment test.

  13. Micronuclei formation in Pisum sativum L. root meristem cells exposed to an electric field or. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.W.; Economou, P.; Cox, C.; Robertson, D.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma radiation (400 R, 800 R; acute exposre), but not a 430 V/m 60 Hz electric field (continuous 5 day exposure in culture medium with a conductivity of 0.08 S/m), induced micronuclei formation in root meristem cells of Pisum sativum L.

  14. Studies of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the sensitivity of gamma-ray observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Maria

    2011-02-15

    Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a ground-based high energy gamma radiation detector. This radiation is detected by the measurement of particle showers in the atmosphere. The questions of the origin of the cosmic radiation, the functional principle of cosmic particle accelerators in the area of black holes or the nature of the dark matter are in the scientific goals of CTA. At the moment the instrument is in the planning phase and first results will probably be in 2014. The site of the instrument has an immediate influence on the sensitivity e.g. due to the weather, the height above sea level. Several possible sites for CTA are being considered at the moment including Namibia, Argentina, Canary Islands and Mexico. The geomagnetic field affects the development of showers and distorts the images of the air shower in the telescope. The aim of this work is to quantify the influence of the strength and the direction of the geomagnetic field at the different possible locations on the sensitivity of CTA using Monte Carlo simulations of particle showers. Firstly, we simulated the lateral distribution at the twelve sites. The geomagnetic field of the sites was obtained from the National Geographic Data Center (NGDC). To study the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, we held the altitude of the sites constant at 2000 m. Hence, we could choose two sites per hemisphere which could be potential candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: BeaufortWest (South Africa), El Leoncito (Argentina), La Palma (Canary Islands) and San Pedro Martir (Mexico). To compare the results with a site which is already known, we chose the observatory H.E.S.S. in Namibia. After the study of the energy thresholds and the effective areas we decided in favour of two sites, one in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. Considering the influence of the geomagnetic field on the predictions, the southern observatory should be in Beaufort West in South Africa. The northern array

  15. Trajectory control of PbSe-gamma-Fe2O3 nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2010-04-30

    The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic gamma-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the gamma-Fe(2)O(3) magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.

  16. Influence of constant magnetic field (cmf) and gamma radiation on hereditary structures of somatic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileva, M.; Ivanov, B.; Bulanova, M. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1981-01-01

    White mice, line ''N'' were exposed in CMF with induction of the field 0.3T within: 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 minutes. 15 minutes before the action the mice were irradiated with 0.0516 K/kg gamma quanta (/sup 137/C) at dosage rate 1 96 A/kg. The preparation with metaphase plates were formed from femoral bone using the modified method of Ford. Metabolic, chromatid, chromosome and isochromatid fragments were established. Already the 30 minute action lowers the radiation effect (Pless0.05). The effect of CMF increases with the increase of radiation time. Peak effect is observed at the 240th minute when the aberrations decrease compared with the control, as follows: aberrant cells 2.3 times and aberrations 3.3 times altogether. After the elapse of 330 minutes the radiomodifying effect begins to fall, keeping the same value after 360 minutes too, reaching the level of the 30 minute action.

  17. Out of field dose during Gamma Knife treatment: a paediatric case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutrie, V.; Grace, M.; Izard, M. A.; Fuller, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was referred for Gamma Knife treatment. As this would be the first paediatric treatment in Australia, additional investigations were undertaken into out of field dose to assure the best possible long term outcome for the patient. A phantom was constructed from water equivalent materials to simulate the patient. A target volume was defined to emulate the size and location of the AVM visible in diagnostic images. An ionisation chamber and EBT3 Gafchromic film were used to record absorbed dose at strategic points both on the surface and at depth within the phantom. On the day of treatment, EBT3 Gafchromic film was used to conduct in vivo dosimetry. The pre-treatment phantom measurements matched the planning system for the cranial section (the only modelled section) and no measurable dose above background was detected in the extracranial sites. In vivo measurements of the lenses returned doses of up to 2 cGy for imaging and 8 cGy for treatment which was also consistent with the planned dose. Dose to the thyroid, chest and abdomen was not measurable above background.

  18. New method for estimation of fluence complexity in IMRT fields and correlation with gamma analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanušová, T.; Vondráček, V.; Badraoui-Čuprová, K.; Horáková, I.; Koniarová, I.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimation of fluence complexity in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) fields is proposed. Unlike other previously published works, it is based on portal images calculated by the Portal Dose Calculation algorithm in Eclipse (version 8.6, Varian Medical Systems) in the plane of the EPID aS500 detector (Varian Medical Systems). Fluence complexity is given by the number and the amplitudes of dose gradients in these matrices. Our method is validated using a set of clinical plans where fluence has been smoothed manually so that each plan has a different level of complexity. Fluence complexity calculated with our tool is in accordance with the different levels of smoothing as well as results of gamma analysis, when calculated and measured dose matrices are compared. Thus, it is possible to estimate plan complexity before carrying out the measurement. If appropriate thresholds are determined which would distinguish between acceptably and overly modulated plans, this might save time in the re-planning and re-measuring process.

  19. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields and Gamma Ray Observations of Extreme TeV Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Arlen, Timothy C; Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P; Shafi, S Yusef

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of TeV gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGN). AGN that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, extreme TeV blazars, can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature which utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars-1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same context. Through a recently developed detailed Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research effects of major uncertainties such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the UV - far IR extragalactic background light (EBL), undersampled Very High Energy (VHE; energy > 100 GeV) c...

  20. Theoretical design and field deployment of a dense strong motion instrument network for the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, C.; Berril, J.; Pettinga, J.

    2003-04-01

    A dense network of strong motion seismometers is being developed in order to investigate the complexities of the upper crustal rupture process and propagation of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. The proposed network is designed as a dense array of approximately 20 accelerographs using the University of Canterbury 12-bit CUSP instrument, now nearing development completion. It will be deployed straddling the Alpine Fault in the central West Coast region of the South Island, and coverage will extend across the region at the Alpine-Hope Fault junction also. The array layout is being designed utilizing the frequency-analysis MUSIC method (Multiple Signal Characterization) developed by Goldstein and Archuleta (1991a&b). Synthetic strong-motion records were computed using an empirical Green's function synthetic seismogram program EMPSYN (Hutchings, 1987). The process of finding an optimal network configuration is dependent on the geometry of the array (study of the frequency analysis performance of the modelled earthquake data for various proposed array configurations), and on the instrument site conditions (geology, communications, accessibility, isolation etc). References Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991a). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; data analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6187-6198. Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991b). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; theory and methods." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6173-6185. Hutchings, L. J. (1987). "Modelling strong earthquake ground motion with empirical Green's function", Ph.D. thesis, Department of

  1. Attenuation of TeV $\\gamma$-rays by the starlight photon field of the host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael; Wagner, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    The absorption of TeV $\\gamma$-ray photons produced in relativistic jets by surrounding soft photon fields is a long-standing problem of jet physics. In some cases the most likely emission site close to the central black hole is ruled out because of the high opacity caused by strong optical and infrared photon sources, such as the broad line region. Mostly neglected for jet modeling is the absorption of $\\gamma$-rays in the starlight photon field of the host galaxy. Analyzing the absorption for arbitrary locations and observation angles of the $\\gamma$-ray emission site within the host galaxy we find that the distance to the galaxy center, the observation angle, and the distribution of starlight in the galaxy are crucial for the amount of absorption. We derive the absorption value for a sample of $20$ TeV detected blazars with a redshift $z_r<0.2$. The absorption value of the $\\gamma$-ray emission located in the galaxy center may be as high as $20\\%$ with an average value of $6\\%$. This is important in ord...

  2. High precision, continuous measurements of water vapor isotopes using a field deployable analyzer with a novel automated calibration system to facilitate ecohydrological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Crosson, E.; Richman, B. A.; Apodaca, R. L.; Green, I.

    2009-12-01

    The use of stable isotopic analysis techniques has proved quite valuable in establishing links between ecology and hydrology. We present an alternative and novel approach to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for making high-precision D/H and 18O/16O isotope ratio measurements of water vapor at a field site using wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) based technology. This WS-CRDS analyzer allows continuous real-time measurements of water vapor with automated periodic calibration using liquid standards, needing no human intervention for weeks during deployment. The new automated calibration system, designed specifically for field deployment, uses syringe pumps and is robust, consistent and reliable. The advanced temperature and pressure control within the analyzer are some of the key design features that allow high precision (0.2‰ for δ18O and 1.0‰ for δD) performance at extremely low drift (water vapor analyzer, a field trial was conducted where the common isotopologues of water vapor were measured at a local ecological site over a period of a few days. The resulting high resolution data gives us the ability to understand the impact of meteorology and plant physiology on the isotopic composition of water vapor in ambient air. Such measurements of water vapor, when combined with measurements of the isotopic composition of liquid water in plants, soil water and local water bodies, will close the eco-hydrological loop of any region. The ability of the WS-CRDS analyzer to make continuous, real-time measurements with a resolution on the order of a few seconds will aid in understanding the complex interdependencies between ecological and hydrological processes and will provide critical information in refining existing models of water transport in ecosystems. These studies are critical to understanding the impact of global climate change on landscapes.

  3. Determining the true polarity and amplitude of synaptic currents underlying gamma oscillations of local field potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in successive waves of oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs reflect the ongoing processing of neuron populations. However, their amplitude, polarity and synaptic origin are uncertain due to the blending of electric fields produced by multiple converging inputs, and the lack of a baseline in standard AC-coupled recordings. Consequently, the estimation of underlying currents by laminar analysis yields spurious sequences of inward and outward currents. We devised a combined analytical/experimental approach that is suitable to study laminated structures. The approach was essayed on an experimental oscillatory LFP as the Schaffer-CA1 gamma input in anesthetized rats, and it was verified by parallel processing of model LFPs obtained through a realistic CA1 aggregate of compartmental units. This approach requires laminar LFP recordings and the isolation of the oscillatory input from other converging pathways, which was achieved through an independent component analysis. It also allows the spatial and temporal components of pathway-specific LFPs to be separated. While reconstructed Schaffer-specific LFPs still show spurious inward/outward current sequences, these were clearly stratified into distinct subcellular domains. These spatial bands guided the localized delivery of neurotransmitter blockers in experiments. As expected, only Glutamate but not GABA blockers abolished Schaffer LFPs when applied to the active but not passive subcellular domains of pyramidal cells. The known chemical nature of the oscillatory LFP allowed an empirical offset of the temporal component of Schaffer LFPs, such that following reconstruction they yield only sinks or sources at the appropriate sites. In terms of number and polarity, some waves increased and others decreased proportional to the concomitant inputs in native multisynaptic LFPs. Interestingly, the processing also retrieved the initiation time for each wave, which can be used to discriminate

  4. Modelling image profiles produced with a small field of view gamma camera with a single pinhole collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, S. L.; Lees, J. E.; Perkins, A. C.

    2012-11-01

    Gamma cameras making use of parallel-hole collimators have a long history in medical imaging. Pinhole collimators were used in the original gamma camera instruments and have been used more recently in dedicated organ specific systems, intraoperative instruments and for small animal imaging, providing higher resolution over a smaller field of view than the traditional large field of view systems. With the resurgence of interest in the use of pinhole collimators for small field of view (SOV) medical gamma cameras, it is important to be able to accurately determine their response under various conditions. Several analytical approaches to pinhole response have been reported in the literature including models of 3D pinhole imaging systems. Success has also been reported in the use of Monte Carlo simulations; however this approach can require significant time and computing power. This report describes a 2D model that was used to investigate some common problems in pinhole imaging, the variation in resolution over the field of view and the use of `point' sources for quantifying pinhole response.

  5. Sandia Wake Imaging System Field Test Report: 2015 Deployment at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herges, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.

  6. Investigation of dose distribution in mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy using N isopropylacrylamide gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavarmegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser [Dept. of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeali, Azim [Medical Education Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Gel dosimeters have unique advantages in comparison with other dosimeters. Until now, these gels have been used in different radiotherapy techniques as a reliable dosimetric tool. Because dose distribution measurement is an important factor for appropriate treatment planning in different radiotherapy techniques, in this study, we evaluated the ability of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel to record the dose distribution resulting from the mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this regard, a head phantom containing NIPAM gel was irradiated using the Tehran Research Reactor BNCT beam line, and then by a magnetic resonance scanner. Eventually, the R2 maps were obtained in different slices of the phantom by analyzing T2-weighted images. The results show that NIPAM gel has a suitable potential for recording three-dimensional dose distribution in mixed neutron-gamma field dosimetry.

  7. Investigation of Dose Distribution in Mixed Neutron-Gamma Field of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy using N-Isopropylacrylamide Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Bavarnegin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gel dosimeters have unique advantages in comparison with other dosimeters. Until now, these gels have been used in different radiotherapy techniques as a reliable dosimetric tool. Because dose distribution measurement is an important factor for appropriate treatment planning in different radiotherapy techniques, in this study, we evaluated the ability of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM polymer gel to record the dose distribution resulting from the mixed neutron-gamma field of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT. In this regard, a head phantom containing NIPAM gel was irradiated using the Tehran Research Reactor BNCT beam line, and then by a magnetic resonance scanner. Eventually, the R2 maps were obtained in different slices of the phantom by analyzing T2-weighted images. The results show that NIPAM gel has a suitable potential for recording three-dimensional dose distribution in mixed neutron-gamma field dosimetry.

  8. Monte Carlo Calculations for Neutron and Gamma Radiation Fields on a Fast Neutron Irradiation Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A.; Ramalho, A.; Gonçalves, I. C.; Fernandes, A.; Barradas, N.; Marques, J. G.; Prata, J.; Chaussy, Ch.

    We used the Monte Carlo program MCNP to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes on a fast neutron irradiation facility being installed on the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI). The purpose of this facility is to provide a fast neutron beam for irradiation of electronic circuits. The gamma dose should be minimized. This is achieved by placing a lead shield preceded by a thin layer of boral. A fast neutron flux of the order of 109 n/cm2s is expected at the exit of the tube, while the gamma radiation is kept below 20 Gy/h. We will present results of the neutron and gamma doses for several locations along the tube and different thickness of the lead shield. We found that the neutron beam is very collimated at the end of the tube with a dominant component on the fast region.

  9. NEUTRON CAPTURE GAMMA RAY FIELD WITH ENERGY TO 10 MeV FOR METROLOGICAL SUPPORT OF RADIATION PROTECTION DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Komar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical, and technological linear particle accelerators, and nuclear reactors are vastly widespread worldwide today. These facility generate fields of secondary gamma radiation with energy to 10 MeV. Therefore, we have a need to calibrate spectrometric and dosimetric ionization measurement instruments for the energies to 10 MeV. The aim of this work is to determine possibility to use thermal neutron collimator of АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility with 238Pu-Be fast neutron source (IBN-8-6 for this. Below 3 MeV we use a set of point gamma standard spectrometry sources OSGI. We can acquire gamma rays with energies above 3 MeV using radioactive thermal neutron capture on target, i.e. (n, γ-nuclear reaction. We can use neutron capture gamma-ray from titanium target (to 7 MeV or nickel target (to 10 MeV situated in thermal neutron field for calibration. We can use thermal neutron collimator of АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility with 238Pu-Be fast neutron source (IBN-8-6 for slowing down neutrons from radionuclide fast neutron sources to thermal energies in polyethylene. Thermal neutron collimator forms a beam from radionuclide source with a significant amount of neutrons with thermal energies. We placed Ti and Ni targets in collimator’s canal. We got experimental spectral data on detection unit BDKG-19M NaI(Tl 63 × 160 mm with nonlinear channel-energy conversion characteristic in range to 10 MeV. For additional filtration we proposed to use polyethylene neutron reflector and lead discs. We experimentally determined that placement of lead discs in collimator in front of the target allows to filter all spectrum while insignificantly weakening target’s emission. Using theoretical and experimental data we proved the ability to calibrate gamma-ray spectrometers in the range to 10 MeV. 

  10. A future wide field-of-view TeV gamma-ray observatory in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Miguel; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-energy gamma-ray observations are an essential probe of cosmic-ray acceleration. Detection of the highest energies and the shortest timescales of variability are key motivations when designing the next generation of gamma-ray experiments. The Milagro experiment was the first-generation of gamma-ray detectors based on the water-Cherenkov technique, and demonstrated that it is possible to continuously monitor a large fraction of the TeV sky. The second-generation water-Cherenkov experiment, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory, consists of an array of 300 water-Cherenkov detectors covering an area of 22,000 m2 at 4,100 m a.s.l. The larger effective area, the higher altitude, and the optical isolation of the detectors led to a 15-fold increase in sensitivity relative to Milagro. Instruments with a wide field of view and large duty cycle are capable of surveying the TeV sky, mapping the diffuse emission, detecting emission from extended regions, and observing transient events such as gamma ray bursts. They also have the potential for discovering electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves and astrophysical neutrinos. I will present the preliminary design of a third-generation water-Cherenkov observatory located at very high altitude in South America.

  11. Neutron and gamma field investigations in the VVER-1000 mock-up concrete shielding on the reactor LR-0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, S.; Egorov, A. [National Research Center, Kurchatov Inst., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Osmera, B.; Marik, M.; Rypar, V. [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Rez 25068 (Czech Republic); Cvachovec, F. [Univ. of Defense, Brno 61200 (Czech Republic); Kolros, A. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague 18000 (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    Two sets of neutron and gamma field investigations were carried out in the dismountable model of radiation shielding of the VVER-1000 mock-up on the LR-0 reactor. First, measurements and calculations of the {sup 3}He(n,p)T reaction rate and fast neutrons and gamma flux spectra in the operational neutron monitor channel inside a concrete shielding for different shapes and locations of the channel (cylindrical channel in a concrete, channels with collimator in a concrete, cylindrical channel in a graphite). In all cases measurements and calculations of the {sup 3}He(n,p)T reaction rate were done with and without an additional moderator-polyethylene insert inside the channel. Second, measurements and calculations of the {sup 3}He(n,p)T reaction rate spatial distribution inside a concrete. The {sup 3}He(n,p)T reaction rate measurements and calculations were carried out exploring the relative thermal neutron density in the channels and its space distribution in the concrete. Fast neutrons and gamma measurements were carried out with a stilbene (45 x 45 mm) scintillation spectrometer in the energy regions 0.5-10 MeV (neutrons) and 0.2-10 MeV (gammas). (authors)

  12. Modeling and simulation of field-effect biosensors (BioFETs) and their deployment on the nanoHUB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitzinger, C; Mauser, N; Ringhofer, C [Wolfgang Pauli Institute c/o Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kennell, R; Klimeck, G; McLennan, M [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: Clemens.Heitzinger@univie.ac.at

    2008-03-15

    BioFETs (biologically active field-effect transistors) are biosensors with a semiconductor transducer. Due to recent experiments demonstrating detection by a field effect, they have gained attention as potentially fast, reliable, and low-cost biosensors for a wide range of applications. Their advantages compared to other technologies are direct, label-free, ultrasensitive, and (near) real-time operation. We have developed 2D and 3D multi-scale models for planar sensor structures and for nanowire sensors. The multi-scale models are indispensable due to the large difference in the characteristic length scales of the biosensors: the charge distribution in the biofunctionalized surface layer varies on the Angstrom length scale, the diameters of the nanowires are several nanometers, and the sensor lengths measure several micrometers. The multi-scale models for the electrostatic potential can be coupled to any charge transport model of the transducer. Conductance simulations of nanowire sensors with different diameters provide numerical evidence for the importance of the dipole moment of the biofunctionalized surface layer in addition to its surface charge. We have also developed a web interface to our simulators, so that other researchers can access them at the nanohub and perform their own investigations.

  13. Sound identification in human auditory cortex: Differential contribution of local field potentials and high gamma power as revealed by direct intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Rhone, Ariane E; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A; McMurray, Bob

    2015-09-01

    High gamma power has become the principal means of assessing auditory cortical activation in human intracranial studies, albeit at the expense of low frequency local field potentials (LFPs). It is unclear whether limiting analyses to high gamma impedes ability of clarifying auditory cortical organization. We compared the two measures obtained from posterolateral superior temporal gyrus (PLST) and evaluated their relative utility in sound categorization. Subjects were neurosurgical patients undergoing invasive monitoring for medically refractory epilepsy. Stimuli (consonant-vowel syllables varying in voicing and place of articulation and control tones) elicited robust evoked potentials and high gamma activity on PLST. LFPs had greater across-subject variability, yet yielded higher classification accuracy, relative to high gamma power. Classification was enhanced by including temporal detail of LFPs and combining LFP and high gamma. We conclude that future studies should consider utilizing both LFP and high gamma when investigating the functional organization of human auditory cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields and dosimetry devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guoqing

    2011-12-22

    Monte Carlo methods based on random sampling are widely used in different fields for the capability of solving problems with a large number of coupled degrees of freedom. In this work, Monte Carlos methods are successfully applied for the simulation of the mixed neutron-gamma field in an interim storage facility and neutron dosimeters of different types. Details are discussed in two parts: In the first part, the method of simulating an interim storage facility loaded with CASTORs is presented. The size of a CASTOR is rather large (several meters) and the CASTOR wall is very thick (tens of centimeters). Obtaining the results of dose rates outside a CASTOR with reasonable errors costs usually hours or even days. For the simulation of a large amount of CASTORs in an interim storage facility, it needs weeks or even months to finish a calculation. Variance reduction techniques were used to reduce the calculation time and to achieve reasonable relative errors. Source clones were applied to avoid unnecessary repeated calculations. In addition, the simulations were performed on a cluster system. With the calculation techniques discussed above, the efficiencies of calculations can be improved evidently. In the second part, the methods of simulating the response of neutron dosimeters are presented. An Alnor albedo dosimeter was modelled in MCNP, and it has been simulated in the facility to calculate the calibration factor to get the evaluated response to a Cf-252 source. The angular response of Makrofol detectors to fast neutrons has also been investigated. As a kind of SSNTD, Makrofol can detect fast neutrons by recording the neutron induced heavy charged recoils. To obtain the information of charged recoils, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes were used for transporting incident neutrons. The response of Makrofol to fast neutrons is dependent on several factors. Based on the parameters which affect the track revealing, the formation of visible tracks was determined. For

  15. Experimental and computational studies on the flow fields in aortic aneurysms associated with deployment of AAA stent-grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiwen Zhang; Zhaohui Yao; Yan Zhang; Shangdong Xu

    2007-01-01

    Pulsatile flow fields in rigid abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models were investigated numerically, and the simulation results are found in good agreement with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. There are one or more vortexes in the AAA bulge, and a fairly high wall shear stress exists at the distal end, and thus the AAA is in danger of rupture. Medical treatment consists of inserting a vascular stent-graft in the AAA, which would decrease the blood impact to the inner walls and reduce wall shear stress so that the rupture could be prevented. A new computational model, based on porous medium model, was developed and results are documented. The rapeutic effect of the stent-graft was verified numerically with the new model.

  16. Quinolone and glycopeptide therapy for infection in mouse following exposure to mixed-field neutron-[gamma]-photon radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I. (Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States) Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)); Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-12-01

    The effects of increased doses of mixed-field neutron-[gamma]-photon irradiation on bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis, and the influence of antimicrobial therapy on these events, were studied in the C3H/HeN mouse. The results demonstrate a relationship between the doses of mixed-field radiation and the rates of infection due to Enterobacteriaceae. While L-ofloxacin therapy reduces the infection rate, prolongs survival and prevents mortality, the addition of a glycopeptide can enhance systemic infection by resistant bacteria in the irradiated host. (author).

  17. OLM interneurons are transiently recruited into field gamma oscillations evoked by brief kainate pressure ejections onto area CA1 in mice hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiani, E

    2009-02-01

    Oscillations (30-100 Hz) are correlated with the cognitive functions of the brain. In the hippocampus interactions between perisomatic and trilaminar interneurons with pyramidal cells are thought to underlie generation of field gamma oscillations. In area CA3 OLM interneurons receive synaptic input in gamma range but generate action potential (AP) output in theta band and are involved in theta oscillations synchronized along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. In slice preparations of CA3 area the spike timing of OLM cells could be modulated by carbachole induced gamma oscillations, although their firing rates are limited to theta frequency. Normally, OLM interneurons are somatostatin positive cells. In this study we tested whether parvalbumin (PV) containing OLM interneurons in area CA1 limit AP output during kainate pressure ejection also to theta frequency. We used focal short applications of kainate in area CA1 to induce filed gamma oscillations with an average frequency of about 44.7+/-4.4 Hz. The duration of field gamma was on average 8.9+/-3.5 s. During such oscillations CA1 PV positive OLM interneurons of mice hippocampus received excitatory synaptic input at gamma frequency. Moreover, their AP output was in gamma range as well. Thus, we show that beside the somatostatin containing OLM interneurons, which generate theta rhythm there are PV containing OLM cells, which could synchronize the distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells to the field gamma oscillations.

  18. Simple Genetic Distance-Optimized Field Deployments for Clonal Seed Orchards Based on Microsatellite Markers: As a Case of Chinese Pine Seed Orchard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Chinese pine seed orchards are in a period of transition from first-generation to advanced-generations. How to effectively select populations for second-generation seed orchards and significantly increase genetic gain through rational deployment have become major issues. In this study, we examined open- and control-pollinated progeny of the first-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning (Gansu Province, China and Xixian (Shanxi Province, China to address issues related to phenotypic selection for high volume growth, genetic diversity analysis and genetic distance-based phylogenetic analysis of the selections by simple sequence repeats (SSRs, and phylogenetic relationship-based field deployment for advanced-generation orchards. In total, 40, 28, 20, and 13 superior individuals were selected from the large-scale no-pedigree open-pollinated progeny of Zhengning (ZN-NP, open-pollinated families of Zhengning (ZN-OP, open-pollinated families of Xixian (XX-OP, and control-pollinated families of Xixian, with mean volume dominance ratios of 0.83, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.20, respectively. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of the ZN-NP and XX-OP populations showed that the 40 superior individuals in the ZN-NP selected population belonged to 23 families and could be further divided into five phylogenetic groups, and that families in the same group were closely related. Similarly, 20 families in the XX-OP population were related to varying degrees. Based on these results, we found that second-generation Chinese pine seed orchards in Zhengning and Xixian should adopt a grouped, unbalanced, complete, fixed block design and an unbalanced, incomplete, fixed block design, respectively. This study will provide practical references for applying molecular markers to establishing advanced-generation seed orchards.

  19. Monte-Carlo simulation of pinhole collimator of a small field of view gamma camera for small animal imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; MA Wenyan; ZHU Yufeng; MA Hongguang; WU Yuelei; HU Huasi; ZHANG Boping; HUO Yonggang; LIU Silu; JIAN Bin; WANG Zhaomin

    2009-01-01

    Needs in scintimammography applications,especially for small animal cardiac imaging,lead to develop a small field of view,high spatial resolution gamma camera with a pinhole collimator.However the ideal pinhole collimator must keep a compromise between spatial resolution and sensitivity.In order to design a pinhole collimator with an optimized sensitivity and spatial resolution,the spatial resolution and the geometric sensitivity response as a function of the source to collimator distance has been obtained by means of Monte-Carlo simulation for a small field of view gamma camera with a pinhole collimator of various-hole diameters.The results show that the camera with pinhole of 1 mm,1.5 mm and 2 mm diameter has respectively spatial resolution of 1.5 mm,2.25 mm and 3 mm and geometric sensitivity of 0.016%,0.022% and 0.036%,while the source to collimator distance is 3 cm.We chose the pinhole collimator with hole diameter size of 1.2 mm for our the gamma camera designed based on the wade-off between sensitivity and resolution.

  20. Differences in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves derived from distict mixed gamma/neutron field irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Castro, Vinicius A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D., E-mail: tassio.cavalieri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    In Neutron Capture Therapy, a thermal neutron beam shall impinge on a specific nuclide, such as {sup 10}B, to promote a nuclear reaction which releases the useful therapeutic energy. A nuclear reactor is usually used as the neutron source, and therefore field contaminants such as gamma and high energy neutrons are also present in the field. However, mixed field dosimetry still stands as a challenge in some cases, due to the difficulty to experimentally discriminate the dose from each field component. For the mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation end Units (ICRU) recommends the use of detector pairs with different responses for each beam component. The TLD 600/700 pair meets this need, because these LiF detectors have different Li isotopes concentration, with distinct thermal neutron responses because {sup 6}Li presents a much higher neutron capture cross section than does {sup 7}Li for low energy neutrons. TLD 600 is {sup 6}Li enriched while TLD 700 is {sup 7}Li enriched. However, depending on the neutron spectrum presented in the mixed field, TLD 700 response to thermal neutrons cannot be disregarded. This work aims to study the difference in TLD 600 and TLD 700 glow curves when these TLDs are submitted to mixed fields of different energy spectra and components balance. The TLDs were irradiated in a pure gamma source, and in mixed fields from an AmBe sealed source and from the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. These TLDs were read and had their two main dosimetric regions analyzed to observe the differences in the glow curves of these TLDs in each irradiation. Field components discrimination was achieved through Monte Carlo simulations run with MCNP radiation transport code. (author)

  1. The $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$ decay in a systematic effective field theory approach with dimension 6 operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pruna, Giovanni Marco

    2014-01-01

    We implement a systematic effective field theory approach to the benchmark process $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$, performing automated one-loop computations including dimension 6 operators and studying their anomalous dimensions. We obtain limits on Wilson coefficients of a relevant subset of lepton-flavour violating operators that contribute to the branching ratio $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ at one-loop. In addition, we illustrate a method to extract further constraints induced by the mixing of operators under renormalisation-group evolution. This results in limits on the corresponding Wilson coefficients directly at the high scale. The procedure can be applied to other processes as well and, as an example, we consider also lepton-flavour violating decays of the $\\tau$.

  2. High resolution melting: a useful field-deployable method to measure dhfr and dhps drug resistance in both highly and lowly endemic Plasmodium populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Yaye Dié; Diédhiou, Cyrille K; Bei, Amy K; Dieye, Baba; Mbaye, Aminata; Mze, Nasserdine Papa; Daniels, Rachel F; Ndiaye, Ibrahima M; Déme, Awa B; Gaye, Amy; Sy, Mouhamad; Ndiaye, Tolla; Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Premji, Zul; Wirth, Dyann F; Mboup, Souleymane; Krogstad, Donald; Volkman, Sarah K; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2017-04-19

    Emergence and spread of drug resistance to every anti-malarial used to date, creates an urgent need for development of sensitive, specific and field-deployable molecular tools for detection and surveillance of validated drug resistance markers. Such tools would allow early detection of mutations in resistance loci. The aim of this study was to compare common population signatures and drug resistance marker frequencies between two populations with different levels of malaria endemicity and history of anti-malarial drug use: Tanzania and Sénégal. This was accomplished by implementing a high resolution melting assay to study molecular markers of drug resistance as compared to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) methodology. Fifty blood samples were collected each from a lowly malaria endemic site (Sénégal), and a highly malaria endemic site (Tanzania) from patients presenting with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at clinic. Data representing the DHFR were derived using both PCR-RFLP and HRM assay; while genotyping data representing the DHPS were evaluated in Senegal and Tanzania using HRM. Msp genotyping analysis was used to characterize the multiplicity of infection in both countries. A high prevalence of samples harbouring mutant DHFR alleles was observed in both population using both genotyping techniques. HRM was better able to detect mixed alleles compared to PCR/RFLP for DHFR codon 51 in Tanzania; and only HRM was able to detect mixed infections from Senegal. A high prevalence of mutant alleles in DHFR (codons 51, 59, 108) and DHPS (codon 437) were found among samples from Sénégal while no mutations were observed at DHPS codons 540 and 581, from both countries. Overall, the frequency of samples harbouring either a single DHFR mutation (S108N) or double mutation in DHFR (C59R/S108N) was greater in Sénégal compared to Tanzania. Here the results demonstrate that HRM is a rapid, sensitive, and field-deployable

  3. Radiation anomaly detection algorithms for field-acquired gamma energy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ron; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing a tactical, networked radiation detection system that will be agile, reconfigurable, and capable of rapid threat assessment with high degree of fidelity and certainty. Our design is driven by the needs of users such as law enforcement personnel who must make decisions by evaluating threat signatures in urban settings. The most efficient tool available to identify the nature of the threat object is real-time gamma spectroscopic analysis, as it is fast and has a very low probability of producing false positive alarm conditions. Urban radiological searches are inherently challenged by the rapid and large spatial variation of background gamma radiation, the presence of benign radioactive materials in terms of the normally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and shielded and/or masked threat sources. Multiple spectral anomaly detection algorithms have been developed by national laboratories and commercial vendors. For example, the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) a one-dimensional deterministic radiation transport software capable of calculating gamma ray spectra using physics-based detector response functions was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection algorithm (or NSCRAD), developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, uses spectral comparison ratios to detect deviation from benign medical and NORM radiation source and can work in spite of strong presence of NORM and or medical sources. RSL has developed its own wavelet-based gamma energy spectral anomaly detection algorithm called WAVRAD. Test results and relative merits of these different algorithms will be discussed and demonstrated.

  4. A field-deployable, chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer: application to the measurement of gas-phase organic and inorganic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bertram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a new field-deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-TOFMS for the direct measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. We apply the technique to the measurement of gas-phase inorganic and organic acids via negative-ion proton transfer, using acetate as the reagent ion. A novel high pressure interface, incorporating two RF-only quadrupoles is used to efficiently focus ions through four stages of differential pumping before analysis with a compact TOFMS. The high ion-duty cycle (>20% of the TOFMS, coupled to efficient production and transmission of ions in the high pressure interface results in a highly sensitive (>300 ions s−1 pptv−1 instrument capable of the fast measurement of atmospheric gases at trace levels. We demonstrate the efficient transfer and detection of both bare ions and ion-molecule clusters, and characterize the instrument during field measurements aboard the R/V Atlantis as part of the CalNex campaign during the spring of 2010. The in-field short-term precision is better than 5% at 1 pptv (pL/L, for 1-second averages. The detection limit (3σ, 1-second averages of the current version of the CI-TOFMS, as applied to the in situ detection of gas-phase acids, is limited by the magnitude and variability in the background determination and was determined to be 4 pptv.

  5. Calculation of Tissue-Air Ratios(TAR) in Irregularly shaped Field for Co-60 Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young Hoon [Dept. of Therapetic Radiology, Kangnam General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-05-15

    In order to calculate the dose on each interest point in five types of irregularly shaped fields used commonly in radiotherapy, the tissue-air ratios (TAR) in these fields for Go-60 gamma radiation were calculated using the newly devised SAR-chart. The TARs calculated from newly method of using the SAR-chart, computer method and approximation method at the interest point were compared to the TARs obtained from measurement. The result are as follows; In case of the interest points on central axis the calculated TARs in irregularly shaped fields by the above mentioned methods were well agreed within the error of , whereas for the interest points on off-axis the calculated TARs were resulted in the maximum errors of and respectively. From these results, the accuracy of calculation method of using the SAR-chart was confirmed.

  6. Discrete Fourier Transform Method for Discrimination of Digital Scintillation Pulses in Mixed Neutron-Gamma Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Safari, M J; Afarideh, H; Jamili, S; Bayat, E

    2016-01-01

    A Discrete Fourier Transform Method (DFTM) for discrimination between the signal of neutrons and gamma rays in organic scintillation detectors is presented. The method is based on the transformation of signals into the frequency domain using the sine and cosine Fourier transforms in combination with the discrete Fourier transform. The method is largely benefited from considerable differences that usually is available between the zero-frequency components of sine and cosine and the norm of the amplitude of the DFT for neutrons and gamma-ray signals. Moreover, working in frequency domain naturally results in considerable suppression of the unwanted effects of various noise sources that is expected to be effective in time domain methods. The proposed method could also be assumed as a generalized nonlinear weighting method that could result in a new class of pulse shape discrimination methods, beyond definition of the DFT. A comparison to the traditional Charge Integration Method (CIM), as well as the Frequency G...

  7. The Next Step in Deployment of Computer Based Procedures For Field Workers: Insights And Results From Field Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L.; Bly, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human operator interacts with the procedures. One way to achieve these improvements is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools (e.g., placekeeping, correct component verification, etc.), and dynamic step presentation. The latter means that the CBP system could only display relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the operator down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the operator’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBP system for field workers, which has been evaluated from a human factors and usability perspective in four laboratory studies. Based on the results from each study revisions were made to the CBP system. However, a crucial step to get the end users' (e.g., auxiliary operators, maintenance technicians, etc.) acceptance is to put the system in their hands and let them use it as a part of their everyday work activities. In the spring 2014 the first field evaluation of the INL CBP system was conducted at a nuclear power plant. Auxiliary operators conduct a functional test of one out of three backup air compressors each week. During the field evaluation activity, one auxiliary operator conducted the test with the paper-based procedure while a second auxiliary operator

  8. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  9. The null result of a search for pulsational variations of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star gamma Equulei

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O P; Landstreet, J D; Weiss, W W

    2004-01-01

    We describe an analysis of the time-resolved measurements of the surface magnetic field in the roAp star gamma Equ. We have obtained a high-resolution and high S/N spectroscopic time-series, and the magnetic field was determined using Zeeman resolved profiles of the Fe II 6149.25 A and Fe I 6173.34 A lines. Contrary to recent reports we do not find any evidence of magnetic variability with pulsation phase, and derive an upper limit of 5-10 G for pulsational modulation of the surface magnetic field in gamma Equ.

  10. Pulse-shape discrimination of the new plastic scintillators in neutron-gamma mixed field using fast digitizer card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančář, A.; Kopecký, Z.; Dressler, J.; Veškrna, M.; Matěj, Z.; Granja, C.; Solar, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recently invented plastic scintillator EJ-299-33 enables pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) and thus measurement of neutron and photon spectra in mixed fields. In this work we compare the PSD properties of EJ-299-33 plastic and the well-known NE-213 liquid scintillator in monoenergetic neutron fields generated by the Van de Graaff accelerator using the 3H(d, n)4He reaction. Pulses from the scintillators are processed by a newly developed digital measuring system employing the fast digitizer card. This card contains two AD converters connected to the measuring computer via 10 Gbps optical ethernet. The converters operate with a resolution of 12 bits and have two differential inputs with a sampling frequency 1 GHz. The resulting digital channels with different gains are merged into one composite channel with a higher digital resolution in a wide dynamic range of energies. Neutron signals are fully discriminated from gamma signals. Results are presented.

  11. An insulated isothermal PCR method on a field-deployable device for rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 at points of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T

    2015-08-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), including subtypes 2a, 2b and 2c, causes an acute enteric disease in both domestic and wild animals. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis aids effective disease management at points of need (PON). A commercially available, field-deployable and user-friendly system, designed with insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) technology, displays excellent sensitivity and specificity for nucleic acid detection. An iiPCR method was developed for on-site detection of all circulating CPV-2 strains. Limit of detection was determined using plasmid DNA. CPV-2a, 2b and 2c strains, a feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) strain, and nine canine pathogens were tested to evaluate assay specificity. Reaction sensitivity and performance were compared with an in-house real-time PCR using serial dilutions of a CPV-2b strain and 100 canine fecal clinical samples collected from 2010 to 2014, respectively. The 95% limit of detection of the iiPCR method was 13 copies of standard DNA and detection limits for CPV-2b DNA were equivalent for iiPCR and real-time PCR. The iiPCR reaction detected CPV-2a, 2b and 2c and FPV. Non-targeted pathogens were not detected. Test results of real-time PCR and iiPCR from 99 fecal samples agreed with each other, while one real-time PCR-positive sample tested negative by iiPCR. Therefore, excellent agreement (k = 0.98) with sensitivity of 98.41% and specificity of 100% in detecting CPV-2 in feces was found between the two methods. In conclusion, the iiPCR system has potential to serve as a useful tool for rapid and accurate PON, molecular detection of CPV-2.

  12. Synchronously Deployable Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Structure lightweight, readily deployed, and has reliable joints. New truss concept, designated as "pac truss," developed. Features easy deployment without need for complex mechanisms. Structures of this type deployed in free flight by controlled release of stored energy in torsional springs at selected hinges located throughout structure. Double-folding technique used in beam model applicable to flat planar trusses, allowing structures of large expanse to fold into compact packages and be deployed for space-platform applications.

  13. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  14. Simulation of the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber currents by different Monte Carlo codes in benchmark gamma fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Chun [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yuan-Hao, E-mail: yhl.taiwan@gmail.com [Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Center, Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu City 30013, Taiwan (China); Nievaart, Sander [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Petten (Netherlands); Chen, Yen-Fu [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shu-Wei; Chou, Wen-Tsae [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiang-Huei [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    High energy photon (over 10 MeV) and neutron beams adopted in radiobiology and radiotherapy always produce mixed neutron/gamma-ray fields. The Mg(Ar) ionization chambers are commonly applied to determine the gamma-ray dose because of its neutron insensitive characteristic. Nowadays, many perturbation corrections for accurate dose estimation and lots of treatment planning systems are based on Monte Carlo technique. The Monte Carlo codes EGSnrc, FLUKA, GEANT4, MCNP5, and MCNPX were used to evaluate energy dependent response functions of the Exradin M2 Mg(Ar) ionization chamber to a parallel photon beam with mono-energies from 20 keV to 20 MeV. For the sake of validation, measurements were carefully performed in well-defined (a) primary M-100 X-ray calibration field, (b) primary {sup 60}Co calibration beam, (c) 6-MV, and (d) 10-MV therapeutic beams in hospital. At energy region below 100 keV, MCNP5 and MCNPX both had lower responses than other codes. For energies above 1 MeV, the MCNP ITS-mode greatly resembled other three codes and the differences were within 5%. Comparing to the measured currents, MCNP5 and MCNPX using ITS-mode had perfect agreement with the {sup 60}Co, and 10-MV beams. But at X-ray energy region, the derivations reached 17%. This work shows us a better insight into the performance of different Monte Carlo codes in photon-electron transport calculation. Regarding the application of the mixed field dosimetry like BNCT, MCNP with ITS-mode is recognized as the most suitable tool by this work.

  15. Sparse Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields Based on Multi-Unit and High-Gamma Responses in Human Auditory Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick L Jenison

    Full Text Available Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields (STRFs were estimated from both multi-unit sorted clusters and high-gamma power responses in human auditory cortex. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings were used to measure responses to a random chord sequence of Gammatone stimuli. Traditional methods for estimating STRFs from single-unit recordings, such as spike-triggered-averages, tend to be noisy and are less robust to other response signals such as local field potentials. We present an extension to recently advanced methods for estimating STRFs from generalized linear models (GLM. A new variant of regression using regularization that penalizes non-zero coefficients is described, which results in a sparse solution. The frequency-time structure of the STRF tends toward grouping in different areas of frequency-time and we demonstrate that group sparsity-inducing penalties applied to GLM estimates of STRFs reduces the background noise while preserving the complex internal structure. The contribution of local spiking activity to the high-gamma power signal was factored out of the STRF using the GLM method, and this contribution was significant in 85 percent of the cases. Although the GLM methods have been used to estimate STRFs in animals, this study examines the detailed structure directly from auditory cortex in the awake human brain. We used this approach to identify an abrupt change in the best frequency of estimated STRFs along posteromedial-to-anterolateral recording locations along the long axis of Heschl's gyrus. This change correlates well with a proposed transition from core to non-core auditory fields previously identified using the temporal response properties of Heschl's gyrus recordings elicited by click-train stimuli.

  16. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  17. SU-E-T-594: Out-Of-Field Neutron and Gamma Dose Estimated Using TLD-600/700 Pairs in the Wobbling Proton Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y [College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y [College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Medical Physics Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University / Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, H [College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tsai, H [College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Medical Physics Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University / Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Secondary fast neutrons and gamma rays are mainly produced due to the interaction of the primary proton beam with the beam delivery nozzle. These secondary radiation dose to patients and radiation workers are unwanted. The purpose of this study is to estimate the neutron and gamma dose equivalent out of the treatment volume during the wobbling proton therapy system. Methods: Two types of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-600 ({sup 6}LiF: Mg, Ti) and TLD-700 ({sup 7}LiF: Mg, Ti) were used in this study. They were calibrated in the standard neutron and gamma sources at National Standards Laboratory. Annealing procedure is 400°C for 1 hour, 100°C for 2 hours and spontaneously cooling down to the room temperature in a programmable oven. Two-peak method (a kind of glow curve analysis technique) was used to evaluate the TL response corresponding to the neutron and gamma dose. The TLD pairs were placed outside the treatment field at the neutron-gamma mixed field with 190-MeV proton beam produced by the wobbling system through the polyethylene plate phantom. The results of TLD measurement were compared to the Monte Carlo simulation. Results: The initial experiment results of calculated dose equivalents are 0.63, 0.38, 0.21 and 0.13 mSv per Gy outside the field at the distance of 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm. Conclusion: The TLD-600 and TLD-700 pairs are convenient to estimate neutron and gamma dosimetry during proton therapy. However, an accurate and suitable glow curve analysis technique is necessary. During the wobbling system proton therapy, our results showed that the neutron and gamma doses outside the treatment field are noticeable. This study was supported by the grants from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0682)

  18. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  19. The effect of an offset-dipole magnetic field on the Vela pulsar's gamma-ray light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Breed, M; Harding, A K; Johnson, T J

    2015-01-01

    Over the past six years, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has detected more than 150 gamma-ray pulsars, discovering a variety of light curve trends and classes. Such diversity hints at distinct underlying magnetospheric and/or emission geometries. We implemented an offset-dipole magnetic field, with an offset characterised by parameters epsilon and magnetic azimuthal angle, in an existing geometric pulsar modelling code which already includes static and retarded vacuum dipole fields. We use these different magnetic field solutions in conjunction with standard emission geometries, namely the two-pole caustic and outer gap models (the latter only for non-offset dipoles), and construct intensity maps and light curves for several pulsar parameters. We compare our model light curves to the Vela data from the second pulsar catalogue of Fermi. We use a refined chi-square grid search method for finding best-fit light curves for each of the different models. Our best fit is for the retarded vacuum dipole field and the o...

  20. 15/9 Gamma gas field offshore Norway, new trap type for North Sea basin with regional structural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegrum, R.M.; Ljones, T.E.

    1984-07-01

    The 15/9 Gamma gas field lies in the central North Sea midway between Norway and the United Kingdom. The field was discovered in 1981 and, by mid-1982, 3 additional confirmation wells had been completed. The reservoir is provided by a complex of Paleocene submarine-fan sandstones. The sandstones decrease in thickness across the field from 150 m (492 ft) in the northwest to less than 50 m (164 ft) in the southeast. The sandstones pinch out entirely a few kilometers beyond the field. The volume of gas in place is on the order of 65 X 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/ (2.3 tcf). The trap in the Paleocene sandstones is interpreted as being formed by a mid-Tertiary compressive phase which reactivated preexisting basement faults. Detailed structural analysis suggests that WNW-ESE-trending faults have suffered repeated strike-slip offset associated with Jurassic transtension and mid-Cretaceous and middle Tertiary transpression. The writers suggest that the WNW-ESEtrending basement faults represent a northwestward continuation of the Tornquist line, a fundamental fracture zone bounding the East European-Scandinavian platform, which had previously been considered as terminating at the line of the Oslo graben, about 250 km (155 mi) to the southeast.

  1. Gamma-ray observations of blazars and the intergalactic magnetic field spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Caprini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Very-high energy observations of blazars can be used to constrain the strength of the intergalactic magnetic field. A simplifying assumption which is often made is that of a magnetic field of constant strength composed by randomly oriented and identical cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that a more realistic description of the structure of the intergalactic magnetic field is indeed needed. If such a description is adopted, the observational bounds on the field strength are significantly affected in the limit of short field correlation lengths: in particular, they acquire a dependence on the magnetic field power spectrum. In the case of intergalactic magnetic fields which are generated causally, for which the magnetic field large scale spectral index is $n_B\\geq 2$ and even, the observational lower bound becomes more constraining by about a factor 3. If instead $-3fields with very red spectra can in principle be produced during inflatio...

  2. Dose-response curve for blood exposed to gamma-neutron mixed field by conventional cytogenetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Jose Odinilson de C.; Souza, Priscilla L.G.; Santos, Joelan A.L.; Vilela, Eudice C.; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: jodinilson@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: jasantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Calixto, Merilane S.; Santos, Neide, E-mail: santos_neide@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica

    2009-07-01

    There is increasing concern about airline crew members (about one million worldwide) are exposed to measurable neutrons doses. Historically, cytogenetic biodosimetry assays have been based on quantifying asymmetrical chromosome alterations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentric fragments) in mytogen-stimulated T-lymphocytes in their first mitosis after radiation exposure. Increased levels of chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes are a sensitive indicator of radiation exposure and they are routinely exploited for assessing radiation absorbed dose after accidental or occupational exposure. Since radiological accidents are not common, not all nations feel that it is economically justified to maintain biodosimetry competence. However, dependable access to biological dosimetry capabilities is completely critical in event of an accident. In this paper the dose-response curve was measured for the induction of chromosomal alterations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after chronic exposure in vitro to neutron-gamma mixes field. Blood was obtained from one healthy donor and exposed to two neutron-gamma mixed field from sources {sup 241}AmBe (20 Ci) at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL-CRCN/NE-PE-Brazil). The evaluated absorbed doses were 0.2 Gy; 1.0 Gy and 2.5 Gy. The dicentric chromosomes were observed at metaphase, following colcemid accumulation and 1000 well-spread metaphase figures were analyzed for the presence of dicentrics by two experienced scorers after painted by giemsa 5%. Our preliminary results showed a linear dependence between radiations absorbed dose and dicentric chromosomes frequencies. Dose-response curve described in this paper will contribute to the construction of calibration curve that will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry. (author)

  3. Acquisition of Oceanographic Measurements from Baleen Whales and Acquisition of Oceanographic Measurements from Baleen Whales: Field Deployments of Tags Developed Under Grant ONR (N00014-13-1-0854)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Whales & Acquisition of Oceanographic Measurements from Baleen Whales : Field Deployments of Tags Developed Under Grant ONR (N00014-13-1-0854...e-mail: jte@bios.au.dk Award Number: N00014-14-1-0424 / N00014-13-1-0854 LONG-TERM GOALS To use large baleen whales as oceanographic...transmitters for baleen whales that can collect and transmit data on location, depth, temperature and salinity at specific depths. • To develop and test

  4. Entry Debris Field Estimation Methods and Application to Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozinski, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    For public safety reasons, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was intentionally deorbited on June 4, 2000. This deorbit was NASA's first intentional controlled deorbit of a satellite, and more will come including the eventual deorbit of the International Space Station. To maximize public safety, satellite deorbit planning requires conservative estimates of the debris footprint size and location. These estimates are needed to properly design a deorbit sequence that places the debris footprint over unpopulated areas, including protection for deorbit contingencies. This paper details a method for estimating the length (range), width (crossrange), and location of entry and breakup debris footprints. This method utilizes a three degree-of-freedom Monte Carlo simulation incorporating uncertainties in all aspects of the problem, including vehicle and environment uncertainties. The method incorporates a range of debris characteristics based on historical data in addition to any vehicle-specific debris catalog information. This paper describes the method in detail, and presents results of its application as used in planning the deorbit of the CGRO.

  5. An apparatus for the study of high temperature water radiolysis in a nuclear reactor: calibration of dose in a mixed neutron/gamma radiation field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Eric J; Wilson, Paul P H; Anderson, Mark H; Mezyk, Stephen P; Pimblott, Simon M; Bartels, David M

    2007-12-01

    The cooling water of nuclear reactors undergoes radiolytic decomposition induced by gamma, fast electron, and neutron radiation in the core. To model the process, recombination reaction rates and radiolytic yields for the water radical fragments need to be measured at high temperature and pressure. Yields for the action of neutron radiation are particularly hard to determine independently because of the beta/gamma field also present in any reactor. In this paper we report the design of an apparatus intended to measure neutron radiolysis yields as a function of temperature and pressure. A new methodology for separation of neutron and beta/gamma radiolysis yields in a mixed radiation field is proposed and demonstrated.

  6. Probing vacuum birefringence under a high-intensity laser field with gamma-ray polarimetry at the GeV scale

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamiya, Yoshihide; Moritaka, Toseo; Seto, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Probing vacuum structures deformed by high intense fields is of great interest in general. In the context of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the vacuum exposed by a linearly polarized high-intensity laser field is expected to show birefringence. We consider the combination of a 10 PW laser system to pump the vacuum and 1 GeV gamma-rays to probe the birefringent effect. The vacuum birefringence can be measured via the polarization flip of the probe gamma-rays. We discuss the design of the gamma-ray polarimeter and then evaluate the measurability of the reduction of the degree of linear polarization due to the appearance of birefringence. We found that the measurement is indeed feasible given a realistic set of laser parameters and achievable pulse statistics.

  7. gamma Peg: testing Vega-like magnetic fields in B stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, C; Leroy, B; Mathis, S; Bohlender, D

    2013-01-01

    gam Peg is a bright B pulsator showing both p and g modes of beta Cep and SPB types. It has also been claimed to be a magnetic star by some authors while others do not detect a magnetic field. We aimed at checking for the presence of a field, characterise it if it exists or provide a firm upper limit of its strength if it is not detected. If gam Peg is magnetic, it would make an ideal asteroseismic target to test various theoretical scenarios. If it is very weakly magnetic, it would be the first observation of an extension of Vega-like fields to early B stars. Finally, if it is not magnetic and we can provide a very low upper limit on its non-detected field, it would make an important result for stellar evolution models. We acquired high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric Narval data at TBL. We also gathered existing dimaPol@DAO and Musicos@TBL spectropolarimetric data. We analysed the Narval and Musicos observations using the LSD technique to derive the longitudinal magnetic field and Zeema...

  8. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  9. Deployable geodesic truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.

  10. Numerical simulation of deepwater deployment for offshore structures with deploying cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小舟; 刘少军

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater deployment of offshore structures in different sea states was investigated. The whole deployment system was modeled as a lumped mass model, and discretization scheme for cable geometry and methodology for calculating the internal and external force acting on deploying cable were presented. The deployment model suitable for the time-varying length of deploying cable was specified. The free-surface flow fields together with the ship motions were used to calculate dynamic tension in the deploying cable during deployment of the structure. The deployment of deep sea mining system which was a typical subsea working system was employed. Based on lumped mass analysis model and parameters of deep sea mining system, numerical simulations were performed, and dynamic load and dynamic amplification factor (DAF) with different cable parameters, deploying velocities and sea states were obtained. It is shown that cable parameters and amplitudes of ocean waves can significantly influence the dynamic load and DAF, and the time-varying natural period of deploying system is a dominant factor, while the effect of deploying velocity is not obvious.

  11. Colliding. gamma. e- and. gamma gamma. -beams on the basis of electron-positron linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1983-08-01

    Main properties of the ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. collisions are discussed in some detail with application to the generation of colliding ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams basing on the designed linear accelerators with colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams, VLEEP and SLC, as it was proposed in a previous work. Intensive ..gamma.. beams with the energy 50 GeV would be produced from scattering of the laser light focused to the electron beams of the accelerators. Laser radiation is focused to the electron beam in the conversion region at a distance of about 10 cm from the place of collision. After scattering on electrons high-energy photons move practically along the electron primary trajectories and are focused in the collision region. The electrons are deflected from the collision region by means of approximately 1 T magnetic field. Then the produced ..gamma..-beam collides with an electron beam or a similar ..gamma..-beam. In the case when the maximum luminosity (L) is attained, the luminosity distribution in the invariant mass of the ..gamma..e or ..gamma gamma.. systems is wide. A monochromatization of the collisions up to the level of 5-10% is possible. That will entail a decrease in the luminosity, the procedure is most effective if one uses the electrons and the laser photons with opposite helicities. Examples of physically interesting problems to be investigated with the proposed ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams are suggested.

  12. Performance Testing Of Selected Types of Electronic Personal Dosimeters in X- and Gamma Radiation Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Nikola; Živanović, Miloš; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarević, Đorđe; Ćeklić, Sandra; Stanković, Srboljub

    2017-10-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are increasingly being used alongside conventional thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure the dose of legal record in terms of personal dose equivalent. Therefore, it is of great importance to execute performance tests of these dosimeters in photon fields of various energies and at various angles of incidence. This testing is done in order to simulate the behavior of these dosimeters in realistic multidirectional polyenergetic ionizing radiation fields. Tests of accuracy, linearity, energy response, and angular response have been performed on 10 EPDs from multiple manufacturers. Various radiation qualities have been used in the energy range from 33 keV to 1.33 MeV and for angles of incidence 0° to 80°. This research proves that many of the EPDs tested performed according to the manufacturer's specifications and the requirements of the international standards regarding personal dosimetry.

  13. Semiconductor High-Level Dosimeters Used in the SLAC Mixed Gamma and Neutron Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, S

    2003-01-01

    As part of an exploration of Semiconductor High-Level Dosimetry (SHLD) in the accelerator radiation fields, the response of SHLD system, composed of dual MOSFETs, wide-base PIN diode, and a microprocessor-controlled reader, was calibrated in photon (Co-60) and neutron (Bare-reactor) fields. The response curves for the MOSFET and the PIN diode were determined. The neutron sensitivity of the PIN diode is about a factor of 2200 times higher than its photon sensitivity. Therefore, the PIN diode can be used to measure the neutron dose and virtually ignore the photon dose contribution. The MOSFET can be used to estimate the photon dose after subtracting the ionizing effect of the neutrons. The SHLD was used in the SLAC mixed field to measure the photon and neutron doses around a copper beam dump. The photon measurements near the copper dump agreed reasonably with the FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations. The neutron measurements agreed with FLUKA calculations to within a factor of two.

  14. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  15. U.S. Government Capabilities to Support Analysis of Gamma Ray Data Submitted by Field Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, D J; Blackadar, J M; Dietrich, D D; Smith, D K; Lasche, G P; Waymire, D R

    2005-07-07

    As radiation detection in the interest of national security becomes increasingly commonplace, inevitable questions arise concerning the interpretation of data from handheld radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Field elements typically require fast answers to provide an effective defense and to minimize the impact on legitimate movement of people and goods. To support this need, on-call experts at Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories cooperate in resolving radiation alarms rapidly and accurately. We present an overview, describe the work in progress to improve capabilities, and report on some of the lessons learned.

  16. Background Information: Magnetars, Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and the Most Powerful Magnetic Fields in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Near the end of its life, a star more massive than our Sun finds itself no longer able to support its own weight from the crush of gravity and so it collapses, producing an expanding shock wave that sweeps through the surrounding gas, creating what is called a supernova remnant. All that remains of the original star is a dense, compact object known as a neutron star. Magnetars are the latest addition to the "zoo" of neutron stars and they are truly exotic beasts with magnetic fields hundreds of millions of times stronger than have ever been seen on Earth. The story which led to the prediction of magnetars and then to their discovery is given elsewhere. Here we will focus on the other part of the story, the supernova remnants born at the same time as magnetars and the diffuse emission produced by the energetic outpourings of the magnetars. All four of the soft gamma-ray repeaters that we currently know are located in or near a supernova remnant. It was this discovery that led astronomers to determine that soft gamma-ray repeaters were in our Galaxy and the nearby galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud. Through the study of these supernova remnants, astronomers were able to infer that soft gamma-ray repeaters were solitary young neutron stars speeding away from their birthplace at 3 million miles per hour. Theories predict that the same process which can produce the fantastic bursts of hard X-ray emission that give soft gamma-ray repeaters their name, can also accelerate particles (electrons, protons, etc) to speeds approaching the speed of light. As the saying goes, "where there's smoke there's fire" and this case is no exception. Most of the energy released by the burst event is carried away by these high energy particles and not the gamma-ray burst itself. As the particles spiral in the surrounding magnetic field, they too emit radiation, creating extended nebulae called "plerions". Provided there is some way to confine the outflow, these plerions act as "wind

  17. Image processing techniques revealing the relationship between the field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rate and geological conditions at a granitic area, Velence Mountains, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Torres, Silvana; Petrik, Attila; Zsuzsanna Szabó, Katalin; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-04-01

    In order to estimate the annual dose that the public receive from natural radioactivity, the identification of the potential risk areas is required which, in turn, necessitates understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and the geogenic risk factors (e.g., rock types, dykes, faults, soil conditions, etc.). A detailed spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate was performed in the western side of Velence Mountains, the largest outcropped granitic area in Hungary. In order to assess the role of local geology in the spatial distribution of ambient gamma dose rates, field measurements were carried out at ground level at 300 sites along a 250 m x 250 m regular grid in a total surface of 14.7 km2. Digital image processing methods were applied to identify anomalies, heterogeneities and spatial patterns in the measured gamma dose rates, including local maxima and minima determination, digital cross sections, gradient magnitude and gradient direction, second derivative profile curvature, local variability, lineament density, 2D autocorrelation and directional variogram analyses. Statistical inference showed that different gamma dose rate levels are associated with the rock types (i.e., Carboniferous granite, Pleistocene colluvial, proluvial, deluvial sediments and talus, and Pannonian sand and pebble), with the highest level on the Carboniferous granite including outlying values. Moreover, digital image processing revealed that linear gamma dose rate spatial features are parallel to the SW-NE dyke system and possibly to the NW-SE main fractures. The results of this study underline the importance of understanding the role of geogenic risk factors influencing the ambient gamma dose rate received by public. The study also demonstrates the power of the image processing techniques for the identification of spatial pattern in field-measured geogenic radiation.

  18. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  19. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  20. Trajectory control of PbSe-{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etgar, Lioz; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute (RBNI), Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen, E-mail: ssefrat@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: rinatan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-30

    The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.

  1. Intraoperative Scintigraphy Using a Large Field-of-View Portable Gamma Camera for Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Initial Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C. Hall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated a novel technique, intraoperative 99 mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI imaging (neck and excised specimen (ES, using a large field-of-view portable gamma camera (LFOVGC, for expediting confirmation of MIBI-avid parathyroid adenoma removal. Methods. Twenty patients with MIBI-avid parathyroid adenomas were preoperatively administered MIBI and intraoperatively imaged prior to incision (neck and immediately following resection (neck and/or ES. Preoperative and intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone monitoring (IOPTH and pathology (path were also performed. Results. MIBI neck activity was absent and specimen activity was present in 13/20 with imaging after initial ES removal. In the remaining 7/20 cases, residual neck activity and/or absent ES activity prompted excision of additional tissue, ultimately leading to complete hyperfunctioning tissue excision. Postexcision LFOVGC ES imaging confirmed parathyroid adenoma resection 100% when postresection imaging qualitatively had activity (ES and/or no activity (neck. The mean ± SEM time saving using intraoperative LFOVGC data to confirm resection versus first IOPTH or path result would have been 22.0 ± 2 minutes (specimen imaging and 26.0 ± 3 minutes (neck imaging. Conclusion. Utilization of a novel real-time intraoperative LFOVGC imaging approach can provide confirmation of MIBI-avid parathyroid adenoma removal appreciably faster than IOPTH and/or path and may provide a valuable adjunct to parathyroid surgery.

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD WITH GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, Justin D. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Reyes, Luis C.; Reynolds, Kaeleigh [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos; McCann, Kevin [Department of Physics and Center for Space Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Ajello, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Fegan, Stephen J., E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: lreyes04@calpoly.edu, E-mail: georgano@umbc.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France)

    2015-11-20

    Distant BL Lacertae objects emit γ-rays that interact with the extragalactic background light (EBL), creating electron–positron pairs, and reducing the flux measured by ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at very-high energies (VHE). These pairs can Compton-scatter the cosmic microwave background, creating a γ-ray signature at slightly lower energies that is observable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This signal is strongly dependent on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) strength (B) and its coherence length (L{sub B}). We use IACT spectra taken from the literature for 5 VHE-detected BL Lac objects and combine them with LAT spectra for these sources to constrain these IGMF parameters. Low B values can be ruled out by the constraint that the cascade flux cannot exceed that observed by the LAT. High values of B can be ruled out from the constraint that the EBL-deabsorbed IACT spectrum cannot be greater than the LAT spectrum extrapolated into the VHE band, unless the cascade spectrum contributes a sizable fraction of the LAT flux. We rule out low B values (B ≲ 10{sup −19} G for L{sub B} ≥ 1 Mpc) at >5σ in all trials with different EBL models and data selection, except when using >1 GeV spectra and the lowest EBL models. We were not able to constrain high values of B.

  3. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  4. Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil is a proposed technology that will be designed and tested to provide a greatly superior parachute precision delivery system...

  5. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  6. Mechanized applicator for large-scale field deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption in tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Miller, J R; Ledebuhr, R; Gut, L J

    2006-10-01

    A tractor-mounted mechanized applicator was developed for large-scale deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The wax formulation was mostly water and emulsified paraffin wax containing 5% (by weight) pheromone [93:6:1 blend of (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate:(E)-8-dodecen-1-yl-acetate: (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol]. Ten milliliters of wax was applied per tree as approximately 160 deposits (0.04 ml of wax per drop). An average of 23 min was required to treat 1 ha of crop. Disruption efficacy of mechanically applied wax was measured relative to an untreated control in replicated 0.4-ha blocks within a recently abandoned apple orchard. From 6 May to 27 June, 100% disruption of tethered virgin females and 97% inhibition of pheromone traps was achieved for 52 d with two applications of wax. However, during mid- to late summer (July-August), this level of efficacy was maintained for only approximately 1 wk after each of two applications. Higher temperatures later in the season may have accounted for abbreviated efficacy of the applied small drops. Mechanically applied paraffin-wax technology may increase adoption of mating disruption given that a higher level of efficacy was achieved despite deploying less active ingredient per hectare relative to that used with reservoir dispensers. The savings in labor by not requiring hand application of reservoir dispensers could be directed toward cost of machinery. However, the short duration of efficacy obtained with the current wax formulation and mechanical applicator is judged uneconomical given the eight or more applications that would have been required for high-performance disruption over the full season. Larger drops with lower surface area-to-volume ratios are expected to prolong pheromone release for extended efficacy and desirable overall economics.

  7. Determination of differential dose rates in a mixed beta and gamma field using shielded Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C: results of Monte Carlo modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.C. E-mail: marianne.aznar@risoe.dk; Nathan, R.; Murray, A.S.; Boetter-Jensen, L

    2003-10-01

    Mixed beta and gamma heterogeneous radiation fields are found in many circumstances, ranging from retrospective dosimetry to medical therapy treatments. It can be very important to provide a direct measurement of the contribution to dose rate from beta particles and gamma rays separately, especially when heterogeneity is on a scale comparable to the range of beta particles (a few mm). In the retrospective dosimetry of heterogeneous sites, in situ measurement at a point may be the only practical method of measuring the appropriate dose rate. Only if the beta and gamma contributions are measured separately can the appropriate water content and grain attenuation corrections be applied. Such corrections are also essential if the full potential of direct dose rate measurement in reducing the overall uncertainty in a luminescence age to much below 5% is ever to be realised. In this paper we outline the results of our modelling of the most appropriate encapsulation for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C luminescence dosimeters when used to measure the dose rate from natural radiation fields. We consider a configuration where one Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C chip of a pair is enclosed in a beta-thin light-tight package (which would allow most of the beta radiation to reach the chip); the other in a beta-thick package (which would absorb most beta radiation, hence leaving the chip to record only gamma radiation). The design of the encapsulation is developed using Monte Carlo simulations, and this approach is also used to investigate the sensitivity of the response to the different beta and gamma contributions from uranium, thorium and potassium sources.

  8. Determination of differential dose rates in a mixed beta and gamma field using shielded Al2O3:C : Results of Monte Carlo modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M.C.; Nathan, R.; Murray, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Mixed beta and gamma heterogeneous radiation fields are found in many circumstances, ranging from retrospective dosimetry to medical therapy treatments. It can be very important to provide a direct measurement of the contribution to dose rate from beta particles and gamma rays separately, especia...

  9. Synchronously deployable truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.

  10. Mining Deployment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The deployment problem, researched primarily in the military sector, is emerging in some other industries, mining included. The principal decision is how to deploy some activities in space and time to achieve desired outcome while complying with certain requirements or limits. Requirements and limits are on the side constraints, while minimizing costs or maximizing some benefits are on the side of objectives. A model with application to mining of polymetallic deposit is presented. To obtain quick and immediate decision solutions for a mining engineer with experimental possibilities is the main intention of a computer-based tool. The task is to determine strategic deployment of mining activities on a deposit, meeting planned output from the mine and at the same time complying with limited reserves and haulage capacities. Priorities and benefits can be formulated by the planner.

  11. Tropical Cyclone Center Positions from Sequences of HDSS Sondes Deployed along High-Altitude Overpasses of Hurricane Joaquin in 2015, during the ONR Tropical Cyclone Intensity field program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, R.; Elsberry, R. L.; Hendricks, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    A method is developed to calculate the zero wind center (ZWC) position from a sequence of Yankee High Density Sounding System (HDSS) dropwindsondes deployed during a high-altitude overpass of a tropical cyclone. The approach is similar to the Willoughby and Chelmow technique in that it utilizes the intersections of bearings normal to the wind directions across the center to locate the ZWC position. Average wind directions over 1 km layers are calculated from the highly accurate Global Positioning (GPS) lat./long. positions as the HDSS sonde falls from the 60,000 foot flight-level of the NASA WB57 to the ocean surface. An iterative procedure is used to also account for the storm translation, which is necessary to put these high-frequency HDSS observations into a storm-relative coordinate system. The Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI-15) mission into Hurricane Joaquin on 4 October 2015 is examined. The ZWC positions from two center overpasses indicate the vortex tilts from 1 km to 10 km elevation and rotates cyclonically.

  12. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  13. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  14. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  15. Design of a CZT Gamma-Camera for GRB and Fast Transient Follow-up: a Wide-Field-Monitor for the EDGE Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Natalucci, L; Quadrini, E; Ubertini, P; Piro, L; Herder, J W den; Barret, D; Amati, L; Budtz-Jorgensen, C; Caroli, E; Di Cosimo, S; Frutti, M; Labanti, C; Monzani, F; Poulsen, J M; Nicolini, L; Stevoli, A

    2008-01-01

    The success of the SWIFT/BAT and INTEGRAL missions has definitely opened a new window for follow-up and deep study of the transient gamma-ray sky. This now appears as the access key to important progresses in the area of cosmological research and deep understanding of the physics of compact objects. To detect in near real-time explosive events like Gamma-Ray bursts, thermonuclear flashes from Neutron Stars and other types of X-ray outbursts we have developed a concept for a wide-field gamma-ray coded mask instrument working in the range 8-200 keV, having a sensitivity of 0.4 ph cm-2 s-1 in 1s (15-150 keV) and arcmin location accuracy over a sky region as wide as 3sr. This scientific requirement can be achieved by means of two large area, high spatial resolution CZT detection planes made of arrays of relatively large (~1cm2) crystals, which are in turn read out as matrices of smaller pixels. To achieve such a wide Field-Of-View the two units can be placed at the sides of a S/C platform serving a payload with a...

  16. Field evaluation of commercial off-the-shelf spatial repellents against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes Albopictus (Skuse), and the potential for use during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Aaron M; Farooq, Muhammed; Diclaro, Joseph W; Kline, Daniel L; Estep, Alden S

    2013-01-01

    The Testing and Evaluation Department of the US Navy Entomology Center of Excellence (NECE), Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is dedicated to the evaluation of novel equipment and vector control techniques to provide guidance on effective protection measures against human pathogens transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. Personal protective measures (PPM), to include repellents, are part of a series of techniques that contribute toward reducing human-vector contact for globally and domestically deployed military forces. However, improper PPM use and limited availability has created vulnerabilities, causing troops to purchase spatial repellent products that are not approved by the Department of Defense. In order to ensure the most effective products are available, NECE has evaluated the spatial repellency response of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) to 4 commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) spatial repellents to provide technical guidance on proper use and effectiveness. The COTS products evaluated ThermaCELL, OFF! Clip On, Lentek Bite Shield, and Bug Button Mosquito Eliminator. A Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap was placed in 5 locations with a spatial repellent device suspended at the level of the BGS trap opening over 4 of them (the fifth was control). Each trap catch was collected every 12 hours, at which time the spatial repellent device was rotated to the next position. Using this method, each spatial repellent device and control was rotated across each of the 5 locations a total of 6 times. Spatial repellent efficiency was evaluated by comparing the total number of mosquitoes collected in the BGS traps during a 12-hour period. The number of adult mosquitoes repelled by the ThermaCell spatial repellent was significantly more than other spatial repellents with the exception of OFF!. These data indicate that COTS products using repellent insecticide rather than botanicals are more effective at deterring Ae. albopictus from biting a host.

  17. Transforming Clinical Data into Actionable Prognosis Models: Machine-Learning Framework and Field-Deployable App to Predict Outcome of Ebola Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Colubri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the response to the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak indicates the need for innovations in data collection, sharing, and use to improve case detection and treatment. Here we introduce a Machine Learning pipeline for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD prognosis prediction, which packages the best models into a mobile app to be available in clinical care settings. The pipeline was trained on a public EVD clinical dataset, from 106 patients in Sierra Leone.We used a new tool for exploratory analysis, Mirador, to identify the most informative clinical factors that correlate with EVD outcome. The small sample size and high prevalence of missing records were significant challenges. We applied multiple imputation and bootstrap sampling to address missing data and quantify overfitting. We trained several predictors over all combinations of covariates, which resulted in an ensemble of predictors, with and without viral load information, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.8 or more, after correcting for optimistic bias. We ranked the predictors by their F1-score, and those above a set threshold were compiled into a mobile app, Ebola CARE (Computational Assignment of Risk Estimates.This method demonstrates how to address small sample sizes and missing data, while creating predictive models that can be readily deployed to assist treatment in future outbreaks of EVD and other infectious diseases. By generating an ensemble of predictors instead of relying on a single model, we are able to handle situations where patient data is partially available. The prognosis app can be updated as new data become available, and we made all the computational protocols fully documented and open-sourced to encourage timely data sharing, independent validation, and development of better prediction models in outbreak response.

  18. Large, Easily Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

  19. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  20. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  1. Development of an algorithm for TLD badge system for dosimetry in the field of X and gamma radiation in terms of Hp(10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, A K; Srivastava, K; Varadharajan, G; Pradhan, A S; Kher, R K

    2007-01-01

    In view of the introduction of International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements operational quantities Hp(10) and Hp(0.07), defined for individual monitoring, it became necessary to develop an algorithm that gives direct response of the dosemeter in terms of the operational quantities. Hence, for this purpose and also to improve the accuracy in dose estimation especially in the mixed fields of X ray and gamma, an algorithm was developed based on higher-order polynomial fit of the data points generated from the dose-response of discs under different filter regions of the present TL dosemeter system for known delivered doses. Study on the response of the BARC TL dosemeter system based on CaSO(4):Dy Teflon thermoluminescence dosemeter discs in the mixed fields of X and gamma radiation was carried out to ensure that the accuracies are within the prescribed limits recommended by the international organisations. The prevalent algorithm, based on the ratios of the disc response under various filters regions of the dosemeter to pure photons, was tested for different proportion of two radiations in case of mixed field dosimetry. It was found that the accuracy for few fields is beyond the acceptable limit in case of prevalent algorithm. The new proposed algorithm was also tested in mixed fields of photon fields and to pure photon fields of varied angles. It was found that the response of the dosemeter in mixed fields of photons and its angular response are satisfactory. The new algorithm can be used to record and report the personal dose in terms of Hp(10) as per the international recommendation for the present TL dosemeter.

  2. Constraints on Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields, and Dark Matter from Gamma-ray Observations of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies with VERITAS and FERMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Perkins, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of radio halos and relics in galaxy clusters indicate efficient electron acceleration. Protons should likewise be accelerated and, on account of weak energy losses, can accumulate, suggesting that clusters may also be sources of very high energy (VHE; E greater than100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. We report here on VHE gamma-ray observations of the Coma galaxy cluster with the VERITAS array of imaging Cerenkov telescopes, with complementing Fermi Large Area Telescope observations at GeV energies. No significant gamma-ray emission from the Coma Cluster was detected. Integral flux upper limits at the 99 confidence level were measured to be on the order of (2-5) x 10(sup -8) photons m(sup -2) s(sup -1) (VERITAS,greater than 220 GeV) and approximately 2 x 10(sup -6) photons m(sup -2) s(sup -1) (Fermi, 1-3 GeV), respectively. We use the gamma-ray upper limits to constrain cosmic rays (CRs) and magnetic fields in Coma. Using an analytical approach, the CR-to-thermal pressure ratio is constrained to be less than 16% from VERITAS data and less than 1.7% from Fermi data (averaged within the virial radius). These upper limits are starting to constrain the CR physics in self-consistent cosmological cluster simulations and cap the maximum CR acceleration efficiency at structure formation shocks to be 50. Alternatively, this may argue for non-negligible CR transport processes such as CR streaming and diffusion into the outer cluster regions. Assuming that the radio-emitting electrons of the Coma halo result from hadronic CR interactions, the observations imply a lower limit on the central magnetic field in Coma of approximately (2-5.5)microG, depending on the radial magnetic field profile and on the gamma-ray spectral index. Since these values are below those inferred by Faraday rotation measurements in Coma (for most of the parameter space), this renders the hadronic model a very plausible explanation of the Coma radio halo. Finally, since galaxy clusters are dark

  3. Dedicated Deployable Aerobraking Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated deployable aerobraking structure concept was developed that significantly increases the effective area of a spacecraft during aerobraking by up to a factor of 5 or more (depending on spacecraft size) without substantially increasing total spacecraft mass. Increasing the effective aerobraking area of a spacecraft (without significantly increasing spacecraft mass) results in a corresponding reduction in the time required for aerobraking. For example, if the effective area of a spacecraft is doubled, the time required for aerobraking is roughly reduced to half the previous value. The dedicated deployable aerobraking structure thus enables significantly shorter aerobraking phases, which results in reduced mission cost, risk, and allows science operations to begin earlier in the mission.

  4. Measures undertaken in the German Armed Forces Field Hospital deployed in Kosovo to contain a potential outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Meyer, Hermann

    2005-05-01

    During May and June 2001, the World Health Organization reported an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Kosovo. Two of the outbreak foci were located within the German Kosovo Force's zone of responsibility and thus countermeasures were undertaken at the German field hospital in Prizren to prepare for a potential outbreak among soldiers. A risk assessment was undertaken and the following essential issues were addressed: the education of troops with emphasis given to the prevention of tick bites, the establishment of an isolation unit, including barrier nursing and technical safety measures, the establishment of procedures for the safe handling of biological specimens intended for laboratory diagnosis, protocols for the treatment and prophylaxis with ribavirin, protocols for effective disinfection and decontamination, and an "outbreak plan" should the disease spread among soldiers. Using Army Mobile Field Hospital System equipment, a plan was implemented within 72 hours. The procedures described herein are likely to be suitable for the containment of other highly contagious diseases.

  5. Probing cluster environments of blazars through gamma-gamma absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Sushch, Iurii

    2014-01-01

    Most blazars are known to be hosted in giant elliptic galaxies, but their cluster environments have not been thoroughly investigated. Cluster environments may contain radiation fields of low-energy photons created by nearby galaxies and/or stars in the intracluster medium that produce diffuse intracluster light. These radiation fields may absorb very high energy gamma rays ($E\\gtrsim100$ GeV; VHE) and trigger pair cascades with further production of subsequent generations of gamma rays with lower energies via inverse Compton scattering on surrounding radiation fields leaving a characteristic imprint in the observed spectral shape. The change of the spectral shape of the blazar reflects the properties of its ambient medium. We show, however, that neither intracluster light nor the radiation field of an individual nearby galaxy can cause substantial gamma-gamma absorption. Substantial gamma-gamma absorption is possible only in the case of multiple, $\\gtrsim5$, luminous nearby galaxies. This situation is not fou...

  6. What can the 2008/10 broadband flare of PKS 1502+106 tell us? Nuclear opacity, magnetic fields, and the location of gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanavis, V; Angelakis, E; Nestoras, I; Myserlis, I; Krichbaum, T P; Zensus, J A; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A; Gurwell, M A

    2016-01-01

    Context. The origin of blazar variability, seen from radio up to gamma rays, is still a heavily debated matter and broadband flares offer a unique testbed towards a better understanding of these extreme objects. Such an energetic outburst was detected by Fermi/LAT in 2008 from the blazar PKS 1502+106. The outburst was observed from gamma rays down to radio frequencies. Aims. Through the delay between flare maxima at different radio frequencies, we study the frequency-dependent position of the unit-opacity surface and infer its absolute position with respect to the jet base. This nuclear opacity profile enables the magnetic field tomography of the jet. We also localize the gamma-ray emission region and explore the mechanism producing the flare. Methods. The radio flare of PKS 1502+106 is studied through single-dish flux density measurements at 12 frequencies in the range 2.64 to 226.5 GHz. To quantify it, we employ both a Gaussian process regression and a discrete cross-correlation function analysis. Results. ...

  7. Lithofacies and spectral gamma-ray analysis of a potential outcrop analogue for a secondary reservoir in the McCully Gas Field, Sussex, NB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keighley, D.; Mohan, D. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Geology

    2006-07-01

    The McCully Gas Field in New Brunswick, comprises a succession of gas-filled sandstone units with organic shale. Core data from the reservoir interval in the gas field indicates that the sandstones are the deposits of lacustrine deltas, shorelines and fluvial systems. This study attempted to provide a more detailed interpretation of the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of outcrops and to better correlate the outcrops with producing horizons in the subsurface. The primary producing horizon in the McCully field is the A-sand, for which an equivalent outcrop analogue has yet to be identified. Overlying secondary targets include sandstone packages that appear to coarsen upward over a scale of several tens of metres. An outcrop of a coarsening upward succession within a roadcut has been identified as potentially correlative. Detailed sedimentological logging and spectral gamma ray data was collected over a 40 m thick interval of the outcrop succession. It appears that sedimentation occurred in a periodically and progressively shallowing wave-dominated lake shoreface. A possible root horizon near the top of the succession could indicate a temporary lowering of lake-level and development of a shallow lagoon. An overlying limestone conglomerate was identified as a storm-beach deposit. Conclusive evidence of fluvial deposition within the succession was not found. Spectral gamma-ray data suggests that radioactive uranium and thorium, as well as potassium all decrease upsection together with an overall increase in grain size.

  8. Hydra phantom applicability for carrying out tests of field uniformity in gamma cameras; Aplicabilidade do fantoma hydra para realizacao dos testes de uniformidade de campo em gama camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Filho, Geraldo L., E-mail: geraldo_lemos10@hotmail.com [Centro de Medicina Nuclear de Pernambuco (CEMUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Alex C.H., E-mail: oliveira_ach@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br, E-mail: jose-wilson59@live.com [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that makes use of radioactive material 'in vivo' in humans, making them a temporary radioactive source. The radiation emitted by the patient's body is detected by a specific equipment, called a gamma camera, creates an image showing the spatial and temporal biodistribution of radioactive material administered to the patient. Therefore, it's of fundamental importance a number of specific measures to make sure that procedure be satisfactory, called quality control. To Nuclear Medicine, quality control of gamma camera has the purpose of ensuring accurate scintillographic imaging, truthful and reliable for the diagnosis, guaranteeing visibility and clarity of details of structures, and also to determine the frequency and the need for preventive maintenance of equipment. To ensure the quality control of the gamma camera it's necessary to use some simulators, called phantom, used in Nuclear Medicine to evaluate system performance, system calibration and simulation of injuries. The goal of this study was to validate a new simulator for nuclear medicine, the Hydra phantom. The phantom was initially built for construction of calibration curves used in radiotherapy planning and quality control in CT. It has similar characteristics to specific phantoms in nuclear medicine, containing inserts and water area. Those inserts are regionally sourced materials, many of them are already used in the literature and based on information about density and interaction of radiation with matter. To verify its efficiency in quality control in Nuclear Medicine, was performed a test for uniformity field, one of the main tests performed daily, so we can verify the ability of the gamma camera to reproduce a uniform distribution of the administered activity in the phantom, been analysed qualitatively, through the image, and quantitatively, through values established for Central Field Of View (CFOV) and Useful Field Of View (UFOV

  9. A Rapid Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Sensitive and Specific Detection of Bluetongue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagala, A; Pahari, S; Fisher, M; Lee, P-Y A; Pasick, J; Ostlund, E N; Johnson, D J; Lung, O

    2017-04-01

    Bluetongue is a non-contagious, haemorrhagic, Culicoides-borne disease of ruminants. The causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV), is a member of the Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family. So far, 26 BTV serotypes have been identified worldwide. The global distribution of bluetongue has been expanding, and rapid detection of BTV, preferably in the field, is critical for timely implementation of animal movement restrictions and vector control measures. To date, many laboratory-based, molecular assays for detection of BTV have been developed. These methods require the samples to be shipped to a central laboratory with sophisticated instruments and highly skilled technicians to perform the assays, conduct analyses and interpret the results. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a rapid, portable, user-friendly, pan-BTV reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay that can potentially be used in low-resource field conditions. The total length of the assay was <60 min, and at the end of the assay, the results were automatically displayed as '+' or '-' without the need for data interpretation. The RT-iiPCR assay detected 36 BTV isolates and two in vitro transcribed RNA samples representing all 26 BTV serotypes. The assay did not cross-react with other animal viruses tested, including two closely related orbiviruses. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was as low as nine copies of in vitro transcribed double-stranded BTV RNA. Analysis of BTV-infected whole blood samples showed that the BTV RT-iiPCR assay was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR. The assay can potentially be used for rapid screening of animals for BTV in routine diagnostics and for monitoring bluetongue outbreaks both in ruminants and in Culicoides vectors in the field and in the laboratory.

  10. Spin-down rate and inferred dipole magnetic field of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Esposito; M. Burgay; A. Possenti; R. Turolla; S. Zane; A. De Luca; A. Tiengo; G.L. Israel; F. Mattana; S. Mereghetti; M. Bailes; P. Romano; D. Götz; N. Rea

    2009-01-01

    Using Chandra data taken on 2008 June, we detected pulsations at 2.59439(4) s in the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41. This is the second measurement of the source spin period and allows us to derive for the first time a long-term spin-down rate of (1.9 +/- 0.4)E-11 s/s. From this value we infer

  11. Recent Re-Measurement of the Neutron and Gamma-Ray Fields at Large Distances from a Prompt Critical Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    PROMPT CRITICAL FACILITY (U) by T. Cousins and B.E. Hoffarth Nuclear Effects Section Electronics Division and H. Ing and K. Tremblay Bubble Technology...to define the neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra at various distance (up to - 1 km) from the critical facility at the Nuclear Efects Directorate...results good to within -12%. The above should prove categorically that in fision or degraded fission environments the bubble dosimeter (BD-IOOR) is

  12. Development of a prototype apparatus visualizing on a screen the gamma sources superimposed on the image of the vision field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbard, G.; Lemaire, J.E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Carcreff, H.; Marchand, L.; Thellier, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Reacteurs Experimentaux

    1994-12-31

    Mapping the gamma activity of irradiating zones is often an important prerequisite in dismantling nuclear facilities. The operation is necessary to define a suitable decommissioning strategy before any work begins; it is also required during the procedure to measure the residual activity wherever dose rates are too high to allow human intervention. This report summarizes the work carried out under CEC contract FIED-0055, covering a prototype imaging system designed to display radioactive sources superimposed in real time over a visible light image on a video monitor. This project was developed from an earlier off-line system. The gamma photons are collimated by a double cone system. The imaging system comprises a transparent scintillator bonded to the fiber-optic window of an ultrasensitive camera. The camera was miniaturized to meet specification requirements: with its radiological shielding, the gamma camera weighs 40 kg and is 120 mm in diameter. The processing system is compatible with a realtime camera, and small enough for use at any nuclear. The point-source angular resolution is 1.4 deg. for {sup 60} Co and 0.8 deg. for {sup 137} Cs. The dose rate sensitivity limit is approximately 0.01 mGy.h{sup -1}. Process reliability was confirmed by tests in a high-level radio-metallurgy cell at actual decommissioning site. (authors). 7 figs.

  13. [First analysis of the deployment of the ethical approach in the field of mental health in the Nord Pas-de-Calais region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury, Dominique; François, Guillaume; Danel, Thierry; Cobbaut, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    For 3 years, the Regional Federation of Mental Health Research (F2RSM) has led a space ethics reflexion Department of mental health (ERESM) to federate structures that ethical institutions and mental health services have been creating in the Nord-Pas de Calais. This approach is, in many ways, revealing issues that involve the institutionalisation of ethical reflection in care facilities. In this article, after referring to the major developments in this field, we describe the conditions for the emergence of ethical bodies in the region. Through the choice of development and operation of the ethical reflexion department, we highlight a number of points of attention that illustrate the complex articulation between institutional expectations and concerns of professionals. The trajectory of the ERESM is thus revealed as a process of reflective learning open to all stakeholders, providers and users of mental health.

  14. Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign – Part 1: Deployment of the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Molina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of tropospheric hydroxyl (OH and hydroperoxy (HO2 radicals were made during the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations project during March 2006. These radicals were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence instrument developed at Indiana University. This new instrument takes advantage of the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique (FAGE together with direct excitation and detection of OH at 308 nm. HO2 is indirectly measured as OH by titration with NO inside the fluorescence cell. At this stage of development, IU-FAGE is capable of detecting 3.9×105molec cm−3 of both OH and HO2, with a signal to noise ratio of 1, an averaged laser power of 10 mW and an averaging time of 5 min. The calibration accuracies (1σ are ±17% for OH and ±18% for HO2 using the water-vapor photolysis/O2 actinometry calibration technique. OH and HO2 concentrations were successfully measured at an urban site in Mexico City, with observed concentrations comparable to those measured in other polluted environments. Enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals were observed on several days between 09:30–11 a.m. and suggest an intense photochemistry during morning hours that may be due to elevated sources of HOx (OH+HO2 and a fast cycling between the radicals under the high NOx conditions of the MCMA. A comparison with other urban and sub-urban field measurements suggests that OH concentrations are highly buffered under these conditions. In contrast, HO2 concentrations are highly variable between different urban sites.

  15. A Mission Control Architecture for robotic lunar sample return as field tested in an analogue deployment to the sudbury impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John E.; Francis, Raymond; Mader, Marianne; Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Barry, N.; Basic, G.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Blain, S.; Bondy, M.; Capitan, R.-D.; Chanou, A.; Clayton, J.; Cloutis, E.; Daly, M.; Dickinson, C.; Dong, H.; Flemming, R.; Furgale, P.; Gammel, J.; Gharfoor, N.; Hussein, M.; Grieve, R.; Henrys, H.; Jaziobedski, P.; Lambert, A.; Leung, K.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; McManus, C.; Neish, C. D.; Ng, H. K.; Ozaruk, A.; Pickersgill, A.; Preston, L. J.; Redman, D.; Sapers, H.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Souders, K.; Stenning, B.; Stooke, P.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L.

    2012-12-01

    A Mission Control Architecture is presented for a Robotic Lunar Sample Return Mission which builds upon the experience of the landed missions of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. This architecture consists of four separate processes working in parallel at Mission Control and achieving buy-in for plans sequentially instead of simultaneously from all members of the team. These four processes were: science processing, science interpretation, planning and mission evaluation. science processing was responsible for creating products from data downlinked from the field and is organized by instrument. Science Interpretation was responsible for determining whether or not science goals are being met and what measurements need to be taken to satisfy these goals. The Planning process, responsible for scheduling and sequencing observations, and the Evaluation process that fostered inter-process communications, reporting and documentation assisted these processes. This organization is advantageous for its flexibility as shown by the ability of the structure to produce plans for the rover every two hours, for the rapidity with which Mission Control team members may be trained and for the relatively small size of each individual team. This architecture was tested in an analogue mission to the Sudbury impact structure from June 6-17, 2011. A rover was used which was capable of developing a network of locations that could be revisited using a teach and repeat method. This allowed the science team to process several different outcrops in parallel, downselecting at each stage to ensure that the samples selected for caching were the most representative of the site. Over the course of 10 days, 18 rock samples were collected from 5 different outcrops, 182 individual field activities - such as roving or acquiring an image mosaic or other data product - were completed within 43 command cycles, and the rover travelled over 2200 m. Data transfer from communications passes were filled to 74

  16. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  17. Self-Deployable Membrane Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Willis, Paul B.; Tan, Seng C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently existing approaches for deployment of large, ultra-lightweight gossamer structures in space rely typically upon electromechanical mechanisms and mechanically expandable or inflatable booms for deployment and to maintain them in a fully deployed, operational configuration. These support structures, with the associated deployment mechanisms, launch restraints, inflation systems, and controls, can comprise more than 90 percent of the total mass budget. In addition, they significantly increase the stowage volume, cost, and complexity. A CHEM (cold hibernated elastic memory) membrane structure without any deployable mechanism and support booms/structure is deployed by using shape memory and elastic recovery. The use of CHEM micro-foams reinforced with carbon nanotubes is considered for thin-membrane structure applications. In this advanced structural concept, the CHEM membrane structure is warmed up to allow packaging and stowing prior to launch, and then cooled to induce hibernation of the internal restoring forces. In space, the membrane remembers its original shape and size when warmed up. After the internal restoring forces deploy the structure, it is then cooled to achieve rigidization. For this type of structure, the solar radiation could be utilized as the heat energy used for deployment and space ambient temperature for rigidization. The overall simplicity of the CHEM self-deployable membrane is one of its greatest assets. In present approaches to space-deployable structures, the stow age and deployment are difficult and challenging, and introduce a significant risk, heavy mass, and high cost. Simple procedures provided by CHEM membrane greatly simplify the overall end-to-end process for designing, fabricating, deploying, and rigidizing large structures. The CHEM membrane avoids the complexities associated with other methods for deploying and rigidizing structures by eliminating deployable booms, deployment mechanisms, and inflation and control systems

  18. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized treatment planning software to help ... sparing surrounding tissue. If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation ...

  19. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized treatment ... If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation oncologist, ...

  20. Joint for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  1. Progress towards an Autonomous Field Deployable Diode-Laser-Based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL for Profiling Water Vapor in the Lower Troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Repasky

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A laser transmitter has been developed and incorporated into a micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere as an important step towards long-term autonomous field operation. The laser transmitter utilizes two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR diode lasers to injection seed a pulsed tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA, and is capable of producing up to 10 mJ of pulse energy with a 1 ms pulse duration and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. The on-line wavelength of the laser transmitter can operate anywhere along the water vapor absorption feature centered at 828.187 nm (in vacuum depending on the prevailing atmospheric conditions, while the off-line wavelength operates at 828.287 nm. This laser transmitter has been incorporated into a DIAL instrument utilizing a 35.6 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and fiber coupled avalanche photodiode (APD operating in the photon counting mode. The performance of the DIAL instrument was demonstrated over a ten-day observation period. During this observation period, data from radiosondes were used to retrieve water vapor number density profiles for comparisons with the number density profiles retrieved from the DIAL data.

  2. An X-ray Pulsar with a Superstrong Magnetic Field in the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater SGR1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Dieters, S.; Strohmayer, T.; vanParadijs, J.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Hurley, K.; Kommers, J.; Smith, I.; Frail, D.; Murakami, T.

    1998-01-01

    Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) emit multiple, brief (approximately O.1 s) intense outbursts of low-energy gamma-rays. They are extremely rare; three are known in our galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Two SGRs are associated with young supernova remnants (SNRs), and therefore most probably with neutron stars, but it remains a puzzle why SGRs are so different from 'normal' radio pulsars. Here we report the discovery of pulsations in the persistent X-ray flux of SGR1806-20, with a period of 7.47 s and a spindown rate of 2.6 x 10(exp -3) s/yr. We argue that the spindown is due to magnetic dipole emission and find that the pulsar age and (dipolar) magnetic field strength are approximately 1500 years and 8 x 10(exp 14) gauss, respectively. Our observations demonstrate the existence of 'magnetars', neutron stars with magnetic fields about 100 times stronger than those of radio pulsars, and support earlier suggestions that SGR bursts are caused by neutron-star 'crust-quakes' produced by magnetic stresses. The 'magnetar' birth rate is about one per millenium, a substantial fraction of that of radio pulsars. Thus our results may explain why some SNRs have no radio pulsars.

  3. Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign – Part 1: Deployment of the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Molina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of tropospheric hydroxyl (OH and hydroperoxy (HO2 radicals were made during the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign as part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations project during March 2006. These radicals were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence instrument developed at Indiana University. This new instrument takes advantage of the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique (FAGE together with direct excitation and detection of OH at 308 nm. HO2 is indirectly measured as OH by titration with NO inside the fluorescence cell. At this stage of development, IU-FAGE is capable of detecting 3.9×105 molecule/cm3 of both OH and HO2, with a signal to noise ratio of 1, an averaged laser power of 10-mW and an averaging time of 5-min. The calibration accuracies (1σ are ±17% for OH and ±18% for HO2 using the water-vapor photolysis/O2 actinometry calibration technique. OH and HO2 concentrations were successfully measured at an urban site in Mexico City, with observed concentrations comparable to those measured in other polluted environments. Enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals were observed on several days between 09:30–11:00 a.m. and suggest an intense photochemistry during morning hours that may be due to elevated sources of HOx (OH+HO2 and a fast cycling between the radicals under the high NOx (NO+NO2 conditions of the MCMA.

  4. Binary Neutron Star Mergers and Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Effects of Magnetic Field Orientation, Equation of State, and Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, Takumu; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Ciolfi, Riccardo; Endrizzi, Andrea; Baiotti, Luca; Perna, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    We present fully GRMHD simulations of the merger of binary neutron star (BNS) systems. We consider BNSs producing a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) that collapses to a spinning black hole (BH) surrounded by a magnetized accretion disk in a few tens of ms. We investigate whether such systems may launch relativistic jets and power short gamma-ray bursts. We study the effects of different equations of state (EOSs), different mass ratios, and different magnetic field orientations. For all cases, we present a detailed investigation of the matter dynamics and of the magnetic field evolution, with particular attention to its global structure and possible emission of relativistic jets. The main result of this work is that we found the formation of an organized magnetic field structure. This happens independently of EOS, mass ratio, and initial magnetic field orientation. We also show that those models that produce a longer-lived HMNS lead to a stronger magnetic field before collapse to BH. Such larger fields make it...

  5. Binary neutron star mergers and short gamma-ray bursts: Effects of magnetic field orientation, equation of state, and mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Takumu; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Ciolfi, Riccardo; Endrizzi, Andrea; Baiotti, Luca; Perna, Rosalba

    2016-09-01

    We present fully general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the merger of binary neutron star (BNS) systems. We consider BNSs producing a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) that collapses to a spinning black hole (BH) surrounded by a magnetized accretion disk in a few tens of ms. We investigate whether such systems may launch relativistic jets and hence power short gamma-ray bursts. We study the effects of different equations of state (EOSs), different mass ratios, and different magnetic field orientations. For all cases, we present a detailed investigation of the matter dynamics and of the magnetic field evolution, with particular attention to its global structure and possible emission of relativistic jets. The main result of this work is that we observe the formation of an organized magnetic field structure. This happens independently of EOS, mass ratio, and initial magnetic field orientation. We also show that those models that produce a longer-lived HMNS lead to a stronger magnetic field before collapse to a BH. Such larger fields make it possible, for at least one of our models, to resolve the magnetorotational instability and hence further amplify the magnetic field in the disk. However, by the end of our simulations, we do not (yet) observe a magnetically dominated funnel nor a relativistic outflow. With respect to the recent simulations of Ruiz et al. [Astrophys. J. 824, L6 (2016)], we evolve models with lower and more plausible initial magnetic field strengths and (for computational reasons) we do not evolve the accretion disk for the long time scales that seem to be required in order to see a relativistic outflow. Since all our models produce a similar ordered magnetic field structure aligned with the BH spin axis, we expect that the results found by Ruiz et al. (who only considered an equal-mass system with an ideal fluid EOS) should be general and—at least from a qualitative point of view—independent of the mass ratio, magnetic field

  6. Search for GeV gamma ray burst signal in the field of view of muon telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Augusto, C R A; Navia, C E; Shigueoka, H; Tsui, K H

    2011-01-01

    We present a search for the muon excess associated in time (preceding or following) with the trigger of gamma ray burst (GRB) detected by the satellite borne instruments. The 1 Hz rate data was collected at the sea level in the area located at 22S and 43W, inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region and close to its center. Using 1 sec amd 10 sec time binning, we found the muon excess with significance $>5\\sigma$ associated with the gamma ray burst GRB091112 observed by Swift BAT, Fermi GBM and Suzaku-WAM satellites. The detected muon time profile shows a rough peak at $\\sim T+223$ sec ($5.2\\sigma$), corresponding to 7 sec time interval during which 90% of the sub-MeV signal (T90) was detected by satellites. The FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation of the photon-to-muon conversion in the atmosphere shows that the observed muon excess can be explained by progenitor photons with energies above 10 GeV. This energy value is above the limits expected from the maximum synchrotron emission combined with the shock wave ev...

  7. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. I. IMPLICATIONS OF PLASMA INSTABILITIES FOR THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD AND EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph, E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: christoph.pfrommer@h-its.org [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-06-10

    Inverse Compton cascades (ICCs) initiated by energetic gamma rays (E {approx}> 100 GeV) enhance the GeV emission from bright, extragalactic TeV sources. The absence of this emission from bright TeV blazars has been used to constrain the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and the stringent limits placed on the unresolved extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) by Fermi have been used to argue against a large number of such objects at high redshifts. However, these are predicated on the assumption that inverse Compton scattering is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the ultrarelativistic pairs produced by the annihilation of the energetic gamma rays on extragalactic background light photons. Here, we show that for sufficiently bright TeV sources (isotropic-equivalent luminosities {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) plasma beam instabilities, specifically the 'oblique' instability, present a plausible mechanism by which the energy of these pairs can be dissipated locally, heating the intergalactic medium. Since these instabilities typically grow on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling rate, they necessarily suppress the ICCs. As a consequence, this places a severe constraint on efforts to limit the IGMF from the lack of a discernible GeV bump in TeV sources. Similarly, it considerably weakens the Fermi limits on the evolution of blazar populations. Specifically, we construct a TeV-blazar luminosity function from those objects currently observed and find that it is very well described by the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 0.1, shifted to lower luminosities and number densities, suggesting that both classes of sources are regulated by similar processes. Extending this relationship to higher redshifts, we show that the magnitude and shape of the EGRB above {approx}10 GeV are naturally reproduced with this particular example of a rapidly evolving TeV-blazar luminosity function.

  8. Thermally stable deployable structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegg, Colleen M.

    1988-01-01

    A deployable structure which meets stringent thermal and strength requirements in a space environment was developed. A mast with a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was required to limit the movement from thermal distortion over the temperature range of -200 C to 80 C to .064 cm (.025 in). In addition, a high bending strength over the temperature range and weight less than 18.1 kg (40 lbs) was needed. To meet all of the requirements, a composite, near-zero CTE structure was developed. The measured average CTE over the temperature range for the mast was .70 x .000001/C (.38 x .000001/F). The design also has the advantage of being adjustable to attain other specific CTE if desired.

  9. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  10. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  11. The Use of Gamma-Ray Imaging to Improve Portal Monitor Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL; Collins, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fabris, Lorenzo [ORNL; Gee, Timothy Felix [ORNL; Goddard, James K [ORNL; Habte Ghebretatios, Frezghi [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a prototype, rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. Our Roadside Tracker uses automated target acquisition and tracking (TAT) software to identify and track vehicles in visible light images. The field of view of the visible camera overlaps with and is calibrated to that of a one-dimensional gamma-ray imager. The TAT code passes information on when vehicles enter and exit the system field of view and when they cross gamma-ray pixel boundaries. Based on this in-formation, the gamma-ray imager "harvests" the gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. In this fashion we are able to generate vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoid source confusion problems that plague nonimaging approaches to the same problem.

  12. The role of black hole spin and magnetic field threading the unstable neutrino disk in Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Janiuk, Agnieszka; ;,

    2009-01-01

    We report on the third phase of our study of the neutrino-cooled hyperaccreting torus around a black hole that powers the jet in Gamma Ray Bursts. We focus on the influence of the black hole spin on the properties of the torus. The structure of a stationary torus around the Kerr black hole is solved numerically. We take into account the detailed treatment of the microphysics in the nuclear equation of state that includes the neutrino trapping effect. We find, that in the case of rapidly rotating black holes, the thermal instability discussed in our previous work is enhanced and develops for much lower accretion rates. We also find the important role of the energy transfer from the rotating black hole to the torus, via the magnetic coupling.

  13. CMS software deployment on OSG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B; Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Thomas, M [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: bockjoo@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: thomas@hep.caltech.edu, E-mail: avery@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: fkw@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    A set of software deployment tools has been developed for the installation, verification, and removal of a CMS software release. The tools that are mainly targeted for the deployment on the OSG have the features of instant release deployment, corrective resubmission of the initial installation job, and an independent web-based deployment portal with Grid security infrastructure login mechanism. We have been deploying over 500 installations and found the tools are reliable and adaptable to cope with problems with changes in the Grid computing environment and the software releases. We present the design of the tools, statistics that we gathered during the operation of the tools, and our experience with the CMS software deployment on the OSG Grid computing environment.

  14. Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    expectations is a key process that has to occur for successful reintegration of the veteran back into the family. Both parties have to work out their...describe veterans and families perceptions of: Aim 1. Their experience with family reintegration and the challenges reintegration presents; Aim 2...deployment, and post deployment shape the degree of challenges with reintegration that a veteran and their family will encounter. Pre-deployment, the

  15. Design optimization of deployable wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  16. Field-Deployable Video Cloud Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    network bandwidth demands for aggregated subscribers using Monte Carlo methods. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 53(3), 199–207. doi: 10.1109/MCOM...resolution/ Breiling, M., Zia, W., Sanchez de la Fuente , Y., Mignone, V., Milanesio, D., Fan, Y., & Guta, M. (2014). LTE backhauling over MEO...Sharpe, R. (2015). Forecasting of access network bandwidth demands for aggregated subscribers using Monte Carlo methods. Communications Magazine

  17. Mastering Hyper-V Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The only book to take an in-depth look at deploying Hyper-V. Now in its second generation, the popular Hyper-V boasts technical advances that create even more dynamic systems than ever before. This unique resource serves an authoritative guide to deploying Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V comprehensively. Step-by-step instructions demonstrate how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host environment, and design a management system with System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2.: Features real-world examples that show you how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host env

  18. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  19. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  20. On detecting oscillations of gamma rays into axion-like particles in turbulent and coherent magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Manuel; Montanino, Daniele; Conrad, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Background radiation fields pervade the Universe, and above a certain energy any γ-ray flux emitted by an extragalactic source should be attenuated due to e+e- pair production. The opacity could be alleviated if photons oscillated into hypothetical axion-like particles (ALPs) in ambient magnetic fields, leading to a γ-ray excess especially at high optical depths that could be detected with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Here, we introduce a method to search for such a signal in γ-ray data and to estimate sensitivities for future observations. Different magnetic fields close to the γ-ray source are taken into account in which photons can convert into ALPs that then propagate unimpeded over cosmological distances until they re-convert in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. Specifically, we consider the coherent field at parsec scales in a blazar jet as well as the turbulent field inside a galaxy cluster. For the latter, we explicitly derive the transversal components of a magnetic field with gaussian turbulence which are responsible for the photon-ALP mixing. To illustrate the method, we apply it to a mock IACT array with characteristics similar to the Cherekov Telescope Array and investigate the dependence of the sensitivity to detect a γ-ray excess on the magnetic-field parameters.

  1. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias; Schütz, Christian; Wiehl, Norbert; Kratz, Jens V; Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Otto, Gerd; Hampel, Gabriele

    2010-10-01

    To establish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for non-resectable liver metastases and for in vitro experiments at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz, Germany, it is necessary to have a reliable dose monitoring system. The in vitro experiments are used to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of liver and cancer cells in our mixed neutron and gamma field. We work with alanine detectors in combination with Monte Carlo simulations, where we can measure and characterize the dose. To verify our calculations we perform neutron flux measurements using gold foil activation and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using FLUKA, a multipurpose Monte Carlo transport code. The pin-diode is augmented by a lithium fluoride foil. This foil converts the neutrons into alpha and tritium particles which are products of the (7)Li(n,α)(3)H-reaction. These particles are detected by the diode and their amount correlates to the neutron fluence directly. Results and discussion. Gold foil activation and the pin-diode are reliable fluence measurement systems for the TRIGA reactor, Mainz. Alanine dosimetry of the photon field and charged particle field from secondary reactions can in principle be carried out in combination with MC-calculations for mixed radiation fields and the Hansen & Olsen alanine detector response model. With the acquired data about the background dose and charged particle spectrum, and with the acquired information of the neutron flux, we are capable of calculating the dose to the tissue. Conclusion. Monte Carlo simulation of the mixed neutron and gamma field of the TRIGA Mainz is possible in order to characterize the neutron behavior in the thermal column. Currently we also

  2. Device Measures Angle Of Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermakian, Joel B.

    1991-01-01

    Simple electromechanical device indicates angular position of unfolding panel during and after deployment. Resistance of potentiometer gradually increases as unfolding of solar panel about hinge moves wiper of potentiometer. At full deployment, panel pushes and opens normally closed switch. Designed for use on panel of solar photovoltaic cells in spacecraft, modified for use in other, similar position-indicating applications.

  3. Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    STRATEGIC SEALIFT SUPPORTING ARMY DEPLOYMENTS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...THOMPSON, MAJ, US ARMY BFA, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, 1994 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2016 Approved for...Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew

  4. Comparison of LSO and BGO block detectors for prompt gamma imaging in ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, F.; Biegun, A. K.; Dendooven, P.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Golnik, C.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Petzoldt, J.; Römer, K. E.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2015-09-01

    A major weakness of ion beam therapy is the lack of tools for verifying the particle range in clinical routine. The application of the Compton camera concept for the imaging of prompt gamma rays, a by-product of the irradiation correlated to the dose distribution, is a promising approach for range assessment and even three-dimensional in vivo dosimetry. Multiple position sensitive gamma ray detectors arranged in scatter and absorber planes, together with an imaging algorithm, are required to reconstruct the prompt gamma emission density map. Conventional block detectors deployed in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which are based on Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO) and Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) scintillators, are suitable candidates for the absorber of a Compton camera due to their high density and absorption efficiency with respect to the prompt gamma energy range (several MeV). We compare experimentally LSO and BGO block detectors in clinical-like radiation fields in terms of energy, spatial and time resolution. The high energy range compensates for the low light yield of the BGO material and boosts significantly its performance compared to the PET scenario. Notwithstanding the overall superiority of LSO, BGO catches up in the field of prompt gamma imaging and can be considered as a competitive alternative to LSO for the absorber plane due to its lower price and the lack of intrinsic radioactivity.

  5. Deployment simulation of a deployable reflector for earth science application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaokai; Fang, Houfei; Cai, Bei; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-10-01

    A novel mission concept namely NEXRAD-In-Space (NIS) has been developed for monitoring hurricanes, cyclones and other severe storms from a geostationary orbit. It requires a space deployable 35-meter diameter Ka-band (35 GHz) reflector. NIS can measure hurricane precipitation intensity, dynamics and its life cycle. These information is necessary for predicting the track, intensity, rain rate and hurricane-induced floods. To meet the requirements of the radar system, a Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) reflector technology has been developed and several technologies have been evaluated. However, the deployment analysis of this large size and high-precision reflector has not been investigated. For a pre-studies, a scaled tetrahedral truss reflector with spring driving deployment system has been made and tested, deployment dynamics analysis of this scaled reflector has been performed using ADAMS to understand its deployment dynamic behaviors. Eliminating the redundant constraints in the reflector system with a large number of moving parts is a challenging issue. A primitive joint and flexible struts were introduced to the analytical model and they can effectively eliminate over constraints of the model. By using a high-speed camera and a force transducer, a deployment experiment of a single-bay tetrahedral module has been conducted. With the tested results, an optimization process has been performed by using the parameter optimization module of ADAMS to obtain the parameters of the analytical model. These parameters were incorporated to the analytical model of the whole reflector. It is observed from the analysis results that the deployment process of the reflector with a fixed boundary experiences three stages. These stages are rapid deployment stage, slow deployment stage and impact stage. The insight of the force peak distributions of the reflector can help the optimization design of the structure.

  6. Design and performance investigation of a multi-pinhole collimator for a small field of view gamma imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaekeon; Bae, Seungbin; Lee, Kisung [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongkwon; Joung, Jinhun [NuCare Medical Systems Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study is to design a collimator for a gamma imaging system that has a small footprint, a fast-scan-time, and a organ-specific applicability. To achieve such features, the collimator must have a high resolution, a high sensitivity, and a gantry with a simple geometry. For ensuring high resolution and high sensitivity, we designed a multi-pinhole collimator. For realizing a simplified gantry, we carried out studies with limited angle reconstruction. On the designed multipinhole collimator has eight-pinholes, whose diameters are 2 mm. Limited-angle reconstruction has been conducted with angle intervals of 3, 6, 9, and 12 .deg. and with an angle coverage of 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 .deg. . The reconstruction of an image was separately developed based on the ray-driven and voxel-driven methods in order to overcome the sampling problem and to reduce the amount of computation required. To evaluate the performance of the designed system, performed studies on three spherical phantoms and a heart phantom by using the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) simulation tool. The results showed that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the center source were 6.25 mm and 7.18 mm for single-pinhole and multi-pinhole collimators, respectively. Moreover, limited angle reconstruction resulted in a higher efficiency of the imaging system because it overcame the limitation of the gantry geometry. Limited-angle reconstruction was optimized at an angle coverage of 120 .deg. with an angle interval of 6 .deg., then reconstructed image was shown a 12.18 mm FWHM. This suggests that the designed system needs only one-third the number of projections to acquire a reconstructed image with a slight degradation in image quality. This also suggests that our proposed multi-pinhole collimator is suitable for applications requiring a small-footprint, a fast-scan-time, and organ-specificity.

  7. Identifying soil management zones in a sugarcane field using proximal sensed electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerley, Claire; Huang, Jingyi; Nielson, Rod; Sefton, Michael; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    Over 70% of the Australian sugarcane industry operates in alluvial-estuarine areas characterised by sodic and infertile soils. There is a need to supply ameliorants and improve fertilisers and minimise off-farm pollution to the Great Barrier Reef. Therefore, information is required about the spatial variation in soils. However, traditional approaches are cost-prohibitive. Herein we showed how a digital soil mapping (DSM) approach can be used to identify soil management zones. In the first instance, ancillary data, including electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data were collected. Using a fuzzy k-means clustering algorithm management zones from two to six were identified. Using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis of various topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil (0.6-0.9m) physical (e.g. clay) and chemical (e.g. exchangeable sodium percentage [ESP], exchangeable calcium and magnesium) properties, 3 zones were determined from minimising the mean squared prediction error. To manage the moderately sodic topsoil ESP of zones 3A and 3C and sodic 3B, different gypsum requirements were prescribed. Lime can also be added differentially to address low exchangeable Ca in zone 3A, 3B and 3C. With regard to exchangeable Mg, zones 3A and 3C do not require any fertiliser, whereas zone 3A requires the addition of a moderate amount. The results were consistent with percentage yield variance, suggesting the lower yield in 3C due to topsoil sodicity and strongly sodic subsoil with higher clay content. We concluded that the DSM approach was successful in identifying soil management zones and can be used to improve structural stability and soil fertility.

  8. Quasi-static Deployment Simulation for Deployable Space Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for quasi-static deployment analysis of deployable space truss structures. The structure is assumed a rigid assembly, whose constraints are classified as three categories:rigid member constraint, joint-attached kinematic constraint and boundary constraint. And their geometric constraint equations and derivative matrices are formulated. The basis of the null space and M-P inverse of the geometric constraint matrix are employed to determine the solution for quasi-static deployment analysis. The influence introduced by higher terms of constraints is evaluated subsequently. The numerical tests show that the new method is efficient.

  9. Atmospheric dispersion of argon-41 from anuclear research reactor: measurement and modeling of plume geometry and gamma radiation field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Bent; Astrup, Poul; Drews, Martin

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric dispersion experiment was conducted using a visible tracer along with the routine release of argon-41 from the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Simultaneous measurements of plume geometry and radiation fields for argon-41 decay were performed as well as measurements of the argon...

  10. Kinematic equivalence between models driven by DBI field with constant $\\gamma$ and exotic holographic quintessence cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    We show the kinematic equivalence between cosmological models driven by Dirac-Born-Infeld fields $\\phi$ with constant proper velocity of the brane and exponential potential $V=V_0e^{-B\\phi}$ and interactive cosmological systems with Modified Holographic Ricci type fluids as dark energy in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies.

  11. Atmospheric dispersion of argon-41 from anuclear research reactor: measurement and modeling of plume geometry and gamma radiation field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Bent; Astrup, Poul; Drews, Martin

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric dispersion experiment was conducted using a visible tracer along with the routine release of argon-41 from the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Simultaneous measurements of plume geometry and radiation fields for argon-41 decay were performed as well as measurements of the argon...

  12. Deployable Structural Booms for Large Deployable Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a new generation of large, high power deployable solar arrays has been identified as the most significant challenge facing the development of...

  13. The nonlinear-electrodynamic bending of the x-ray and gamma-ray in the magnetic field of pulsars and magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Yu; Svertilov, S I; Denisov, Victor I.; Denisova, Irene P.; Svertilov, Sergey I.

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that according to the non-linear electrodynamics of vacuum electromagnetic rays should bend in the field of magnetic dipole. The angles of ray bending in the gravitational and magnetic fields of pulsars and magnetars were obtained. In the case of pulsars with $b\\sim R\\sim $ 100 km, $B_0\\sim 10^{13} G$ the value of the angle of non-linear electrodynamic bending of a ray in the Heisenberg-Euler theory will reach the value of $\\delta \\psi_{NED}\\sim 30'',$ and in the case of a magnetar with $B_0\\sim 10^{15} G$ the angle $\\delta \\psi_{NED}$ will increase to $\\delta \\psi_{NED}\\sim 1 rad\\sim 60^\\circ .$ The angle of gravitational bending of a ray at neutron star with $r_g$ = 3 km in the same conditions will be equal to $\\delta \\psi_g\\sim 0.06$ rad $\\sim 4^\\circ >.$ Observations can only be made in X- rays and gamma-rays, for which the agnetosphere is quite opaque. Because the distance from the Earth to the well-known pulsars and magnetars is too large to observe the pure effect of a ray bending. The non...

  14. Self deployable deorbiting space structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    -active or heavy device has to be brought on board the spacecraft for deploying the space structure. Allows the deployed flexible sheet surface higher than the case when SDSS is rigidly linked at the short distance from carrier structure. Ensures a reliable unfolding of deorbiting structures in zero gravity....... Provides the strain energy provoking the deployment without the need of addition of energy to the system. Eliminates the issues around successful unfolding known from other technical solutions as the frame unfolds automatically without using external energy for unfolding by using the accumulated strain...... energy in stressed configuration. Ensures that deorbiting space structure can be efficiently folded without intervention of active unfolding device....

  15. New concepts in deployable beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design of deployable structures involves a complicated tradeoff of packaging efficiency, the overall mechanism associated with deploying and latching beam joints, and the requirements and complexity of the beam deployer/repacker. Three longeron deployable beams, controllable geometry beams, and hybrid deployable/erectable beam concepts are evaluated.

  16. An optical study of the GRB 970111 field beginning 19 hours after the gamma-ray burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Wolf, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the monitoring of the GRB 970111 field that started 19 hours after the event. This observation represents the fastest ground-based follow-up performed for GRB 970111 in all wavelengths. As soon as the detection of the possible GRB 970111 X-ray afterglow was reported...... by Feroci et al. (1998) we reanalyzed the optical data collected for the GRB 970111 field. Although we detect small magnitude variability in some objects, no convincing optical counterpart is found inside the WFC error box. Any change in brightness 19 hours after the GRB is less than 0.2 mag for objects...... multicolour photometry for objects in the GRB 970111 error box. The colour-colour diagrams do not show any object with unusual colours. We applied a photometric classification method to the objects inside the GRB error box, that can distinguish stars from galaxies and estimate redshifts. We were able...

  17. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  18. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  19. Base Station Antenna Pattern Distortion in Practical Urban Deployment Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    In real urban deployments, base station antennas are typically not placed in free space conditions. Therefore, the radiation pattern can be affected by mounting structures and nearby obstacles located in the proximity of the antenna (near-field), which are often not taken into consideration. Also...... the intrinsic propagation mechanisms of the urban environment (far-field) can contribute to the distortion of the radiation pattern observed in a practical deployment scenario, especially when comparing it to the antenna pattern provided by the manufacturer and typically measured in free space. This paper...... presents a combination of near-field and far-field simulations aimed to provide an overview of the distortion experienced by the base station antenna pattern in two different urban deployment scenarios: rooftop and telecommunications tower. The study illustrates how, in comparison with the near...

  20. Towards clinical application: prompt gamma imaging of passively scattered proton fields with a knife-edge slit camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priegnitz, M.; Barczyk, S.; Nenoff, L.; Golnik, C.; Keitz, I.; Werner, T.; Mein, S.; Smeets, J.; Vander Stappen, F.; Janssens, G.; Hotoiu, L.; Fiedler, F.; Prieels, D.; Enghardt, W.; Pausch, G.; Richter, C.

    2016-11-01

    Prompt γ-ray imaging with a knife-edge shaped slit camera provides the possibility of verifying proton beam range in tumor therapy. Dedicated experiments regarding the characterization of the camera system have been performed previously. Now, we aim at implementing the prototype into clinical application of monitoring patient treatments. Focused on this goal of translation into clinical operation, we systematically addressed remaining challenges and questions. We developed a robust energy calibration routine and corresponding quality assurance protocols. Furthermore, with dedicated experiments, we determined the positioning precision of the system to 1.1 mm (2σ). For the first time, we demonstrated the application of the slit camera, which was intentionally developed for pencil beam scanning, to double scattered proton beams. Systematic experiments with increasing complexity were performed. It was possible to visualize proton range shifts of 2-5 mm with the camera system in phantom experiments in passive scattered fields. Moreover, prompt γ-ray profiles for single iso-energy layers were acquired by synchronizing time resolved measurements to the rotation of the range modulator wheel of the treatment system. Thus, a mapping of the acquired profiles to different anatomical regions along the beam path is feasible and additional information on the source of potential range shifts can be obtained. With the work presented here, we show that an application of the slit camera in clinical treatments is possible and of potential benefit.

  1. Towards clinical application: prompt gamma imaging of passively scattered proton fields with a knife-edge slit camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priegnitz, M; Barczyk, S; Nenoff, L; Golnik, C; Keitz, I; Werner, T; Mein, S; Smeets, J; Vander Stappen, F; Janssens, G; Hotoiu, L; Fiedler, F; Prieels, D; Enghardt, W; Pausch, G; Richter, C

    2016-11-21

    Prompt γ-ray imaging with a knife-edge shaped slit camera provides the possibility of verifying proton beam range in tumor therapy. Dedicated experiments regarding the characterization of the camera system have been performed previously. Now, we aim at implementing the prototype into clinical application of monitoring patient treatments. Focused on this goal of translation into clinical operation, we systematically addressed remaining challenges and questions. We developed a robust energy calibration routine and corresponding quality assurance protocols. Furthermore, with dedicated experiments, we determined the positioning precision of the system to 1.1 mm (2σ). For the first time, we demonstrated the application of the slit camera, which was intentionally developed for pencil beam scanning, to double scattered proton beams. Systematic experiments with increasing complexity were performed. It was possible to visualize proton range shifts of 2-5 mm with the camera system in phantom experiments in passive scattered fields. Moreover, prompt γ-ray profiles for single iso-energy layers were acquired by synchronizing time resolved measurements to the rotation of the range modulator wheel of the treatment system. Thus, a mapping of the acquired profiles to different anatomical regions along the beam path is feasible and additional information on the source of potential range shifts can be obtained. With the work presented here, we show that an application of the slit camera in clinical treatments is possible and of potential benefit.

  2. Deployable truss structure advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J. E.; Dudeck, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The 5-meter technology antenna program demonstrated the overall feasibility of integrating a mesh reflector surface with a deployable truss structure to achieve a precision surface contour compatible with future, high-performance antenna requirements. Specifically, the program demonstrated: the feasibility of fabricating a precision, edge-mounted, deployable, tetrahedral truss structure; the feasibility of adjusting a truss-supported mesh reflector contour to a surface error less than 10 mils rms; and good RF test performance, which correlated well with analytical predictions. Further analysis and testing (including flight testing) programs are needed to fully verify all the technology issues, including structural dynamics, thermodynamics, control, and on-orbit RF performance, which are associated with large, deployable, truss antenna structures.

  3. Backgound Gluon Effects on $B \\rightarrow X_{S} \\gamma \\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, S R; Yao, York-Peng

    1998-01-01

    We consider non-perturbative QCD effects on the energy spectrum of either one of the photons in B -> X_s gamma gamma. These are due to the subprocesses in which a charm quark loop interacts with a self-consistently produced background static QCD field. The magnitude is estimated to be a few percents in B -> X_s gamma gamma, but can be quite substantial in B_s -> gamma gamma. An extension of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian is given.

  4. OMV multiple deployments of lightsats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Walker, James D.

    1988-06-01

    The design and capabilities of the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed, and the potential value of the Shuttle-borne OMV for deploying lightweight satellites (lightsats) into different orbits is discussed and illustrated with extensive drawings and diagrams. Assuming 100-lb lightsats in extended GAS canisters, the OMV could separate from the Orbiter at 16 nmi and deploy six lightsats each at altitudes 430, 700, and 970 nmi before rejoining the Orbiter at 160 nmi. Also considered are configurations with 8 or 12 200-lb lightsats and the fittings for Titan-4 launch of OMV/lightsat packages.

  5. IPv6 deployment and management

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A guide for understanding, deploying, and managing Internet Protocol version 6 The growth of the Internet has created a need for more addresses than are available with Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-the protocol currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-the new IP version intended to ultimately succeed IPv4-will expand the addressing capacity of the Internet to support the explosive growth of users and devices on the Internet as well as add flexibility to allocating addresses and efficiency for routing traffic. IPv6 Deploy

  6. Department of Defense, Deployment Health Clinical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to deployment health assessments, combat and operational stress programs, deployment-limiting health conditions and deployment-related exposures. Learn More In the News Experts Explore How Combat Roles May Affect Women’s Psychological Health Deployments can be 'significant stressor' ...

  7. Gamma watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  8. Gamma watermarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  9. Study of a flowerlike deployable structure:

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ani; Liu, Heping; Li, Cheng; Wang, Yongfan

    2013-01-01

    A deployable structure is a kind of mechanism that can be folded and deployed automatically. It is able to form required shape or curved surface after deployment. In this paper, a flowerlike deployable structure, which forms a circle plane after deployment, was studied. First, the required circle plane was decomposed to determine the shapes of the members. Then the relation expressions were set up, which include the structural dimensions of the members and how to calculate the volume of the m...

  10. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  11. Space deployable truss structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.; Tobey, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development status of the deployable box truss structure is summarized. Potential applications for this structural system are described. Structural and component design requirements derived from these applications are discussed. Components of prototype 4.6 m cubes which incorporate graphite/epoxy structural members, fittings, and mechanisms are described. The benefits of the component designs and their respective manufacturing processes are presented.

  12. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  13. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  14. Topics in perturbative quantum field theory: eighth order QED contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and next to leading order QCD correction to. gamma gamma -->. M/sup +/M/sup -/(M =. pi. , K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizic, B.

    1985-01-01

    In Part I the evaluation of the complete eighth order QED contribution to the difference of the anomalous magnetic moments of the muon and the electron, (a/sub ..mu../ - a/sub e/, arising from 469 Feynman diagrams is presented. The result is 140.7(4.5)(..cap alpha../..pi..). The theoretical error represents the estimated accuracy of the required numerical integration. The light-by-light QED contribution to (a/sub ..mu../ - a/sub e/) has also been improved. With these results the difference a/sub ..mu../ - a/sub e/ through eighth order in QED is (a/sub ..mu../ - a/sub e/)/sup QED/ = 619,551(21) x 10/sup -11/. Adding to the present theoretical value of the electron anomaly a/sub e//sup QED/ = 115,965,246(5) x 10/sup -11/, it was found that the pure QED contribution to the muon anomaly is given by a/sub ..mu..//sup QED/ = 116,584,797(22) x 10/sup -11/. In Part II the results of the calculation of the next to leading order perturbative QCD correction to the two-photon exclusive channels ..gamma gamma -->..M/sup +/M/sup -/(M = ..pi..,K) at large momentum transfer is presented. Calculation is performed in the Feynman gauge. Dimensional regularization is used to treat both UV and the set of reals divergences. One loop correction to the ..gamma gamma -->..M/sup +/M/sup -/ cross section is obtained. In the mean MS renormalization scheme this correction is found not to be large.

  15. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  16. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  17. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The physical fatigue associated with ship motions has significant consequences for today’s minimally manned ships. “Because of minimally sized...a deployment. The inefficiencies in performance may develop from lack of training, different personal aptitude, and individual’s mental or physical ...exacerbation of symptoms known as the avalanche phenomenon follows which includes: increased salivation, bodily warmth , and light- headedness” (Stevens

  18. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will provide support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP- 09; Proposal No . 167-96adp). The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIME) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 p, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  19. A program to generate simulated radioxenon beta–gamma data for concentration verification and validation and training exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Schrom, Brian T.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Suckow, Thomas J.; Ringbom, Anders; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-03-08

    Abstract Several hundred simulated radioxenon beta-gamma data files were developed to assist in evaluating the performance and results from radioxenon concentration calculation analysis at the International Data Center (IDC) and other National Data Centers (NDC). PNNL developed a Beta-Gamma Simulator (BGSim) that incorporated GEANT-modeled data sets from radioxenon decay chains, as well as functionality to use nuclear detector-acquired data sets to create new beta-gamma spectra with varying amounts of background, 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe, 135Xe, and 222Rn and its decay products. The program has been implemented on a web-based applications platform and allows the user to create very specific data sets that incorporate most of the operational parameters for the current beta-gamma systems deployed in the International Monitoring System (IMS) and the On-site Inspection (OSI) equipment. After an initial beta-gamma simulations program was developed, additional uses began to be identified for the program output: training sets of two-dimensional spectra for data analysts at the IDC and other NDC, spectra for exercises such as the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) held in Jordan at the Dead Sea, and testing new analysis methods and algorithms

  20. Hierarchical Orbital Observatory Deployable Shroud (HOODS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large deployable telescopes such as NASA's 9.2m and 16.8m segmented ATLAST systems require commensurately large deployable sunshades for thermal control and to...

  1. How well could existing sensors detect the deployment of a solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering effort?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-29

    While the stated reason for asking this question is “to understand better our ability to warn policy makers in the unlikely event of an unanticipated SRM geoengineering deployment or large-scale field experiment”, my colleagues and I felt that motives would be important context because the scale of any meaningful SRM deployment would be so large that covert deployment seems impossible. However, several motives emerged that suggest a less-than-global effort might be important.

  2. EDITORIAL Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James

    2010-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are among the most promising technologies of the new millennium. The opportunities afforded by being able to program networks of small, lightweight, low-power, computation- and bandwidth-limited nodes have attracted a large community of researchers and developers. However, the unique set of capabilities offered by the technology produces an exciting but complex design space, which is often difficult to negotiate in an application context. Deploying sensing physical environments produces its own set of challenges, and can push systems into failure modes, thus revealing problems that can be difficult to discover or reproduce in simulation or the laboratory. Sustained efforts in the area of wireless networked sensing over the last 15 years have resulted in a large number of theoretical developments, substantial practical achievements, and a wealth of lessons for the future. It is clear that in order to bridge the gap between (on the one hand) visions of very large scale, autonomous, randomly deployed networks and (on the other) the actual performance of fielded systems, we need to view deployment as an essential component in the process of developing sensor networks: a process that includes hardware and software solutions that serve specific applications and end-user needs. Incorporating deployment into the design process reveals a new and different set of requirements and considerations, whose solutions require innovative thinking, multidisciplinary teams and strong involvement from end-user communities. This special feature uncovers and documents some of the hurdles encountered and solutions offered by experimental scientists when deploying and evaluating wireless sensor networks in situ, in a variety of well specified application scenarios. The papers specifically address issues of generic importance for WSN system designers: (i) data quality, (ii) communications availability and quality, (iii) alternative, low-energy sensing

  3. The effect of magnetic fields on gamma-ray bursts inferred from multi-wavelength observations of the burst of 23 January 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; Briggs, MS; Wijers, RAMJ; Rol, E; Band, D; van Paradijs, J; Kouveliotou, C; Preece, RD; Smith, IA; Tilanus, RPJ; de Bruyn, AG; Strom, RG; Pooley, G; Castro-Tirado, AJ; Tanvir, N; Robinson, C; Hurley, K; Heise, J; Telting, J; Rutten, RGM; Packham, C; Swaters, R; Fassia, A; Green, SF; Foster, MJ; Sagar, R; Pandey, AK; Nilakshi, [No Value; Yadav, RKS; Ofek, EO; Leibowitz, E; Ibbetson, P; Rhoads, J; Falco, E; Petry, C; Impey, C; Geballe, TR; Bhattacharya, D

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to arise when an extremely relativistic outflow of particles from a massive explosion (the nature of which is still unclear) Interacts with material surrounding the site of the explosion. observations of the evolving changes in emission at many wavelengths allow u

  4. Security Support in Continuous Deployment Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Faheem; Raft, Adam Johannes; Shahin, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the C...

  5. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  6. An ARM Mobile Facility Designed for Marine Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program is designing a Mobile Facility exclusively for marine deployments. This marine facility is patterned after ARM's land Mobile Facility, which had its inaugural deployment at Point Reyes, California, in 2005, followed by deployments to Niger in 2006 and Germany in 2007 (ongoing), and a planned deployment to China in 2008. These facilities are primarily intended for the study of clouds, radiation, aerosols, and surface processes with a goal to include these processes accurately in climate models. They are preferably embedded within larger field campaigns which provide context. They carry extensive instrumentation (in several large containers) including: cloud radar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared spectrometers, broadband and narrowband radiometers, sonde-launching facilities, extensive surface aerosol measurements, sky imagers, and surface latent and sensible heat flux devices. ARM's Mobile Facilities are designed for 6-10 month deployments in order to capture climatically-relevant datasets. They are available to any scientist, U.S. or international, who wishes to submit a proposal during the annual Spring call. The marine facility will be adapted to, and ruggedized for, the harsh marine environment and will add a scanning two-frequency radar, a boundary-layer wind profiler, a shortwave spectrometer, and aerosol instrumentation adapted to typical marine aerosols like sea salt. Plans also include the use of roving small UAVs, automated small boats, and undersea autonomous vehicles in order to address the point-to-area-average problem which is so crucial for informing climate models. Initial deployments are planned for small islands in climatically- interesting cloud regimes, followed by deployments on oceanic platforms (like decommissioned oil rigs and the quasi-permanent platform of this session's title) and eventually on large ships like car carriers plying routine routes.

  7. Security-by-Experiment: Lessons from Responsible Deployment in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wolter; Hadžiosmanović, Dina; Dechesne, Francien

    2016-06-01

    Conceiving new technologies as social experiments is a means to discuss responsible deployment of technologies that may have unknown and potentially harmful side-effects. Thus far, the uncertain outcomes addressed in the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments have been mostly safety-related, meaning that potential harm is caused by the design plus accidental events in the environment. In some domains, such as cyberspace, adversarial agents (attackers) may be at least as important when it comes to undesirable effects of deployed technologies. In such cases, conditions for responsible experimentation may need to be implemented differently, as attackers behave strategically rather than probabilistically. In this contribution, we outline how adversarial aspects are already taken into account in technology deployment in the field of cyber security, and what the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments can learn from this. In particular, we show the importance of adversarial roles in social experiments with new technologies.

  8. gamma-gamma Interactions from Real to Virtual Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    A `complete' framework for gamma-gamma / gamma*-gamma / gamma*-gamma* interactions is presented. The emphasis is on providing a model for gamma-gamma physics at all photon virtualities, including the difficult transition region around the rho meson mass.

  9. Effect of the combined action of gamma radiation and static fields in human cells;Efeito da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    Our goal is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 8 Gy doses range. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours did not induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast have quantified the expression of the g-H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS showed that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. (author)

  10. Gamma-ray Pulsar Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, Patrizia A

    2013-01-01

    Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. At first, in the 70s, there were only two identified sources, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space both in the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting, INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. Today we are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known of gamma-ray-emitting neutron stars. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011 and we are now appr...

  11. Radiation chemical effects in the near-field environment of a radwaste repository: {gamma} radiolysis in 6 molal NaCl solutions; Strahlenchemische Effekte im Endlagernahbereich: {gamma}-Radiolyse in 6 molarer NaCl-Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelm, M.; Bohnert, E.

    1997-12-01

    The radiation emitted from high-level radioactive wastes in a radwaste repository causes radiolysis products to be formed in brines resulting from water intrusion. The products may alter via redox and complexing reactions the mobilisation processes of radionuclides. The major products of {gamma} radiolysis determined in 6 molal NaCl solution as a function of radiation dose are hydrogen, oxygen, and chlorate. Hypochlorite and chlorite were found to have concentrations in the {mu}Mol/kg range. There was no dependence on dose rate. For the experiments under atmospheric pressure, which allowed radiolytic gas to escape from the solution, the G values measured are 0.46 (H{sub 2}), 0.16 (O{sub 2}), and 0.074 (ClO{sub 3}). In pressurized experiments, with radiolytic gas remaining contained in the solution, the radiolytic effect was much smaller. After approx. 100 days, at a dose of about 2 MGy, gas equilibrium concentrations of some mMol/kg were measured. The results can be qualitatively described by a system of parallel running reaction rate equations. As to quantitative analysis, the reaction model needs to be refined. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Strahlung von hochradioaktiven Abfaellen in einem Endlager im Salz hat zur Folge, dass bei einem Wasserzutritt in den entstehenden Laugen Radiolyseprodukte gebildet werden. Die Radiolyseprodukte koennen durch Redox- und Komplexierungsreaktionen die Mobilisierbarkeit von Radionukliden veraendern. Als Hauptprodukte der {gamma}-Radiolyse wurden in 6 molaler NaCl-Loesung Wasserstoff, Sauerstoff und Chlorat in Abhaengigkeit von der Dosis bestimmt. Hypochlorit und Chlorit erreichten nur Konzentrationen im {mu}Mol/kg-Bereich. Eine Dosisleistungsabhaengigkeit war nicht festzustellen. Bei den Experimenten unter Normaldruck, bei denen die Radiolysegase aus der Loesung entweichen konnten, betrugen die G-Werte 0.46 (H{sub 2}), 0,16 (O{sub 2}) und 0,074 (ClO{sub 3}{sup -}). Bei den Experimenten unter Druck wurden die Radiolysegase in Loesung

  12. GAMMA-400 gamma-ray observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Topchiev, N P; Bonvicini, V; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bakaldin, A V; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Cumani, P; Dalkarov, O D; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Finetti, N; Gascon, D; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Martinez, M; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Paredes, J M; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Yu I; Suchkov, S I; Taraskin, A A; Tavani, M; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Ward, J E; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The energy range of GAMMA-400 is expected to be from ~20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 20 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 10E15 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For high-energy gamma rays with energy from 10 to 100 GeV, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution improves from 0.1{\\deg} to ~0.01{\\deg} and energy resolution from 3% to ~1%; the proton rejection factor is ~5x10E5. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  13. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray blazars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Torres, Diego; E. Romero, Gustavo; F. Eiroa, Ernesto

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze...... the temporal evolution of the gamma-ray magnification for sources moving in a caustic pattern field, where the combined effects of thousands of stars are taken into account using a numerical technique. We propose that some of the unidentified $\\gamma$-ray sources (particularly some of those lying at high...... galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)....

  14. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  15. Pre-deployment Year Mental Health Diagnoses and Treatment in Deployed Army Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Mohr, Beth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Funk, Wendy; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2016-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of select mental health diagnoses (MHDX) and mental health treatment (MHT), and identified characteristics associated with MHT during the pre-deployment year (365 days before deployment) in active duty Army women (N = 14,633) who returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployments in FY2010. Pre-deployment year prevalence estimates were: 26.2 % for any select MHDX and 18.1 % for any MHT. Army women who had physical injuries since FY2002 or any behavioral health treatment between FY2002 and the pre-deployment year had increased odds of pre-deployment year MHT. During the pre-deployment year, a substantial percentage of Army women had MHDX and at least one MHT encounter or stay. Future research should determine if pre-deployment MHDX among Army women reflect vulnerability to future MHDX, or if pre-deployment MHT results in protection from chronic symptoms.

  16. Gamma-ray pulsars: a gold mine

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    The most energetic neutron stars, powered by their rotation, are capable of producing pulsed radiation from the radio up to gamma rays with nearly TeV energies. These pulsars are part of the universe of energetic and powerful particle accelerators, using their uniquely fast rotation and formidable magnetic fields to accelerate particles to ultra-relativistic speed. The extreme properties of these stars provide an excellent testing ground, beyond Earth experience, for nuclear, gravitational, and quantum-electrodynamical physics. A wealth of gamma-ray pulsars has recently been discovered with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The energetic gamma rays enable us to probe the magnetospheres of neutron stars and particle acceleration in this exotic environment. We review the latest developments in this field, beginning with a brief overview of the properties and mysteries of rotation-powered pulsars, and then discussing gamma-ray observations and magnetospheric models in more detail.

  17. Tow-Dimensionally Deployable "SHDF" Truss

    OpenAIRE

    ONODA, Junjiro; WATANABE, Naoyudi; Ichida, Kazuo; HASHIMOTO, Yasuo; NAKADA, Atsushi; Saito, Hisashi; 小野田, 淳次郎

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes a newly invented two-dimensionally deployable truss structure named SHDF, which has no articulated members. The most significant feature of SHDF truss is the very small number of the mechanisms to be actuated and locked at the deployment. A globally flat functional model actuated by tiny electromagnetic motors was designed and fabricated. The model demonstrated its practicality and virtually synchronized smooth motion in deploy/fold tests. Subsequently, the model w...

  18. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, C; Marks, J.; Jenq, J.; Cluett, Chris; DeBlasio, Allan; Lappin, Jane; Rakha, Hesham A.; Wunderlich, K

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the evaluation results of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI). The MMDI was a three-year program of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office of the U.S. Department of Transportation. It focused on aggressive deployment of ITS at four sites across the United States, including the metropolitan areas of San Antonio, Seattle, NY/NJ/Connecticut as well as Phoenix. The focus of the deployments was on integration of exist...

  19. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events.

  20. High-Temperature Superconductors as Electromagnetic Deployment and Support Structures in Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This technique uses the magnetic fields from current passing through coils of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to support spacecraft structures and deploy...

  1. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  2. Rigidizing Inflatable Deployable Dwelling (RIDD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By combining thin thermoplastic films, woven Vectran reinforcements, and heat a reliable, deployable, rigidizing space habitat can be created. Although much research...

  3. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protection system (TPS) panels to...

  4. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protective systems (TPS) panels to...

  5. Self-Deploying Gossamer Support Structure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results demonstrated the feasibility of using shape memory polymer composites to deploy, tension and support gossamer antennas. Cornerstone Research Group,...

  6. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy.

  7. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  8. Observation of gamma ray bursts at ground level under the thunderclouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, Y; Kato, Y; Nakata, R; Inoue, Y; Ito, C; Minowa, M

    2016-01-01

    We observed three $\\gamma$-ray bursts related to thunderclouds in winter using the prototype of anti-neutrino detector PANDA made of 360-kg plastic scintillator deployed at Ohi Power Station at the coastal area of the Japan Sea. The maximum rate of the events which deposited the energy higher than 3 MeV was $(5.5 \\pm 0.1) \\times 10^2 {\\rm /s}$. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the observed total energy spectra of the bursts are well described by the bremsstrahlung $\\gamma$-rays by electrons with approximately monochromatic energy falling downwards from altitudes of order $100\\,$m. It is supposed that secondary cosmic-ray electrons, which act as seed, were accelerated in electric field of thunderclouds and multiplied by relativistic runaway electron avalanche. We actually found that the $\\gamma$-rays of the bursts entered into the detector from the direction close to the zenith. The direction stayed constant during the burst within the detector resolution. In addition, taking advantage of the delayed coincid...

  9. High resolution {gamma} per-operative imaging; Imagerie {gamma} per-operatoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charon, Y.; Cohen-Solal, M.; Menard, L.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Ploux, L.; Valentin, L. [Groupe I.P.B., Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    The development of hand-held {gamma} imaging probe, for inside body localization of small tumors, is of first interest for radio-guided operative cancer surgery. In that context, we have developed a sub-millimeter spatial resolution, small field of view, {gamma} per-operative compact imager (POCI). (authors)

  10. The purely functional software deployment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.

    2006-01-01

    Software deployment is the set of activities related to getting software components to work on the machines of end users. It includes activities such as installation, upgrading, uninstallation, and so on. Many tools have been developed to support deployment, but they all have serious limitations wi

  11. Self-deploying photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A lightweight flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is attached to a support structure of initially stowed telescoping members. The deployment mechanism comprises a series of extendable and rotatable columns. As these columns are extended the PV blanket is deployed to its proper configuration.

  12. Experimental thermal mechanics of deployable boom structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for thermal distortion measurements on deployable boom structures. The calibration procedure and thermal static bending plus twist measurements are considered. The thermal mechanics test facility is described. A table is presented for several examples of spacecraft applications of thermal static distortion measurements on 3-m deployable booms.

  13. Seismic SMHD -- Rotational Sensor Development and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates; Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates; Brune, Bob [Consultant

    2016-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding development and deployment of a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, high dynamic range, low noise floor, proven ruggedness, and high repeatability. This paper presents current status of sensor development and deployment opportunities.

  14. Light Duty Utility Arm deployment in Tank WM-188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1999-12-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of Non-Compliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives.

  15. Light Duty Utility Arm Deployment in Tank WM-188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Michael W

    2000-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) was successfully deployed in Tank WM-188 during February and March of 1999 at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Some equipment problems were identified, but most were indicative of any first time activity. Deployment during cold weather imposed additional equipment risks, but in general, equipment response to the winter conditions was better than expected. Three end effectors were demonstrated during the deployment. All performed as expected, although the limited resolution of the Alternating Current Field Measurement end effector cannot absolutely confirm tank integrity, which is necessary for future tank inspections. Four heel samples were taken with the sampler end effector and a broad spectrum of analyses were performed. A detailed inspection of the tank interior was performed with the High Resolution Stereo Video System end effector. The sample information is proving invaluable to the development of new treatment flowsheets and waste forms. It is expected that the LDUA will be deployed for tank inspections through the next several years to support other Notice of NonCompliance (NON) Consent Order requirements and several other ongoing initiatives.

  16. Hybrid optimization of dynamic deployment for networked fire control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chen; Jie Chen; Bin Xin

    2013-01-01

    With applying the information technology to the military field, the advantages and importance of the networked combat are more and more obvious. In order to make ful use of limited battle-field resources and maximal y destroy enemy targets from arbitrary angle in a limited time, the research on firepower nodes dynamic deployment becomes a key problem of command and control. Con-sidering a variety of tactical indexes and actual constraints in air defense, a mathematical model is formulated to minimize the ene-my target penetration probability. Based on characteristics of the mathematical model and demands of the deployment problems, an assistance-based algorithm is put forward which combines the ar-tificial potential field (APF) method with a memetic algorithm. The APF method is employed to solve the constraint handling prob-lem and generate feasible solutions. The constrained optimization problem transforms into an optimization problem of APF para-meters adjustment, and the dimension of the problem is reduced greatly. The dynamic deployment is accomplished by generation and refinement of feasible solutions. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and feasible in dynamic situation.

  17. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Sensitivity to Steady and Transient Sources of Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory is designed to record air showers produced by cosmic rays and gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Because of its large field of view and high livetime, HAWC is well-suited to measure gamma rays from extended sources, diffuse emission, and transient sources. We describe the sensitivity of HAWC to emission from the extended Cygnus region as well as other types of galactic diffuse emission; searches for flares from gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei; and the first measurement of the Crab Nebula with HAWC-30.

  18. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Users speak out on technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Mark; Prochaska, Marty; Cromer, Paul; Zewatsky, Jennifer

    2001-02-25

    This report summarizes user feedback data collected during a recent Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project: the Fluor Fernald ASTD Technology Deployment Project from May, 1999 through September, 2000. The main goal of the ASTD project was to use the ''Fernald approach'' to expedite the deployment of new or innovative technologies with superior safety, cost, and/or productivity benefits to Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Fernald approach targets technology end-users and their managers and directly involves them with hands-on demonstrations of new or innovative technologies during technology transfer sessions. The two technologies deployed through this project were the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) and the oxy-gasoline torch. Participants of technology transfer sessions were requested to complete feedback surveys. Surveys evaluated the effectiveness of the Fernald approach to technology deployment and assessed the responsiveness of employees to new technologies. This report presents the results of those surveys.

  20. A Survey of IPv6 Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal M. Alhassoun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation Internet protocol (IPv6 was designed to overcome the limitation in IPv4 by using a 128-bit address instead of a 32-bit address. In addition to solving the address the limitations, IPv6 has many improved features. This research focused to survey IPv6 deployment all around the world. The objectives of this survey paper are to highlight the issues related to the IPv6 deployment and to look into the IPv4 to IPv6 transition mechanisms. Furthermore, provide insight on the global effort around the world to contribute in IPv6 deployment. In addition, identify the potential solutions or suggestions that could improve the IPv6 deployment rate. In order to achieve the said objectives we survey number of papers on IPv6 deployment from different countries and continents.

  1. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  2. Transportation Deployment; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    Automakers, commercial fleet operators, component manufacturers, and government agencies all turn to the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help put more green vehicles on the road. The lab’s independent analysis and evaluation pinpoint fuel-efficient and low-emission strategies to support economic and operational goals, while breaking down barriers to widespread adoption. Customized assessment of existing equipment and practices, energy-saving alternatives, operational considerations, and marketplace realities factor in the multitude of variables needed to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits. NREL provides integrated, unbiased, 360-degree sustainable transportation deployment expertise encompassing alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and related infrastructure. Hands-on support comes from technical experts experienced in advanced vehicle technologies, fleet operations, and field data collection coupled with extensive modeling and analysis capabilities. The lab’s research team works closely with automakers and vehicle equipment manufacturers to test, analyze, develop, and evaluate high-performance fuel-efficient technologies that meet marketplace needs.

  3. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mukhopadhyay

    2003-06-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources.

  4. Study of the response to neutrons of a personal dosemeter in mixed fields (n, {gamma}) in function of Hp(10); Estudio de la respuesta a neutrones de un dosimetro personal en campos mixtos (n, {gamma}) en funcion de Hp(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzate, J.; Gregori, B.; Carelli, J.; Aguerre, L.; Discacciatti, A. [Autoridad REgulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: cruzate@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this work it is presented the theoretical study and their experimental validation of the answer of the personal dosimetro in terms of the component of neutrons of the personal equivalent dose Hpn(10) in function of the energy, in presence of fields of neutrons and range. The personal dosimetro, based on detecting termoluminiscentes (TLD), it consists of two detectors 7LiF and two 6LiF, located low filters of plastic and cadmium starting from whose information is evaluated the component range and of neutrons of the dose. Additionally it consists of a detecting CaF2, used basically to discriminate against the energy of the component range and to make the corresponding corrections on the evaluation of the dose range obtained with the 7LiF. The answer to neutrons in function of the energy, defined as the quotient among the one I number of reactions 6Li(n, a)4He taken place in each TLD and the Hpn(10), it was calculated using the code MCNPX and the library ENDF/B-VI. You model the dosimetro under the irradiation conditions proposed by the ISO8529-3. Faces monoenergeticos were simulated in the range of energy understood between 70 keV and 5 MeV. The dispersion in each one of the results of the simulation is smaller than 3%. You I study the existent relationship among the answer te6rica, reactions (n,a)/Hpn(10) and the experimental one, nC/Hpn(10), for a given thermal treatment. The factor of resulting conversion is constant in the energy and similar to 1,71 104 reacciones(n, a)/nC, with a smaller standard deviation to 10%. The experimental answer was obtained starting from the irradiations carried out in the mark of the International Intercomparacion of Dosimetria in Mixed Campos (n,) 2004 organized by the OIEA next to the PTB (Germany) and the IRSN (France). The extension of these calculations to other spectra of neutrons of fields real they will allow to obtain group of factors of application conversion in routine and accidental situations. (Author)

  5. UAV Deployed Sensor System for Arctic Ocean Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, S. E.; Lawrence, D.; Weibel, D.; LoDolce, G.; Krist, S.; Crocker, I.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX), is an Arctic field project scheduled for summer 2013. The goals of the project are to understand how warming of the marginal ice zone affects sea ice melt and if this warming has been over or underestimated by satellite measurements. To achieve these goals calibrated physical measurements, both remote and in-situ, of the marginal ice zone over scales of square kilometers with a resolution of square meters is required. This will be accomplished with a suite of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with both remote sensing and in-situ instruments, air deployed microbuoys, and ship deployed buoys. In this talk we will present details about the air-deployed micro-buoy (ADMB) and self-deployed surface-sonde (SDSS) components of the MIZOPEX project, developed at the University of Colorado. These systems were designed to explore the potential of low-cost, on-demand access to high-latitude areas of important scientific interest. Both the ADMB and SDSS share a common measurement suite with the capability to measure water temperature at three distinct depths and provide position information via GPS. The ADMBs are dropped from the InSitu ScanEagle UAV and expected to operate and log ocean temperatures for 14 days. The SDSS are micro UAVs that are designed to fly one-way to a region of interest and land at specified coordinates, thereafter becoming a surface sensor similar to the ADMB. A ScanEagle will periodically return to the deployment zone to gather ADMB/SDSS data via low power radio links. Design decisions based upon operational constraints and the current status of the ADMB and SDSS will be presented.

  6. TEM, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography studies of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles in Inconel 718 superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, B; Kruk, A; Stepniowska, E; Cempura, G; Geiger, D; Formanek, P; Hernandez, J; Midgley, P; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was the identification of gamma' and gamma'' strengthening precipitates in a commercial nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 (Ni-19Fe-18Cr-5Nb-3Mo-1Ti-0.5Al-0.04C, wt %) using TEM dark-field, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography imaging. To identify gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles unambiguously, a systematic analysis of experimental and theoretical diffraction patterns were performed. Using HRTEM method it was possible to analyse small areas of precipitates appearance. Electron holography and electron tomography techniques show new possibilities of visualization of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles. The analysis by means of different complementary TEM methods showed that gamma'' particles exhibit a shape of thin plates, while gamma' phase precipitates are almost spherical.

  7. Coupling of $t\\bar t$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with a strongly interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Rafael L

    2016-01-01

    We report the coupling of an external $\\gamma\\gamma$ or $t\\bar t$ state to a strongly interacting EWSBS satisfying unitarity. We exploit perturbation theory for those coupling of the external state, whereas the EWSBS is taken as strongly interacting. We use a modified version of the IAM unitarization procedure to model such a strongly interacting regime. The matrix elements $V_LV_L\\to V_LV_L$, $V_LV_L\\leftrightarrow hh$, $hh\\to hh$, $V_LV_L\\leftrightarrow\\{\\gamma\\gamma,t\\bar t\\}$, and $hh\\leftrightarrow\\{\\gamma\\gamma,t\\bar t\\}$ are all computed to NLO in perturbation theory with the Nonlinear Effective Field Theory of the EWSBS, within the Equivalence Theorem. This allows us to describe resonances of the electroweak sector that may be found at the LHC and their effect on other channels such as $\\gamma\\gamma$ or $t\\bar t$ where they may be discovered.

  8. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Andres D. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Hernandez, Florencio E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2014-08-28

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  9. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  10. Gamma response study of radiation sensitive MOSFETs for their use as gamma radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Aggarwal, Bharti; Singh, Arvind; Kumar, A. Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma dose is important in various fields like radiation therapy, space-related research, nuclear energy programs and high energy physics experiment facilities. The present work is focused on utilization of radiation-sensitive Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) to monitor gamma radiation doses. Static characterization of these detectors was performed to check their expected current-voltage relationship. Threshold voltage and transconductance per unit gate to source voltage (K factor) were calculated from the experimental data. The detector was exposed to gamma radiation in both, with and without gate bias voltage conditions, and change in threshold voltage was monitored at different gamma doses. The experimental data was fitted to obtain equation for dependence of threshold voltage on gamma dose. More than ten times increase in sensitivity was observed in biased condition (+3 V) compared to the unbiased case.

  11. Study of the combined action of gamma radiation and static electric fields in human cells; Estudo da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    The basic principle of radiotherapy is the one of maximizing damage to the tumor, while minimizing it in neighboring health tissues. Several strategies have been worked out aiming at increasing cellular radiosensitivity, and among them is the use of exogenous fields. Our goal in this work is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 - 8 Gy doses range. The corresponding survival curve provided information on the radiosensitivity of this cell line. The rate of cell deaths per Gray in the 0 - 8 Gy range exhibited a maximum at 2 Gy, which corresponds to the most efficient irradiation dose. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours didn't induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast, without and with exposition to a SEF, have quantified the expression of the y- H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS allowed the investigation of a possible interference of radiation and SEF in the cell distributions among the cellular cycle phases. It was found that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. Therefore, it would be possible to conclude that static and exogenous electric fields are able of negatively interfering in the cellular repair and, presumably, in DNA repair. (author)

  12. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  13. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul;

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activitie...

  14. A small deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Jin, Jiangao; Wang, Baohua; Wu, Peng; Jiao, Jianchao; Su, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Diffractive membrane imaging can be widely used in infrared band due to its longer minimum linewidth and loose requirement of RMS to fabricate more easily and reduce production period and manufacturing cost than used in visible band. A deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system was designed, consisting of Φ200mm imaging aperture (actual aperture is Φ500mm) and deployable structure that supports the infrared membrane under tension. Its spectral band width is >1.2μm, field of view is >1°, and diffractive efficiency can be >60%. Stowed size is 150mm×150mm×400mm. Research result of this project can promote the application of diffractive membrane imaging in infrared band and provide an effective and feasible means for achieving extremely large optical primary mirror from compact, lightweight payload.

  15. Dynamic performance of the mechanism of an automatically deployable ROPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, J R; Cutlip, R G; Harris, J R; Ronaghi, M; Means, K H; Howard, S

    2002-02-01

    The mechanism for an automatically deployable ROPS (AutoROPS) has been designed and tested. This mechanism is part of an innovative project to provide passive protection against rollover fatality to operators of new tractors used in both low-clearance and unrestricted-clearance tasks. The device is a spring-action, telescoping structure that releases on signal to pyrotechnic squibs that actuate release pins. Upper post motion begins when the release pins clear an internal piston. The structure extends until the piston impacts an elastomeric ring and latches at the top position. In lab tests the two-post structure consistently deployed in less than 0.3 s and latched securely. Static load tests of the telescoping structure and field upset tests of the fully functional AutoROPS have been successfully completed.

  16. Atmospheric Cherenkov Gamma-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique, developed in the 1980s and 1990s, is now used by a number of existing and planned gamma-ray observatories around the world. It provides the most sensitive view of the very high energy gamma-ray sky (above 30 GeV), coupled with relatively good angular and spectral resolution over a wide field-of-view. This Chapter summarizes the details of the technique, including descriptions of the telescope optical systems and cameras, as well as the most common approaches to data analysis and gamma-ray reconstruction.

  17. Deployment support leading to implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This quarterly report discusses progress on the following tasks and subtasks: (Task 1)--Field demonstration of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) technology: Subtask 1.1--Pilot scale demonstration of TCE flushing through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant; Subtask 1.2--Technical support on surfactants and QA/QC for field operations employing PVDs at the RMI Ashtabula, Ohio, site; Subtask 1.3--Operational support of the PVDs and engineering/design/construction/operations of a wastewater treatment plant for extracted fluids; Subtask 1.4--Installation of PVDs at the RMI Ashtabulah, Ohio, site; and Subtask 1.5--Removal of surfactants and trichloroethylene (TCE) from extracted groundwater at the RMI Ashtabula, Ohio, site; (Task 2)--Watershed economics and overview studies; and (Task 3)--Project management.

  18. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  19. Embedding Quality Function Deployment In Software Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... product development: Marketing, Design. Engineering,. Quality ... The basic Quality Function Deployment methodology involves ... structure and planning approach, requires that more time be ..... process, and strategy. This is ...

  20. High Efficiency, Deployable Solar Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrathin, lightweight, flexible, and easily deployable solar cell (SC) capable of specific power greater than 1kW/kg are at an early stage of development for...

  1. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  2. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's Veritex(TM) materials. These...

  3. Surface Optimization Techniques for Deployable Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this and several other programs, CTD has developed TEMBOREG deployable solid-surface reflectors (TEMBOREG Reflectors) to provide future NASA and Air Force...

  4. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  5. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  6. DBAS: A Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System

    CERN Document Server

    Habak, Karim; Harras, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    The explosive increase in data demand coupled with the rapid deployment of various wireless access technologies have led to the increase of number of multi-homed or multi-interface enabled devices. Fully exploiting these interfaces has motivated researchers to propose numerous solutions that aggregate their available bandwidths to increase overall throughput and satisfy the end-user's growing data demand. These solutions, however, have faced a steep deployment barrier that we attempt to overcome in this paper. We propose a Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System (DBAS) for multi-interface enabled devices. Our system does not introduce any intermediate hardware, modify current operating systems, modify socket implementations, nor require changes to current applications or legacy servers. The DBAS architecture is designed to automatically estimate the characteristics of applications and dynamically schedule various connections or packets to different interfaces. Since our main focus is deployability, we fully i...

  7. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  8. Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-05-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory.

  9. Rehabilitation of gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Charles A.

    1998-07-01

    Gamma characterizes the reproduction of tone scale in an imaging system. Gamma summarizes, in a single numerical parameter, the nonlinear relationship between code value--in an 8-bit system, from 0 through 255--and physical intensity. Nearly all image coding systems are nonlinear, and so involve values of gamma different from unity. Owing to poor understanding of tone scale reproduction, and to misconceptions about nonlinear coding, gamma has acquired a terrible reputation in computer graphics and image processing. In addition, the world-wide web suffers from poor reproduction of grayscale and color images, due to poor handling of nonlinear image coding. This paper aims to make gamma respectable again.

  10. Spacecraft Dynamic Characteristics While Deploying Flexible Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程绪铎; 李俊峰; 樊勇; 王照林

    2002-01-01

    The attitude dynamic equations of a spacecraft while deploying two flexible beams and the beam equations were developed from momentum theory. The dynamic equations were solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method to calculate the vibration amplitudes of the flexible beams and the attitude angular velocity. The results show that the vibration amplitudes increase as the beam length increases or as the initial attitude angular velocity increases. The results also show that the vibration amplitudes decrease as the deployment velocity increases.

  11. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  12. Deploying Renewables - Best and Future Policy Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-23

    The global energy system faces urgent challenges. Concerns about energy security are growing, as highlighted by the recent political turmoil in Northern Africa and the nuclear incident in Fukushima. At the same time, the need to respond to climate change is more critical than ever. Against this background, many governments have increased efforts to promote deployment of renewable energy -- low-carbon sources that can strengthen energy security. This has stimulated unprecedented rise in deployment, and renewables are now the fastest growing sector of the energy mix. This 'coming of age' of renewable energy also brings challenges. Growth is focused on a few of the available technologies, and rapid deployment is confined to a relatively small number of countries. In more advanced markets, managing support costs and system integration of large shares of renewable energy in a time of economic weakness and budget austerity has sparked vigorous political debate. The IEA's new report, Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice: - Provides a comprehensive review and analysis of renewable energy policy and market trends; - Analyses in detail the dynamics of deployment and provides best-practice policy principles for different stages of market maturity; - Assesses the impact and cost-effectiveness of support policies using new methodological tools and indicators; - Investigates the strategic reasons underpinning the pursuit of RE deployment by different countries and the prospects for globalisation of RE. This new book builds on and extends a 2008 IEA publication, drawing on recent policy and deployment experience world-wide. It provides guidance for policy makers and other stakeholders to avoid past mistakes, overcome new challenges and reap the benefits of deploying renewables -- today and tomorrow.

  13. Deployable radiator with flexible line loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bryan V. (Inventor); Lehtinen, Arthur Mathias (Inventor); McGee, Billy W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Radiator assembly (10) for use on a spacecraft (12) is provided including at least one radiator panel assembly (26) repeatably movable between a panel stowed position (28) and a panel deployed position (36), at least two flexible lines (40) in fluid communication with the at least one radiator panel assembly (26) and repeatably movable between a stowage loop (42) and a flattened deployed loop (44).

  14. Designing Planar Deployable Objects via Scissor Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Xuejin; Ding, Chao; Jiang, Luo; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Ligang

    2016-02-01

    Scissor structure is used to generate deployable objects for space-saving in a variety of applications, from architecture to aerospace science. While deployment from a small, regular shape to a larger one is easy to design, we focus on a more challenging task: designing a planar scissor structure that deploys from a given source shape into a specific target shape. We propose a two-step constructive method to generate a scissor structure from a high-dimensional parameter space. Topology construction of the scissor structure is first performed to approximate the two given shapes, as well as to guarantee the deployment. Then the geometry of the scissor structure is optimized in order to minimize the connection deflections and maximize the shape approximation. With the optimized parameters, the deployment can be simulated by controlling an anchor scissor unit. Physical deployable objects are fabricated according to the designed scissor structures by using 3D printing or manual assembly. We show a number of results for different shapes to demonstrate that even with fabrication errors, our designed structures can deform fluently between the source and target shapes.

  15. Joints in deployable space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the response of deployable structural concepts being considered for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure will be dominated by the response of joints, the joint characteristics are significant. An overview is given of the research activities at LaRC on the static behavior of joints for deployable space truss structures. Since a pin-clevis-type joint will be utilized in deployable structures, an experimental research program to characterize the joint parameters which affect stiffness was conducted. An experimental research program was conducted on a second type of joint, referred to as a near-center latch joint. It was used in the center of members on the deployable truss structure for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) flight experiment. The test results of the near-center latch joint and the member with the joints indicated that the stiffness of the near-center joint is linear and stiffer than the stiffness of the total member, and that non-linearities in the stiffness characteristics of the total member were due to bending introduced at the ends of the member. The resulting data indicates that stiff linear folding joints can be designed and that bending load paths should be avoided whenever possible. In summary, for deployable structures, special attention to the joint and the structure design is required to minimize the undesirable structural non-linearities.

  16. Offloading techniques for large deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Levino; Golob, Alex

    1992-01-01

    The validation and verification of large deployable space structures are continual challenges which face the integration and test engineer today. Spar Aerospace Limited has worked on various programs in which such structure validation was required and faces similar tasks in the future. This testing is reported and the different offloading and deployment methods which were used, as well as the proposed methods which will be used on future programs, are described. Past programs discussed include the Olympus solar array ambient and thermal vacuum deployments, and the Anik-E array and reflector deployments. The proposed MSAT reflector and boom ambient deployment tests, as well as the proposed RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ambient and thermal vacuum deployment tests will also be presented. A series of tests relating to various component parts of the offloading equipment systems was required. These tests included the characterization and understanding of linear bearings and large (180 in-lbf) constant force spring motors in a thermal vacuum environment, and the results from these tests are presented.

  17. 78 FR 77550 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... is extending the application period for the Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants... Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants. The purpose of this notice was to invite States...

  18. Gravitational Light Bending Prevents $\\gamma\\gamma$ Absorption in Gravitational Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The magnification effect due to gravitational lensing enhances the chances of detecting moderate-redshift ($z \\sim 1$) sources in very-high-energy (VHE; $E > 100$ GeV) $\\gamma$-rays by ground-based Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope facilities. It has been shown in previous work that this prospect is not hampered by potential $\\gamma-\\gamma$ absorption effects by the intervening (lensing) galaxy, nor by any individual star within the intervening galaxy. In this paper, we expand this study to simulate the light-bending effect of a realistic ensemble of stars. We first demonstrate that, for realistic parameters of the galaxy's star field, it is extremely unlikely (probability $\\lesssim 10^{-6}$) that the direct line of sight between the $\\gamma$-ray source and the observer passes by any star in the field close enough to be subject to significant $\\gamma\\gamma$ absorption. Our simulations then focus on the rare cases where $\\gamma\\gamma$ absorption by (at least) one individual star might be non-negligible. We show ...

  19. An airborne gamma-ray spectrometry survey of nuclear sites in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, D C W; Cresswell, A J; Hardeman, F; Debauche, A

    2004-01-01

    As part of a wider study to define the existing background levels in Belgium an airborne gamma-ray survey was conducted in two areas associated with nuclear sites. In the Mol area, the survey zone included areas surrounding the SCK-CEN nuclear research centre, and its associated neighbourhood which includes radioactive waste stores, fuel manufacture and fabrication facilities and an international accelerator laboratory. In the vicinity of Fleurus, the survey included the IRE complex with radiochemical laboratories, irradiation facilities and stores, and isotope production accelerators. The survey was conducted using a twin engined helicopter equipped with a combined scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer. The system was installed and tested in the UK, and then transferred to Belgium for operations. The complete survey was conducted successfully within 1 week. The results provide a comprehensive record of the radiation environment of the nuclear sites at time of survey, and show a range of signals associated with the types of activity present in each area. They confirm that radiation fields are largely confined to the operational sites, and provide a traceable record against which future changes could be assessed. The demonstration of efficient deployment between two European countries, coupled with rapid mapping of many different radiometric signals around these sites confirms the utility of the airborne gamma spectrometry approach for accurate definition of enhanced radiation fields. This has important implications for emergency response.

  20. High-Temperature Superconductors as Electromagnetic Deployment and Support Structures in Spacecraft. [NASA NIAC Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getliffe, Gwendolyn V.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Masterson, Rebecca; Miller, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report, concluding a one-year NIAC Phase I study, describes a new structural and mechanical technique aimed at reducing the mass and increasing the deployed-to-stowed length and volume ratios of spacecraft systems. This technique uses the magnetic fields generated by electrical current passing through coils of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to support spacecraft structures and deploy them to operational configurations from their stowed positions inside a launch vehicle fairing.

  1. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Schütz, C.

    2010-01-01

    To establish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for non-resectable liver metastases and for in vitro experiments at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz, Germany, it is necessary to have a reliable dose monitoring system. The in vitro experiments are used to determine the relative...... to the neutron fluence directly. Results and discussion. Gold foil activation and the pin-diode are reliable fluence measurement systems for the TRIGA reactor, Mainz. Alanine dosimetry of the photon field and charged particle field from secondary reactions can in principle be carried out in combination with MC...

  2. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  3. Deploying process modeling and attitude control of a satellite with a large deployable antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Xing; Gangtie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and attitude control methods for a satellite with a large deployable antenna are studied in the present paper. Firstly, for reducing the model dimension, three dynamic models for the deploying process are developed, which are built with the methods of multi-rigid-body dynamics, hybrid coordinate and substructure. Then an attitude control method suitable for the deploying process is proposed, which can keep stability under any dynamical parameter variation. Subsequently, this attitude...

  4. Rich: Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head Selection and Node Deployment Strategy in Concentric-based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment, sensor nodes are scattered randomly in the sensing field. Hence, the coverage can not be guaranteed. In contrast, the coverage of uniformly deployment is in general larger than the random deployment. However, uniformly deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this situation, larger load may be imposed to CHs (cluster heads around the sink. Therefore, CHs close to the sink use up their energy earlier than those farther away from the sink. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel node deployment strategy in the concentric model, namely, Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head selection and node deployment strategy (called Rich. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed Rich scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed Rich alleviates the unbalanced traffic pattern significantly, prolongs network lifetime and achieves satisfactory coverage ratio.

  5. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  6. Performance of an automatically deployable ROPS on ASAE tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, J R; Harris, J R; Etherton, J R; Snyder, K A; Ronaghi, M; Newbraugh, B H

    2001-02-01

    In the U.S., approximately 132 agricultural tractor overturn fatalities occur per year. The use of rollover protective structures (ROPS), along with seat belts, is the best-known method for preventing these fatalities. However, one impediment to ROPS use is low-clearance situations, such as orchards and animal confinement buildings. To address the need for ROPS that are easily adapted to low-clearance situations, the Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, developed a prototype automatically deploying, telescoping ROPS (AutoROPS). The NIOSH AutoROPS consists of two subsystems. The first is a retractable ROPS that is normally latched in its lowered position for day-to-day use. The second subsystem is a sensor that monitors the operating angle of the tractor. If an overturn condition is detected by the sensor, the retracted ROPS will deploy and lock in the full upright position before ground contact. Static load testing and field upset tests of the NIOSH AutoROPS have been conducted in accordance with SAE standard J2194. Additionally, timed trials of the AutoROPS deployment mechanism were completed. The results of these tests show that the NIOSH AutoROPS has significant potential to overcome the limitations of current ROPS designs for use in low clearance as well as unrestricted clearance operations.

  7. Progress Towards Deployable Antineutrino Detectors for Reactor Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, N; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Keefer, G; Reyna, D; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Kiff, S

    2010-04-05

    Fission reactors emit large numbers of antineutrinos and this flux may be useful for the measurement of two quantities of interest for reactor safeguards: the reactor's power and plutonium inventory throughout its cycle. The high antineutrino flux and relatively low background rates means that simple cubic meter scale detectors at tens of meters standoff can record hundreds or thousands of antineutrino events per day. Such antineutrino detectors would add online, quasi-real-time bulk material accountancy to the set of reactor monitoring tools available to the IAEA and other safeguards agencies with minimal impact on reactor operations. Between 2003 and 2008, our LLNL/SNL collaboration successfully deployed several prototype safeguards detectors at a commercial reactor in order to test both the method and the practicality of its implementation in the field. Partially on the strength of the results obtained from these deployments, an Experts Meeting was convened by the IAEA Novel Technologies Group in 2008 to assess current antineutrino detection technology and examine how it might be incorporated into the safeguards regime. Here we present a summary of our previous deployments and discuss current work that seeks to provide expanded capabilities suggested by the Experts Panel, in particular aboveground detector operation.

  8. Artificially designed pathogens - a diagnostic option for future military deployments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas E Zautner; Wycliffe O Masanta; Rebecca Hinz; Ralf Matthias Hagen; Hagen Frickmann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic microbial isolates of bio-safety levels 3 and 4 are difficult to handle in medical field camps under military deployment settings. International transport of such isolates is challenging due to restrictions by the International Air Transport Association. An alternative option might be inactivation and sequencing of the pathogen at the deployment site with subsequent sequence-based revitalization in well-equipped laboratories in the home country for further scientific assessment. Methods: A literature review was written based on a PubMed search. Results: First described for poliovirus in 2002,de novo synthesis of pathogens based on their sequence information has become a well-established procedure in science. Successful syntheses have been demonstrated for both viruses and prokaryotes. However, the technology is not yet available for routine diagnostic purposes. Conclusions: Due to the potential utility of diagnostic sequencing and sequence-basedde novo synthesis of pathogens, it seems worthwhile to establish the technology for diagnostic purposes over the intermediate term. This is particularly true for resource-restricted deployment settings, where safe handling of harmful pathogens cannot always be guaranteed.

  9. Durable strategies to deploy plant resistance in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Frédéric; Rousseau, Elsa; Mailleret, Ludovic; Moury, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    The deployment of resistant crops often leads to the emergence of resistance-breaking pathogens that suppress the yield benefit provided by the resistance. Here, we theoretically explored how farmers' main leverages (resistant cultivar choice, resistance deployment strategy, landscape planning and cultural practices) can be best combined to achieve resistance durability while minimizing yield losses as a result of plant viruses. Assuming a gene-for-gene type of interaction, virus epidemics are modelled in a landscape composed of a mosaic of resistant and susceptible fields, subjected to seasonality, and a reservoir hosting viruses year-round. The model links the genetic and the epidemiological processes, shaping at nested scales the demogenetic dynamics of viruses. The choice of the resistance gene (characterized by the equilibrium frequency of the resistance-breaking virus at mutation-selection balance in a susceptible plant) is the most influential leverage of action. Our results showed that optimal strategies of resistance deployment range from 'mixture' (where susceptible and resistant cultivars coexist) to 'pure' strategies (with only resistant cultivar) depending on the resistance characteristics and the epidemiological context (epidemic incidence and landscape connectivity). We demonstrate and discuss gaps concerning virus epidemiology across the agro-ecological interface that must be filled to achieve sustainable disease management.

  10. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...

  11. Measurement of. gamma. gamma. widths of charmonium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.Y.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Ng, C.R.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Yao, W.M. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA)); Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Li, W.C.; Lou, X.C.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.N.; Zoeller, M.I. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA)); Bortoletto, D.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Jain, V.; Mestayer, M.D.; Moneti, G.C.; Sharma, V.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Skwarnicki, T.; Thulasidas, M. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Csorna, S.E.; Letson, T. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA)); Alexander, J.; Artuso, M.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Crawford, G.; DeWire, J.W.; Dell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Halling, A.M.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lewis, J.D.; Mistry, N.B.; Mueller, J.; Namjoshi, R.; Nandi, S.; Nordberg, E.; O' Grady, C.; Peterson, D.; Pisharody, M.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Silverman, A.

    1990-06-21

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have searched for two-phonon production of charmonium in four-track final states. We have measured {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({eta}{sub c})=5.9{sub -1.8}{sup +2.1}{plus minus}1.9 keV, and we have obtained 95% CL upper limits of {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({chi}{sub c0})<6.2 keV and {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({chi}{sub c2})<1.0 keV. (orig.).

  12. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  13. Lightweight, Self-Deploying Foam Antenna Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold; Levin, Steven; Rand, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight, deployable antennas for a variety of outer-space and terrestrial applications would be designed and fabricated according to the concept of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structures, according to a proposal. Mechanically deployable antennas now in use are heavy, complex, and unreliable, and they utilize packaging volume inefficiently. The proposed CHEM antenna structures would be simple and would deploy themselves without need for any mechanisms and, therefore, would be more reliable. The proposed CHEM antenna structures would also weigh less, could be packaged in smaller volumes, and would cost less, relative to mechanically deployable antennas. The CHEM concept was described in two prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory (CHEM) Expandable Structures" (NPO-20394), Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 56; and "Solar Heating for Deployment of Foam Structures" (NPO-20961), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 36. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The CHEM concept is one of utilizing opencell foams of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) to make lightweight, reliable, simple, and inexpensive structures that can be alternately (1) compressed and stowed compactly or (2) expanded, then rigidified for use. A CHEM structure is fabricated at full size from a block of SMP foam in its glassy state [at a temperature below the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the SMP]. The structure is heated to the rubbery state of the SMP (that is, to a temperature above Tg) and compacted to a small volume. After compaction, the structure is cooled to the glassy state of the SMP. The compacting force can then be released and the structure remains compact as long as the temperature is kept below Tg. Upon subsequent heating of the structure above Tg, the simultaneous elastic recovery of the foam and its shape-memory effect cause the structure to expand to its original size and shape. Once thus deployed, the structure can be rigidified by

  14. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  15. Mesh deployable antenna mechanics testing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    Rapid development in spatial technologies and continuous expansion of astronautics applications require stricter and stricter standards in spatial structure. Deployable space structure as a newly invented structural form is being extensively adopted because of its characteristic (i.e. deployability). Deployable mesh reflector antenna is a kind of common deployable antennas. Its reflector consists in a kind of metal mesh. Its electrical properties are highly dependent on its mechanics parameters (including surface accuracy, angle, and position). Therefore, these mechanics parameters have to be calibrated. This paper presents a mesh antenna mechanics testing method that employs both an electronic theodolite and a laser tracker. The laser tracker is firstly used to measure the shape of radial rib deployable antenna. The measurement data are then fitted to a paraboloid by means of error compensation. Accordingly, the focus and the focal axis of the paraboloid are obtained. The following step is to synchronize the coordinate systems of the electronic theodolite and the measured antenna. Finally, in a microwave anechoic chamber environment, the electromechanical axis is calibrated. Testing results verify the effectiveness of the presented method.

  16. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  17. Analysis of the Deployment Quality for Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Assad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrusion detection application in a homogeneous wireless sensor network is defined as a mechanism to detect unauthorized intrusions or anomalous moving attackers in a field of interest. The quality of deterministic sensor nodes deployment can be determined sufficiently by a rigorous analysis before the deployment. However, when random deployment is required, determining the deployment quality becomes challenging. An area may require that multiple nodes monitor each point from the sensing area; this constraint is known as k-coverage where k is the number of nodes. The deployment quality of sensor nodes depends directly on node density and sensing range; mainly a random sensor nodes deployment is required. The major question is centred around the problem of network coverage, how can we guarantee that each point of the sensing area is covered by the required number of sensor nodes and what a sufficient condition to guarantee the network coverage? To deal with this, probabilistic intrusion detection models are adopted, called single/multi-sensing detection, and the deployment quality issue is surveyed and analysed in terms of coverage. We evaluate the capability of our probabilistic model in homogeneous wireless sensor network, in terms of sensing range, node density, and intrusion distance.

  18. Plant stress analysis technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring vegetation is an active area of laser-induced fluorescence imaging (LIFI) research. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) is assisting in the transfer of the LIFI technology to the agricultural private sector through a market survey. The market survey will help identify the key eco-agricultural issues of the nations that could benefit from the use of sensor technologies developed by the Office of Science and Technology (OST). The principal region of interest is the Western Hemisphere, particularly, the rapidly growing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis of needs will assure that the focus of present and future research will center on economically important issues facing both hemispheres. The application of the technology will be useful to the agriculture industry for airborne crop analysis as well as in the detection and characterization of contaminated sites by monitoring vegetation. LIFI airborne and close-proximity systems will be evaluated as stand-alone technologies and additions to existing sensor technologies that have been used to monitor crops in the field and in storage.

  19. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  20. When to Deploy the Field Advance Civilian Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    Red Cross/Red Crescent employs Emergency Response Units ( ERU ) to respond to disasters and implement relief programs. The ERUs have developed into nine...different highly specialized units, all using standardized equipment and pre-trained personnel.36 The ERU appears to be equivalent to the FACT in the S

  1. Measurement of electric field gradient at {sup 117}In on the Cu-site in mavicyanin by perturbed angular correlation of {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, A., E-mail: yokoyama@cacheibm.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Hashimoto, T.; Ihara, K.; Kikunaga, H.; Kinoshita, N.; Yamazaki, I.; Kataoka, K.; Yanase, M.; Takata, M. [Kanazawa University, Faculty of Science and Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Japan); Murakami, Y.; Takamiya, K.; Tanigaki, M.; Ohkubo, Y. [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    The structure around the metal site of mavicyanin, a protein molecule with a copper site, was investigated in solution by using time-differential perturbed angular correlation of {sup 117}In. The electric field gradient (EFG) of the metal site was deduced from the measurement. It demonstrated that the site in a mutant-type mavicyanin, Thr15Ala-Mav, gives an EFG different from that in the wild-type mavicyanin does. The pH dependence of the EFG was also observed for both proteins.

  2. Research on lightweight passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror in the deployable space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peifeng; Li, Chuang; Jing, Nan; Chong, Yaqin; Ren, Guorui

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a new type of lightweight passive deployment mechanism based on the tape spring and the shape memory alloy is presented for the secondary mirror of a deployable space telescope. In this passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror, the high elastic potential energy of the folded tape springs is used as driving force when the support structure is extended, and the high stiffness characteristics of the circular arc cross section of the tape spring can be used to achieve structure self-locking after deployment. Then a deployable space telescope combined with lightweight passive deployable mechanism for the secondary mirror is designed for applying to nanosatellite imaging. Furthermore, a lock-release device is designed to achieve the function of locking the folded structure and releasing on orbit by taking advantage of the phase transformation characteristics of shape memory alloy with temperature changing. Finally, the correction method for the deployment error of secondary mirror is discussed. The temperature of the tape springs is controlled respectively to make a required length change. This can achieve the purpose of adjusting the position of the secondary mirror and improve the deployment accuracy.

  3. Supernova remnants and gamma-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Dame, T M; Combi, J A; Butt, Y M; Torres, Diego F.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Dame, Thomas M.; Combi, Jorge A.; Butt, Yousaf M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the possible relationship between $\\gamma$-ray sources and supernova remnants (SNRs) is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis of the observational status of the problem of cosmic ray acceleration at SNR shock fronts. All positional coincidences between SNRs and unidentified $\\gamma$-ray sources listed in the Third EGRET Catalog at low Galactic latitudes are discussed on a case by case basis. For several coincidences of particular interest, new CO(J=1-0) and radio continuum maps are shown, and the mass content of the SNR surroundings is determined. The contribution to the $\\gamma$-ray flux observed that might come from cosmic ray particles (particularly nuclei) locally accelerated at the SNR shock fronts is evaluated. We discuss the prospects for future research in this field and remark on the possibilities for observations with forthcoming $\\gamma$-ray instruments.

  4. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  5. Deployable Molecular Detection of Arboviruses in the Australian Outback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Bradbury, Richard S; McInnes, Russell L; Frances, Stephen P; Merritt, Adam J; Levy, Avram; Nicholson, Jay; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael; Smith, David W

    2016-09-01

    The most common causes of human infection from the arboviruses that are endemic in Australia are the arthritogenic alphaviruses: Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV). The most serious infections are caused by the neurotropic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and the Kunjin subtype of West Nile virus. The greatest individual risk of arbovirus infection occurs in tropical/subtropical northern Australia because of the warm, wet summer conditions from December to June, where conventional arbovirus surveillance is difficult due to a combination of low population density, large distances between population centers, poor roads, and seasonal flooding. Furthermore, virus detection requires samples to be sent to Perth up to 2,000 km away for definitive analysis, causing delays of days to weeks before test results are available and public health interventions can be started. We deployed a portable molecular biology laboratory for remote field detection of endemic arboviruses in northern Queensland, then in tropical Western Australia and detected BFV, MVEV, and RRV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of extracts from mosquitoes trapped in Queensland. We then used a field-portable compact real-time thermocycler for the samples collected in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Real-time field PCR assays enabled concurrent endemic arbovirus distribution mapping in outback Queensland and Western Australia. Our deployable laboratory method provides a concept of operations for future remote area arbovirus surveillance.

  6. Adaptive response in mouse bone-marrow stromal cells exposed to 900-MHz radiofrequency fields: Gamma-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongxin; He, Qina; Sun, Yulong; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether radiofrequency field (RF) preexposure induced adaptive responses (AR) in mouse bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and the mechanisms underlying the observed findings. Cells were preexposed to 900-MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120 μW/cm(2) power intensity for 4 h/d for 5 d. Some cells were subjected to 1.5 Gy γ-radiation (GR) 4 h following the last RF exposure. The intensity of strand breaks in the DNA was assessed immediately at 4 h. Subsequently, some BMSC were examined at 30, 60, 90, or 120 min utilizing the alkaline comet assay and γ-H2AX foci technique. Data showed no significant differences in number and intensity of strand breaks in DNA between RF-exposed and control cells. A significant increase in number and intensity of DNA strand breaks was noted in cells exposed to GR exposure alone. RF followed by GR exposure significantly decreased number of strand breaks and resulted in faster kinetics of repair of DNA strand breaks compared to GR alone. Thus, data suggest that RF preexposure protected cells from damage induced by GR. Evidence indicates that in RF-mediated AR more rapid repair kinetics occurs under conditions of GR-induced damage, which may be attributed to diminished DNA strand breakage.

  7. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  8. Service Creation and Deployment in Converged Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....

  9. Deploying Embodied AI into Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, David J. H.

    The last two years have seen the start of commercial activity within virtual worlds. Unlike computer games where Non-Player-Character avatars are common, in most virtual worlds they are the exception — and until recently in Second Life they were non-existent. However there is real commercial scope for Als in these worlds — in roles from virtual sales staff and tutors to personal assistants. Deploying an embodied AI into a virtual world offers a unique opportunity to evaluate embodied Als, and to develop them within an environment where human and computer are on almost equal terms. This paper presents an architecture being used for the deployment of chatbot driven avatars within the Second Life virtual world, looks at the challenges of deploying an AI within such a virtual world, the possible implications for the Turing Test, and identifies research directions for the future.

  10. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  11. Possible distance indicators in gamma-ray pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Distance measurement of gamma-ray pulsars is a current challenge in pulsar studies. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi gamma-ray observatory discovered more than 70 gamma-ray pulsars including 24 new gamma-selected pulsars with almost no distance information. We study the relation between gammaray emission efficiency (η = Lγ/E) and pulsar parameters for young radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars with known distance information in the first gamma-ray pulsar catalog reported by Fermi/LAT. We have introduced three generation-order parameters to describe the gamma-ray emission properties of pulsars, and find a strong correlation of rη- ζ3, a generation-order parameter which reflects γ-ray photon generation in the pair cascade processes induced by magnetic field absorption in a pulsar's magnetosphere.A good correlation of η- BLC, the magnetic field at the light cylinder radius, is also found. These correlations are the distance indicators in gamma-ray pulsars used to evaluate distances for gamma-selected pulsars. Distances of 25 gamma-selected pulsars are estimated, which could be tested by other distance measurement methods. The physical origin of the correlations may also be interesting for pulsar studies.

  12. How the $\\gamma \\gamma$ Resonance Stole Christmas

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Kilic, Can; Thomas, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical implications of heavy di-gauge boson resonances that couple to, or are comprised of, new charged and strongly interacting matter are investigated. Observation and measurement of ratios of the resonant di-gauge boson channels $WW$, $ZZ$, $\\gamma \\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, and $gg$ in the form of di-jets, provide a rather direct -- and for some ratios a rather robust -- probe of the gauge representations of the new matter. For a spin-zero resonance with the quantum numbers of the vacuum, the ratios of resonant $WW$ and $ZZ$ to $\\gamma \\gamma$ channels, as well as the longitudinal versus transverse polarization fractions in the $WW$ and $ZZ$ channels, provide extraordinarily sensitive probes for possible mixing with the Higgs boson, while di-Higgs and di-top resonant channels, $hh$ and $tt$, provide somewhat less sensitivity. We present a survey of possible underlying models for di-gauge boson resonances by considering various limits for the mass of the new charged and strongly interac...

  13. Clevis joint for deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pin clevis joints, and more particularly, to zero play pin clevis joints for connecting structural members of a deployable space structure. A joint includes a pin, a tang, and a shackle. The pin is tapered at the same angle as the bores extending through the projections of the shackle and the tang. A spring washer biases the tang onto the tapered sidewall of the pin. The invention solves the free play problem associated with deployable space structures by using a tapered pin which is held in tapered holes by the spring washers.

  14. Industrial deployment of system engineering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A formal method is not the main engine of a development process, its contribution is to improve system dependability by motivating formalisation where useful. This book summarizes the results of the DEPLOY research project on engineering methods for dependable systems through the industrial deployment of formal methods in software development. The applications considered were in automotive, aerospace, railway, and enterprise information systems, and microprocessor design.  The project introduced a formal method, Event-B, into several industrial organisations and built on the lessons learned to

  15. Carousel deployment mechanism for coilable lattice truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Robert M.; Jones, P. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The development of a mechanism for instrumentation and solar-array deployment is discussed. One part of the technology consists of a smart motor which can operate in either an analog mode to provide high speed and torque, or in the stepper mode to provide accurate positioning. The second technology consists of a coilable lattice mast which is deployed and rotated about its axis with a common drive system. A review of the design and function of the system is presented. Structural and thermal test data are included.

  16. Challenges to Deploy Service Design in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akasaka, Fumiya; Ohno, Takehiko; Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    More and more companies are applying service design approaches to develop services and products. Not every project, however, has achieved its goals. In many cases, difficulties arise from organizational issues such as organization structure and evaluation system. In this research, we held workshops...... where success and failure factors of service design projects in organization are presented. By analysing the results, we construct a model that explains the “difficulties of deploying the service design approach in organization.” On the basis of the model, this paper discusses the challenges...... to the deployment of the service design approach in organizations....

  17. Flexible Web service infrastructure for the development and deployment of predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Rajarshi

    2008-02-01

    The development of predictive statistical models is a common task in the field of drug design. The process of developing such models involves two main steps: building the model and then deploying the model. Traditionally such models have been deployed using Web page interfaces. This approach restricts the user to using the specified Web page, and using the model in other ways can be cumbersome. In this paper we present a flexible and generalizable approach to the deployment of predictive models, based on a Web service infrastructure using R. The infrastructure described allows one to access the functionality of these models using a variety of approaches ranging from Web pages to workflow tools. We highlight the advantages of this infrastructure by developing and subsequently deploying random forest models for two data sets.

  18. Design, deployment and performance of 4G-LTE networks a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    ElNashar, Ayman; Sherif, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an insight into the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, and deployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. In addition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTE network architecture and different deployment scenarios of commercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE focusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and Physical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers the concepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling, and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocol layers. It describes the details of the optimization process including performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms in addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies based on actual field results. The book provides detailed performance analysis of key fe...

  19. Rule-Based vs. Behavior-Based Self-Deployment for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709

  20. Development of Norms for the Post-deployment Reintegration Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    perspective. Recognizing the importance of successful post-deployment reintegration to optimal operational readiness, Canadian military researchers...of successful post-deployment reintegration to optimal operational readiness, Canadian military researchers developed the Army Post- Deployment... successful post-deployment reintegration to optimal operational readiness, and attempting to address the gaps and limitations of existing

  1. Measurement of the $^{232}$Th (n, $\\gamma$ )/$^{58}$Ni (n, p) reaction rate ratio in the leakage neutron field of CFBR-II fast burst reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, Wang; Zihui, Ai; Chun, Zheng; Jian, Gong

    2016-01-01

    A ThO$_{2}$ sample with a nickel activation foil attached was irradiated in the leakage neutron field of CFBR-II reactor. The activities of the active products were measured after irradiation to obtain the reaction rates. The normalized reaction rates were also calculated based on the ENDF/B-VII.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND-2.2 databases. The experimental reaction rate ratio is 4.37 with an uncertainty of 3.9\\% which is coincident with the ratios calculated based on the ENDFB-VII. 1, JENDL-4.0, BROND-2.2 databases, but is 11.2\\% larger than that based on CENDL-3.1 database.

  2. High-energy Gamma Rays from the Milky Way: Three-dimensional Spatial Models for the Cosmic-Ray and Radiation Field Densities in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, T. A.; Jóhannesson, G.; Moskalenko, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    High-energy γ-rays of interstellar origin are produced by the interaction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles with the diffuse gas and radiation fields in the Galaxy. The main features of this emission are well understood and are reproduced by existing CR propagation models employing 2D galactocentric cylindrically symmetrical geometry. However, the high-quality data from instruments like the Fermi Large Area Telescope reveal significant deviations from the model predictions on few to tens of degrees scales, indicating the need to include the details of the Galactic spiral structure and thus requiring 3D spatial modeling. In this paper, the high-energy interstellar emissions from the Galaxy are calculated using the new release of the GALPROP code employing 3D spatial models for the CR source and interstellar radiation field (ISRF) densities. Three models for the spatial distribution of CR sources are used that are differentiated by their relative proportion of input luminosity attributed to the smooth disk or spiral arms. Two ISRF models are developed based on stellar and dust spatial density distributions taken from the literature that reproduce local near- to far-infrared observations. The interstellar emission models that include arms and bulges for the CR source and ISRF densities provide plausible physical interpretations for features found in the residual maps from high-energy γ-ray data analysis. The 3D models for CR and ISRF densities provide a more realistic basis that can be used for the interpretation of the nonthermal interstellar emissions from the Galaxy.

  3. Relativistic feedback models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and gamma-ray glows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Relativistic feedback discharges, also known as dark lightning, are capable of explaining many of the observed properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and gamma-ray glows, both created within thunderstorms. During relativistic feedback discharges, the generation of energetic electrons is self-sustained via the production of backward propagating positrons and back-scattered x-rays, resulting in very larges fluxes of energetic radiation. In addition, ionization produces large electric currents that generate LF/VLF radio emissions and eventually discharge the electric field, terminating the gamma-ray production. In this presentation, new relativistic feedback model results will be presented and compared to recent observations.

  4. Transcardiac conducted electrical weapon (TASER) probe deployments: incidence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Teacher, Eric; Winslow, James E

    2012-12-01

    TASER (TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are commonly used by law enforcement officers. Although animal studies have suggested that transcardiac CEW discharges may produce direct cardiac effects, this has not been demonstrated in human studies. This study sought to determine the incidence and outcomes of transcardiac CEW probe impact locations in a large series of actual CEW deployments. A multi-center database of consecutive CEW uses by law enforcement officers was retrospectively reviewed. Case report forms were independently reviewed by three investigators to identify cases with paired probe configurations potentially producing a transcardiac discharge vector. Descriptive analysis was performed and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Among 1201 total CEW uses, 813 included probe deployments and 178 cases had paired anterior probe impacts potentially capable of producing a transcardiac discharge vector. This represents 14.8% of all CEW uses (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-16.9%) and 21.9% of CEW uses in probe mode (95% CI 19.1-24.9%). Inter-rater agreement was very good, with kappa = 0.82. There were no immediate deaths in any cases (97.5% CI 0.0-0.3%) to suggest a cardiac dysrhythmia, including those with transcardiac discharge vector. CEW deployments with probe impact configurations capable of producing a transcardiac discharge occur in a minority of cases in field use conditions. None of these cases, transcardiac or otherwise, produced immediately fatal dysrhythmias. These data support the overall safety of CEWs and provide a benchmark estimate of the likelihood of transcardiac discharge vectors occurring in field use of CEWs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transition Distribution Amplitudes for gamma* gamma collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P; Szymanowski, L

    2008-01-01

    We study the exclusive production of pi-pi and rho-pi in hard gamma* gamma scattering in the forward kinematical region where the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process. The newly introduced concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA) is used to perform a QCD calculation of these reactions thanks to two simple models for TDAs. The sizable cross sections for rho-pi and pi-pi production may be tested at intense electron-positron colliders such as CLEO and B factories (Belle and BaBar).

  6. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon. The r...

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory Tritium Technology Deployments Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFee, J.; Blauvelt, D.; Stallings, E.; Willms, S.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the organization, planning and initial implementation of a DOE OST program to deploy proven, cost effective technologies into D&D programs throughout the complex. The primary intent is to accelerate closure of the projects thereby saving considerable funds and at the same time being protective of worker health and the environment. Most of the technologies in the ''toolkit'' for this program have been demonstrated at a DOE site as part of a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP). The Mound Tritium D&D LSDDP served as the base program for the technologies being deployed in this project but other LSDDP demonstrated technologies or ready-for-use commercial technologies will also be considered. The project team will evaluate needs provided by site D&D project managers, match technologies against those needs and rank deployments using a criteria listing. After selecting deployments the project will purchase the equipment and provide a deployment engineer to facilitate the technology implementation. Other cost associated with the use of the technology will be borne by the site including operating staff, safety and health reviews etc. A cost and performance report will be prepared following the deployment to document the results.

  8. Deployment Strategies and Clustering Protocols Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérif Diallo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks face significant design challenges due to limited computing and storage capacities and, most importantly, dependence on limited battery power. Energy is a critical resource and is often an important issue to the deployment of sensor applications that claim to be omnipresent in the world of future. Thus optimizing the deployment of sensors becomes a major constraint in the design and implementation of a WSN in order to ensure better network operations. In wireless networking, clustering techniques add scalability, reduce the computation complexity of routing protocols, allow data aggregation and then enhance the network performance. The well-known MaxMin clustering algorithm was previously generalized, corrected and validated. Then, in a previous work we have improved MaxMin by proposing a Single- node Cluster Reduction (SNCR mechanism which eliminates single-node clusters and then improve energy efficiency. In this paper, we show that MaxMin, because of its original pathological case, does not support the grid deployment topology, which is frequently used in WSN architectures. The unreliability feature of the wireless links could have negative impacts on Link Quality Indicator (LQI based clustering protocols. So, in the second part of this paper we show how our distributed Link Quality based d- Clustering Protocol (LQI-DCP has good performance in both stable and high unreliable link environments. Finally, performance evaluation results also show that LQI-DCP fully supports the grid deployment topology and is more energy efficient than MaxMin.

  9. Hepatitis B infection following deployment to Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, A M; Ollerton, J E; Fear, N T

    2008-01-01

    We describe the clinical illness and long-term follow up of two British personnel who acquired hepatitis B infection during a 3-month UN mission to Angola. Medical officers need to be familiar with this viral illness, which may present in military personnel after any exercise in or deployment to the tropics or subtropics.

  10. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  11. Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager advanced deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Coupland, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    If you are an experienced Configuration Manager administrator looking to advance your career or get more from your current environment, then this book is ideal for you. Prior experience of deploying and managing a Configuration Manager site would be helpful in following the examples throughout this book.

  12. Decreasing Non-Deployables: A Critical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    scheduled for ETS/retirement; 203 were non-deployable for parenthood issues ( parenthood is defined as a military mother of a new born or one parent of a...personnel policies during contingency operations into a single document. Based on the vast number of personnel changes during the Global War on

  13. ELFms deployment in- and outside CERN CC

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, G

    2004-01-01

    ELFms (http://cern.ch/elfms) stands for Extremely Large Fabric management system, and comprises tools for fabric configuration and installation (Quattor), monitoring (Lemon), and hardware/state management (LEAF). In this talk, I will describe the ELFms modules and overall architecture, as well as the integration/deployment status at CERN-CC and other sites/projects.

  14. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  15. Galactic gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1982-05-01

    During the last decade the exploration of the sky in the light of gamma rays has begun by means of satellite-and balloon-borne instruments. Like in other ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum the Milky Way clearly stands out against the rest of the sphere. Part of the galactic ..gamma..-ray emission is due to discrete sources, part is diffuse in origin and is produced in interstellar space. Some of the discrete ..gamma..-ray sources are radio pulsars, the nature of the other sources is still unknown. The intensity distribution of the diffuse galactic ..gamma..-ray component is consistent with a decrease of the cosmic-ray intensity towards the outer part of the galaxy. The identification of the cosmic-ray sources will be one of the main objectives of the next generation of ..gamma..-ray telescopes.

  16. Schaffer-specific local field potentials reflect discrete excitatory events at gamma frequency that may fire postsynaptic hippocampal CA1 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A; Benito, Nuria; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-04-11

    Information processing and exchange between brain nuclei are made through spike series sent by individual neurons in highly irregular temporal patterns. Synchronization in cell assemblies, proposed as a network language for internal neural representations, still has little experimental support. We use a novel technique to extract pathway-specific local field potentials (LFPs) in the hippocampus to explore the ongoing temporal structure of a single presynaptic input, the CA3 Schaffer pathway, and its contribution to the spontaneous output of CA1 units in anesthetized rat. We found that Schaffer-specific LFPs are composed of a regular succession of pulse-like excitatory packages initiated by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells to which individual units contribute variably. A fraction of these packages readily induce firing of CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons, the so-called Schaffer-driven spikes, revealing the presynaptic origin in the output code of single CA1 units. The output of 70% of CA1 pyramidal neurons contains up to 10% of such spikes. Our results suggest a hierarchical internal operation of the CA3 region based on sequential oscillatory activation of pyramidal cell assemblies whose activity partly gets in the output code at the next station. We conclude that CA1 output may directly reflect the activity of specific ensembles of CA3 neurons. Thus, the fine temporal structure of pathway-specific LFPs, as an accurate readout of the activity of a presynaptic population, is useful in searching for hidden presynaptic code in irregular spikes series of individual neurons and assemblies.

  17. Momentum Dependent Vertices $\\sigma \\gamma \\gamma$, $\\sigma \\rho \\gamma$ and $\\sigma \\rho \\rho$ : The NJL Scalar Hidden by Chiral Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bajc, B.; Blin, A. H.; Hiller, B.; Nemes, M. C.; Rosina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the momentum dependence of three particle vertices $\\sigma \\gamma \\gamma$, $\\sigma \\rho \\gamma$ and $\\sigma \\rho \\rho$ in the context of a Nambu Jona Lasinio type model. We show how they influence the processes $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\sigma \\rightarrow \\pi \\pi$, $\\rho \\rightarrow \\gamma \\sigma$ and $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\rho \\rho$ and how chiral symmetry shadows the presence of the $\\sigma$.

  18. Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, M.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Ligori, S.; Loreggia, D.; Vecchiato, A.

    GAME aims at the measurement of gravitational deflection of the light by the Sun, by an optimised telescope on board a small class satellite. The targeted precision on the gamma parameter of the Parametrised Post-Newtonian formulation of General Relativity is below 10-6, i.e. one to two orders of magnitude better than the best current results. Such precision is suitable to detect possible deviations from the unity value, associated to generalised Einstein models for gravitation, with potentially huge impacts on the cosmological distribution of dark matter and dark energy. The measurement principle is based on differential astrometry. The observations also allow additional scientific objectives related to tests of General Relativity and to the study of exo-planetary systems. The instrument concept is based on a dual field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously two regions close to the Solar limb. The diluted optics achieves efficient rejection of the solar radiation, with good angular resolution on the science targets. We describe the science motivation, the proposed mission implementation and the expected performance.

  19. Gamma ray bursts observed with WATCH‐EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The WATCH wide field x‐ray monitor has the capability of independently locating bright Gamma Ray Bursts to 1° accuracy. We report the preliminary positions of 12 Gamma Ray Bursts observed with the WATCH monitor flown on the ES spacecraft EURECA during its 11 month mission. Also the recurrence of ...

  20. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The use of spectral natural gamma-ray analysis in reservoir evaluation of siliciclastic sediments: a case study from the Middle Jurassic of the Harald Field, Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricius, Ida L.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A cored sandstone interval from the Middle Jurassic Harald Field of the Danish North Sea was chosen for an investigation of the mineralogical sources for the gamma-ray activity, and with the purpose of determining how the Spectral Natural Gamma (SNG log could be used as an indicator of reservoir quality. Core intervals of quartz arenites and quartz wackes were selected. Although no linear relationship was found between clay content and potassium (K, thorium (Th, or uranium (U, the K content characterises three discrete lithofacies. Lithofacies I has a grain-supported texture, with a predominance of quartz grains; only minor fine-grained matrix is present. Sandstones of lithofacies I have a low K content and most of the K is hosted in feldspar. Porosity varies between 23% and 28% and permeability is in the range 200-2000 mD. Lithofacies II sandstones have a grain-supported texture, with a predominance of quartz grains; fine-grained matrix fills the intergranular volume. Sandstones of lithofacies II have an intermediate K content, with K-feldspar, mica, and illite as the main sources. Porosity varies between 11% and 17% and permeability is in the range 0.4-25 mD. Lithofacies III has a matrix-supported texture with quartz grains floating in a clay-rich matrix. Samples from lithofacies III have the highest K signal. Illite and illitised kaolinite are roughly equal in importance as sources of K. Porosity is up to 11% and permeability up to 0.5 mD. The Th and U content of all lithofacies is governed primarily by the presence of heavy minerals; no apparent general relationship between U and Total Organic Carbon (TOC was found. Comparisons between the core measurements of K, Th, and U, and the SNG log disclosed a discrepancy between the calibrations of laboratory and borehole measurements. For U the discrepancy contains an erratic element, whereas the difference for K and Th can be eliminated by correction factors. Thus, the conclusions based on

  1. Deployment of the first CDMS II ZIP Detectors at the Stanford Underground Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Saab, T; Akerib, D; Bauer, D A; Brink, P L; Cabrera, B; Castle, J P; Chang, C; Crisler, M B; Driscoll, D; Emes, J; Huber, M; Gaitskell, R J; Hellmig, J; Mandic, V; Martinis, J; Meunier, P; Perillo-Isaac, M; Perera, T A; Sadoulet, B; Schnee, R; Seitz, D; Young, B A

    2002-01-01

    The CDMS II experiment deployed the first set of ZIP (Z-dependent Ionization and Phonon) detectors at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) shallow depth site in the spring of 2000. With a payload consisting of 3 Ge (250 g ea.) and 3 Si (100 g ea.) ZIPs, the run was the first demonstration of multiple ZIPs operating simultaneously. Good discrimination between electron and nuclear recoil events of 99.8% was established, down to recoil energies of 10 keV. A measurement of the gamma, beta, and neutron backgrounds was made.

  2. DUAL Gamma-Ray Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S; von Ballmoos, P; Takahashi, T; Gehrels, N; Tueller, J; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Diehl, R; Greiner, J; Grove, E; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Jean, P; Johnson, N; Kanbach, G; Kippen, M; Knödlseder, J; Leising, M; Madejski, G; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Motohide, K; Nakazawa, K; Oberlack, U; Phlips, B; Ryan, J; Skinner, G; Starrfield, S; Tajima, H; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Zych, A

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. In order to take full advantage of this potential, the next generation of instrumentation for this domain will have to achieve an improvement in sensitivity over present technologies of at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL mission concept takes up this challenge in two complementary ways: a very long observation of the entire sky, combined with a large collection area for simultaneous observations of Type Ia SNe. While the Wide-Field Compton Telescope (WCT) accumulates data from the full gamma-ray sky (0.1-10 MeV) over the entire mission lifetime, the Laue-Lens Telescope (LLT) focuses on 56Co emission from SNe Ia (0.8-0.9 MeV), collecting gamma-rays from its large area crystal lens onto the WCT. Two separated spacecraft flying in formation will maintain the DUAL payloads at the lens' focal distance.

  3. TeV Gamma Ray Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this review, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play to advance this young but exciting field.

  4. TeV gamma-ray astronomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Cui

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this re-view, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play in advancing this young but exciting field.

  5. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  6. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, A C; Pimm, M V

    1992-01-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, cell-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigative tool of great potential.

  7. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, A.C. (Nottingham Univ. Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics); Pimm, M.V. (Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Cancer Research Campaign Labs.)

    1992-12-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, call-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigated tool of great potential. (orig.).

  8. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloi, Aime M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83), bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively) and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX) for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI) measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12–20 MeV) and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6–9 MeV). PMID:27651563

  9. Gamma tracking with the AGATA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Söderström, P -A; Nyberg, J; Recchia, F; Farnea, E; Gadea, A

    2008-01-01

    The next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities, which will give experimental access to many exotic nuclei, are presently being developed. At the same time the next generation of high resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, based on gamma-ray tracking, for studying the structure of these exotic nuclei are being developed. One of the main differences in tracking of $\\gamma$ rays versus charged particles is that the gamma rays do not deposit their energy "continuously" in the detector, but in a few discrete steps. Also, in the field of nuclear spectroscopy, the location of the source is mostly well known while the exact interaction position in the detector is the unknown quantity. This makes the challenges of gamma-ray tracking in germanium somewhat different compared to vertexing in silicon detectors. In these proceedings we present the methods for determining the 3D interaction positions in the detector and how these are used to reconstruct the gamma-ray tracks in the AGATA detector array. We also present ...

  10. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime M Gloi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83, bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12-20 MeV and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6-9 MeV.

  11. High Redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 gamma-ray bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. GRBs are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=9.4 giving information on metallicity, star formation rate and reionization. The talk will present the latest results.

  12. Technology Status and the Future of Large Deployable Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Akira; Harada, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Hironori; Tsunoda, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Mitsunobu; Mizuno, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    reflector consists of a system of cables, a metallic mesh surface, and a support structure. To obtain the desired surface accuracy, we performed the following process. (1) Design a highly rigid surface cable network system that uses an elastic support cable network system to improve manufacturing accuracy and prevent errors in the support structure from degrading the cable network system. (2) Strictly control manufacturing accuracy to minimize surface adjustment after manufacturing. (3) Improve the accuracy of measurement and adjustment operations under the gravity environment. Two cable network models and one cable-mesh model, each of which is about 2 m in diameter, were designed and fabricated to validate our design methodology. We controlled and inspected the accuracy of cable length at the desired cable tension. The analysis model predicted the surface accuracy of better than 0.4 mmRMS with the cable manufacturing error of less than 0.04 mm. However, cable the manufacturing error obtained was 0.1 mm, and the resulting surface error (measured) was 1.0 mmRMS. We found that a surface accuracy of better than 1.0 mmRMS can not be achieved easily without any adjustment. To estimate the errors in ground measurement, we measured surface shape under the micro-gravity environment established within a jet airplane, a Gulfstream II. The results show that the calculated surface shape contains estimation error of 0.3 mmRMS. The other cable network model used a balloon as the support structure to demonstrate the stability of the cable network structure against deformation of the support structures. The surface error was held to under 1.0 mmRMS when the support structure deformed by 30 mmRMS. The third model had a mesh surface to evaluate electrical performance. Radiation patterns were obtained by a near field range measurement system. A full-scale Ku band antenna reflector, whose diameter is around 10 m, has been designed and analyzed. The number of cables is seven times of

  13. Dynamic analysis of the deployment for mesh reflector deployable antennas with the cable-net structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Na; Yang, Guigeng; Ru, Wenrui

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamic analysis approach for the composite structure of a deployable truss and cable-net system. An Elastic Catenary Element is adopted to model the slack/tensioned cables. Then, from the energy standpoint, the kinetic energy, elasticity-potential energy and geopotential energy of the cable-net structure and deployable truss are derived. Thus, the flexible multi-body dynamic model of the deployable antenna is built based on the Lagrange equation. The effect of the cable-net tension on the antenna truss is discussed and compared with previous publications and a dynamic deployment analysis is performed. Both the simulation and experimental results verify the validity of the method presented.

  14. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  15. Safe and Effective Deployment of Personnel to Support the Ebola Response - West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Edward N; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Flowers, Donald; Robinson, Shawn T; Sheridan, Reed J; Goolsby, Gary D; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Kuwabara, Sachiko

    2016-07-08

    From the initial task of getting "50 deployers within 30 days" into the field to support the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic response in West Africa to maintaining well over 200 staff per day in the most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) during the peak of the response, ensuring the safe and effective deployment of international responders was an unprecedented accomplishment by CDC. Response experiences shared by CDC deployed staff returning from West Africa were quickly incorporated into lessons learned and resulted in new activities to better protect the health, safety, security, and resiliency of responding personnel. Enhanced screening of personnel to better match skill sets and experience with deployment needs was developed as a staffing strategy. The mandatory predeployment briefings were periodically updated with these lessons to ensure that staff were aware of what to expect before, during, and after their deployments. Medical clearance, security awareness, and resiliency programs became a standard part of both predeployment and postdeployment activities. Response experience also led to the identification and provision of more appropriate equipment for the environment. Supporting the social and emotional needs of deployed staff and their families also became an agency focus for care and communication. These enhancements set a precedent as a new standard for future CDC responses, regardless of size or complexity.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  16. Self-deployable structure designed for space telescope for microsatellite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Chuang; Zhou, Nan; Liao, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual development of micro-satellite technology and the extension of application field of earth observation technology, researchers show more concern and attention on how to obtain high-resolution images with microsatellite platform equipped with space telescope. Such microsatellites require the space telescopes with small volume, low mass, and low cost. Deployable telescope is a good choice to meet these requirements, and it has the same capabilities as the traditional space telescope. We investigate a space telescope with smart self-deployable structure. The telescope is folded before launch, the distance between primary mirror and secondary mirror becomes short and the volume of the telescope becomes small, and the telescope extends to its working configuration after it is in orbit. The deployable structure is one of the key techniques of deployable space telescope, and this paper focuses on the design of a self-deployable structure of the secondary mirror. There are mainly three parts in this paper. Firstly, the optics of the telescope is presented, and a Ritchey-Chretien (RC) type optical system is designed. Secondly, the self-deployable structure is designed and the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze dynamics of the extended telescope. Thirdly, an adjusting mechanism with six degrees of freedom to correct the misalignment of the secondary mirror is investigated, and the kinematics is discussed.

  17. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Jared T; Nelson, Todd G; Zimmerman, Trent K; Fernelius, Janette D; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-09-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the 'flasher' and the 'inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.

  18. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Jared T.; Nelson, Todd G.; Zimmerman, Trent K.; Fernelius, Janette D.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-09-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the `flasher' and the `inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.

  19. Carotid artery stent continued expansion days after deployment, without post stent deployment angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Qazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a carotid artery stent (CAS case report, which avoids post-stent deployment angioplasty (Post-SDA, with duplex confirmed continued stent expansion at 1, 3 and 30-day post deployment. This report confirms that self-expanding nitinol stents in the carotid artery may not require Post-SDA. We believe CAS can be performed without Post-SDA, which helps reduce the occurrence of intraoperative hemodynamic depression.

  20. Discrimination of neutrons and {\\gamma}-rays in liquid scintillator based on Elman neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cai-Xun; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Wang, Li; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Xing, Hao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    A new neutron and {\\gamma} (n/{\\gamma}) discrimination method based on Elman Neural Network (ENN) was put forward to improve the n/{\\gamma} discrimination performance of liquid scintillator (LS). In this study, neutron and {\\gamma} data acquired from EJ-335 which was exposed in Am-Be radiation field was discriminated using ENN. The difference of n/{\\gamma} discrimination performance between using ENN and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) is that ENN gave a improvement over BPNN in n/{\\gamma} discrimination with the increasing increasing of the Figure of Merit (FOM) from 0.907 to 0.953.

  1. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  2. The production of poly-(gamma-glutamic acid) from microorganisms and its various applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, I L; Van, Y T

    2001-09-01

    This review article deals with the chemistry and biosynthesis of poly-(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) produced by various strains of Bacillus. Potential applications of gamma-PGA as thickener, cryoprotectant, humectant, drug carrier, biological adhesive, flocculant, or heavy metal absorbent, etc. with biodegradability in the fields of food, cosmetics, medicine and water treatments are also reviewed.

  3. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B.

    2015-01-01

    of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms...... from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Between 3.6 and 18.0 % reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains...... such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Advanced deployable reflectors for communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Elvin; Josephs, Michael; Hedgepeth, John

    1993-02-01

    This paper discusses a concept for a deployable mesh reflector for large spacecraft antennas and the processes used in design, fabrication and testing. A set of overall reflector requirements such as stowed volume, deployed diameter and RF loss derived from system specifications are presented. The development of design and analysis tools to allow parametric studies such as facet size, number of ribs and number of rib segments is discussed. CATIA (a commercially available three-dimensional design and analysis tool) is used to perform kinematic analyses as well as to establish the database to be used by the several groups participating in the development is examined. Results of trade studies performed to reduce cost with minimum risk to product delivery are included. A thirty foot reflector has been built and tested.

  5. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  6. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  7. Integrated personal health and care services deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villalba, E.; Casas, I.; Abadie, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The deployment and adoption of Integrated Personal Health and Care Services in Europe has been slow and fragmented. There have been many initiatives and projects of this kind in different European regions, many of which have not gone beyond the pilot stage. We investigated the necessary...... conditions for mainstreaming these services into care provision. Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of 27 Telehealth, Telecare and Integrated Personal Health System projects, implemented across 20 regions in eight European countries. The analysis was based on Suter’s ten key principles...... for successful health systems integration. Results: Out of the 27 cases, we focused on 11 which continued beyond the pilot stage. The key facilitators that are necessary for successful deployment and adoption in the European regions of our study are reorganisation of services, patient focus, governance...

  8. Design and Thermal Analysis for Space Deployable Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fu-Ling; Huang, Jiang; Zhang, Shu-Jie

    2002-01-01

    sensibility and thermal stability. But deployable antenna always enters into and leaves the earth shadow periodically when it orbits the earth, and it is affected by the shadows of itself Thus a key design for the antenna structure is to control its deformation in a limited range. Obviously, thermal analysis is very important for such structure to maintain its high thermal stability. of a supported backbone (deployable truss) and a reflector surface (flexible mesh). All analysis in this dissertation is based on this model, such as temperature field analysis, thermal deformation analysis, thermal stress analysis, thermal vibration analysis, and so on. tetrahedral element, is discussed. And the mechanism of spider nodes, middle nodes and torsion springs in these nodes are also illustrated. 6-node triangular membrane element are deduced. A temperature analysis procedure has been programmed. The obvious change in temperature happens when the antenna enter into the earth shadow, so this case should be studied to decide whether the temperature of the structure and its components are in the limited range or not. membrane element are put forward. According to the stiffness matrix of these elements and the structural equilibrium equations, thermal deformation and thermal stress of the structure can be computed. The results show that either the thermal deformation or the thermal stress is in the desired range, they have little effect on the shape and stiffness of the entire structure. vibration. The thermally vibration responses of the antenna are studied when it enters into the earth shadow from sunshine and when it enters into sunshine from the earth shadow. The results show that in both cases, there is no vibration in Y direction. The velocity and acceleration in X direction and Z direction are both small, but the displacement in X direction is large, the maximum is 6.5mm. Keyword: Deployable antenna; self-shadow; thermal deformation; thermal stress

  9. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    characteristics, and difficulty with reintegration . Our recruitment procedures were so successful that we are working to double our sample to take...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0131 TITLE: Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leanne K...TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1July2014 - 30June2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reintegration

  10. Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Gates Views Growth Under Way in Guam,” American Forces Press Service, May 30, 2008. 2 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, speech at Shangri-La Hotel ...crises; and sea lines of communication (SLOCs), particularly through the Straits of Malacca . Combat aircraft on Guam can reach Taiwan, Japan, Philippines...Remarks by retired Lieutenant General, USMC, George Trautman III, at Heritage Foundation, May 3, 2012. Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments Congressional

  11. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    data from a fairly large and geographically dispersed cohort, but it prevented us from probing people’s answers. Interview procedures such as the ones...2010), then our data may understate the issues military couples face during their first deployment. Future work should seek more heterogeneous ...Valdez, Geena Wakeley, and Lauren Whalley for their help with recruitment and coding. Funding This research was supported by a seed grant from the

  12. Domain Name Server Security (DNSSEC) Protocol Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    was a 10-year effort to promote adoption of the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC), a method of cryptography securing domain name system ( DNS ) lookups...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED i 1. SUMMARY The DNSSEC Deployment Initiative was a 10-year effort to promote adoption of the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC), a...method of cryptographically securing domain name system ( DNS ) lookups. This paper describes the latter five years of the Initiative’s work, which

  13. Dynamical simulation of tether in orbit deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Demyanov, Yu. A.; Zvyaguin, A. V.; Malashin, A. A.; Luzhin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the peculiarities of dynamical behavior of tether in its deployment in low Earth orbit during YES2 experiment in Foton-M3 mission, and performing flight data analysis with account of these effects. The analysis in the first part of the paper uses as input a pre-provided tension profile for the mission (resulting from a simulation to be independently validated). With this input it then performs an open-loop simulation which explains the sensitivity to the initial parameters. For the actual flight design a feedback mechanism and algorithm was used in order to control the deployment speed along a nominal profile, minimizing sensitivity to conditions such as initial velocity and endmass value. The paper provides solutions accounting for final velocities of wave propagation in tether, which is especially important for such stages of the deployment as sharp changing of the velocity direction and intensive braking. Moreover the YES2 data is used to validate the theoretical derivations.

  14. Structures for remotely deployable precision antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Future space missions such as the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) will require highly accurate antennas with apertures that cannot be launched fully formed. The operational orbits are often inaccessible to manned flight and will involve expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta or Titan. There is therefore a need for completely deployable antenna reflectors of large size capable of efficiently handling millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation. The parameters for the type of mission are illustrated. The logarithmic plot of frequency versus aperture diameter shows the regions of interest for a large variety of space antenna applications, ranging from a 1500-meter-diameter radio telescope for low frequencies to a 20-meter-diameter infrared telescope. For the ESGP, a major application is the microwave radiometry at high frequencies for atmospheric sounding. Almost all existing large antenna reflectors for space employ a mesh-type reflecting surface. Examples are shown and discussed which deal with the various structural concepts for mesh antennas. Fortunately, those concepts are appropriate for creating the very large apertures required at the lower frequencies for good resolution. The emphasis is on the structural concepts and technologies that are appropriate to fully automated deployment of dish-type antennas with solid reflector surfaces. First the structural requirements are discussed. Existing concepts for fully deployable antennas are then described and assessed relative to the requirements. Finally, several analyses are presented that evaluate the effects of beam steering and segmented reflector design on the accuracy of the antenna.

  15. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  16. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  17. Development Progress of Segmented Gamma Scanning Analysis Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The measurement technology of segmented gamma scanning (SGS) has width application in fields of nuclear material and nuclear waster because its advantage of non-destroy analysis for non-uniform object.

  18. Managing $\\gamma_5$ in Dimensional Regularization II: the Trace with more $\\gamma_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we evaluate the anomaly for the abelian axial current in a non abelian chiral gauge theory, by using dimensional regularization. This amount to formulate a procedure for managing traces with more than one $\\gamma_5$. \\par The suggested procedure obeys Lorentz covariance and cyclicity, at variance with previous approaches (e.g. the celebrated 't Hooft and Veltman's where Lorentz is violated) \\par The result of the present paper is a further step forward in the program initiated by a previous work on the traces involving a single $\\gamma_5$. The final goal is an unconstrained definition of $\\gamma_5$ in dimensional regularization. Here, in the evaluation of the anomaly, we profit of the axial current conservation equation, when radiative corrections are neglected. This kind of tool is not always exploited in field theories with $\\gamma_5$, e.g. in the use of dimensional regularization of infrared and collinear divergences.

  19. Systematic Study of Gamma-ray bright Blazars with Optical Polarization and Gamma-ray Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Kawabata, Koji S; Madejski, Grzegorz M; Schinzel, Frank K; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Miho; Moritani, Yuki; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ohsugi, Takashi; Sasada, Mahito; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei which emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between Jul. 2008 and Dec. 2014 to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), thi...

  20. $\\gamma$-Ray Absorption at High Redshifts and the $\\gamma$-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of absorption of 10-500 GeV gamma-rays at high redshifts. This calculation requires the determination of the high- redshift evolution of the full spectral energy distribution of the intergalactic photon field. For this, we have primarily followed the recent analysis of Fall, Charlot and Pei. We give our results for the gamma-ray opacity as a function of redshift out to a redshift of 3. We then give predicted gamma-ray spectra for selected blazars and also extend our results on the background from unresolved blazars to an energy of 500 GeV. Absorption effects are predicted to significantly steepen the background spectrum above 20 GeV. Our absorption calculations can be used to place limits on the redshifts of gamma-ray bursts. Our background calculations can be used to determine the observability of multi-GeV lines from dark matter neutralino particles.

  1. Stereotactic radiosurgery - Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... being treated. As compared to other types of radiation therapy, Gamma Knife treatment is much less likely to damage ... of radiosurgery alone vs radiosurgery with whole brain radiation ... Knife radiosurgery patient resource center. 2015. www.elekta. ...

  2. Design of Mechanisms for Deployable, Optical Instruments: Guidelines for Reducing Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Mark S.; Hachkowski, M. Roman

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to facilitate the development of deployable, optical instruments by providing a rational approach for the design, testing, and qualification of high-precision (i.e., low-hysteresis) deployment mechanisms for these instruments. Many of the guidelines included herein come directly from the field of optomechanical engineering, and are, therefore, neither newly developed guidelines, nor are they uniquely applicable to the design of high-precision deployment mechanisms. This paper is to be regarded as a guide to design and not a set of NASA requirements, except as may be defined in formal project specifications. Furthermore, due to the rapid pace of advancement in the field of precision deployment, this paper should be regarded as a preliminary set of guidelines. However, it is expected that this paper, with revisions as experience may indicate to be desirable, might eventually form the basis for a set of uniform design requirements for high-precision deployment mechanisms on future NASA space-based science instruments.

  3. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Lijun

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C and Perfexion units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and the dose

  4. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Lijun

    2009-03-01

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C™ and Perfexion™ units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and the

  5. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  6. Gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, William R; Policke, Timothy A

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates generally to the field of gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring and a system for accomplishing same to monitor one or more aspects of various isotope production processes. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a monitoring system, and method of utilizing same, for monitoring one or more aspects of an isotope production process where the monitoring system comprises: (A) at least one sample cell; (B) at least one measuring port; (C) at least one adjustable collimator device; (D) at least one shutter; and (E) at least one high resolution gamma ray spectrometer.

  7. Status of the Milagro $\\gamma$ Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    2001-01-01

    The Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is the world's first large-area water Cherenkov detector capable of continuously monitoring the sky at TeV energies. Located in northern New Mexico, Milagro will perform an all sky survey of the Northern Hemisphere at energies between ~250 GeV and 50 TeV. With a high duty cycle, large detector area (~5000 square meters), and a wide field-of-view (~1 sr), Milagro is uniquely capable of searching for transient and DC sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission. Milagro has been operating since February, 1999. The current status of the Milagro Observatory and initial results will be discussed.

  8. Gamma Ray Bursts in the HAWC Era

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Fox, Derek; Gao, He; Senno, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe, and are among the most promising for detecting multiple non-electromagnetic signals, including cosmic rays, high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves. The multi-GeV to TeV gamma-ray range of GRB could have significant contributions from hadronic interactions, mixed with more conventional leptonic contributions. This energy range is important for probing the source physics, including overall energetics, the shock parameters and the Lorentz factor. We discuss some of the latest observational and theoretical developments in the field.

  9. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  10. Constraining gamma-ray propagation on cosmic distances

    OpenAIRE

    Biteau, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Studying the propagation of gamma rays on cosmological distances encompasses a variety of scientific fields, focusing on diffuse radiation fields such as the extragalactic background light, on the probe of the magnetism of the Universe on large scales, and on physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and particle physics. The measurements, constraints and hints from observations of gamma-ray blazars by airborne and ground-based instruments are briefly reviewed. These observations point ...

  11. A Generic Deployment Framework for Grid Computing and Distributed Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flissi, Areski

    2006-01-01

    Deployment of distributed applications on large systems, and especially on grid infrastructures, becomes a more and more complex task. Grid users spend a lot of time to prepare, install and configure middleware and application binaries on nodes, and eventually start their applications. The problem is that the deployment process is composed of many heterogeneous tasks that have to be orchestrated in a specific correct order. As a consequence, the automatization of the deployment process is currently very difficult to reach. To address this problem, we propose in this paper a generic deployment framework allowing to automatize the execution of heterogeneous tasks composing the whole deployment process. Our approach is based on a reification as software components of all required deployment mechanisms or existing tools. Grid users only have to describe the configuration to deploy in a simple natural language instead of programming or scripting how the deployment process is executed. As a toy example, this framew...

  12. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an affordable and ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable Roll-Out Boom technology that provides affordability and...

  13. Large deployable reflectors for telecom and earth observation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialino, L.; Ihle, A.; Migliorelli, M.; Gatti, N.; Datashvili, L.; van `t Klooster, K.; Santiago Prowald, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large deployable antennas are one of the key components for advanced missions in the fields of telecom and earth observation. In the recent past, missions have taken on board large deployable reflector (LDR) up to 22 m of diameter and several missions have already planned embarking large reflectors, such as the 12 m of INMARSAT XL or BIOMASS. At the moment, no European LDR providers are available and the market is dominated by Northrop-Grumman and Harris. Consequently, the development of European large reflector technology is considered a key step to maintain commercial and strategic competitiveness (ESA Large Reflector Antenna Working Group Final Report, TEC-EEA/2010.595/CM, 2010). In this scenario, the ESA General Study Project RESTEO (REflector Synergy between Telecom and Earth Observation), starting from the identification of future missions needs, has identified the most promising reflector concepts based on European heritage/technology, able to cover the largest range of potential future missions for both telecom and earth observation. This paper summarizes the activities and findings of the RESTEO Study.

  14. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, DEPLOYMENT AND EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy C. Herndon

    2001-02-28

    Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC21-95EW55101) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Florida State University's Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research (IICER) was designed to facilitate a number of joint programmatic goals of both the DOE and the IICER related to international technology identification, development, demonstration and deployment using a variety of mechanisms to accomplish these goals. These mechanisms included: laboratory and field research; technology demonstrations; international training and technical exchanges; data collection, synthesis and evaluation; the conduct of conferences, symposia and high-level meetings; and other appropriate and effective approaches. The DOE utilized the expertise and facilities of the IICER at Florida State University to accomplish its goals related to this cooperative agreement. The IICER has unique and demonstrated capabilities that have been utilized to conduct the tasks for this cooperative agreement. The IICER conducted activities related to technology identification, development, evaluation, demonstration and deployment through its joint centers which link the capabilities at Florida State University with collaborating academic and leading research institutions in the major countries of Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Russia. The activities and accomplishments for this five-year cooperative agreement are summarized in this Final Technical Report.

  15. The Air Force Deployment Transition Center: Assessment of Program Structure, Process, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    recently deployed facilitator in the same career field as the group to ensure, among other things, that language and experiences are shared so that the...group facilitators over a four-day period. The training includes direct didactics and observation of a complete group cycle. Training new group

  16. Rural public acceptance of renewable energy deployment: The case of Shandong in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Wang Can,; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    China has set ambitious goals to increase the use of renewable energy. Developing renewables in rural areas is also one of the most important energy strategies. This paper examines rural social acceptance of renewable energy deployment taking Shandong as a case study via a field questionnaire survey

  17. Constraining gamma-ray propagation on cosmic distances

    CERN Document Server

    Biteau, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Studying the propagation of gamma rays on cosmological distances encompasses a variety of scientific fields, focusing on diffuse radiation fields such as the extragalactic background light, on the probe of the magnetism of the Universe on large scales, and on physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and particle physics. The measurements, constraints and hints from observations of gamma-ray blazars by airborne and ground-based instruments are briefly reviewed. These observations point to gamma-ray cosmology as one of the major science cases of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA.

  18. Design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos, Landolf; BEL HADJ ALI, Nizar; Motro, René; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Tensegrity structures are composed of cables and struts in a pre-stressed self-equilibrium. Although tensegrity first appeared in the 1950s, it is seldom used in civil engineering. This paper focuses on the design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge. Deployment is usually not a critical design case for traditional deployable structures. However, for tensegrity systems deployment may be critical due to the actuation required. In this paper, deploym...

  19. Deployable structure design for the science and applications space platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Basic concepts regarding deployable structures design, including systematic design/classification schemes and a deployability criterion, were proposed for use in synthesis, analysis and evaluation of alternative deployable structure designs. Using design guidelines based on SASP requirements and the basic concepts developed, a variety of designs were synthesized, and these along with previously proposed designs were analyzed and evaluated. Recommendations and conclusions regarding optimal deployable structure design were made.

  20. SECURITY FOR DEVOPS DEPLOYMENT PROCESSES: DEFENSES, RISKS, RESEARCH DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Wilde; Brian Eddy; Khyati Patel; Nathan Cooper; Valeria Gamboa; Bhavyansh Mishra; Keenal Shah

    2016-01-01

    DevOps is an emerging collection of software management practices intended to shorten time to market for new software features and to reduce the risk of costly deployment errors. In this paper we examine thesecurity implications of two of the key DevOps practices, automation of the deployment pipeline using adeployment toolchain and infrastructure-as-code to specify the environment of the deployed software. Wefocus on identifying what changes when an organization moves from manual deployments...